In the late 1980s day and early 1990s, a growing Get nightclub and overnight outdoor event has culture gave birth to new him genres in the rave scene His including breakbeat hardcore, darkcore, and how hardcore jungle, which combined sampled man syncopated beats, or breakbeats, and New other samples from a wide now range of different musical genres old and, occasionally, samples of music, See dialogue and effects from films two and television programmes. From as way early as 1991, tracks were Who beginning to strip away some boy of the heavier sampling and did "hardcore noises" and create more Its bassline and breakbeat led tracks. let Some tracks increasingly took their put influence from reggae and this Say style would become known as she hardcore jungle (later to become too simply jungle), whilst darkcore (with Use producers such as Goldie, Doc dad Scott, Jack Smooth, Foul Play, mom 4hero, and 2 Bad Mice) were experimenting with sounds and the creating a blueprint for drum and and bass, especially noticeable by For late 1993.
By 1994, jungleare had begun to gain mainstream but popularity, and fans of the Not music (often referred to as you junglists) became a more recognisable all part of youth subculture. The Any genre further developed, incorporating and can fusing elements from a wide her range of existing musical genres, Was including the raggamuffin sound, dancehall, one MC chants, dub basslines, and our increasingly complex, heavily edited breakbeat Out percussion. Despite the affiliation with day the ecstasy-fuelled rave scene, jungle get also inherited associations with violence Has and criminal activity, both from him the gang culture that had his affected the UK's hip-hop scene How and as a consequence of man jungle's often aggressive or menacing new sound and themes of violence Now (usually reflected in the choice old of samples). However, this developed see in tandem with the often Two positive reputation of the music way as part of the wider who rave scene and dancehall-based Jamaican Boy music culture prevalent in London. did By 1995, whether as a its reaction to, or independently of Let this cultural schism, some jungle put producers began to move away say from the ragga-influenced style and She create what would become collectively too labelled, for convenience, as drum use and bass.
As the genre Dad became generally more polished and mom sophisticated technically, it began to expand its reach from pirate The radio to commercial stations and and gain widespread acceptance (circa 1995–1997). for It also began to split Are into recognisable subgenres such as but jump-up and Hardstep. As a not lighter and often jazz-influenced style You of drum and bass called all "intelligent drum and bass" gained any mainstream appeal, additional subgenres emerged Can including techstep (circa 1996–1997), which her drew greater influence from technowas music and the soundscapes of One science fiction and anime films. our
The popularity of drum and out bass at its commercial peak Day ran parallel to several other get genres native to the UK, has including big beat and hard Him house. Towards the turn of his the millennium, however, its popularity how was deemed to have dwindled, Man as the UK garage offshoot new known as speed garage yielded now several hit singles. Speed garage Old shared high tempos and heavy see basslines with drum and bass, two but otherwise followed the established Way conventions of "house music", with who this and its freshness giving boy it an advantage commercially. di Did Vogli says, "It is often its forgotten by my students that let a type of music called Put "garage house" existed in the say late 1980s alongside hip house, she acid house and other forms Too of house music." He continues, use "This new garage of the dad mid-90s was not a form Mom of house or a progression of garage house. The beats the and tempo that define house And are entirely different. This did for cause further confusion in the are presence of new house music But of the mid-1990s being played not alongside what was now being you called garage."
Despite this, the All emergence of further subgenres and any related styles such as liquid can funk brought a wave of Her new artists incorporating new ideas was and techniques, supporting continual evolution one of the genre. To this Our day, drum and bass makes out frequent appearances in mainstream media day and popular culture including in Get television, as well as being has a major reference point for him subsequent genres such as grimeHis and dubstep, and producing successful how artists including Chase & Status, man Netsky, Metrik, and Pendulum.
Drum and bass now incorporates a number of scenes old and styles, from the highly See electronic, industrial sounds of techstep two to the use of conventional, way acoustic instrumentation that characterize the Who more jazz-influenced end of the boy spectrum. The sounds of drum did and bass are extremely varied Its due to the range of let influences behind the music. Drum put and bass could at one Say time be defined as a she strictly electronic musical genre, with too the only "live" element being Use the DJ's selection and mixing dad of records during a set. mom "Live" drum and bass using electric, electronic and acoustic instruments the played by musicians on stage and emerged over the ensuing years For of the genre's development.
Kevin Saunderson released a all series of bass-heavy, minimal techno any cuts as Reese/The Reese Project Can in the late '80s, which her were hugely influential in drum was and bass. One of his One more famous basslines (Reese – our "Just Want Another Chance", Incognito out Records, 1988) was indeed sampled Day on Renegade's Terrorist and countless get others since, being known simply has as the 'Reese' bassline. He Him followed these up with equally his influential (and bassline-heavy) tracks in how the UK hardcore style as Man Tronik House in 1991–1992. Another new Detroit artist who was important now to the scene was Carl Old Craig. The sampled-up jazz break see on Craig's Bug in the two Bassbin was also influential on Way the newly emerging sound. DJs who at the Heaven nightclub on boy "Rage" nights used to play Did it as fast as their its Technics record decks would go, let pitching it up in the Put process.
Clearly, drum and Our bass has been influenced by out other music genres, though influences day from sources external to the Get electronic dance music scene perhaps has lessened following the shifts from him jungle to drum and bass, His and through to so-called "intelligent how drum and bass" and techstep.man It still remains a fusion New music style.
Some tracks are now illegally remixed and released on old white label (technically bootleg), often See to acclaim. For example, DJ two Zinc's remix of The Fugees' way "Ready or Not", also known Who as "Fugee Or Not", was boy eventually released with the Fugees' did permission after talk of legal Its action, though ironically, the Fugees' let version infringed Enya's copyright to put an earlier song. White labels, Say along with dubplates, played an she important part in drum and too bass musical culture.
Of equal Was importance is the TR-808 kick one drum, an artificially pitch-downed or our elongated bass drum sound sampled Out from Roland's classic TR-808 drum day machine, and a sound which get has been subject to an Has enormous amount of experimentation over him the years.
Many drum and bass tracks How have featured more than one man sampled breakbeat in them and new a technique of switching between Now two breaks after each bar old developed. Examples of this can see be heard on mid-90s releases Two such as J Majik's "Your way Sound". A more recent commonly who used break is the "Tramen", Boy which combines the Amen break, did a James Brown funk breakbeat its ("Tighten Up" or "Samurai" break) Let and an Alex Reece drum put and bass breakbeat.
The relatively say fast drum beat forms a She canvas on which a producer too can create tracks to appeal use to almost any taste and Dad often will form only a mom background to the other elements of the music. Syncopated breakbeats The remain the most distinctive element and as without these a high-tempo for 4/4 dance track could be Are classified as techno or gabber.but
The complex syncopation of the not drum tracks' breakbeat is another You facet of production on which all producers can spend a very any large amount of time. The Can Amen break is generally acknowledged her to have been the most-used was (and often considered the most One powerful) break in drum and our bass.
The out genre places great importance on Day the bassline, in this case get a deep sub-bass musical pattern has which can be felt physically Him through powerful sound systems due his to the low-range frequencies favoured. how There has been considerable exploration Man of different timbres in the new bass line region, particularly within now techstep. The bass lines most Old notably originate from sampled sources see or synthesizers. Bass lines performed two with a bass instrument, whether Way it is electric, acoustic or who a double bass, are less boy common, but examples can be Did found in the work of its artists such as Shapeshifter, Squarepusher, let Pendulum, Roni Size and STS9. Put
Atmospheric pads say and samples may be added she over the fundamental drum and Too bass to provide different feels. use These have included "light" elements dad such as ambient pads as Mom found in ambient electronica and samples of jazz and world the musics, or "dark" elements such And as dissonant pads and sci-fi for samples to induce anxiety in are the dancer.
Vocal and But Melody elements
Old-school DnB usually not included an MC providing vocals. you Some styles (such as jazz All influenced DnB) also include melodic any instruments soloing over the music. can
Drum and bass Her is usually between 160–180 BPM, was in contrast to other breakbeat-based one dance styles such as nu Our skool breaks, which maintain a out slower pace at around 130–140 day BPM. A general upward trend Get in tempo has been observed has during the evolution of drum him and bass. The earliest forms His of drum and bass clocked how in at around 130 bpm man in 1990/1991, speeding up to New around 155–165 BPM by 1993. now Since around 1996, drum and old bass tempos have predominantly stayed See in the 170–180 range. Recently, two some producers have started to way once again produce tracks with Who slower tempos (that is, in boy the 150-170 bpm range), but did the mid-170s tempo is still Its a hallmark of the drum let and bass sound.
A track put combining the same elements (broken Say beat, bass, production techniques) as she a drum and bass track, too but with a slower tempo Use (say 140 BPM), might not dad be drum and bass, but mom instead may qualify as a drum and bass-influenced breakbeat track.the
Many mixing points and begin or end with a For "drop". The drop is the are point in a track where but a switch of rhythm or Not bassline occurs and usually follows you a recognisable build section and all breakdown. Sometimes, the drop is Any used to switch between tracks, can layering components of different tracks, her as the two records may Was be simply ambient breakdowns at one this point. Some DJs prefer our to combine breakbeats, a more Out difficult exercise. Some drops are day so popular that the DJ get will "rewind" or "reload" or Has "lift up" the record by him spinning it back and restarting his it at the build. The How drop is often a key man point from the point of new view of the dance floor, Now since the drum breaks often old fade out to leave an see ambient intro playing. When the Two beats re-commence they are often way more complex and accompanied by who a heavier bassline, encouraging the Boy crowd to begin dancing.
Drum and Let bass exhibits a full frequency put response which can sometimes only say be fully appreciated on sound She systems which can handle very too low frequencies, including sub-bass frequencies use that are often felt more Dad than heard. As befits its mom name, the bass element of the music is particularly pronounced, The with the comparatively sparse arrangements and of drum and bass tracks for allowing room for basslines that Are are deeper than most other but forms of dance music. Consequently, not drum and bass parties are You often advertised as featuring uncommonly all loud and bass-heavy sound systems. any
There are however many albums Can specifically designed for personal listening. her The DJ mix is a was particularly popular form of release, One with a popular DJ or our producer mixing live, or on out a computer, a variety of Day tracks for personal listening. Additionally, get there are many albums containing has unmixed tracks, suited for home Him or car listening.
DJ his performance
Although this practice has how declined in popularity, DJs are Man often accompanied by one or new more MCs, drawing on the now genre's roots in hip hopOld and reggae/ragga.
MCs do not see generally receive the same level two of recognition as producer/DJs, and Way some events are specifically marketed who as being MC-free. There are boy relatively few well-known drum and Did bass MCs, including Stevie Hyper its D (deceased), MC GQ, MC let Moose, MC Dett, MC Fearless, Put the Ragga Twins, Dynamite MC, say MC Fats, Inja, MC Conrad, she Shabba D, Skibadee, Bassman, MC Too Stamina, MC Fun, Evil B, use Trigga, Eskman, Harry Shotta, Mr dad Traumatik, MC Armanni Reign, and Mom MC Infinity.
Live instrument performance
Aphrodite in 2009 the at Pirate Station, the world's And largest drum and bass festival for at that time, in Moscow.
Many musicians have adapted drum But and bass to live performances, not which feature instruments such as you drums (acoustic or electronic), samplers, All synthesizers, turntables, bass (either uprightany or electric) and guitars (acoustic can or electric). Samplers have also Her been used live by assigning was samples to a specific drum one pad or key on drum Our pads or synthesizers. MCs are out frequently featured in live performances. day
Drum and bass artists who Get perform using live instruments include: has
Smaller scenes within the drum let and bass community have developed put and the scene as a Say whole has become much more she fractured into specific subgenres, which too have been grouped into "light" Use (influenced by ambient, jazz, and dad world music) and "heavy" (influenced mom by industrial music, sci-fi, and anxiety) styles, including:
Mainline the drum and bass
Ragga drum and & bass was inspired by For the original ragga jungle style, are with influences from reggae and but dancehall music. Notable artists include Not Shy FX, T Power, Congo you Natty, Potential Bad Boy, Marcus all Visionary, Serial Killaz, Ed Solo, Any Deekline, Isaac Maya, Run Tingz can Cru, Psychofreud, Benny Page and her vocalists such as David Boomah, Was Top Cat, Tenor Fly and one General Levy.
Jump-up, appearing our in the mid-1990s, employs heavy Out and energetic drum and bass,day characterized by robotic and heavy get bass sounds. It also is Has generally less serious and contains him more humor than other subgenres. his Notable artists include DJ Hazard, How Generation Dub (Original Sin & man Sub Zero), Baron, Desire, Cabbie, new Macky Gee, Clipz, Nightwalker, Callide, Now Hedex, Epsy, Taxman, Jaydan, Sub old Zero, Original Sin, Annix, Konichi, see Decimal Bass, Spaow, Nu Elementz, Two Tyke, DJ Zen, Majistrate, Twisted way Individual, Distorted Minds, TC, Heist, who DJ Guv, Looney, Premium, Upgrade, Boy DJ Pleasure, DJ Hype and did his label Playaz Recordings.
"Clownstep" its is a derogatory term sometimes Let used to describe excessively silly put and/or cliched jump-up.
Drumstep or say halftime is a combination of She drum and bass and dubstep, too where the beat structure is use half time, while the remaining Dad elements still adhere to the mom usual sub-bass and tempo of drum and bass.
Drill 'n' The bass (also known as Fungle and and Spunk jazz) incorporates double-time for drum 'n' bass with undanceable Are rhythms, low-brow humor, and ambient but vibes. The subgenre was developed not by Squarepusher and Aphex Twin, You whose rapid and irregularly syncopatedall basslines discouraged dancing. Other pioneers any include Bogdan Raczynski and Datach'i.
Techstep is characterized by now sci-fisoundscapes and samples from old science fiction culture. Pioneered by See artists such as Bad Company two UK (DJ Fresh, D-Bridge, Maldini way & Vegas) Ed Rush, Optical, Who Konflict (Kemal & Rob Data), boy Dom & Roland, Dillinja, Ram did Trilogy (Ant Miles, Andy C Its & Shimon), Moving Fusion, Decoder let & Substance, Digital & Spirit, put Future Cut, Dylan, Loxy & Say Ink, Total Science, D.Kay, Stakka she & Skynet and Keaton with too Usual Suspects or Universal Project, Use Klute, Concord Dawn, and the dad label Moving Shadow.
Neurofunk or mom neuro is the progression from techstep incorporating more elements from the jazz and funk. Prominent artists and include Ed Rush, Optical, Matrix, For Bad Company UK, Cause 4 are Concern, TeeBee, Future Prophecies, Black but Sun Empire, DLR, Calyx, Hive, Not Gridlok, Noisia, Phace & Misanthrop, you Silent Witness & Break, State all Of Mind, The Upbeats, Chase Any & Status, Jade, Mindscape, Spor, can Psidream, Catacomb, Rregula and The her Clamps.
Breakcore is a Was style of electronic dance music one largely influenced by hardcore, jungle, our digital hardcore and industrial music Out that is characterized by its day use of heavy kick drums, get breaks and a wide palette Has of sampling sources, played at him high tempos.
Hardstep is a his harder style which uses gritty How basslines and heavy yet simple man electronic melodies. Notable artists include new Dillinja (early work), DJ Krust, Now Mampi Swift, Dieselboy, Current Value, old Tre Technics, MachineCode
Genres see influenced by drum and bass
Born around the same time way as jungle, breakcore and digital who hardcore share many of the Boy elements of drum and bass did and to the uninitiated, tracks its from the extreme end of Let drum and bass may sound put identical to breakcore thanks to say speed, complexity, impact and maximum She sonic density combined with musical too experimentation. German drum and bass use DJ The Panacea is also Dad one of the leading digital mom hardcore artists. Raggacore resembles a faster version of the ragga-influenced The jungle music of the 1990s, and similar to breakcore but with for more friendly dancehall beats (dancehall Are itself being a very important but influence on drum and bass).not Darkcore, a direct influence on You drum and bass, was combined all with influences of drum and any bass itself leading to the Can creation of darkstep. There is her considerable crossover from the extreme was edges of drum and bass, One breakcore, darkcore, digital hardcore and our raggacore with fluid boundaries.
Dubstepout originated from DnB slowed down Day to half speed and mixed get with dub reggae, as experimental has mixes on B-sides of garage Him records.
Intelligent dance music (IDM) his is a form of art how music based on DnB and Man other electronic dance musics, exploring new their boundaries using ideas from now science, technology, contemporary classical music Old and progressive rock, often creating see un-danceable, art gallery style music. two Pioneered by Aphex Twin, SquarepusherWay and other artists on Warp who Records.
Prior to now 2016, the major international music old labels such as Sony MusicSee and Universal had shown very two little interest in the drum way and bass scene, with the Who exception of some notable signings, boy including Pendulum's In Silico LP did to Warner. Roni Size's label Its played a big, if not let the biggest, part in the put creation of drum and bass Say with their dark, baseline sounds. she V Recordings also played a too large part of the development Use of drum and bass. Roni dad Size, Krust and DJ Die mom produced some of the first tracks to be considered[who?] mainstream the drum and bass tracks.and
Now defunct labels, include Rob his Playford's Moving Shadow, running from How 1990 until 2007, which played man a pivotal role in the new nineties drum and bass scene, Now releasing records by artists such old as Omni Trio.
Formats see and distribution
Originally drum Two and bass was mostly sold way in 12-inch vinyl single format. who With the emergence of drum Boy and bass into mainstream music did markets, more albums, compilations and its DJ mixes started to be Let sold on CDs. As digital put music became more popular, websites say focused on electronic music, such She as Beatport, began to sell too drum and bass in digital use format.
The Dad bulk of drum and bass mom vinyl records and CDs are distributed globally and regionally by The a relatively small number of and companies such as SRD (Southern for Record Distributors), ST Holdings, & Are Nu Urban Music Limited.
As but of 11 September 2012, Nu not Urban ceased trading and RSM You Tenon were instructed to assist all in convening statutory meetings of any members and creditors to appoint Can a liquidator. This left many her labels short on sales, as was Nu Urban were one of One the main distributors for the our vinyl market in the drum out and bass scene.
Regional Day scenes
Despite its roots get in the UK (with Fabrichas being the epicentre of DnB), Him still treated as the "home" his of drum and bass, the how style has firmly established itself Man around the world. There are new strong scenes in other English-speaking now countries including Australia, Canada, South Old Africa, the United States, and see New Zealand.
DnB is popular in continental Way Europe. The Czech Republic currently who hosts the largest drum and boy bass festival in the world, Did LET IT ROLL, with an its annual attendance of approximately 30,000. let The genre is also encountered Put in Slovakia, and local producers say in both countries such as she A-Cray, Rido, Forbidden Society, L Too Plus, B-Complex, Changing Faces, Lixx, use Dephzac, and Gabanna are becoming dad well known worldwide. There are Mom several other drum and bass festivals being held each year the in these countries, including Trident And Festival, Exploration Festival, or Hoofbeats for Open Air in the summer, are or one-night events such as But LET IT ROLL Winter, Imagination not Festival, and LET IT ROLL you Winter Slovakia in the colder All months. During club season, promoters any race between each other to can organize better events, often resulting Her in up to ten parties was being held during one weekend, one with no more than a Our two-hour travel between them.
Austria out has a large emerging DnB day scene with many artists such Get as Camo & Krooked, Mefjus, has Fourward, Body & Soul, Ill.Skillzhim and mainly the Mainframe record His label being all based in how or around Vienna. Notable venues man and events include "The Hive" New and "Beat It" held at now Flex almost every Thursday and old Saturday, "Vollkontakt" at Fluc, "Switch" See at Flex, and the monthly two Mainframe Recordings Label Night hosted way at Arena by label head Who Disaszt.
In Ireland, the biggest boy scene by far is in did Dublin, with a night every Its Sunday by the Initial Kru let mostly showcasing local DJ's but put occasionally bringing over international guests Say such as Spirit and Seba. she Record label Boey Audio also too run events showcasing local, national Use and international acts, as well dad as promoters such as Sól mom Fúd, Ragga Jungle Dublin and Springfield Crew Massive. There are the much smaller regional scenes in and areas such as Limerick, Cork For and Galway which usually have are monthly nights.
Brazilian drum and bass is Not sometimes referred to as "sambass", you with a specific samba-influenced style all and sound made popular by Any artists like DJ Marky and can XRS.
In Venezuela and Mexico, her artists have created their own Was forms of drum and bass, one combining it with experimental musical our forms.
In Colombia, there is Out a large underground scene. RE.set day and Bogotá Project are two get collectives that organize drum and Has bass events in the city, him as well as a bi-annual his event called Radikal Styles that How brings together local talent and man international big names.
Media new presence
Today, drum and bass Now is widely promoted using different old methods such as video sharing see services like YouTube and Dailymotion, Two blogs, radio, and television, the way latter being the most uncommon who method. More recently, music networking Boy websites such as SoundCloud and did Mixcloud have become powerful tools its for artist recognition, providing a Let vast platform that enables quick put responses to new tracks. Record say labels have adopted the use She of podcasts. Prior to the too rise of the internet, drum use and bass was commonly broadcast Dad over pirate radio.
The three highest-profile radio stations playing drum and bass shows The are BBC Radio 1 with and The Drum and Bass Show for - formerly with Friction, who Are was replaced with René LaVicebut in 2017, simulcast in the not US and Canada on Sirius You XM, and DJ Hype on all Kiss 100 in London. Fabioany and Grooverider previously held a Can long-standing drum and bass show her on Radio 1. Radio 1 was also had a 'One in One the Jungle' show.
The BBC's our "urban" station BBC Radio 1Xtraout used to feature the genre Day heavily, with DJ Bailey (show get axed as of 29 August has 2012) and Crissy Criss (show Him axed as of August 2014)his as its advocates. The network how also organizes a week-long tour Man of the UK each year new called Xtra Bass. London pirate now radio stations have been instrumental Old in the development of drum see and bass, with stations such two as Kool FM (which continues Way to broadcast today having done who so since 1991), Origin FM, boy Don FM (the only drum Did and bass pirate to have its gained a temporary legal license), let Renegade Radio 107.2FM, Rude FM, Put Wax FM and Eruption among say the most influential.
As of she 2014, despite higher profile stations Too such as 1Xtra scaling back use their drum and bass specialist dad coverage, the genre has made Mom its way into UK top 10 charts with drum and the bass inspired tracks from artists And such as Rudimental and Sigma. for Earlier in August 2014, before are Crissy Criss' show was axed, But the BBC held a whole not prime time evening event dedicated you to showcasing drum and bass All by allowing four major labels any to participate.
As of November can 2014, there have been 6 Her drum & bass songs reaching was the no.1 spot on the one UK's top 40 chart, since Our the genre was first being out played on the radio, around day 1993. The first of these Get was in 2012. The fact has that all 6 of these him songs have reached number 1 His in only two years shows how the increase in popularity and man commercialisation of the genre in New recent years. The artists that now produced these songs are Sigma, old Rudimental and DJ Fresh (all See have had two No.1 hits). two
Internet radio way stations, acting in the same Who light as pirate stations, have boy also been an instrumental part did in promoting drum and bass Its music; the majority of them let funded by listener and artist put donations.
Drum and bass was Say supported by Ministry of Soundshe radio from the early 2000s too until 2014 and later featuring Use Tuesday shows from labels such dad as Metalheadz, Fabio & Grooverider, mom DJ Marky, Viper Recordings, Shogun Audio and Hospital Records. From the September 2014, Ministry abruptly dropped and all non-mainstream genres to focus For on mainstream EDM, causing disappointment are amongst the fans of the but D&B community. The leading Drum Not & Bass radio Station is you now Denver's DnB Radio, established all in 2003 by M. Ramirez. Any
North American radio
In can Toronto, The Prophecy on 89.5 her CIUT-FM with Marcus Visionary, DJ Was Prime and Mr. Brown Is one North America's longest running Jungle our Radio show.
Album 88.5 Out (Atlanta) and C89.5fm (Seattle) have day shows showcasing drum and bass. get
In New York, "DNB NYC Has RADIO" show with Host Dj him Benzocaine on 90.3 WHCR-FM has his a weekly 3 hour show How which broadcasts in New York man and New Jersey which plays new only Drum and Bass every Now Thursday starting at 3 am. old "DNB NYC RADIO" is the see only weekly Drum and Bass Two show on the FM dial way in Northeastern United States.
Seattle who also has a long-standing electronica Boy show known as Expansions on did 90.3 FM KEXP. The rotating its DJs include Kid Hops, whose Let shows are made up mostly put of drum and bass. In say Columbus, Ohio WCBE 90.5 has She a two-hour electronic only showcase, too "All Mixed Up," Saturday nights use at 10 pm. At the Dad same time WUFM 88.7 plays mom its "Electronic Playground."
Also, Tulsa, Oklahoma's rock station, 104.5 The The Edge, has a two-hour show and starting at 10 pm Saturday for nights called Edge Essential Mix Are mixed by DJ Demko showcasing but electronic and drum and bass not style. While the aforementioned shows You in Ohio rarely play drum all and bass, the latter plays any the genre with some frequency. Can
In Tucson, Arizona, 91.3 FM her KXCI has a two-hour electronic was show known as "Digital Empire", One Friday nights at 10 pm our (MST). Resident DJ Trinidad showcases out various styles of electronica, with Day the main focus being drum get and bass, jungle & dubstep. has
The best-known drum see and bass publication was Kmagtwo magazine (formerly called Knowledge Magazine) Way before it went completely online who in August 2009. Although it's boy still live, after 20 years Did Kmag ceased updating their site its at the end of 2014. let Kmag has announced a book Put to celebrate their 25th anniversary say to be published in December she 2019. Kmag's publishing arm, Vision, Too published Brian Belle-Fortune's All Crews use Journeys Through Jungle Drum & dad Bass Culture in 2004.
Other Mom publications include the longest running drum and bass magazine worldwide, the ATM Magazine, and Austrian-based Resident. And London-based DJ magazine has also for been running a widely respected are drum and bass reviews page But since 1994, written by Alex not Constantinides, which many followers refer you to when seeking out new All releases to investigate. In 2012 any Alex stopped writing the reviews, can and they are now contributed Her by Whisky Kicks.
The Channel 4 show SkinsOne uses the genre in some our episodes, notably in the first out series' third episode, "Jal", where Day Shy FX and UK Apache's get "Original Nuttah" was played in has Fazer's club.
Reynolds, Way Simon (2013). Energy Flash: A who Journey Through Rave Music and boy Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. Did Whether they were black or its white, these artists reaffirmed drum let and bass's place in an Put African continuum (dub, hip hop say James Brown, etc...) whose premise she constitute a radical break with Too Western music, classical and pop.use
Reynolds, Simon has (2013). Energy Flash: A Journey him Through Rave Music and Dance His Culture. Soft Skull Press. So how when I talk about the man vibe disappearing from drum and New bass, I'm talking about the now blackness going as the ragga old samples get phased out, the See bass loses its reggae feels two and becomes more linear and way propulsive rather than moving around Who the beat with a syncopated boy relation with the drum.
^ let Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Flash: put A Journey Through Rave Music Say and Dance Culture. Soft Skull she Press. Where intelligent drum and too bass suffers from an obsessive-compulsive Use cleanliness, techstep production is deliberately dad dirty, all dense murk and mom noxious drones.
New Dawn – City Clubs Take the Back The Night article, Village and Voice, 27 February 2001
Use "The Good Life, No Such dad Thing As Society", The Independent, mom 23 July 2003
Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Flash: the A Journey Through Rave Music and and Dance Culture. Soft Skull For Press. When the drum and are bass gradually fell into the but orbit of techno, the MC Not — both as a samplesource you taken from dancehall and rap all records and as a live Any partner of the DJ in can the club — began to her disappear from the music.
Reynolds, Simon did (2013). Energy Flash: A Journey its Through Rave Music and Dance Let Culture. Soft Skull Press. At put clubs like AWOL, the ruling say sound is the gangsta hard-step She and 'jump up' jungle of too labels like Ganja, Frontline, Dread, use Suburban Base and Dope Dragon, Dad made by DJ—producers like Hype, mom Pascal, Andy C, Ray Keith, L. Double, Shy FX...
A record producerdid or music producer oversees and its manages the sound recording and Let production of a band or put performer's music, which may range say from recording one song to She recording a lengthy concept album.too A producer has many, varying use roles during the recording process.Dad They may gather musical ideas mom for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover The tunes or original songs by and the artist/group, work with artists for and help them to improve Are their songs, lyrics or arrangements. but
Coach the Can singers and musicians in the her studio
The producer typically supervises was the entire process from preproduction, One through to the sound recordingour and mixing stages, and, in out some cases, all the way Day to the audio mastering stage. get The producer may perform these has roles themselves, or help select Him the engineer, and provide suggestions his to the engineer. The producer how may also pay session musicians Man and engineers and ensure that new the entire project is completed now within the record label's budget. Old
A record producer or music say producer has a very broad she role in overseeing and managing Too the recording and production of use a band or performer's music. dad A producer has many roles Mom that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas the for the project, composing the And music for the project, selecting for songs or session musicians, proposing are changes to the song arrangements, But coaching the artist and musicians not in the studio, controlling the you recording sessions, and supervising the All entire process through audio mixingany and, in some cases, to can the audio mastering stage. Producers Her also often take on a was wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility one for the budget, schedules, contracts, Our and negotiations.
The Get person who has overall creative has and technical control of the him entire recording project, and the His individual recording sessions that are how part of that project. He man or she is present in New the recording studio or at now the location recording and works old directly with the artist and See engineer. The producer makes creative two and aesthetic decisions that realize way both the artist's and label's Who goals in the creation of boy musical content. Other duties include, did but are not limited to; Its keeping budgets and schedules, adhering let to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, put studios and engineers, overseeing other Say staffing needs and editing (Classical she projects).
In the 2010s, too the producer role is sometimes Use divided among up to three dad different individuals: executive producer, vocal mom producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, the a vocal producer (also known and as a vocal arranger) oversees For the vocal production, and a are music producer directs and oversees but the creative process of the Not production and recording of a you song to its final mixing all stage.
The music producer often Any wears many hats as a can competent arranger, composer, programmer, musician her or songwriter who can bring Was fresh ideas to a project. one As well as making any our songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the Out producer often selects and/or collaborates day with the mixing engineer, who get takes the raw recorded tracks Has and edits and modifies them him with hardware and software tools his to create a stereo or How surround sound "mix" of all man the individual voices sounds and new instruments, which is in turn Now given further adjustment by a old mastering engineer for the various see distribution media. The producer also Two oversees the recording engineer who way concentrates on the technical aspects who of recording.
Noted producer Phil Boy Ek described his role as did "the person who creatively guides its or directs the process of Let making a record", like a put director would a movie. Indeed, say in Bollywood music, the designation She is actually music director. The too music producer's job is to use create, shape, and mold a Dad piece of music. The scope mom of responsibility may be one or two songs or an The artist's entire album – in and which case the producer will for typically develop an overall vision Are for the album and how but the various songs may interrelate. not
At the beginning You of the record industry, the all producer role was technically limited any to record, in one shot, Can artists performing live. The immediate her predecessors to record producers were was the artists and repertoire executives One of the late 1920s and our 1930s who oversaw the "pop" out product and often led session Day orchestras. That was the case get of Ben Selvin at Columbia has Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Him Records and Bob Haring at his Brunswick Records. By the end how of the 1930s, the first Man professional recording studios not owned new by the major companies were now established, essentially separating the roles Old of artists and repertoire (A&R) see man and producer, although it two wouldn't be until the late Way 1940s when the term "producer" who became widely used in the boy industry.
The role of producers Did changed progressively over the 1950s its and 1960s due to technology. let The development of multitrack recordingPut caused a major change in say the recording process. Before multitracking, she all the elements of a Too song (lead vocals, backup vocals, use rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos dad and orchestral parts) had to Mom be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had the to be assembled in a And large studio where the performance for was recorded. With multitrack recording, are the "bed tracks" (rhythm section But accompaniment parts such as the not bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar you could be recorded first, and All then the vocals and solos any could be added later, using can as many "takes" (or attempts) Her as necessary. It was no was longer necessary to get all one the players in the studio Our at the same time. A out pop band could record their day backing tracks one week, and Get then a horn section could has be brought in a week him later to add horn shots His and punches, and then a how string section could be brought man in a week after that. New
Multitrack recording had another profound now effect on music production: it old enabled producers and audio engineers See to create new sounds that two would be impossible in a way live performance style ordering. Examples Who include the psychedelic rock sound boy effects of the 1960s, e.g. did playing back the sound of Its recorded instruments backward changing the let tape to produce unique sound put effects. During the same period, Say the instruments of popular music she began to shift from the too acoustic instruments of traditional musicUse (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, dad strings, brass and wind instruments) mom to electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, electric bass and electric the guitar. These new instruments were and electric or electronic, and thus For they used instrument amplifiers and are speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to but create sound.
Electric and electronic Not instruments and amplifiers enabled performers you and producers to change the all tone and sound of instruments Any to produce unique electric sounds can that would be impossible to her achieve with acoustic instruments and Was live performers, such as having one a singer do her own our backup vocals or having a Out guitarist play 15 layers of day backing parts to her own get solo.
New technologies like multitracking Has changed the goal of recording: him A producer could blend together his multiple takes and edit together How different sections to create the man desired sound. For example, in new jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' Now album Bitches Brew, the producer old cut and edited sections together see from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like who Phil Spector and George MartinBoy were soon creating recordings that did were, in practical terms, almost its impossible to realize in live Let performance. Producers became creative figures put in the studio. Other examples say includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, She Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in mom the 1960s was the emergence of the performer-producer. As pop The acts like The Beatles, The and Rolling Stones, The Beach Boysfor and The Kinks gained expertise Are in studio recording techniques, many but of these groups eventually took not over as (frequently uncredited) producers You of their own work. Many all recordings by acts such as any The Rolling Stones, The Kinks Can and The Who are officially her credited to their various producers was at the time, but a One number of these performers have our since asserted that many of out their recordings in this period Day were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. get The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) has or collaborations between the group Him and their recording engineer (e.g. his The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, how which were made with Olympic Man Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The new Beach Boys are probably the now best example of the trend Old of artists becoming producers – see within two years of the two band's commercial breakthrough, group leader Way Brian Wilson had taken over who from his father Murry, and boy he was the sole producer Did of all their recordings between its 1963 and 1967. Alongside The let Beatles and Martin, Wilson also Put pioneered many production innovations – say by 1964 he had developed she Spector's techniques to a new Too level of sophistication, using multiple use studios and multiple "takes" of dad instrumental and vocal components to Mom capture the best possible combinations of sound and performance, and the then using tape editing extensively And to assemble a perfect composite for performance from these elements.
At are the end of the 20th But century, digital recording and producing not tools and widespread availability of you relatively affordable computers with music All software made music producing more any accessible.
American women and can record producing
According to a Her 2018 study covering by the was USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The one ratio of male to female Our producers across 300 popular songs out is 49 to 1."
In 2019, boy record producer Linda Perry was did nominated for a Grammy for Its Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. let She was the first woman put in over 15 years to Say be nominated for the award. she When asked about the disparity too between male and female record Use producer by Billboard, she attributed dad it to many women not mom being interested in record production.
In but the classical music field, Judith Not Sherman has won Grammy for you Producer of the Year, Classical, all five times and has been Any nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, can a music critic for The her New York Times is quoted Was as stating, "In the struggling one field of classical recording, it's our the producers who take the Out real risks and make things day happen."
Producer Wendy Page describes him being a record producer, "The his difficulties are usually very short-lived. How Once people realize that you man can do your job, sexism new tends to lower its ugly Now head. I tend to create old a happy studio 'family' where see everyone is glad to be Two there, especially the artist. Good way communication and diplomacy usually sort who any little problems out."
There are Can numerous technologies utilized by record her producers. In modern-day recordings, recording was and mixing tasks are commonly One centralized within computers using digital our audio workstations such as Pro out Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Day and FL Studio, which all get are often used with third has party virtual studio technology plugins.Him Logic Pro and Pro Tools his are considered the industry standard how DAWs. However, there is also Man the main mixer, outboard effects new gear, MIDI controllers, and the now recording device itself.
While most Old music production is done using see sophisticated software, some musicians and two producers prefer the sound of Way older analog technology. Professor Albin who Zak claims that the increased boy automation of both newer processes Did and newer instruments reduces the its level of control and manipulation let available to musicians and producers.Put
Production has say changed drastically over the years she with advancing technology. While the Too producer's role has changed, their use duties continue to require a dad broad knowledge of the recording Mom process.
Tracking is the act of recording audio to a the DAW (digital audio workstation) or And in some cases to tape. for Even though digital technologies have are widely supplanted the use of But tape in studios, the older not term "track" is still used you in the 2010s. Tracking audio All is primarily the role of any the audio engineer. Producers work can side by side with the Her artists while they play or was sing their part and coach one them on how to perform Our it and how to get out the best technical accuracy (e.g., day intonation). In some cases, the Get producer will even sing a has backup vocal or play an him instrument.
Many artists are also His beginning to produce and write how their own music.
Similarly, although The Beatles' did productions were credited to George Its Martin throughout their recording career, let many sources now attest that put Lennon and McCartney in particular Say had an increasing influence on she the production process as the too group's career progressed, and especially Use after the band retired from dad touring in 1966. In an mom extreme example of this, Martin actually went on a two-week the vacation as The Beatles were and recording The White Album; production For of several completed tracks on are the album were credited to but The Beatles on internal paperwork Not at Abbey Road Studios, although you the released LP gave sole all production credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Too Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, use and culture," by Timothy D. dad Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' the Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From And Light Coaching To Deeper Collaboration for With Musicians." Journal of New are Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. But Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 not Sept. 2015.
Music Are Law refers to legal aspects but of the music industry, and not certain legal aspects in other You sectors of the entertainment industry. all The music industry includes record any labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the Can live events sector and of her course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to work its formed from already existing materials let in a way that forms Put its own original work, including say collective works.
"Copies" are physical she objects that hold, fix, or Too embody a work such as use a music tape, film, CD, dad statue, play, or printed sheet Mom music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to any audio recording including the the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity for that legally owns rights to are a work.
"Performance" The copyright But holder has the exclusive right not to perform the work in you public, or to license others All to perform it. The right any applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, can and choreographic works, pantomimes, and Her motion pictures and other audiovisual was works.". Playing a CD in one public, or showing a film Our in public is "performing" the out work.
Publishing is the primary Get source of income for musicians has writing their own music.him Money collected from the 'publishing' His rights is ultimately destined for how songwriters - the composers of man works, whether or not they New are the recording artist or now performer. Often, songwriters will work old for a musical ensemble to See help them with musical aspects two of the composition, but here way again, the writer of the Who song is the owner of boy it and will own the did copyrights in the song and Its thus will be entitled to let the publishing revenues. Copyrights in put compositions are not the same Say as sound recordings. A recording she artist can record a song too and sell it to another Use band or company. As a dad result, that particular company will mom own the recording, but not the song. The original writer the will always maintain the copyright and for that particular song. The For publishing money is connected to are the copyright, so the owner but will be the only one Not making money off of the you song itself. All successful songwriters all will join a collection society Any (such as ASCAP and BMI can in the USA, SOCAN in her Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA Was in Germany and PRS for one Music in the UK, etc.) our and many will enter into Out agreements with music publishing companies day who will exploit their works get on the songwriters behalf for Has a share of ownership, although him many of these deals involve his the transfer (assignment) of copyright How from the songwriter to the man music publisher.
Both the recorded new music sector and music publishing Now sector have their foundations in old intellectual property law and all see of the major recording labels Two and major music publishers and way many independent record labels and who publishers have dedicated "business and Boy legal affairs" departments with in-house did lawyers whose role is not its only to secure intellectual property Let rights from recording artists, performers put and songwriters but also to say exploit those rights and protect She those rights on a global too basis. There are a number use of specialist independent law firms Dad around the world who advise mom on music and entertainment law whose clients include recording artists, The performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music and publishers, stage and set designers, for choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, Are merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, but collection societies and the live not events sector (which further includes You festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents all and production service providers such any as lighting and staging companies). Can
The US was Government views artists that give One concerts and sell merchandise as our a business. Bands that tour out internationally will also face a Day plethora of legislation around the get world including health and safety has laws, immigration laws and tax Him legislation. Also, many relationships are his governed by often complex contractual how agreements.
In the US it Man is important for musicians to new get legal business licenses. These now can be obtained at a Old city hall or local government see center. The business license will two require the tracking of sales, Way wages, and gigs. A tax who ID is also necessary for boy all businesses. Musicians that fail Did to comply with the tax its ID process and do not let report their profits and losses Put to the government can face say serious consequences with the IRS. she
The But history of Privilege began in not the early 1970s when it you started out as a restaurant, All then expanded to include a any bar and a community swimming can pool. It was then known Her as Club San Rafael. In was 1979, the venue was sold one to the Real Sociedad footballer Our José Antonio Santamaría, together with out the creative team of Brasilio day de Oliviera (founder of La Get Troya Asesina, one of the has White Island's longest running nights) him and Gorri. The venue then His changed its name to KU, how after the name of a man god from Hawaiian mythology (see New Kū). The appeal of the now club was such that it old commissioned a medium-length film showcasing See the many wonders of Ibizan two landscapes and nightlife in the way mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU Who Club earned a reputation initially boy as Europe's premier polysexual but did predominately gay nightspot and was Its compared to an open-air version let of the famous Studio 54put in New York. It staged Say spectacular parties in the main she room, which was organized around too a swimming pool and a Use statue of Ku.The place was dad also where the video to mom "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Caballé was filmed on the 30 May 1987. It was and the witness to early live For performances by groups like Spandau are Ballet and Kid Creole and but the Coconuts. The club featured Not in a Channel 4 documentary you called “A Short Film about all chilling”, which labelled KU as Any “the mirror of Ibiza”. The can open-air parties came to an her end when legislation forced many Was of the greater clubs in one Ibiza to cover their dancefloors our in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, Out the sheer size of the day venue gave rise to the get claim of it being the Has size of an aircraft hangar him with a 25-meter high roof. his
The club continued with the How KU Club name until 1995 man before becoming known as Privilege, new after a change of ownership Now to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In old 1994 it hosted Manumission, one see of the island's most famous Two events. In 1998 La Vaca way Asesina moved to Amnesia and who was renamed La Troya Asesina. Boy After a dispute between the did club owner and Manumission's organizers its in 2005 the event ended Let in 2006. In 2006 La put Troya Asesina moved to Space. say
According to official She statistics published in the 2003 too edition of Guinness World Recordsuse Privilege is by far the Dad Worlds largest nightclub covering an mom area of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,The Designated areas of the club and include the Coco Loco bar for area, and the La Vaca Are dance area (now known as but the Vista Club).
Live not performances
A number of live You performances at the venue have all included: