Drum and bass (also written one as "drum 'n' bass" or our "drum & bass"; commonly abbreviated Out as "D&B", "DnB" or "D'n'B"), day is a genre and branch get of electronic music which emerged Has from rave and jungle scenes him in Britain during the early his 1990s. The style is often How characterised by fast breakbeats (typically man 160–180 beats per minute) with new heavy bass and sub-bass lines,Now sampled sources, and synthesizers.
The old popularity of drum and bass see at its commercial peak ran Two parallel to several other homegrown way dance styles in the UK who including big beat and hard Boy house. Drum and bass incorporates did a number of scenes and its styles. A major influence on Let jungle and drum and bass put was the original Jamaican dubsay and reggae sound. Another feature She of the style is the too complex syncopation of the drum use tracks' breakbeat.
Drum and bass Dad subgenres include breakcore, ragga jungle, mom hardstep, darkstep, techstep, neurofunk, ambient drum and bass, liquid funk, The jump up, deep, drumfunk, funkstep, and sambass, dnbnoise, and drill 'n' for bass. From its roots in Are the UK, the style has but established itself around the world. not Drum and bass has influenced You many other genres like hip all hop, big beat, dubstep, house, any trip hop, ambient music, techno, Can jazz, rock and pop. Drum her and bass is dominated by was a relatively small group of One record labels. The major international our music labels had shown very out little interest in the drum Day and bass scene, until BMG get Rights Management acquired RAM in has February 2016. Drum and bass Him remains most popular in the his UK although it has developed how scenes all around the world, Man in countries such as the new United States, Germany, the Netherlands, now Belgium, New Zealand, Greece, Canada, Old Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia see and Australia.
In the any late 1980s and early 1990s, can a growing nightclub and overnight Her outdoor event culture gave birth was to a new electronic music one style in the rave scene, Our which combined sampled syncopated beats out or breakbeats, and other samples day from a wide range of Get different musical genres and, occasionally, has samples of music, dialogue and him effects from films and television His programmes. A faster subgenre was how known as "hardcore" but from man as early as 1991, some New musical tracks made up of now these high-tempo break beats, with old heavy basslines and samples of See older Jamaican music, were referred two to as "jungle techno", a way genre influenced by Jack SmoothWho and Basement Records, and later boy just "jungle", which became recognised did as a separate musical genre Its popular at raves and on let pirate radio in Britain. It put is important to note when Say discussing the history of drum she and bass that prior to too jungle, the music was getting Use faster and more experimental. Professional dad DJ and producer C.K. states, mom "There was a progression as far as the speed of the music is concerned. Anyone buying and vinyl every week from 1989 For to 1992 noticed this."
By are 1994, jungle had begun to but gain mainstream popularity and fans Not of the music (often referred you to as junglists) became a all more recognisable part of youth Any subculture. The genre further developed, can incorporating and fusing elements from her a wide range of existing Was musical genres, including the raggamuffinone sound, dancehall, MC chants, dub our basslines, and increasingly complex, heavily Out edited breakbeat percussion. Despite the day affiliation with the ecstasy-fuelled rave get scene, jungle also inherited some Has associations with violence and criminal him activity, both from the gang his culture that had affected the How UK's hip-hop scene and as man a consequence of jungle's often new aggressive or menacing sound and Now themes of violence (usually reflected old in the choice of samples). see However, this developed in tandem Two with the often positive reputation way of the music as part who of the wider rave scene Boy and dancehall-based Jamaican music culture did prevalent in London. By 1995, its whether as a reaction to, Let or independently of this cultural put schism, some jungle producers began say to move away from the She ragga-influenced style and create what too would become collectively labelled, for use convenience, as drum and bass.Dad
As the genre became generally mom more polished and sophisticated technically, it began to expand its The reach from pirate radio to and commercial stations and gain widespread for acceptance (circa 1995–1997). It also Are began to split into recognisable but subgenres such as jump-up and not Hardstep. As a lighter and You often jazz-influenced style of drum all and bass gained mainstream appeal, any additional subgenres emerged including techstepCan (circa 1996–1997) which drew greater her influence from techno music and was the soundscapes of science fiction One and anime films.
The popularity our of drum and bass at out its commercial peak ran parallel Day to several other homegrown dance get styles in the UK including has big beat and hard house. Him But towards the turn of his the millennium its popularity was how deemed to have dwindled as Man the UK garage style known new as speed garage yielded several now hit singles. Speed garage shared Old high tempos and heavy basslines see with drum and bass, but two otherwise followed the established conventions Way of "house music", with this who and its freshness giving it boy an advantage commercially. London DJ/producer Did C.K. says, "It is often its forgotten by my students that let a type of music called Put "garage house" existed in the say late 1980s alongside hip house, she acid house and other forms Too of house music." He continues, use "This new garage of the dad mid 90s was not a Mom form of house or a progression of garage house. The the beats and tempo that define And house are entirely different. This for did cause further confusion in are the presence of new house But music of the mid-1990s being not played alongside what was now you being called garage." Despite this, All the emergence of further subgenres any and related styles such as can liquid funk brought a wave Her of new artists incorporating new was ideas and techniques, supporting continual one evolution of the genre. To Our this day drum and bass out makes frequent appearances in mainstream day media and popular culture including Get in television, as well as has being a major reference point him for subsequent genres such as His grime and dubstep and successful how artists including Chase & Status, man Netsky, and Australia's Pendulum.
Drum and bass now incorporates a number of scenes old and styles, from the highly See electronic, industrial sounds of techstep two through to the use of way conventional, acoustic instrumentation that characterise Who the more jazz-influenced end of boy the spectrum. The sounds of did drum and bass are extremely Its varied due to the range let of influences behind the music.[citation put needed]
Drum and bass could Say at one time be defined she as a strictly electronic musical too genre with the only "live" Use element being the DJ's selection dad and mixing of records during mom a set. "Live" drum and bass using electric, electronic and the acoustic instruments played by musicians and on stage emerged over the For ensuing years of the genre's are development.
