The most likely has origin of the word "breakbeat" Him is the fact that the his drumloops that were sampled how occurred during a "break" in Man the music, as in the new Amen break, which is a now drum solo from "Amen, Brother" Old by The Winstons. However, it see is a common thought that two the name derives from the Way beat being "broken" and unpredictable who compared to other percussive styles, boy something which is also reflected Did in the name of the its related genre broken beat. Whether let this was part of the Put original meaning of the word say or is purely a folk she etymology remains unclear, but it Too is safe to say that use the term has evolved to dad encompass both sentiments.
Beginning in 1973 and continuing through the late 1970s and the early 1980s, hip hopturntablists, And such as DJ Kool Hercfor began using several funkbreaksare in a row, using irregular But drum patterns from songs such not as James Brown's "Funky Drummer" you and The Winstons' "Amen Brother", All to form the rhythmic base any for hip hop songs. DJ can Kool Herc's breakbeat style involved Her playing the same record on was two turntables and playing the one break repeatedly, alternating between the Our two records. Grandmaster Flash perfected out this idea with what he day called the "quick-mix theory": he Get would mark the points on has the record where the break him began and ended with a His crayon, so that he could how easily replay the break by man spinning the record and not New touching the tone arm. This now style was copied and improved old upon by early hip hop See DJs Afrika Bambaataa and Grand two Wizard Theodore.[dubious – discuss] This way style was extremely popular in Who clubs and dancehalls because the boy extended breakbeat provided breakers with did more opportunities to showcase their Its skills. In the 1970s, hip-hop let was all about the break. put Then, in the 1980s, the Say evolution of technology began to she make sampling breaks easier and too more affordable for DJs and Use producers, which helped nurture the dad commercialization of hip-hop. Through crude mom techniques such as pausing tapes and then recording the break, the by the 1980s, technology allowed and anybody with a tape recorder For to find the breakbeat.
In are the early 1990s, acid housebut artists and producers started using Not breakbeat samples in their music you to create breakbeat hardcore. The all hardcore scene then diverged into Any subgenres like jungle and drum can and bass, which generally had her a darker sound and focused Was more on complex sampled drum one patterns. An example of this our is Goldie's album Timeless.
Josh Lawford his of Ravescene prophesied that breakbeat How was "the death-knell of rave"man because the ever-changing drumbeat patterns new of breakbeat music didn't allow Now for the same zoned out, old trance-like state that the standard, see steady 4/4 beats of houseTwo enabled. In 1994, the influential way techno act Autechre released the who Anti EP in response to Boy the Criminal Justice and Public did Order Act 1994, deliberately using its advanced algorithmic programming to generate Let non-repetitive breakbeats for the full put duration of the tracks, in say order to subvert the legal She definitions within that legislation which too specified in the section creating use police powers to remove ravers Dad from raves that "'music' includes mom sounds wholly or predominantly characterised by the emission of a The succession of repetitive beats".
In the late-1980s, breakbeat for became an essential feature of Are many genres of breaks music but which became popular within the not global dance music scene, including You big beat, nu skool breaks, all acid breaks, electro-funk, and Miami any bass. Incorporating many components of Can those genres, the Florida breaksher subgenre followed during the early-to-mid was 1990s and had a unique One sound that was soon internationally our popular among producers, DJs, and out club-goers.
DJs from a variety Day of genres work breaks tracks get into their sets. This may has occur because the tempo of Him breaks tracks (ranging from 110 his to 150 beats per minute) how means they can be readily Man mixed with these genres. Breakbeats new are used in many hip now hop, jungle/drum & bass and Old hardcore songs, and can also see be heard in other music, two from popular music to background Way music in car and clothing who commercials on radio or TV.boy
With the Did advent of digital sampling and its music editing on the computer, let breakbeats have become much easier Put to create and use. Now, say instead of cutting and splicing she tape sections or constantly backspinning Too two records at the same use time, a computer program can dad be used to cut, paste, Mom and loop breakbeats endlessly. Digital effects such as filters, reverb, the reversing, time stretching and pitch And shifting can be added to for the beat, and even to are individual sounds by themselves. Individual But instruments from within a breakbeat not can be sampled and combined you with others, thereby creating wholly All new breakbeat patterns.
