Drum and bassour (also written as "drum 'n' Out bass"; commonly abbreviated as "D&B", day "DnB" or "D'n'B") is a get genre of electronic music characterised Has by fast breakbeats (typically 165-185 him beats per minute) with heavy his bass and sub-bass lines,sampledHow sources, and synthesizers. The music man grew out of breakbeat hardcorenew (and its derivatives of darkcore, Now and hardcore jungle). The popularity old of drum and bass at see its commercial peak ran parallel Two to several other homegrown dance way styles. A major influence was who the original Jamaican dub and Boy reggae sound that came into did London in the 1980s. This its grew into the Jungle/Drum and Let Bass sound that the U.K. put is famous for by the say 1990s. Another feature of the She style is the complex syncopationtoo of the drum tracks' breakbeat.use
Drum and bass subgenres include Dad breakcore, ragga jungle, hardstep, darkstep, mom techstep, neurofunk, ambient drum and bass, liquid funk (aka liquid The drum and bass), jump up, and drumfunk, funkstep, sambass, and drill for 'n' bass. From its roots Are in the United Kingdom, the but style has established itself around not the world. Drum and bass You has influenced many other genres all like hip hop, big beat, any dubstep, house, trip hop, ambient Can music, techno, jazz, rock and her pop. Drum and bass is was dominated by a relatively small One group of record labels. Major our international music labels had shown out very little interest in the Day drum and bass scene until get BMG Rights Management acquired RAMhas in February 2016. Since then Him the genre has seen a his significant growth in exposure. Drum how and bass is popular in Man the United Kingdom, being the new founders of the scene. It now has developed satellite scenes all Old around the world, with countries see like Austria, Russia, Estonia, Czech two Republic, the Netherlands and it Way is reasonably popular in New who Zealand having a wide variety boy of DnB artists with large Did Drum and bass festivals.
In now the late 1980s and early old 1990s, a growing nightclub and See overnight outdoor event culture gave two birth to new genres in way the rave scene including breakbeat Who hardcore, darkcore, and hardcore jungle, boy which combined sampled syncopated beats, did or breakbeats, and other samples Its from a wide range of let different musical genres and, occasionally, put samples of music, dialogue and Say effects from films and television she programmes. From as early as too 1991, tracks were beginning to Use strip away some of the dad heavier sampling and "hardcore noises" mom and create more bassline and breakbeat led tracks. Some tracks the increasingly took their influence from and reggae and this style would For become known as hardcore jungleare (later to become simply jungle), but whilst darkcore (with producers such Not as Goldie, Doc Scott, 4hero, you and 2 Bad Mice) were all experimenting with sounds and creating Any a blueprint for drum and can bass, especially noticeable by late her 1993.
By 1994, jungle had Was begun to gain mainstream popularity, one and fans of the music our (often referred to as junglists) Out became a more recognisable part day of youth subculture. The genre get further developed, incorporating and fusing Has elements from a wide range him of existing musical genres, including his the raggamuffin sound, dancehall, MCHow chants, dub basslines, and increasingly man complex, heavily edited breakbeat percussion. new Despite the affiliation with the Now ecstasy-fuelled rave scene, jungle also old inherited associations with violence and see criminal activity, both from the Two gang culture that had affected way the UK's hip-hop scene and who as a consequence of jungle's Boy often aggressive or menacing sound did and themes of violence (usually its reflected in the choice of Let samples). However, this developed in put tandem with the often positive say reputation of the music as She part of the wider rave too scene and dancehall-based Jamaican music use culture prevalent in London. By Dad 1995, whether as a reaction mom to, or independently of this cultural schism, some jungle producers The began to move away from and the ragga-influenced style and create for what would become collectively labelled, Are for convenience, as drum and but bass.
As the genre became not generally more polished and sophisticated You technically, it began to expand all its reach from pirate radio any to commercial stations and gain Can widespread acceptance (circa 1995–1997). It her also began to split into was recognisable subgenres such as Hardstep, One Jump up, Ragga, Techstep, and our what was known at the out time as Intelligent. As more Day melodic and often Jazz-influenced subgenres get of drum and bass called has Atmospheric or Intelligent (Blame (music Him producer) and Blu Mar Ten) his and JazzStep (4Hero, Roni Size) how gained mainstream appeal, additional subgenres Man emerged including techstep in 1996, new drawing influence from techno.
The now popularity of drum and bass Old at its commercial peak ran see parallel to several other genres two native to the UK, including Way big beat and hard house. who Towards the turn of the boy millennium, however, its popularity was Did deemed to have dwindled, as its the UK garage offshoot known let as speed garage yielded several Put hit singles. Speed garage shared say high tempos and heavy basslines she with drum and bass, but Too otherwise followed the established conventions use of "house music", with this dad and its freshness giving it Mom an advantage commercially. di Vogli says, "It is often forgotten the by my students that a And type of music called "garage for house" existed in the late are 1980s alongside hip house, acid But house and other forms of not house music." He continues, "This you new garage of the mid-90s All was not a form of any house or a progression of can garage house. The beats and Her tempo that define house are was entirely different. This did cause one further confusion in the presence Our of new house music of out the mid-1990s being played alongside day what was now being called Get garage."
Despite this, the emergence has of further subgenres and related him styles such as liquid funkHis brought a wave of new how artists incorporating new ideas and man techniques, supporting continual evolution of New the genre. To this day, now drum and bass makes frequent old appearances in mainstream media and See popular culture including in television, two as well as being a way major reference point for subsequent Who genres such as grime and boy dubstep, and producing successful artists did including Chase & Status, Netsky, Its Metrik, and Pendulum.