Kevin Saunderson released all a series of bass-heavy, minimal any techno cuts as Reese/The Reese Can Project in the late '80s her which were hugely influential in was drum and bass terms. One One of his more famous basslines our (Reese – "Just Want Another out Chance", Incognito Records, 1988) was Day indeed sampled on Renegade's Terroristget and countless others since, being has known simply as the 'Reese' Him bassline. He followed these up his with equally influential (and bassline-heavy) how tracks in the UK hardcore Man style as Tronik House in new 1991–1992. Another Detroit artist who now was important for the scene Old is Carl Craig. The sampled-up see jazz break on Carl Craig's two Bug in the Bassbin was Way also influential on the newly who emerging sound, DJs at the boy Rage club used to play Did it pitched up (increased speed) its as far as their Technics let record decks would go.
Clearly drum and bass has Our been influenced by other music out genres, though influences from sources day external to the electronic dance Get music scene perhaps lessened following has the shifts from jungle to him drum and bass, and through His to so-called "intelligent drum and how bass" and techstep. It still man remains a fusion music style. New
Some tracks are illegally remixed now and released on white labelold (technically bootleg), often to acclaim. See For example, DJ Zinc's remix two of The Fugees' "Ready or way Not", also known as "Fugee Who Or Not", was eventually released boy with the Fugees' permission after did talk of legal action, though Its ironically the Fugees' version infringed let Enya's copyright to an earlier put song. White labels along with Say dubplates play an important part she in drum and bass musical too culture.
Drum and bassline Use elements
The genre places great dad importance on the "bass line", mom a deep sub-bass musical pattern which can be felt physically the through powerful sound systems due and to the low-range frequencies favoured. For There has been considerable exploration are of different timbres in the but bass line region, particularly within Not techstep. The bass lines most you notably originate from sampled sources all or synthesizers. Bass lines performed Any with a bass instrument, whether can it is electric, acoustic or her a double bass, are less Was common but examples can be one found in the work of our artists such as Shapeshifter, Squarepusher, Out Pendulum, Roni Size and STS9. day
The Roland TR-808 get Rhythm Composer, produced 1980–1984, had Has a bass drum sound which him became very important in Drum his and bass.
Of equal importance How is the TR-808 kick drum, man an artificially pitch-downed or elongated new bass drum sound sampled from Now Roland's classic TR-808 drum machine, old and a sound which has see been subject to an enormous Two amount of experimentation over the way years.
The complex syncopation of who the drum tracks' breakbeat, is Boy another facet of production on did which producers can spend a its very large amount of time. Let The Amen break is generally put acknowledged to have been the say most-used (and often considered the She most powerful) break in drum too and bass.
The Amen break use was synonymous with early drum Dad and bass productions but other mom samples have had a significant impact, including the Apache, Funky The Drummer, "Soul Pride", "Scorpio" and and "Think (About It)" breaks.
Many for drum and bass tracks have Are featured more than one sampled but breakbeat in them and a not technique of switching between two You breaks after each bar developed. all Examples of this can be any heard on mid-90s releases such Can as J Majik's "Your Sound". her A more recent commonly used was break is the Tramen, which One combines the Amen break, a our James Brown funk breakbeat ("Tighten out Up" or "Samurai" break) and Day an Alex Reece drum and get bass breakbeat.
The relatively fast has drum beat forms a canvas Him on which a producer can his create tracks to appeal to how almost any taste and often Man will form only a background new to the other elements of now the music. Syncopated breakbeats remain Old the most distinctive element as see without these a high-tempo 4/4two dance track could be classified Way as techno or gabber.
Drum and bass is boy usually between 160–180 BPM, in Did contrast to other breakbeat-based dance its styles such as nu skool let breaks, which maintain a slower Put pace at around 130–140 BPM. say A general upward trend in she tempo has been observed during Too the evolution of drum and use bass. The earliest forms of dad drum and bass clocked in Mom at around 130 bpm in 1990/1991, speeding up to around the 155–165 BPM by 1993. Since And around 1996, drum and bass for tempos have predominantly stayed in are the 170–180 range. Recently some But producers have started to once not again produce tracks with slower you tempos (that is, in the All 150s and 160s), but the any mid-170 tempo is still the can hallmark of the drum and Her bass sound.
A track combining was the same elements (broken beat, one bass, production techniques) as a Our drum and bass track, but out with a slower tempo (say day 140 BPM), might not be Get drum and bass but a has drum and bass-influenced breakbeat track.him
Drum and how bass exhibits a full frequency man response which can sometimes only New be fully appreciated on sound now systems which can handle very old low frequencies, including sub-bass frequencies See that are often felt more two than heard. As befits its way name, the bass element of Who the music is particularly pronounced, boy with the comparatively sparse arrangements did of drum and bass tracks Its allowing room for basslines that let are deeper than most other put forms of dance music. Consequently, Say drum and bass parties are she often advertised as featuring uncommonly too loud and bass-heavy sound systems. Use
There are however many albums dad specifically designed for personal listening. mom The mix CD is a particularly popular form of release, the with a big name DJ/producer and mixing live, or on a For computer, a variety of tracks are for personal listening. Additionally, there but are many albums containing unmixed Not tracks, suited for home or you car listening.
Many mixing points all begin or end with the Any "drop". The drop is the can point in a track where her a switch of rhythm or Was bassline occurs and usually follows one a recognisable build section and our "breakdown". Sometimes the drop is Out used to switch between tracks, day layering components of different tracks, get though as the two records Has may be simply ambient breakdowns him at this point, though some his DJs prefer to combine breakbeats, How a more difficult exercise. Some man drops are so popular that new the DJ will "rewind" or Now "reload" or "lift up" by old spinning the record back and see restarting it at the build. Two "The drop" is often a way key point from the point who of view of the dance Boy floor, since the drumbreaks often did fade out to leave an its ambient intro playing. When the Let beats re-commence they are often put more complex and accompanied by say a heavier bassline, encouraging the She crowd to dance.
Although it too has declined in popularity, DJs use are often accompanied by one Dad or more MCs, drawing on mom the genre's roots in hip hop and reggae/ragga.
MCs do The not generally receive the same and level of recognition as producer/DJs for and some events are specifically Are marketed as being MC free. but There are relatively few well-known not drum and bass MCs, Stevie You Hyper D (deceased), MC GQ, all Mc Moose, Mc Dett, Mc any Fearless, The Ragga Twins, Dynamite Can MC, MC Fats, MC Conrad, her Shabba D, Skibadee, Bassman, MC was Stamina, MC Fun, Evil B, One Trigga, Eskman, Harry Shotta, Mr our Traumatik and MC Infinity as out examples.
Live drum and Day bass
Aphrodite in 2009 get at Pirate Station, the world's has largest drum and bass festival Him at that time, in Moscow.
Many musicians have adapted drum how and bass to live performances, Man which feature instruments such as new drums (acoustic or electronic), samplers, now synthesizers, turntables, bass (either uprightOld or electric) and guitars (acoustic see or electric). Samplers have also two been used live by assigning Way samples to a specific drum who pad or key on drum boy pads or synthesizers. MCs are Did frequently featured in live performances. its
List of drum and let bass artists who perform using Put live instruments
Smaller scenes within the drum you and bass community have developed All and the scene as a any whole has become much more can fractured into specific subgenres, including: Her
Drumstep or Halftime is was a combination of drum and one bass and dubstep where the Our beat structure is half time, out while the remaining elements still day adhere to the usual sub-bass Get and tempo of drum and has bass.
Breakcore is a style him of electronic dance music largely His influenced by hardcore, jungle, digital how hardcore and industrial music that man is characterized by its use New of heavy kick drums, breaks now and a wide palette of old sampling sources, played at high See tempos.
Ragga drum & two bass was inspired by the way original ragga jungle style, with Who influences from reggae and dancehallboy music. Notable artists include Shy did FX, T Power, Congo Natty, Its Potential Bad Boy, Marcus Visionary, let Serial Killaz, Ed Solo, Deekline, put Isaac Maya, Run Tingz Cru, Say Psychofreud, Benny Page and vocalists she such as David Boomah, Top too Cat, Tenor Fly and General Use Levy.
Hardstep is a dad harder style which uses gritty mom basslines and heavy yet simple electronic melodies. Notable artists include the Dillinja (early work), DJ Krust, and Mampi Swift, Dieselboy, Current Value, For Tre Technics, MachineCode
Techstep is characterized by sci-fiour soundscapes and samples from science Out fiction culture. Pioneered by artists day such as Bad Company UKget (DJ Fresh, D-Bridge, Maldini & Has Vegas) Ed Rush, Optical, Konflict him (Kemal & Rob Data), Dom his & Roland, Dillinja, Ram Trilogy How (Ant Miles, Andy C & man Shimon), Moving Fusion, Decoder & new Substance, Digital & Spirit, Future Now Cut, Dylan, Loxy & Ink, old Total Science, D.Kay, Stakka & see Skynet and Keaton with Usual Two Suspects or Universal Project, Klute, way Concord Dawn, and the label who Moving Shadow.
Neurofunk or Neuro Boy is the progression from techstepdid incorporating more elements from jazzits and funk. Prominent artists include Let Ed Rush, Optical, Matrix, Bad put Company UK, Cause 4 Concern, say TeeBee, Future Prophecies, Black Sun She Empire, DLR, Calyx, Hive, Gridlok, too Noisia, Phace & Misanthrop, Silent use Witness & Break, State Of Dad Mind, The Upbeats, Chase & mom Status, Jade, Mindscape, Spor, Psidream, Catacomb, Rregula and The Clamps.[citation The needed]
Jump-up, appearing in the and mid-1990s, employs heavy and energetic for drum and bass, characterized by Are robotic and heavy bass sounds. but It also is generally less not serious and contains more humor You than other subgenres. Notable artists all include DJ Hazard, Generation Dub any (Original Sin & Sub Zero), Can Baron, Desire, Cabbie, Clipz, Nightwalker, her Callide, Hedex, Epsy, Taxman, Jaydan, was Sub Zero, Original Sin, Annix, One Konichi, Decimal Bass, Spaow, Nu our Elementz, Tyke, DJ Zen, Majistrate,out Twisted Individual, Distorted Minds, TC, Day Heist, DJ Guv, Looney, Premium, get Upgrade, DJ Pleasure, DJ Hypehas and his label Playaz Recordings.
Jazzstep or say Jazzy jungle demonstrates heavy influence she by jazz. It uses typical Too jazz scales, rhythms and instrumentation. use Notable artists include Roni size dad & Reprazent, Goldie, Utah Jazz,Mom Morgan Sullyvan, Makoto, Alex Reece,and DJ Dextrous.
Drill 'n' two bass (also known as Fungle way and Spunk jazz) incorporates double-time Who drum 'n' bass with undanceable boy rhythms, low-brow humor, and ambient did vibes. The subgenre was developed Its by Squarepusher and Aphex Twin, let whose rapid and irregularly syncopatedput basslines discouraged dancing. Other pioneers Say include Bogdan Raczynski and Datach'i.