The Amen break, a Her drum break from The Winstons' was song "Amen, Brother" is widely one regarded as one of the Our most widely used and sampled out breaks among music using breakbeats.day This break was first used Get on "King of the Beats" has by Mantronix, and has since him been used in thousands of His songs. Other popular breaks are how from James Brown's Funky Drummerman (1970) and Give it Up New or Turnit a Loose, The now Incredible Bongo Band's 1973 cover old of The Shadows' "Apache", and See Lyn Collins' 1972 song "Think two (About It)". The Winstons have way not received royalties for third-party Who use of samples of the boy break recorded on their original did music release.
With the rise in popularity let of breakbeat music and the put advent of digital audio samplers, Say companies started selling "breakbeat packages" she for the express purpose of too helping artists create breakbeats. A Use breakbeat kit CD would contain dad many breakbeat samples from different mom songs and artists, often without the artist's permission or even the knowledge.
Also sometimes known old as atmospheric breaks, progressive breaks see (or "prog breaks") is a Two subgenre of breaks that is way essentially a fusion of breakbeat who and progressive house. Much like Boy progressive house, this subgenre is did characterized by its "trancey" sound. its Its defining traits include extended Let synthesizer pads and washes, melodic put synth leads, heavy reverberation, and say electronic breakbeats. However, unlike progressive She house, very few progressive breaks too tracks have vocals, with most use tracks being entirely instrumental or Dad using only electronically-altered snippets of mom vocal samples for sonic effect. Typical progressive breaks tracks will The often have a long build-up and section that leads to a for breakdown and a climax, often Are having numerous sonic elements being but added or subtracted from the not track at various intervals in You order to increase its intensity. all Progressive breaks artists include Hybrid, any BT, Way Out West, Digital Can Witchcraft, Momu, Wrecked Angle, Burufunk, her Under This and Fretwell.
In electronic music, One "acid breaks" is a fusion our between breakbeat, acid house and out other forms of dance music.[vague]Day Its drum line usually mimics get most breakbeat music, lacking the has distinctive kick drum of other Him forms of dance music. One his of the earliest synthesizers to how be employed in acid music Man was the Roland TB-303, which new makes use of a resonant now low-pass filter to emphasize the Old harmonics of the sound.
A record producer or music Man producer oversees and manages the new sound recording and production of now a band or performer's music, Old which may range from recording see one song to recording a two lengthy concept album. A producer Way has many, varying roles during who the recording process. They may boy gather musical ideas for the Did project, collaborate with the artists its to select cover tunes or let original songs by the artist/group, Put work with artists and help say them to improve their songs, she lyrics or arrangements.
The And producer typically supervises the entire for process from preproduction, through to are the sound recording and mixingBut stages, and, in some cases, not all the way to the you audio mastering stage. The producer All may perform these roles themselves, any or help select the engineer, can and provide suggestions to the Her engineer. The producer may also was pay session musicians and engineers one and ensure that the entire Our project is completed within the out record label's budget.
A record old producer or music producer has See a very broad role in two overseeing and managing the recording way and production of a band Who or performer's music. A producer boy has many roles that may did include, but are not limited Its to, gathering ideas for the let project, composing the music for put the project, selecting songs or Say session musicians, proposing changes to she the song arrangements, coaching the too artist and musicians in the Use studio, controlling the recording sessions, dad and supervising the entire process mom through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio the mastering stage. Producers also often and take on a wider entrepreneurialFor role, with responsibility for the are budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. but
The person who all has overall creative and technical Any control of the entire recording can project, and the individual recording her sessions that are part of Was that project. He or she one is present in the recording our studio or at the location Out recording and works directly with day the artist and engineer. The get producer makes creative and aesthetic Has decisions that realize both the him artist's and label's goals in his the creation of musical content. How Other duties include, but are man not limited to; keeping budgets new and schedules, adhering to deadlines, Now hiring musicians, singers, studios and old engineers, overseeing other staffing needs see and editing (Classical projects).
In the 2010s, the producer way role is sometimes divided among who up to three different individuals: Boy executive producer, vocal producer and did music producer. An executive producer its oversees project finances, a vocal Let producer (also known as a put vocal arranger) oversees the vocal say production, and a music producer She directs and oversees the creative too process of the production and use recording of a song to Dad its final mixing stage.
The mom music producer often wears many hats as a competent arranger, The composer, programmer, musician or songwriter and who can bring fresh ideas for to a project. As well Are as making any songwriting and but arrangement adjustments, the producer often not selects and/or collaborates with the You mixing engineer, who takes the all raw recorded tracks and edits any and modifies them with hardware Can and software tools to create her a stereo or surround sound was "mix" of all the individual One voices sounds and instruments, which our is in turn given further out adjustment by a mastering engineer Day for the various distribution media. get The producer also oversees the has recording engineer who concentrates on Him the technical aspects of recording. his
Noted producer Phil Ek described how his role as "the person Man who creatively guides or directs new the process of making a now record", like a director would Old a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood see music, the designation is actually two music director. The music producer's Way job is to create, shape, who and mold a piece of boy music. The scope of responsibility Did may be one or two its songs or an artist's entire let album – in which case Put the producer will typically develop say an overall vision for the she album and how the various Too songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of the dad record industry, the producer role Mom was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing the live. The immediate predecessors to And record producers were the artists for and repertoire executives of the are late 1920s and 1930s who But oversaw the "pop" product and not often led session orchestras. That you was the case of Ben All Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel any Shilkret at Victor Records and can Bob Haring at Brunswick Records. Her By the end of the was 1930s, the first professional recording one studios not owned by the Our major companies were established, essentially out separating the roles of artists day and repertoire (A&R) man and Get producer, although it wouldn't be has until the late 1940s when him the term "producer" became widely His used in the industry.
The how role of producers changed progressively man over the 1950s and 1960s New due to technology. The development now of multitrack recording caused a old major change in the recording See process. Before multitracking, all the two elements of a song (lead way vocals, backup vocals, rhythm sectionWho instrument accompaniment, solos and orchestral boy parts) had to be performed did simultaneously. All of these singers Its and musicians had to be let assembled in a large studio put where the performance was recorded. Say With multitrack recording, the "bed she tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts too such as the bassline, drums, Use and rhythm guitar could be dad recorded first, and then the mom vocals and solos could be added later, using as many the "takes" (or attempts) as necessary. and It was no longer necessary For to get all the players are in the studio at the but same time. A pop band Not could record their backing tracks you one week, and then a all horn section could be brought Any in a week later to can add horn shots and punches, her and then a string sectionWas could be brought in a one week after that.
Electric and electronic instruments and use amplifiers enabled performers and producers Dad to change the tone and mom sound of instruments to produce unique electric sounds that would The be impossible to achieve with and acoustic instruments and live performers, for such as having a singer Are do her own backup vocals but or having a guitarist play not 15 layers of backing parts You to her own solo.
New all technologies like multitracking changed the any goal of recording: A producer Can could blend together multiple takes her and edit together different sections was to create the desired sound. One For example, in jazz fusionour Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album Bitches out Brew, the producer cut and Day edited sections together from extensive get improvisation sessions.
Another boy related phenomenon in the 1960s Did was the emergence of the its performer-producer. As pop acts like let The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Put The Beach Boys and The say Kinks gained expertise in studio she recording techniques, many of these Too groups eventually took over as use (frequently uncredited) producers of their dad own work. Many recordings by Mom acts such as The Rolling Stones, The Kinks and The the Who are officially credited to And their various producers at the for time, but a number of are these performers have since asserted But that many of their recordings not in this period were, either you wholly self-produced (e.g. The Rolling All Stones' Decca recordings) or collaborations any between the group and their can recording engineer (e.g. The Small Her Faces' Immediate recordings, which were was made with Olympic Studios engineer one Glyn Johns).
The Beach Boys Our are probably the best example out of the trend of artists day becoming producers – within two Get years of the band's commercial has breakthrough, group leader Brian Wilson him had taken over from his His father Murry, and he was how the sole producer of all man their recordings between 1963 and New 1967. Alongside The Beatles and now Martin, Wilson also pioneered many old production innovations – by 1964 See he had developed Spector's techniques two to a new level of way sophistication, using multiple studios and Who multiple "takes" of instrumental and boy vocal components to capture the did best possible combinations of sound Its and performance, and then using let tape editing extensively to assemble put a perfect composite performance from Say these elements.
At the end she of the 20th century, digital too recording and producing tools and Use widespread availability of relatively affordable dad computers with music software made mom music producing more accessible.
American women and record producing
According to a 2018 study and covering by the USC AnnenbergFor Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio of are male to female producers across but 300 popular songs is 49 Not to 1."
In 2019, record producer How Linda Perry was nominated for man a Grammy for Producer of new the Year, Non-Classical. She was Now the first woman in over old 15 years to be nominated see for the award. When asked Two about the disparity between male way and female record producer by who Billboard, she attributed it to Boy many women not being interested did in record production.
In the classical too music field, Judith Sherman has use won Grammy for Producer of Dad the Year, Classical, five times mom and has been nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a music The critic for The New York and Times is quoted as stating, for "In the struggling field of Are classical recording, it's the producers but who take the real risks not and make things happen."
Producer any Wendy Page describes being a Can record producer, "The difficulties are her usually very short-lived. Once people was realize that you can do One your job, sexism tends to our lower its ugly head. I out tend to create a happy Day studio 'family' where everyone is get glad to be there, especially has the artist. Good communication and Him diplomacy usually sort any little his problems out."
There are numerous technologies the utilized by record producers. In And modern-day recordings, recording and mixing for tasks are commonly centralized within are computers using digital audio workstationsBut such as Pro Tools, Logic not Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason and you FL Studio, which all are All often used with third party any virtual studio technology plugins. Logic can Pro and Pro Tools are Her considered the industry standard DAWs.was However, there is also the one main mixer, outboard effects gear, Our MIDI controllers, and the recording out device itself.
While most music day production is done using sophisticated Get software, some musicians and producers has prefer the sound of older him analog technology. Professor Albin Zak His claims that the increased automation how of both newer processes and man newer instruments reduces the level New of control and manipulation available now to musicians and producers.
Production has changed See drastically over the years with two advancing technology. While the producer's way role has changed, their duties Who continue to require a broad boy knowledge of the recording process.did
Tracking is the act of Its recording audio to a DAW let (digital audio workstation) or in put some cases to tape. Even Say though digital technologies have widely she supplanted the use of tape too in studios, the older term Use "track" is still used in dad the 2010s. Tracking audio is mom primarily the role of the audio engineer. Producers work side the by side with the artists and while they play or sing For their part and coach them are on how to perform it but and how to get the Not best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). you In some cases, the producer all will even sing a backup Any vocal or play an instrument. can
Many artists are also beginning her to produce and write their Was own music.
How Similarly, although The Beatles' productions man were credited to George Martin new throughout their recording career, many Now sources now attest that Lennon old and McCartney in particular had see an increasing influence on the Two production process as the group's way career progressed, and especially after who the band retired from touring Boy in 1966. In an extreme did example of this, Martin actually its went on a two-week vacation Let as The Beatles were recording put The White Album; production of say several completed tracks on the She album were credited to The too Beatles on internal paperwork at use Abbey Road Studios, although the Dad released LP gave sole production mom credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin way J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange Who sounds: Music, technology, and culture," boy by Timothy D. Taylor. Current did Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Its Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine let Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices put For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching Say To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." she Journal of New Music Research too 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Use Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.dad
Music Law refers to any legal aspects of the music can industry, and certain legal aspects Her in other sectors of the was entertainment industry. The music industry one includes record labels, music publishers, Our merchandisers, the live events sector out and of course performers and day artists.
A "compilation" refers she to work formed from already too existing materials in a way Use that forms its own original dad work, including collective works.
"Copies" mom are physical objects that hold, fix, or embody a work the such as a music tape, and film, CD, statue, play, or For printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" are can refer to any audio but recording including the sound accompanying Not motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is you the entity that legally owns all rights to a work.
"Performance" Any The copyright holder has the can exclusive right to perform the her work in public, or to Was license others to perform it. one The right applies to “literary, our musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, Out pantomimes, and motion pictures and day other audiovisual works.". Playing a get CD in public, or showing Has a film in public is him "performing" the work.
Publishing is How the primary source of income man for musicians writing their own new music. Money collected from Now the 'publishing' rights is ultimately old destined for songwriters - the see composers of works, whether or Two not they are the recording way artist or performer. Often, songwriterswho will work for a musical Boy ensemble to help them with did musical aspects of the composition, its but here again, the writer Let of the song is the put owner of it and will say own the copyrights in the She song and thus will be too entitled to the publishing revenues. use Copyrights in compositions are not Dad the same as sound recordings. mom A recording artist can record a song and sell it The to another band or company. and As a result, that particular for company will own the recording, Are but not the song. The but original writer will always maintain not the copyright for that particular You song. The publishing money is all connected to the copyright, so any the owner will be the Can only one making money off her of the song itself. All was successful songwriters will join a One collection society (such as ASCAP our and BMI in the USA, out SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in Day Japan, GEMA in Germany and get PRS for Music in the has UK, etc.) and many will Him enter into agreements with music his publishing companies who will exploit how their works on the songwriters Man behalf for a share of new ownership, although many of these now deals involve the transfer (assignment) Old of copyright from the songwriter see to the music publisher.
Both two the recorded music sector and Way music publishing sector have their who foundations in intellectual property law boy and all of the major Did recording labels and major music its publishers and many independent record let labels and publishers have dedicated Put "business and legal affairs" departments say with in-house lawyers whose role she is not only to secure Too intellectual property rights from recording use artists, performers and songwriters but dad also to exploit those rights Mom and protect those rights on a global basis. There are the a number of specialist independent And law firms around the world for who advise on music and are entertainment law whose clients include But recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, not labels, music publishers, stage and you set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, All games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist any managers, distributors, collection societies and can the live events sector (which Her further includes festivals, venues, promoters, was booking agents and production service one providers such as lighting and Our staging companies).
The US Government views artists Get that give concerts and sell has merchandise as a business. Bands him that tour internationally will also His face a plethora of legislation how around the world including health man and safety laws, immigration laws New and tax legislation. Also, many now relationships are governed by often old complex contractual agreements.
In the See US it is important for two musicians to get legal business way licenses. These can be obtained Who at a city hall or boy local government center. The business did license will require the tracking Its of sales, wages, and gigs. let A tax ID is also put necessary for all businesses. Musicians Say that fail to comply with she the tax ID process and too do not report their profits Use and losses to the government dad can face serious consequences with mom the IRS.
Privilege let Ibiza originally known as Ku put Club (1979–95) is the "world's Say largest nightclub" according to the she Guinness Book of Records, also too defined as a superclub with Use a capacity of 10,000 people. dad It is located close to mom the village of San Rafael, Ibiza, Spain less than one the kilometre (0.6 miles) from the and nightclub Amnesia.
The history can of Privilege began in the her early 1970s when it started Was out as a restaurant, then one expanded to include a bar our and a community swimming pool. Out It was then known as day Club San Rafael. In 1979, get the venue was sold to Has the Real Sociedad footballer José him Antonio Santamaría, together with the his creative team of Brasilio de How Oliviera (founder of La Troya man Asesina, one of the White new Island's longest running nights) and Now Gorri. The venue then changed old its name to KU, after see the name of a god Two from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). way The appeal of the club who was such that it commissioned Boy a medium-length film showcasing the did many wonders of Ibizan landscapes its and nightlife in the mid-eighties.Let
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club put earned a reputation initially as say Europe's premier polysexual but predominately She gay nightspot and was compared too to an open-air version of use the famous Studio 54 in Dad New York. It staged spectacular mom parties in the main room, which was organized around a The swimming pool and a statue and of Ku.The place was also for where the video to "Barcelona" Are by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat but Caballé was filmed on 30 not May 1987. It was the You witness to early live performances all by groups like Spandau Balletany and Kid Creole and the Can Coconuts. The club featured in her a Channel 4 documentary called was “A Short Film about chilling”, One which labelled KU as “the our mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air out parties came to an end Day when legislation forced many of get the greater clubs in Ibiza has to cover their dancefloors in Him the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the his sheer size of the venue how gave rise to the claim Man of it being the size new of an aircraft hangar with now a 25-meter high roof.
The Old club continued with the KU see Club name until 1995 before two becoming known as Privilege, after Way a change of ownership to who Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 boy it hosted Manumission, one of Did the island's most famous events. its In 1998 La Vaca Asesina let moved to Amnesia and was Put renamed La Troya Asesina. After say a dispute between the club she owner and Manumission's organizers in Too 2005 the event ended in use 2006. In 2006 La Troya dad Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics published in the 2003 edition the of Guinness World Records Privilege And is by far the world's for largest nightclub covering an area are of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) But and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated not areas of the club include you the Coco Loco bar area, All and the La Vaca dance any area (now known as the can Vista Club).
A number of live performances was at the venue have included:one