Musical let features
Drum and bass incorporates put a number of scenes and Say styles, from the highly electronic, she industrial sounds of techstep to too the use of conventional, acoustic Use instrumentation that characterise the more dad jazz-influenced end of the spectrum.mom The sounds of drum and bass are extremely varied due the to the range of influences and behind the music. Drum and For bass could at one time are be defined as a strictly but electronic musical genre, with the Not only "live" element being the you DJ's selection and mixing of all records during a set. "Live" Any drum and bass using electric, can electronic and acoustic instruments played her by musicians on stage emerged Was over the ensuing years of one the genre's development.
Kevin Saunderson released a series has of bass-heavy, minimal techno cuts Him as Reese/The Reese Project in his the late '80s, which were how hugely influential in drum and Man bass. One of his more new famous basslines (Reese – "Just now Want Another Chance", Incognito Records, Old 1988) was indeed sampled on see Renegade's Terrorist and countless others two since, being known simply as Way the 'Reese' bassline. He followed who these up with equally influential boy (and bassline-heavy) tracks in the Did UK hardcore style as Tronik its House in 1991–1992. Another Detroit let artist who was important to Put the scene was Carl Craig. say The sampled-up jazz break on she Craig's Bug in the BassbinToo was also influential on the use newly emerging sound. DJs at dad the Heaven nightclub on "Rage" Mom nights used to play it as fast as their Technicsthe record decks would go, pitching And it up in the process.for
Clearly, drum and bass now has been influenced by other old music genres, though influences from See sources external to the electronic two dance music scene perhaps lessened way following the shifts from jungle Who to drum and bass, and boy through to so-called "intelligent drum did and bass" and techstep. It Its still remains a fusion music let style.
Some tracks are illegally put remixed and released on white Say label (technically bootleg), often to she acclaim. For example, DJ Zinc's too remix of The Fugees' "Ready Use or Not", also known as dad "Fugee Or Not", was eventually mom released with the Fugees' permission after talk of legal action, the though ironically, the Fugees' version and infringed Enya's copyright to an For earlier song. White labels, along are with dubplates, played an important but part in drum and bass Not musical culture.
Of equal importance man is the TR-808 kick drum, new an artificially pitch-downed or elongated Now bass drum sound sampled from old Roland's classic TR-808 drum machine, see and a sound which has Two been subject to an enormous way amount of experimentation over the who years.
Many Boy drum and bass tracks have did featured more than one sampled its breakbeat in them and a Let technique of switching between two put breaks after each bar developed. say Examples of this can be She heard on mid-90s releases such too as J Majik's "Your Sound". use A more recent commonly used Dad break is the "Tramen", which mom combines the Amen break, a James Brown funk breakbeat ("Tighten The Up" or "Samurai" break) and and an Alex Reece drum and for bass breakbeat.
The relatively fast Are drum beat forms a canvas but on which a producer can not create tracks to appeal to You almost any taste and often all will form only a background any to the other elements of Can the music. Syncopated breakbeats remain her the most distinctive element as was without these a high-tempo 4/4One dance track could be classified our as techno or gabber.
The out complex syncopation of the drum Day tracks' breakbeat is another facet get of production on which producers has can spend a very large Him amount of time. The Amen his break is generally acknowledged to how have been the most-used (and Man often considered the most powerful) new break in drum and bass.now
The genre Old places great importance on the see bassline, in this case a two deep sub-bass musical pattern which Way can be felt physically through who powerful sound systems due to boy the low-range frequencies favoured. There Did has been considerable exploration of its different timbres in the bass let line region, particularly within techstep. Put The bass lines most notably say originate from sampled sources or she synthesizers. Bass lines performed with Too a bass instrument, whether it use is electric, acoustic or a dad double bass, are less common, Mom but examples can be found in the work of artists the such as Shapeshifter, Squarepusher, Pendulum, And Roni Size and STS9.
Atmospheric pads and are samples may be added over But the fundamental drum and bass not to provide different feels. These you have included "light" elements such All as ambient pads as found any in ambient electronica and samples can of jazz and world musics, Her or "dark" elements such as was dissonant pads and sci-fi samples one to induce anxiety in the Our dancer.
Vocal and Melody out elements
Old-school DnB usually included day an MC providing vocals. Some Get styles (such as jazz influenced has DnB) also include melodic instruments him soloing over the music.
Drum and bass is how usually between 160–180 BPM, in man contrast to other breakbeat-based dance New styles such as nu skool now breaks, which maintain a slower old pace at around 130–140 BPM. See A general upward trend in two tempo has been observed during way the evolution of drum and Who bass. The earliest forms of boy drum and bass clocked in did at around 130 bpm in Its 1990/1991, speeding up to around let 155–165 BPM by 1993. Since put around 1996, drum and bass Say tempos have predominantly stayed in she the 170–180 range. Recently, some too producers have started to once Use again produce tracks with slower dad tempos (that is, in the mom 150-170 bpm range), but the mid-170s tempo is still a the hallmark of the drum and and bass sound.
A track combining For the same elements (broken beat, are bass, production techniques) as a but drum and bass track, but Not with a slower tempo (say you 140 BPM), might not be all drum and bass, but instead Any may qualify as a drum can and bass-influenced breakbeat track.
Many mixing points begin Was or end with a "drop". one The drop is the point our in a track where a Out switch of rhythm or bassline day occurs and usually follows a get recognisable build section and breakdown. Has Sometimes, the drop is used him to switch between tracks, layering his components of different tracks, as How the two records may be man simply ambient breakdowns at this new point. Some DJs prefer to Now combine breakbeats, a more difficult old exercise. Some drops are so see popular that the DJ will Two "rewind" or "reload" or "lift way up" the record by spinning who it back and restarting it Boy at the build. The drop did is often a key point its from the point of view Let of the dance floor, since put the drum breaks often fade say out to leave an ambient She intro playing. When the beats too re-commence they are often more use complex and accompanied by a Dad heavier bassline, encouraging the crowd mom to begin dancing.