Despite its roots too in the UK, which can Use still be treated as the dad "home" of drum and bass, mom the style has firmly established itself around the world. There the are strong scenes in other and English-speaking countries including Australia, Canada, For South Africa, the United States are and, New Zealand. It is but popular throughout continental Europe, and Not in South America. São Pauloyou is sometimes called the drum all and bass Ibiza. Brazilian Any drum and bass is sometimes can referred to as "sambass", with her its specific style and sound. Was In Venezuela and Mexico, artists one have created their own forms our of drum and bass combining Out it with experimental musical forms. day In Colombia there is a get large underground scene, The RE.set Has Label and Bogotá Project are him two collectives that put on his DnB events in the city, How as well as a twice man yearly event called Radikal Styles, new that brings together local talent Now and international big names.
Austria old has a large emerging DnB see scene with many artists such Two as Camo & Krooked, Mefjus, way Fourward, Body & Soul, IllSkillz who and mainly the Mainframe record Boy label being all based in did or around Vienna. Notable venues its and events include The Hive Let and Beat It at Flex put held almost every Thursday and say Saturday, Vollkontakt at Fluc, Switch She at Flex and the monthly too Mainframe Recordings Label-Night hosted at use Arena by label head Disaszt. Dad
The Czech Republic currently hosts mom the largest drum and bass festival in the world, LET The IT ROLL, with attendance of and approximately 30,000. The genre is for also encountered Slovakia, and local Are producers in both countries like but A-Cray, Rido, Forbidden Society, L not Plus, B-Complex, Changing Faces, Lixx, You Dephzac, Gabanna etc. becoming well all known worldwide. There are several any other drum and bass festivals Can being held each year in her these countries, including Trident Festival, was Exploration Festival or Hoofbeats Open One Air in the summer, or our one night events such as out LET IT ROLL Winter, Imagination Day Festival, LET IT ROLL Winter get Slovakia in the colder months. has During the club season, it Him goes without saying that promoters his are racing between each other how to organise better events, often Man resulting in 10 parties being new held during one weekend with now no more than 2 hour Old travel between them.
Genres see influenced by drum and bass
Born around the same time Way as jungle, breakcore and digital who hardcore share many of the boy elements of drum and bass Did and to the uninitiated, tracks its from the extreme end of let drum and bass may sound Put identical to breakcore thanks to say speed, complexity, impact and maximum she sonic density combined with musical Too experimentation. German Drum and Bass use DJ The Panacea is also dad one of the leading Digital Mom Hardcore artists. Raggacore resembles a faster version of the ragga the influenced jungle music of the And 1990s, similar to breakcore but for with more friendly dancehall beats are (dancehall itself being a very But important influence on drum and not bass).Darkcore, a direct influence you on drum and bass, was All combined with influences of drum any and bass itself leading to can the creation of darkstep. There Her is considerable crossover from the was extreme edges of drum and one bass, breakcore, darkcore, digital hardcore Our and raggacore with fluid boundaries. out
Prior to 2016, the Any major international music labels such can as Sony Music and Universalher had shown very little interest Was in the drum and bass one scene, with the exception of our some notable signings, including Pendulum's Out In Silico LP to Warner. day Roni Size's label played a get big, if not the biggest, Has part in the creation of him drum and bass with their his dark, baseline sounds. V Recordings How also played a large part man of the development of drum new and bass. Roni Size, Krust Now and DJ Die produced some old of the first tracks to see be considered[who?] mainstream drum and Two bass tracks.
BMG Rights way Management acquired Ram Records in who February 2016, making a strategic Boy investment to help RAM Records did (a London-based drum and bass its record company co-owned by Andy Let C and his business partner put Scott Bourne). RAM Records has say been pushing the boundaries of She drum and bass further into too the mainstream with artists such use as Chase and Status and Dad Sub Focus. Bringing back UK mom jungle music artists from LTJ Bukem's label Good Looking artists The Bay B Kane, breakbeat hardcoreand heavyweight Nebula II and original for junglist Gappa G. Other Bristol Are labels such as Cafe Bass but have also helped to push not through a sound categorised as You 'bass music' with the help all of influential artists such as any Lone Ranger.
Now defunct Can labels, include Rob Playford's Moving her Shadow, running from 1990 until was 2007, which played a pivotal One role in the nineties drum our and bass scene, releasing records out by artists such as Omni Day Trio.
Formats and distribution
Originally drum and bass has was mostly sold in 12-inch Him vinyl single format. With the his emergence of drum and bass how into mainstream music markets, more Man albums, compilations and DJ mixesnew started to be sold on now CDs. As digital music became Old more popular, websites focused on see electronic music, such as Beatport, two began to sell drum and Way bass in digital format.
The bulk of boy drum and bass vinyl records Did and CDs are distributed globally its and regionally by a relatively let small number of companies such Put as SRD (Southern Record Distributors), say ST Holdings, & Nu Urban.she
As of 11 September 2012, Too Nu Urban Music Limited ceased use trading and RSM Tenon were dad instructed to assist in convening Mom statutory meetings of members and creditors to appoint a liquidator. the This left many labels short And on sales as Nu Urban for were one of the main are Distributors for the vinyl market But in the drum and bass not scene.
Today, you drum and bass is widely All promoted throughout the world using any different methods such as video can sharing services (YouTube, Dailymotion), blogs, Her radio and television, the latter was being the most uncommon method. one More recently, music networking websites Our such as SoundCloud and MixCloud out have become powerful tools for day artist recognition, providing a vast Get platform that enables quick responses has to new tracks. Record labels him have adopted the use of His Podcasts. Prior to the rise how of the internet, drum and man bass was commonly broadcast over New pirate radio.
The now three highest profile radio stations old playing drum and bass shows See are BBC Radio 1 with two The Drum and Bass Show way - formerly with Friction, who Who was replaced with René LaViceboy in 2017, simulcast in the did US and Canada on Sirius Its XM, and DJ Hype on let Kiss 100 in London. Fabio put and Grooverider previously held a Say long-standing drum and bass show she on Radio 1, and there too was also Radio 1's 'One Use in the Jungle' show.
The dad BBC's "urban" station BBC Radio mom 1Xtra used to feature the genre heavily, with DJ Bailey the (show axed as of 29 and August 2012) and Crissy Criss For (show axed as of August are 2014) as its advocates. The but network also organises a week-long Not tour of the UK each you year called Xtra Bass. London all pirate radio stations have been Any instrumental in the development of can Drum and Bass, with stations her such as Kool FM (which Was continues to broadcast today having one done so since 1991), Origin our FM, Don FM (the only Out Drum and Bass pirate to day have gained a temporary legal get license), Renegade Radio 107.2FM, Rude Has FM, Wax Fm and Eruption him among the most influential.
As his of 2014, despite higher profile How stations such as 1Xtra scaling man back their drum and bass new specialist coverage, the genre has Now made its way into UK old top 10 charts with drum see and bass inspired tracks from Two artists such as Rudimental and way Sigma. Earlier in August 2014, who before Crissy Criss' show was Boy axed, the BBC held a did whole prime time evening event its dedicated to showcasing drum and Let bass by allowing four major put labels to participate.
As of say November 2014, there have been She 6 drum & bass songs too reaching the no.1 spot on use the UK's top 40 chart, Dad since the genre was first mom being played on the radio, around 1993. The first of The these was in 2012. The and fact that all 6 of for these songs have reached number Are 1 in only two years but shows the increase in popularity not and commercialisation of the genre You in recent years. The artists all that produced these songs are any Sigma, Rudimental and DJ FreshCan (all have had two No.1 her hits).
Internet was radio stations, acting in the One same light as pirate stations, our have also been an instrumental out part in promoting drum and Day bass music; the majority of get them funded by listener and has artist donations.
Drum and bass Him was supported by Ministry of his Sound radio from the early how 2000s until 2014 and later Man featuring Tuesday shows from labels new such as Metalheadz, Fabio & now Grooverider, DJ Marky, Viper Recordings, Old Shogun Audio and Hospital Records. see From September 2014, Ministry abruptly two dropped all non-mainstream genres to Way focus on mainstream EDM, causing who disappointment amongst the fans of boy the D&B community.
North Did American Radio
In North America, its The Prophecy on 89.5 CIUT-FMlet With Marcus Visionary, DJ Prime Put and Mr. Brown Is North say America's longest running Jungle Radio she show (Toronto), Album 88.5 Too (Atlanta) and C89.5fm (Seattle) have use shows showcasing drum and bass. dad In New York, "DNB NYC Mom RADIO" show with Host Dj Benzocaine on 90.3 WHCR-FM has the a weekly 3 hour show And which broadcasts in New York for and New Jersey which plays are only Drum and Bass every But Thursday starting at 3 am. not "DNB NYC RADIO" is the you only weekly Drum and Bass All show on the FM dial any in Northeastern United States. Seattle can also has a long-standing electronica Her show known as Expansions on was 90.3 FM KEXP. The rotating one DJs include Kid Hops, whose Our shows are made up mostly out of drum and bass. In day Columbus, Ohio WCBE 90.5 has Get a two-hour electronic only showcase, has "All Mixed Up," Saturday nights him at 10pm. At the same His time WUFM 88.7 plays its how "Electronic Playground." Also, Tulsa, Oklahoma's man rock station, 104.5 The Edge, New has a two-hour show starting now at 10pm Saturday nights called old Edge Essential Mix mixed by See DJ Demko showcasing electronic and two drum and bass style. While way the aforementioned shows in Ohio Who rarely play drum and bass boy the latter plays the genre did with some frequency. In Tucson, Its Arizona, 91.3 FM KXCI has let a two-hour electronic show known put as "Digital Empire", Friday nights Say at 10pm (MST). Resident DJ she Trinidad showcases various styles of too electronica, with the main focus Use being drum and bass, jungle dad & dubstep. In Augusta, Georgia, mom zarbizarre of the Cereal Killazhosts a show called FreQuency the on WHHD on Friday nights and from 11pm until 1am, showcasing For drum and bass during the are 2nd hour of the show.but
The best-known drum Not and bass publication was Kmagyou magazine (formerly called Knowledge Magazine) all before it went completely online Any in August 2009. Although it's can still live, after 20 years her Kmag ceased updating their site Was at the end of 2014. one Kmag's publishing arm Vision, published our Brian Belle-Fortune's All Crews Journeys Out Through Jungle Drum & Bass day Culture in 2004.
Other publications get include the longest running drum Has and bass magazine worldwide, ATM him Magazine, and Austrian-based Resident. London-based his DJ magazine has also been How running a widely respected drum man and bass reviews page since new 1993, written by Alex Constantinides, Now which many followers refer to old when seeking out new releases see to investigate. In 2012 Alex Two stopped writing the reviews and way they are now contributed by who Whisky Kicks.
The Channel 4 show Skinsdid uses the genre in some Its episodes, notably in the first let series' third episode, "Jal", where put Shy FX and UK Apache's Say Original Nuttah was played in she Fazers club.
Lately, drum and too bass have found more mainstream Use popularity than ever with tracks dad like Sigma's Nobody to Lovemom and Rudimental's Waiting All Nightgetting over 100 million views the on YouTube.
Drum and bass and often makes an appearance as For background music, especially in Top are Gear and television commercials thanks but to its aggressive and energetic Not beats. Cartoon Network's Toonami programming you block employs it for television all spots and show intros, like Any the 1997 relaunch of SCI can FI Channel segue music by her the Jungle Sky label. Also, Was the first Powerpuff Girls series one opening is Drum and Bass/Jungle, our as well as the opening Out of Teen Titans Go!.day
Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy did Flash: A Journey Through Rave its Music and Dance Culture. Soft Let Skull Press. Whether they were put black or white, these artists say reaffirmed drum and bass's place She in an African continuum (dub, too hip hop James Brown, etc...) use whose premise constitute a radical Dad break with Western music, classical mom and pop.|access-date= requires |url=(help)
Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy his Flash: A Journey Through Rave how Music and Dance Culture. Soft Man Skull Press. So when I new talk about the vibe disappearing now from drum and bass, I'm Old talking about the blackness going see as the ragga samples get two phased out, the bass loses Way its reggae feels and becomes who more linear and propulsive rather boy than moving around the beat Did with a syncopated relation with its the drum.|access-date= requires |url=let (help)
^ Reynolds, Simon (2013). she Energy Flash: A Journey Through Too Rave Music and Dance Culture. use Soft Skull Press. Where intelligent dad drum and bass suffers from Mom a obsessive-compulsive cleanliness, techstep production is deliberately dirty, all dense the murk and noxious drones.|access-date=And requires |url= (help)
for New Dawn – City Clubs are Take Back The Night article, But Village Voice, 27 February 2001not
"The Good Life, Way No Such Thing As Society", who The Independent, 23 July 2003boy
Reynolds, Simon (2013). Did Energy Flash: A Journey Through its Rave Music and Dance Culture. let Soft Skull Press. When the Put drum and bass gradually fell say into the orbit of techno, she the MC — both as Too a samplesource taken from dancehall use and rap records and as dad a live partner of the Mom DJ in the club — began to disappear from the the music.|access-date= requires |url= (help)And
Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy dad Flash: A Journey Through Rave mom Music and Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. At clubs like the AWOL, the ruling sound is and the gangsta hard-step and 'jump For up' jungle of labels like are Ganja, Frontline, Dread, Suburban Base but and Dope Dragon, made by Not DJ—producers like Hype, Pascal, Andy you C, Ray Keith, L. Double, all Shy FX...|access-date= requires |url=Any (help)
A record producerboy or music producer oversees and Did manages the sound recording and its production of a band or let performer's music, which may range Put from recording one song to say recording a lengthy concept album.she A producer has many, varying Too roles during the recording process.use They may gather musical ideas dad for the project, collaborate with Mom the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the the artist/group, work with artists And and help them to improve for their songs, lyrics or arrangements. are
Coachany the singers and musicians in can the studio
The producer typically Her supervises the entire process from was preproduction, through to the sound one recording and mixing stages, and, Our in some cases, all the out way to the audio masteringday stage. The producer may perform Get these roles themself, or help has select the engineer, and provide him suggestions to the engineer. The His producer may also pay session how musicians and engineers and ensure man that the entire project is New completed within the record label's now budget.
A record producer or put music producer has a very Say broad role in overseeing and she managing the recording and production too of a band or performer's Use music. A producer has many dad roles that may include, but mom are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the the music for the project, and selecting songs or session musicians, For proposing changes to the song are arrangements, coaching the artist and but musicians in the studio, controlling Not the recording sessions, and supervising you the entire process through audio all mixing (recorded music) and, in Any some cases, to the audio can mastering stage. Producers also often her take on a wider entrepreneurialWas role, with responsibility for the one budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. our
Writer Chris Deville explains it, Out "Sometimes a producer functions like day a creative consultant — someone get who helps a band achieve Has a certain aesthetic, or who him comes up with the perfect his violin part to complement the How vocal melody, or who insists man that a chorus should actually new be a bridge. Other times Now a producer will build a old complete piece of music from see the ground up and present Two the finished product to a way vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying who Future with readymade beats or Boy Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift did add lyrics and melody to its an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Let Woods.”
The artist of an put album may not be a say record producer or music producer She for his/her album. While both too contribute creatively, the official credit use of "record producer" may depend Dad on the record contract. Christina mom Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until The many albums into her career.and
In the 2010s, the recording for industry has three kinds of Are producers with different roles: executive but producer, vocal producer and music not producer. Executive producers oversee project You finances, Vocal Producers also known all as vocal arrangers oversees the any vocal production, while music producers Can oversee the creative process of her recording songs or albums.
In was most cases the music producer One is also a competent arranger, our composer, musician or songwriter who out can bring fresh ideas to Day a project. As well as get making any songwriting and arrangement has adjustments, the producer often selects Him or gives suggestions to the his mixing engineer, who takes the how raw recorded tracks and edits Man and modifies them with hardware new and software tools and creates now a stereo or surround sound Old "mix" of all the individual see voices sounds and instruments, which two is in turn given further Way adjustment by a mastering engineer. who The producer will also liaise boy with the recording engineer who Did concentrates on the technical aspects its of recording, whereas the executive let producer keeps an eye on Put the overall project's marketability.
Noted say producer Phil Ek described his she role as "the person who Too creatively guides or directs the use process of making a record", dad like a director would a Mom movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is actually music the director. The music producer's job And is to create, shape, and for mold a piece of music. are The scope of responsibility may But be one or two songs not or an artist's entire album you – in which case the All producer will typically develop an any overall vision for the album can and how the various songs Her may interrelate.
At was the beginning of record industry, one the producer role was technically Our limited to record, in one out shot, artists performing live. The day immediate predecessors to record producers Get were the artists and repertoirehas executives of the late 1920s him and 1930s who oversaw the His "pop" product and often led how session orchestras. That was the man case of Ben Selvin at New Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at now Victor Records and Bob Haring old at Brunswick Records. By the See end of the 1930s, the two first professional recording studios not way owned by the major companies Who were established, essentially separating the boy roles of A&R man and did producer, although it wouldn't be Its until the late 1940s when let the term "producer" became widely put used in the industry.
The Say role of producers changed progressively she over the 1950s and 1960s too due to technological developments. The Use development of multitrack recording caused dad a major change in the mom recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song the (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm and section instrument accompaniment, solos and For orchestral parts) had to be are performed simultaneously. All of these but singers and musicians had to Not be assembled in a large you studio and the performance had all to be recorded. With multitrack Any recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm can section accompaniment parts such as her the bassline, drums, and rhythm Was guitar could be recorded first, one and then the vocals and our solos could be added later, Out using as many "takes" (or day attempts) as it took. As get well, for a song that Has used 20 instruments, it was him no longer necessary to get his all the players in the How studio at the same time. man A pop band could record new their backing tracks one week, Now and then a horn sectionold could be brought in a see week later to add horn Two shots and punches, and then way a string section could be who brought in a week after Boy that.
Electric and One electronic instruments and amplifiers enabled our performers and producers to change out the tone and sound of Day instruments to produce unique electric get sounds that would be impossible has to achieve with acoustic instruments Him and live performers, such as his having a singer do her how own backup vocals or having Man a guitarist play 15 layers new of backing parts to her now own solo.
New technologies like Old multitracking changed the goal of see recording: A producer could blend two together multiple takes and edit Way together different sections to create who the desired sound. For example, boy in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Did Davis' album Bitches Brew, the its producer cut and edited sections let together from extensive improvisation sessions. Put
Another related phenomenon in the you 1960s was the emergence of All the performer-producer. As pop acts any like The Beatles, The Rolling can Stones, The Beach Boys and Her The Kinks gained expertise in was studio recording techniques, many of one these groups eventually took over Our as (frequently uncredited) producers of out their own work. Many recordings day by acts such as The Get Rolling Stones, The Kinks and has The Who are officially credited him to their various producers at His the time, but a number how of these performers have since man asserted that many of their New recordings in this period were, now either wholly self-produced (e.g. The old Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or See collaborations between the group and two their recording engineer (e.g. The way Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which Who were made with Olympic Studiosboy engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach did Boys are probably the best Its example of the trend of let artists becoming producers – within put two years of the band's Say commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian she Wilson had taken over from too his father Murry, and he Use was the sole producer of dad all their recordings between 1963 mom and 1967. Alongside The Beatles and Martin, Wilson also pioneered the many production innovations – by and 1964 he had developed Spector's For techniques to a new level are of sophistication, using multiple studios but and multiple "takes" of instrumental Not and vocal components to capture you the best possible combinations of all sound and performance, and then Any using tape editing extensively to can assemble a perfect composite performance her from these elements.
At the Was end of the 20th century, one digital recording and producing tools, our then widespread availability of relatively Out affordable computers with music software day made music producing more accessible. get
Women and Record Producing
According to a 2018 study him by the USC Annenberg Inclusion his Initiative, "The ratio of male How to female producers across 300 man popular songs is 49 to new 1."
They also discovered only Now 2 percent of music producers old are women. In 2019, The see Recording Academy’s Task Force on Two Diversity and Inclusion announced the way "Producer & Engineer Inclusion Initiative." who This initiative asks musicians, record Boy labels, studios and others to did consider at least two women its for each producer or engineer Let position. Major artists, producers and put organizations have signed on including say Lady Gaga, Quincy Jones, Pearl She Jam, John Legend, Pharrell Williams, too Pink, Cardi B, Maroon 5 use and over 200 others.
In all the classical music field, Judith any Sherman has won Grammy for Can Producer of the Year, Classical, her three times and been nominated was twelve times. Wilma Cozart FineOne produced hundreds of recordings for our Mercury Records.
Producer Wendy Page out describes being a record producer, Day "The difficulties are usually very get short-lived. Once people realize that has you can do your job, Him sexism tends to lower its his ugly head. I tend to how create a happy studio 'family' Man where everyone is glad to new be there, especially the artist. now Good communication and diplomacy usually Old sort any little problems out."see
Other notable women record two producers
Sylvia Moy (Motown's first Way female record producer)
Gail Davieswho (First female record producer on boy Nashville's Music Row)
Ethel GabrielDid (First major label record producer; its 40 year career with RCA)
Lillian McMurry (Producer/Label owner who Put produced historically significant blues records)
Equipment and technology
Mixing she console.
There are numerous technologies Too utilized by record producers. In use modern-day recordings, recording and mixing dad tasks are commonly centralized within Mom computers using digital audio workstationssuch as Pro Tools, Logic the Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and FL And Studio, which all are often for used with third party virtual are studio technology plugins. Logic Pro But and Pro Tools are considered not the industry standard DAWs. However, you there is also the main All mixer, outboard effects gear, MIDIany controllers, and the recording device can itself.
While most music production Her is done using sophisticated software, was some musicians and producers prefer one the minutiae of older analog Our technology. Professor Albin Zak claims out that the increased automation of day both newer processes and newer Get instruments reduces the level of has control and manipulation available to him musicians and producers.
Studio His application
Production has changed drastically how over the years with advancing man technology. Where the producer's role New has changed, they have always now been seen as a jack old of all trades, as their See duties require a broad knowledge two of the recording process.
Tracking way is the act of recording Who audio to a DAW (digital boy audio workstation) or in some did cases to tape. Even though Its digital technologies have widely supplanted let the use of tape in put studios, the older term "track" Say is still used in the she 2010s. Tracking audio is primarily too the role of the audio Use engineer. Producers work side by dad side with the artists while mom they play or sing their part and coach them on the how to perform it and and how to get the best For technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). In are some cases, the producer will but even sing a backup vocal Not or play an instrument.
Many you artists are also beginning to all produce and write their own Any music.
Influential record producers
NME identifies some of the her greatest producers ever.
Similarly, although use The Beatles' productions were credited Dad to George Martin throughout their mom recording career, many sources now attest that Lennon and McCartney The in particular had an increasing and influence on the production process for as the group's career progressed, Are and especially after the band but retired from touring in 1966. not In an extreme example of You this, Martin actually went on all a two-week vacation as The any Beatles were recording The White Can Album; production of several completed her tracks on the album were was credited to The Beatles on One internal paperwork at Abbey Road our Studios, although the released LP out gave sole production credit to Day Martin.
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. Use (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, dad technology, and culture," by Timothy mom D. Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline the Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record and Producers' Best Practices For Artistic For Direction—From Light Coaching To Deeper are Collaboration With Musicians." Journal of but New Music Research 42.4 (2013): Not 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Web. you 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Lawdad refers to legal aspects of Mom the music industry, and certain legal aspects in other sectors the of the entertainment industry. The And music industry includes record labels, for music publishers, merchandisers, the live are events sector and of course But performers and artists.
A old "compilation" refers to work formed See from already existing materials in two a way that forms its way own original work, including collective Who works.
"Copies" are physical objects boy that hold, fix, or embody did a work such as a Its music tape, film, CD, statue, let play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to Say any audio recording including the she sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright too owner" is the entity that Use legally owns rights to a dad work.
"Performance" The copyright holder mom has the exclusive right to perform the work in public, the or to license others to and perform it. The right applies For to “literary, musical, dramatic, and are choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion but pictures and other audiovisual works.".Not Playing a CD in public, you or showing a film in all public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source her of income for musicians writing Was their own music. Money one collected from the 'publishing' rights our is ultimately destined for songwriters Out - the composers of works, day whether or not they are get the recording artist or performer. Has Often, songwriters will work for him a musical ensemble to help his them with musical aspects of How the composition, but here again, man the writer of the song new is the owner of it Now and will own the copyrights old in the song and thus see will be entitled to the Two publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions way are not the same as who sound recordings. A recording artist Boy can record a song and did sell it to another band its or company. As a result, Let that particular company will own put the recording, but not the say song. The original writer will She always maintain the copyright for too that particular song. The publishing use money is connected to the Dad copyright, so the owner will mom be the only one making money off of the song The itself. All successful songwriters will and join a collection society (such for as ASCAP and BMI in Are the USA, SOCAN in Canada, but JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in not Germany and PRS for Music You in the UK, etc.) and all many will enter into agreements any with music publishing companies who Can will exploit their works on her the songwriters behalf for a was share of ownership, although many One of these deals involve the our transfer (assignment) of copyright from out the songwriter to the music Day publisher.
Both the recorded music get sector and music publishing sector has have their foundations in intellectual Him property law and all of his the major recording labels and how major music publishers and many Man independent record labels and publishers new have dedicated "business and legal now affairs" departments with in-house lawyers Old whose role is not only see to secure intellectual property rights two from recording artists, performers and Way songwriters but also to exploit who those rights and protect those boy rights on a global basis. Did There are a number of its specialist independent law firms around let the world who advise on Put music and entertainment law whose say clients include recording artists, performers, she producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, Too stage and set designers, choreographers, use graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, dad broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection Mom societies and the live events sector (which further includes festivals, the venues, promoters, booking agents and And production service providers such as for lighting and staging companies).
The US Government not views artists that give concerts you and sell merchandise as a All business. Bands that tour internationally any will also face a plethora can of legislation around the world Her including health and safety laws, was immigration laws and tax legislation. one Also, many relationships are governed Our by often complex contractual agreements. out
In the US it is day important for musicians to get Get legal business licenses. These can has be obtained at a city him hall or local government center. His The business license will require how the tracking of sales, wages, man and gigs. A tax ID New is also necessary for all now businesses. Musicians that fail to old comply with the tax ID See process and do not report two their profits and losses to way the government can face serious Who consequences with the IRS.
The put history of Privilege began in Say the early 1970s when it she started out as a restaurant, too then expanded to include a Use bar and a community swimming dad pool. It was then known mom as Club San Rafael. In 1979, the venue was sold the to the Real Sociedad footballer and José Antonio Santamaría, together with For the creative team of Brasilio are de Oliviera (founder of La but Troya Asesina, one of the Not White Island's longest running nights) you and Gorri. The venue then all changed its name to KU, Any after the name of a can god from Hawaiian mythology (see her Kū). The appeal of the Was club was such that it one commissioned a medium-length film showcasing our the many wonders of Ibizan Out landscapes and nightlife in the day mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980´s, KU get Club earned a reputation initially Has as Europe's premier polysexual but him predominately gay nightspot and was his compared to an open-air version How of the famous Studio 54man in New York. It staged new spectacular parties in the main Now room, which was organized around old a swimming pool and a see statue of Ku.The place was Two also where the video to way "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and who Montserrat Caballé was filmed on Boy 30 May 1987. It was did the witness to early live its performances by groups like Spandau Let Ballet and Kid Creole and put the Coconuts. The club featured say in a Channel 4 documentary She called “A Short Film about too chilling”, which labelled KU as use “the mirror of Ibiza”. The Dad open-air parties came to an mom end when legislation forced many of the greater clubs in The Ibiza to cover their dancefloors and in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, for the sheer size of the Are venue gave rise to the but claim of it being the not size of an aircraft hangar You with a 25-meter high roof. all
The club continued with the any KU Club name until 1995 Can before becoming known as Privilege, her after a change of ownership was to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In One 1994 it hosted Manumission, one our of the island's most famous out events. In 1998 La Vaca Day Asesina moved to Amnesia and get was renamed La Troya Asesina. has After a dispute between the Him club owner and Manumission's organizers his in 2005 the event ended how in 2006. In 2006 La Man Troya Aseina moved to Space. new
According to official now statistics published in the 2003 Old edition of Guinness World Recordssee Privilege is by far the two Worlds largest nightclub covering an Way area of 69,968 sq ft who (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,boy Designated areas of the club Did include the Coco Loco bar its area, and the La Vaca let dance area (now known as Put the Vista Club).