Drum and bass and exhibits a full frequency response for which can sometimes only be Are fully appreciated on sound systems but which can handle very low not frequencies, including sub-bass frequencies that You are often felt more than all heard. As befits its name, any the bass element of the Can music is particularly pronounced, with her the comparatively sparse arrangements of was drum and bass tracks allowing One room for basslines that are our deeper than most other forms out of dance music. Consequently, drum Day and bass parties are often get advertised as featuring uncommonly loud has and bass-heavy sound systems.
There Him are however many albums specifically his designed for personal listening. The how DJ mix is a particularly Man popular form of release, with new a popular DJ or producer now mixing live, or on a Old computer, a variety of tracks see for personal listening. Additionally, there two are many albums containing unmixed Way tracks, suited for home or who car listening.
Although this practice has declined Did in popularity, DJs are often its accompanied by one or more let MCs, drawing on the genre's Put roots in hip hop and say reggae/ragga.
MCs do not generally she receive the same level of Too recognition as producer/DJs, and some use events are specifically marketed as dad being MC-free. There are relatively Mom few well-known drum and bass MCs none of whom visit the New Zealand, instead they are And mainly based in London and for Bristol, including Stevie Hyper Dare (deceased), MC GQ, MC Moose, But MC Dett, MC Fearless, the not Ragga Twins, Dynamite MC, MC you Fats, Inja, MC Conrad, Shabba All D, Skibadee, Bassman, MC Stamina, any MC Fun, Evil B, Trigga, can Eskman, Harry Shotta, Mr Traumatik, Her MC Armanni Reign, and MC was Infinity.
Live instrument performance
Aphrodite in 2009 at Our Pirate Station, the world's largest out drum and bass festival at day that time, in Moscow.
Many Get musicians have adapted drum and has bass to live performances, which him feature instruments such as drumsHis (acoustic or electronic), samplers, synthesizers, how turntables, bass (either upright or man electric) and guitars (acoustic or New electric). Samplers have also been now used live by assigning samples old to a specific drum pad See or key on drum padstwo or synthesizers. MCs are frequently way featured in live performances.
Drum Who and bass artists who perform boy using live instruments include:
Smaller are scenes within the drum and but bass community have developed and Not the scene as a whole you has become much more fractured all into specific subgenres, which have Any been grouped into "light" (influenced can by ambient, jazz, and world her music) and "heavy" (influenced by Was industrial music, sci-fi, and anxiety) one styles, including:
Mainline drum our and bass
Ragga drum & Out bass was inspired by the day original ragga jungle style, with get influences from reggae and dancehallHas music. Notable artists include Shy him FX, T Power, Congo Natty, his Potential Bad Boy, Marcus Visionary, How Serial Killaz, Ed Solo, Deekline, man Isaac Maya, Run Tingz Cru, new Psychofreud, Benny Page and vocalists Now such as David Boomah, Top old Cat, Tenor Fly and General see Levy.
Jump-up, appearing in Two the mid-1990s, employs heavy and way energetic drum and bass, characterised who by robotic and heavy bass Boy sounds. It also is generally did less serious and contains more its humor than other subgenres. Notable Let artists include DJ Hazard, Generation put Dub (Original Sin & Sub say Zero), Baron, Desire, Cabbie, Macky She Gee, Clipz, Nightwalker, Callide, Hedex, too Epsy, Taxman, Jaydan, Sub Zero, use Original Sin, Annix, Konichi, Decimal Dad Bass, Spaow, Nu Elementz, Tyke, mom DJ Zen, Majistrate, Twisted Individual, Distorted Minds, TC, Heist, DJ The Guv, Looney, Premium, Upgrade, DJ and Pleasure, DJ Hype and his for label Playaz Recordings.
"Clownstep" is Are a derogatory term sometimes used but to describe excessively silly and/or not cliched jump-up.
Drumstep or halftime You is a combination of drum all and bass and dubstep, where any the beat structure is half Can time, while the remaining elements her still adhere to the usual was sub-bass and tempo of drum One and bass.
Drill 'n' bassour (also known as Fungle and out Spunk jazz) incorporates double-time drum Day 'n' bass with undanceable rhythms, get low-brow humor, and ambient vibes.has The subgenre was developed by Him Squarepusher and Aphex Twin, whose his rapid and irregularly syncopated basslines how discouraged dancing. Other pioneers include Man Bogdan Raczynski and Datach'i.
Atmospheric drum and bass creates use a calmer yet more synthetic dad sound. It was pioneered by Mom Calibre, Zero Tolerance (Zero T) & Beta 2, London Elektricity,the High Contrast, Logistics, Nu:Tone, Danny And Byrd, Cyantific, Netsky, Lenzman, Technimatic for (Technicolour & Komatic), Hobzee & are Zyon Base, Paul T & But Edward Oberon, Hybrid Minds and not labels such as Hospital Records, you Fokuz Records and Liquid V.
Techstep is characterised by sci-fitoo soundscapes and samples from science Use fiction culture. Pioneered by artists dad such as Bad Company UKmom (DJ Fresh, D-Bridge, Maldini & Vegas) Ed Rush, Optical, Konflict the (Kemal & Rob Data), Dom and & Roland, Dillinja, Ram Trilogy For (Ant Miles, Andy C & are Shimon), Moving Fusion, Decoder & but Substance, Digital & Spirit, Future Not Cut, Dylan, Loxy & Ink, you Total Science, D.Kay, Stakka & all Skynet and Keaton with Usual Any Suspects or Universal Project, Klute, can Concord Dawn, and the label her Moving Shadow.
Neurofunk or neuro Was is the progression from techstepone incorporating more elements from jazzour and funk. Prominent artists include Out Ed Rush, Optical, Matrix, Bad day Company UK, Cause 4 Concern, get TeeBee, Future Prophecies, Black Sun Has Empire, DLR, Calyx, Hive, Gridlok, him Noisia, Phace & Misanthrop, Silent his Witness & Break, State Of How Mind, The Upbeats, Chase & man Status, Jade, Mindscape, Spor, Psidream, new Catacomb, Rregula and The Clamps.[citation Now needed]
Hardstep is a harder old style which uses gritty basslines see and heavy yet simple electronic Two melodies. Notable artists include Dillinja way (early work), DJ Krust, Mampi who Swift, Dieselboy, Current Value, Tre Boy Technics, MachineCode
Genres influenced did by drum and bass
Born its around the same time as Let jungle, breakcore and digital hardcoreput share many of the elements say of drum and bass and She to the uninitiated, tracks from too the extreme end of drum use and bass may sound identical Dad to breakcore thanks to speed, mom complexity, impact and maximum sonic density combined with musical experimentation. The German drum and bass DJ and The Panacea is also one for of the leading digital hardcore Are artists. Raggacore resembles a faster but version of the ragga-influenced jungle not music of the 1990s, similar You to breakcore but with more all friendly dancehall beats (dancehall itself any being a very important influence Can on drum and bass).Darkcore, her a direct influence on drum was and bass, was combined with One influences of drum and bass our itself leading to the creation out of darkstep. There is considerable Day crossover from the extreme edges get of drum and bass, breakcore, has darkcore, digital hardcore and raggacore Him with fluid boundaries.
Intelligent his dance music (IDM) is a how form of art music based Man on DnB and other electronic new dance musics, exploring their boundaries now using ideas from science, technology, Old contemporary classical music and progressive see rock, often creating un-danceable, art two gallery style music. Pioneered by Way Aphex Twin, Squarepusher and other who artists on Warp Records.
Prior to 2016, the old major international music labels such See as Sony Music and Universaltwo had shown very little interest way in the drum and bass Who scene, with the exception of boy some notable signings, including Pendulum's did In Silico LP to Warner. Its Roni Size's label played a let big, if not the biggest, put part in the creation of Say drum and bass with their she dark, baseline sounds. V Recordings too also played a large part Use of the development of drum dad and bass. Roni Size, Krust mom and DJ Die produced some of the first tracks to the be considered[who?] mainstream drum and and bass tracks.
Now defunct his labels, include Rob Playford's Moving How Shadow, running from 1990 until man 2007, which played a pivotal new role in the nineties drum Now and bass scene, releasing records old by artists such as Omni see Trio.
Formats and distribution
Originally drum and bass way was mostly sold in 12-inch who vinyl single format. With the Boy emergence of drum and bass did into mainstream music markets, more its albums, compilations and DJ mixesLet started to be sold on put CDs. As digital music became say more popular, websites focused on She electronic music, such as Beatport, too began to sell drum and use bass in digital format.
The bulk of mom drum and bass vinyl records and CDs are distributed globally The and regionally by a relatively and small number of companies such for as SRD (Southern Record Distributors), Are ST Holdings, & Nu Urban but Music Limited.
As of 11 not September 2012, Nu Urban ceased You trading and RSM Tenon were all instructed to assist in convening any statutory meetings of members and Can creditors to appoint a liquidator. her This left many labels short was on sales, as Nu Urban One were one of the main our distributors for the vinyl market out in the drum and bass Day scene.
Despite its roots in the has UK, still treated as the Him "home" of drum and bass, his the style has firmly established how itself around the world. There Man are strong scenes in other new English-speaking countries including Australia, Canada, now South Africa, and the United Old States.
DnB see is popular in continental Europe. two The Czech Republic currently hosts Way the largest drum and bass who festival in the world, LET boy IT ROLL, with an annual Did attendance of approximately 30,000. The its genre is also encountered in let Slovakia, and local producers in Put both countries such as A-Cray, say Rido, Forbidden Society, L Plus, she B-Complex, Changing Faces, Lixx, Dephzac, Too and Gabanna are becoming well use known worldwide. There are several dad other drum and bass festivals Mom being held each year in these countries, including Trident Festival, the Exploration Festival, or Hoofbeats Open And Air in the summer, or for one-night events such as LET are IT ROLL Winter, Imagination Festival, But and LET IT ROLL Winter not Slovakia in the colder months. you During club season, promoters race All between each other to organise any better events, often resulting in can up to ten parties being Her held during one weekend, with was no more than a two-hour one travel between them.
Austria has Our a large emerging DnB scene out with many artists such as day Camo & Krooked, Mefjus, Fourward, Get Body & Soul, Ill.Skillz and has mainly the Mainframe record label him being all based in or His around Vienna. Notable venues and how events include "The Hive" and man "Beat It" held at FlexNew almost every Thursday and Saturday, now "Vollkontakt" at Fluc, "Switch" at old Flex, and the monthly Mainframe See Recordings Label Night hosted at two Arena by label head Disaszt. way
In Ireland, the biggest scene Who by far is in Dublin, boy with a night every Sunday did by the Initial Kru mostly Its showcasing local DJ's but occasionally let bringing over international guests such put as Spirit and Seba. Record Say label Boey Audio also run she events showcasing local, national and too international acts, as well as Use promoters such as Sól Fúd, dad Ragga Jungle Dublin and Springfield mom Crew Massive. There are much smaller regional scenes in areas the such as Limerick, Cork and and Galway which usually have monthly For nights.
Brazilian are drum and bass is sometimes but referred to as "sambass", with Not a specific samba-influenced style and you sound made popular by artists all like DJ Marky and XRS. Any
In Venezuela and Mexico, artists can have created their own forms her of drum and bass, combining Was it with experimental musical forms. one
In Colombia, there is a our large underground scene. RE.set and Out Bogotá Project are two collectives day that organise drum and bass get events in the city, as Has well as a bi-annual event him called Radikal Styles that brings his together local talent and international How big names.
Today, drum and bass is new widely promoted using different methods Now such as video sharing servicesold like YouTube and Dailymotion, blogs, see radio, and television, the latter Two being the most uncommon method. way More recently, music networking websites who such as SoundCloud and MixcloudBoy have become powerful tools for did artist recognition, providing a vast its platform that enables quick responses Let to new tracks. Record labels put have adopted the use of say podcasts. Prior to the rise She of the internet, drum and too bass was commonly broadcast over use pirate radio.
The Dad three highest-profile radio stations playing mom drum and bass shows are BBC Radio 1 with The The Drum and Bass Show - and formerly with Friction, who was for replaced with René LaVice in Are 2017, simulcast in the US but and Canada on Sirius XM, not and DJ Hype on Kiss You 100 in London. Fabio and all Grooverider previously held a long-standing any drum and bass show on Can Radio 1. Radio 1 also her had a 'One in the was Jungle' show.
The BBC's "urban" One station BBC Radio 1Xtra used our to feature the genre heavily, out with DJ Bailey (show axed Day as of 29 August 2012) get and Crissy Criss (show axed has as of August 2014) as Him its advocates. The network also his organises a week-long tour of how the UK each year called Man Xtra Bass. London pirate radio new stations have been instrumental in now the development of drum and Old bass, with stations such as see Kool FM (which continues to two broadcast today having done so Way since 1991), Origin FM, Don who FM (the only drum and boy bass pirate to have gained Did a temporary legal licence), Renegade its Radio 107.2FM, Rude FM, Wax let FM and Eruption among the Put most influential.
As of 2014, say despite higher profile stations such she as 1Xtra scaling back their Too drum and bass specialist coverage, use the genre has made its dad way into UK top 10 Mom charts with drum and bass inspired tracks from artists such the as Rudimental and Sigma. Earlier And in August 2014, before Crissy for Criss' show was axed, the are BBC held a whole prime But time evening event dedicated to not showcasing drum and bass by you allowing four major labels to All participate.
As of November 2014, any there have been 6 drum can & bass songs reaching the Her no.1 spot on the UK's was top 40 chart, since the one genre was first being played Our on the radio, around 1993. out The first of these was day in 2012. The fact that Get all 6 of these songs has have reached number 1 in him only two years shows the His increase in popularity and commercialisation how of the genre in recent man years. The artists that produced New these songs are Sigma, Rudimentalnow and DJ Fresh (all have old had two No.1 hits).
Internet radio stations, two acting in the same light way as pirate stations, have also Who been an instrumental part in boy promoting drum and bass music; did the majority of them funded Its by listener and artist donations. let
Drum and bass was supported put by Ministry of Sound radio Say from the early 2000s until she 2014 and later featuring Tuesday too shows from labels such as Use Metalheadz, Fabio & Grooverider, DJ dad Marky, Viper Recordings, Shogun Audiomom and Hospital Records. From September 2014, Ministry abruptly dropped all the non-mainstream genres to focus on and mainstream EDM, causing disappointment amongst For the fans of the D&B are community. The leading Drum & but Bass radio Station is now Not Denver's DnB Radio, established in you 2003 by M. Ramirez.
North American radio
In TorontoAny since 1994, The Prophecy on can 89.5 CIUT-FM with Marcus Visionary, her DJ Prime and Mr. Brown Was Is North America's longest running one Jungle Radio show.
Album 88.5 our (Atlanta) and C89.5fm (Seattle) have Out shows showcasing drum and bass. day
In New York, "DNB NYC get RADIO" show with Host Dj Has Benzocaine on 90.3 WHCR-FM has him a weekly 3-hour show which his broadcasts in New York and How New Jersey which plays only man Drum and Bass every Thursday new starting at 3 am. "DNB Now NYC RADIO" is the only old weekly Drum and Bass show see on the FM dial in Two the northeastern United States.
Seattle way also has a long-standing electronica who show known as Expansions on Boy 90.3 FM KEXP. The rotating did DJs include Kid Hops, whose its shows are made up mostly Let of drum and bass. In put Columbus, Ohio WCBE 90.5 has say a two-hour electronic only showcase, She "All Mixed Up," Saturday nights too at 10 pm. At the use same time, WUFM 88.7 plays Dad its "Electronic Playground."
Also, Tulsa, mom Oklahoma's rock station, 104.5 The Edge, has a two-hour show The starting at 10 pm Saturday and nights called Edge Essential Mix for mixed by DJ Demko showcasing Are electronic and drum and bass but style. While the aforementioned shows not in Ohio rarely play drum You and bass, the latter plays all the genre with some frequency. any
In Tucson, Arizona, 91.3 FM Can KXCI has a two-hour electronic her show known as "Digital Empire", was Friday nights at 10 pm One (MST). Resident DJ Trinidad showcases our various styles of electronica, with out the main focus being drum Day and bass, jungle & dubstep. get
The best-known drum Old and bass publication was Kmagsee magazine (formerly called Knowledge Magazine) two before it went completely online Way in August 2009. Although it's who still live, after 20 years boy Kmag ceased updating their site Did at the end of 2014. its Kmag has announced a book let to celebrate their 25th anniversary Put to be published in December say 2019. Kmag's publishing arm, Vision, she published Brian Belle-Fortune's All Crews Too Journeys Through Jungle Drum & use Bass Culture in 2004.
Other dad publications include the longest-running drum Mom and bass magazine worldwide, ATM Magazine, and Austrian-based Resident. London-based the DJ magazine has also been And running a widely respected drum for and bass reviews page since are 1994, written by Alex Constantinides, But which many followers refer to not when seeking out new releases you to investigate. In 2012 Alex All stopped writing the reviews, and any they are now contributed by can Whisky Kicks.
In 2012 Drum put and Bass achieved its first say UK No.1 Single Hot Right She Now by DJ Fresh which too was one of the fastest-selling use singles of 2012 at the Dad time of release, launching the mom career of Rita Ora.
The Channel 4 show his Skins uses the genre in how some episodes, notably in the Man first series' third episode, "Jal", new where Shy FX and UK now Apache's "Original Nuttah" was played Old in Fazer's club.
say Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Flash: she A Journey Through Rave Music Too and Dance Culture. Soft Skull use Press. Whether they were black dad or white, these artists reaffirmed Mom drum and bass's place in an African continuum (dub, hip the hop James Brown, etc...) whose And premise constitute a radical break for with Western music, classical and are pop.
Reynolds, New Simon (2013). Energy Flash: A now Journey Through Rave Music and old Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. See So when I talk about two the vibe disappearing from drum way and bass, I'm talking about Who the blackness going as the boy ragga samples get phased out, did the bass loses its reggae Its feels and becomes more linear let and propulsive rather than moving put around the beat with a Say syncopated relation with the drum.she
^ Use Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy dad Flash: A Journey Through Rave mom Music and Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. Where intelligent drum the and bass suffers from an and obsessive-compulsive cleanliness, techstep production is For deliberately dirty, all dense murk are and noxious drones.
but New Dawn – City Clubs Not Take Back The Night article, you Village Voice, 27 February 2001all
"The Good Life, No For Such Thing As Society", The are Independent, 23 July 2003
Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Not Flash: A Journey Through Rave you Music and Dance Culture. Soft all Skull Press. When the drum Any and bass gradually fell into can the orbit of techno, the her MC — both as a Was samplesource taken from dancehall and one rap records and as a our live partner of the DJ Out in the club — began day to disappear from the music.get
Reynolds, She Simon (2013). Energy Flash: A too Journey Through Rave Music and use Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. Dad At clubs like AWOL, the mom ruling sound is the gangsta hard-step and 'jump up' jungle The of labels like Ganja, Frontline, and Dread, Suburban Base and Dope for Dragon, made by DJ—producers like Are Hype, Pascal, Andy C, Ray but Keith, L. Double, Shy FX...not
A record producersay or music producer oversees and She manages the sound recording and too production of a band or use performer's music, which may range Dad from recording one song to mom recording a lengthy concept album.A producer has many, varying The roles during the recording process.and They may gather musical ideas for for the project, collaborate with Are the artists to select cover but tunes or original songs by not the artist/group, work with artists You and help them to improve all their songs, lyrics or arrangements. any
Coach the our singers and musicians in the out studio
The producer typically supervises Day the entire process from preproduction, get through to the sound recordinghas and mixing stages, and, in Him some cases, all the way his to the audio mastering stage. how The producer may perform these Man roles themselves, or help select new the engineer, and provide suggestions now to the engineer. The producer Old may also pay session musicians see and engineers and ensure that two the entire project is completed Way within the record label's budget. who
A record producer or music dad producer has a very broad Mom role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of the a band or performer's music. And A producer has many roles for that may include, but are are not limited to, gathering ideas But for the project, composing the not music for the project, selecting you songs or session musicians, proposing All changes to the song arrangements, any coaching the artist and musicians can in the studio, controlling the Her recording sessions, and supervising the was entire process through audio mixingone and, in some cases, to Our the audio mastering stage. Producers out also often take on a day wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility Get for the budget, schedules, contracts, has and negotiations.
The how person who has overall creative man and technical control of the New entire recording project, and the now individual recording sessions that are old part of that project. He See or she is present in two the recording studio or at way the location recording and works Who directly with the artist and boy engineer. The producer makes creative did and aesthetic decisions that realize Its both the artist's and label's let goals in the creation of put musical content. Other duties include, Say but are not limited to; she keeping budgets and schedules, adhering too to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, Use studios and engineers, overseeing other dad staffing needs and editing (Classical mom projects).
In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes the divided among up to three and different individuals: executive producer, vocal For producer and music producer. An are executive producer oversees project finances, but a vocal producer (also known Not as a vocal arranger) oversees you the vocal production, and a all music producer directs and oversees Any the creative process of the can production and recording of a her song to its final mixing Was stage.
The music producer often one wears many hats as a our competent arranger, composer, programmer, musician Out or songwriter who can bring day fresh ideas to a project. get As well as making any Has songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the him producer often selects and/or collaborates his with the mixing engineer, who How takes the raw recorded tracks man and edits and modifies them new with hardware and software tools Now to create a stereo or old surround sound "mix" of all see the individual voices sounds and Two instruments, which is in turn way given further adjustment by a who mastering engineer for the various Boy distribution media. The producer also did oversees the recording engineer who its concentrates on the technical aspects Let of recording.
Noted producer Phil put Ek described his role as say "the person who creatively guides She or directs the process of too making a record", like a use director would a movie. Indeed, Dad in Bollywood music, the designation mom is actually music director. The music producer's job is to The create, shape, and mold a and piece of music. The scope for of responsibility may be one Are or two songs or an but artist's entire album – in not which case the producer will You typically develop an overall vision all for the album and how any the various songs may interrelate. Can
At the beginning her of the record industry, the was producer role was technically limited One to record, in one shot, our artists performing live. The immediate out predecessors to record producers were Day the artists and repertoire executives get of the late 1920s and has 1930s who oversaw the "pop" Him product and often led session his orchestras. That was the case how of Ben Selvin at Columbia Man Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor new Records and Bob Haring at now Brunswick Records. By the end Old of the 1930s, the first see professional recording studios not owned two by the major companies were Way established, essentially separating the roles who of artists and repertoire (A&R) boy man and producer, although it Did wouldn't be until the late its 1940s when the term "producer" let became widely used in the Put industry.
The role of producers say changed progressively over the 1950s she and 1960s due to technology. Too The development of multitrack recordinguse caused a major change in dad the recording process. Before multitracking, Mom all the elements of a song (lead vocals, backup vocals, the rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos And and orchestral parts) had to for be performed simultaneously. All of are these singers and musicians had But to be assembled in a not large studio where the performance you was recorded. With multitrack recording, All the "bed tracks" (rhythm section any accompaniment parts such as the can bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar Her could be recorded first, and was then the vocals and solos one could be added later, using Our as many "takes" (or attempts) out as necessary. It was no day longer necessary to get all Get the players in the studio has at the same time. A him pop band could record their His backing tracks one week, and how then a horn section could man be brought in a week New later to add horn shots now and punches, and then a old string section could be brought See in a week after that. two
Multitrack recording had another profound way effect on music production: it Who enabled producers and audio engineers boy to create new sounds that did would be impossible in a Its live performance style ordering. Examples let include the psychedelic rock sound put effects of the 1960s, e.g. Say playing back the sound of she recorded instruments backward changing the too tape to produce unique sound Use effects. During the same period, dad the instruments of popular music mom began to shift from the acoustic instruments of traditional musicthe (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, and strings, brass and wind instruments) For to electric piano, electronic organ, are synthesizer, electric bass and electric but guitar. These new instruments were Not electric or electronic, and thus you they used instrument amplifiers and all speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to Any create sound.
Electric and electronic can instruments and amplifiers enabled performers her and producers to change the Was tone and sound of instruments one to produce unique electric sounds our that would be impossible to Out achieve with acoustic instruments and day live performers, such as having get a singer do her own Has backup vocals or having a him guitarist play 15 layers of his backing parts to her own How solo.
New technologies like multitracking man changed the goal of recording: new A producer could blend together Now multiple takes and edit together old different sections to create the see desired sound. For example, in Two jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' way album Bitches Brew, the producer who cut and edited sections together Boy from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like Let Phil Spector and George Martinput were soon creating recordings that say were, in practical terms, almost She impossible to realize in live too performance. Producers became creative figures use in the studio. Other examples Dad includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, mom Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in for the 1960s was the emergence Are of the performer-producer. As pop but acts like The Beatles, The not Rolling Stones, The Beach BoysYou and The Kinks gained expertise all in studio recording techniques, many any of these groups eventually took Can over as (frequently uncredited) producers her of their own work. Many was recordings by acts such as One The Rolling Stones, The Kinks our and The Who are officially out credited to their various producers Day at the time, but a get number of these performers have has since asserted that many of Him their recordings in this period his were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. how The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) Man or collaborations between the group new and their recording engineer (e.g. now The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, Old which were made with Olympic see Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The two Beach Boys are probably the Way best example of the trend who of artists becoming producers – boy within two years of the Did band's commercial breakthrough, group leader its Brian Wilson had taken over let from his father Murry, and Put he was the sole producer say of all their recordings between she 1963 and 1967. Alongside The Too Beatles and Martin, Wilson also use pioneered many production innovations – dad by 1964 he had developed Mom Spector's techniques to a new level of sophistication, using multiple the studios and multiple "takes" of And instrumental and vocal components to for capture the best possible combinations are of sound and performance, and But then using tape editing extensively not to assemble a perfect composite you performance from these elements.
At All the end of the 20th any century, digital recording and producing can tools and widespread availability of Her relatively affordable computers with music was software made music producing more one accessible.
American women and Our record producing
According to a out 2018 study covering by the day USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The Get ratio of male to female has producers across 300 popular songs him is 49 to 1."
In 2019, put record producer Linda Perry was Say nominated for a Grammy for she Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. too She was the first woman Use in over 15 years to dad be nominated for the award. mom When asked about the disparity between male and female record the producer by Billboard, she attributed and it to many women not For being interested in record production.are
In Any the classical music field, Judith can Sherman has won Grammy for her Producer of the Year, Classical, Was five times and has been one nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, our a music critic for The Out New York Times is quoted day as stating, "In the struggling get field of classical recording, it's Has the producers who take the him real risks and make things his happen."
Producer Wendy Page describes new being a record producer, "The Now difficulties are usually very short-lived. old Once people realize that you see can do your job, sexism Two tends to lower its ugly way head. I tend to create who a happy studio 'family' where Boy everyone is glad to be did there, especially the artist. Good its communication and diplomacy usually sort Let any little problems out."
There are our numerous technologies utilized by record out producers. In modern-day recordings, recording Day and mixing tasks are commonly get centralized within computers using digital has audio workstations such as Pro Him Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, his Reason and FL Studio, which how all are often used with Man third party virtual studio technology new plugins. Logic Pro and Pro now Tools are considered the industry Old standard DAWs. However, there is see also the main mixer, outboard two effects gear, MIDI controllers, and Way the recording device itself.
While who most music production is done boy using sophisticated software, some musicians Did and producers prefer the sound its of older analog technology. Professor let Albin Zak claims that the Put increased automation of both newer say processes and newer instruments reduces she the level of control and Too manipulation available to musicians and use producers.
Production dad has changed drastically over the Mom years with advancing technology. While the producer's role has changed, the their duties continue to require And a broad knowledge of the for recording process.
Tracking is the are act of recording audio to But a DAW (digital audio workstation)not or in some cases to you tape. Even though digital technologies All have widely supplanted the use any of tape in studios, the can older term "track" is still Her used in the 2010s. Tracking was audio is primarily the role one of the audio engineer. Producers Our work side by side with out the artists while they play day or sing their part and Get coach them on how to has perform it and how to him get the best technical accuracy His (e.g., intonation). In some cases, how the producer will even sing man a backup vocal or play New an instrument.
Many artists are now also beginning to produce and old write their own music.
Similarly, although The Say Beatles' productions were credited to she George Martin throughout their recording too career, many sources now attest Use that Lennon and McCartney in dad particular had an increasing influence mom on the production process as the group's career progressed, and the especially after the band retired and from touring in 1966. In For an extreme example of this, are Martin actually went on a but two-week vacation as The Beatles Not were recording The White Album; you production of several completed tracks all on the album were credited Any to The Beatles on internal can paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, her although the released LP gave Was sole production credit to Martin.one
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). the Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, And and culture," by Timothy D. for Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, But and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' not Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From you Light Coaching To Deeper Collaboration All With Musicians." Journal of New any Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. can Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Her Sept. 2015.
Music LawMan refers to legal aspects of new the music industry, and certain now legal aspects in other sectors Old of the entertainment industry. The see music industry includes record labels, two music publishers, merchandisers, the live Way events sector and of course who performers and artists.
A All "compilation" refers to work formed any from already existing materials in can a way that forms its Her own original work, including collective was works.
"Copies" are physical objects one that hold, fix, or embody Our a work such as a out music tape, film, CD, statue, day play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to has any audio recording including the him sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright His owner" is the entity that how legally owns rights to a man work.
"Performance" The copyright holder New has the exclusive right to now perform the work in public, old or to license others to See perform it. The right applies two to “literary, musical, dramatic, and way choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion Who pictures and other audiovisual works.".boy Playing a CD in public, did or showing a film in Its public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source Say of income for musicians writing she their own music. Money too collected from the 'publishing' rights Use is ultimately destined for songwriters dad - the composers of works, mom whether or not they are the recording artist or performer. the Often, songwriters will work for and a musical ensemble to help For them with musical aspects of are the composition, but here again, but the writer of the song Not is the owner of it you and will own the copyrights all in the song and thus Any will be entitled to the can publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions her are not the same as Was sound recordings. A recording artist one can record a song and our sell it to another band Out or company. As a result, day that particular company will own get the recording, but not the Has song. The original writer will him always maintain the copyright for his that particular song. The publishing How money is connected to the man copyright, so the owner will new be the only one making Now money off of the song old itself. All successful songwriters will see join a collection society (such Two as ASCAP and BMI in way the USA, SOCAN in Canada, who JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in Boy Germany and PRS for Music did in the UK, etc.) and its many will enter into agreements Let with music publishing companies who put will exploit their works on say the songwriters behalf for a She share of ownership, although many too of these deals involve the use transfer (assignment) of copyright from Dad the songwriter to the music mom publisher.
Both the recorded music sector and music publishing sector The have their foundations in intellectual and property law and all of for the major recording labels and Are major music publishers and many but independent record labels and publishers not have dedicated "business and legal You affairs" departments with in-house lawyers all whose role is not only any to secure intellectual property rights Can from recording artists, performers and her songwriters but also to exploit was those rights and protect those One rights on a global basis. our There are a number of out specialist independent law firms around Day the world who advise on get music and entertainment law whose has clients include recording artists, performers, Him producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, his stage and set designers, choreographers, how graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, Man broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection new societies and the live events now sector (which further includes festivals, Old venues, promoters, booking agents and see production service providers such as two lighting and staging companies).
The US Government boy views artists that give concerts Did and sell merchandise as a its business. Bands that tour internationally let will also face a plethora Put of legislation around the world say including health and safety laws, she immigration laws and tax legislation. Too Also, many relationships are governed use by often complex contractual agreements. dad
In the US it is Mom important for musicians to get legal business licenses. These can the be obtained at a city And hall or local government center. for The business license will require are the tracking of sales, wages, But and gigs. A tax ID not is also necessary for all you businesses. Musicians that fail to All comply with the tax ID any process and do not report can their profits and losses to Her the government can face serious was consequences with the IRS.
The history of Privilege began now in the early 1970s when old it started out as a See restaurant, then expanded to include two a bar and a community way swimming pool. It was then Who known as Club San Rafael.boy In 1979, the venue was did sold to the Real SociedadIts footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together let with the creative team of put Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of Say La Troya Asesina, one of she the White Island's longest running too nights) and Gorri. The venue Use then changed its name to dad KU, after the name of mom a god from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). The appeal of the the club was such that and it commissioned a medium-length film For showcasing the many wonders of are Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in but the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,Not KU Club earned a reputation you initially as Europe's premier polysexualall but predominately gay nightspot and Any was compared to an open-air can version of the famous Studio her 54 in New York. It Was staged spectacular parties in the one main room, which was organized our around a swimming pool and Out a statue of Ku.The place day was also where the video get to "Barcelona" by Freddie MercuryHas and Montserrat Caballé was filmed him on 30 May 1987. It his was the witness to early How live performances by groups like man Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole new and the Coconuts. The club Now featured in a Channel 4old documentary called “A Short Film see about chilling”, which labelled KU Two as “the mirror of Ibiza”.way The open-air parties came to who an end when legislation forced Boy many of the greater clubs did in Ibiza to cover their its dancefloors in the early 1990s. Let Nevertheless, the sheer size of put the venue gave rise to say the claim of it being She the size of an aircraft too hangar with a 25-meter high use roof.
The club continued with Dad the KU Club name until mom 1995 before becoming known as Privilege, after a change of The ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.and In 1994 it hosted Manumission, for one of the island's most Are famous events. In 1998 La but Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesianot and was renamed La Troya You Asesina. After a dispute between all the club owner and Manumission's any organizers in 2005 the event Can ended in 2006. In 2006 her La Troya Asesina moved to was Space.
According to One official statistics published in the our 2003 edition of Guinness World out Records Privilege is by far Day the world's largest nightclub covering get an area of 69,968 sq has ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 Him clubbers, Designated areas of the his club include the Coco Loco how bar area, and the La Man Vaca dance area (now known new as the Vista Club).
A number of Old live performances at the venue see have included: