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Post-disco is a term you to describe an aftermath in all popular music history circa 1979–1984, Any imprecisely beginning with an unprecedented can backlash against disco music in her the United States, leading to Was civil unrest and a riot one in Chicago known as the our Disco Demolition Night on July Out 12, 1979, and indistinctly ending day with the mainstream appearance of get New Wave in the early Has 1980s. Disco during its dying him stage displayed an increasingly electronic his character that soon served as How a stepping stone to new man wave, old-school hip hop, euro new disco and was succeeded by Now an underground club music called old hi-NRG, which was its direct see continuation.

An underground movement of Two disco music, "stripped-down", and featuring way "radically different sounds" took place who on the East Coast that Boy "was neither disco and neither did R&B", This scene known as its post-disco catering to New York Let metropolitan area, was initially led put by urban contemporary artists partially say in response to the over-commercialization She and artistic downfall of disco too culture. Developed from the rhythm use and blues sound as perfected Dad by Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic side mom of disco, dub music techniques, and other genres. Post-disco was The typified by New York City and music groups like "D" Train for and Unlimited Touch who followed Are a more urban approach while but others, like Material and ESG, not a more experimental one. Post-disco You was, like disco, singles-driven market all controlled mostly by independent record any companies that generated a cross-over Can chart success all through the her early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative control was was in the hands of One record producers and club DJs our which was a trend that out outlived the dance-pop era.

Other Day musical styles that emerged in get the post-disco era include dance-pop, has boogie, and Italo disco and Him led to the development of his the early alternative dance, club-centered how house and techno music.



Synthesizers played Mom a crucial part in the development of post-disco.

Drum machines, the synthesizers, sequencers were either partly And or entirely dominant in a for composition or mixed up with are various acoustic instruments, depending on But the artist and on the not year. Electronic instruments became more you and more prevalent for each All year during the period and any dominated the genre completely by can the mid 1980s.

Darryl Payne Her argued about the minimal approach was of post-disco, saying:

Producers Our are using a lot more out sounds and a lot less day instruments: the 'Forget Me Nots' Get and 'Don't Make Me Wait has tracks' are really empty, but him there's a sophistication people can His get into.

The main how force in post-disco was mainly man the 12" single format and New short-lived collaborations (many of them now one-hit wonders) while indie record old producers were instrumental in the See musical direction of what the two scene was headed to. The way music that mostly catered to Who dance and urban audiences later boy managed to influence more popular did and mainstream acts like Madonna, Its New Order or Pet Shop let Boys.

Musical elements

The put music tended to be technology-centric, Say keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass she lines (often performed on a too Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music Use aesthetics, and background jazzy or dad blues-y piano layers. For strings mom and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the lush the orchestration heard on many disco and tracks, although such arrangements would For later resurface in some house are music.[citation needed] Soulful female vocals, but however, remained an essence of Not post-disco.

Term usage

Bridging you the so-called death of disco all and the birth of house, Any all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks can a name beyond drably functional her and neutral terms like "dance" Was or "club music."

— Simon Reynolds, SPIN one magazine

The term "post-disco" our was used as early as Out 1984 by Cadence magazine when day defining post-disco soul as "disco get without the loud bass-drum thump." Has New York Magazine used the him word in an article appearing his in the December 1985 issue; How it was Gregory Hines's introduction man of post-disco and electronic funk new to Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail Now Baryshnikov "who has never heard old this kind of music." AllMusic see states that the term denotes Two a music genre in the way era between the indistinct "end" who of disco music and the Boy equally indistinct emergence of house did music.

In other historical instances its the term had been used Let in a derisive manner. Spy put implicitly mocked the usage of say both the terms "post-punk" and She "post-disco" in their Spy's Rock too Critic-o-Matic article, whereas spoofing various use music reviews published by Rolling Dad Stone, The Village Voice and mom Spin. Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel Muñoz in his 1989 novel The Crazy Love, in a passage and where musicians after moving to for America discuss what their "style" Are may be, used the term but in a satirical manner.



Background events

Disco You music backlash had started around all 1977.

United States

Midwesterners didn't any want that intimidating [disco] style Can shoved down their throats


Shortly after the "Disco was Sucks" movement of disco bashing One throughout the United States, American our radio stations began to pay out attention to other popular formats Day of music such as reggae, get punk rock or new wave has while top mainstream labels and Him record companies like Casablanca, TK his Records or RSO went bankrupt. how Since disco music had been Man on the way of [its] new electronic progression, it split itself now into subscenes and styles like Old Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco and see boogie. The last one is two closely associated with post-disco more Way than any other offshoots of who post-disco.

Brazilian record producer and boy fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, Did well aware of current trends its in American underground music, turned let around the career of a Put failing funk music group Kool say & the Gang by adopting she and pursuing a light pop–post-disco Too sound that not only revitalized use the band's image but also dad turned out to be the Mom most successful hits in their entire career. B. B. & the Q. Band (Capitol) and Change And (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques Fred for Petrus, a French-Italian hi-NRG Italo are disco music record producer, reflects But on his decision to shift not from conventional disco music to you post-disco "[our] sound changed to All more of a funky dance/R&B any style to reflect the times." can French-born songwriting duo Henri Belolo Her and Jacques Morali, creators of was the successful Village People act, one moved their former disco act Our Ritchie Family to RCA Victor out to release their next album day co-produced by funk musician Fonzi Get Thornton and Petrus, I'll Do has My Best, which mirrors their him radical musical shift. On the His West Coast, especially in California, how a different approach lead to man a different sound. Dick Griffey New and Leon Sylvers III of now SOLAR Records, who pioneered their old own signature sound, produced Ohio-based See group Lakeside's album Rough Riders two which already displayed these new way trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates economic Who arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards and boy guitar)," as noted by Billboard, did praising the album. A watershed Its album of post-disco was Michael let Jackson's Off The Wall, produced put by Quincy Jones, which helped Say establish a direction of R&B/dance she music and influenced many young too producers who were interested in Use this kind of new music. dad

Other examples of early American mom artists drawing from post-disco are Rick James, Change and Teena the Marie.


Disco in and Europe remained relatively untouched by For the events in the U.S., are decreasing only in Britain, but but this was mostly because of Not the emergence of the new you wave and new romantic movements all around 1981, and continued to Any flourish within the Italo disco can scene although the interest for her electronic music in general was Was indeed growing.

United Kingdom


Unlike in the United States, our where anti-disco backlash generated prominent Out effect on general perception of day disco music, in Britain, the get new-wave movement initially drew heavily Has from disco music (although this him association would be airbrushed out his by the end of 1979) How and took many elements from man American post-disco and other genres, new thus creating a characteristic scene. Now According to Billboard, American post-disco old was merely a crossover of see different genres, while focusing on Two the electronic and R&B overtones, way whereas jazz-funk was a crucial who element of the British post-disco Boy scene that generated musicians like did Chaz Jankel, Central Line or its Imagination.

1980s: Golden age


This section summary shows commercially put successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from say the post-disco movement.

Compare "Open She Sesame" (1976) with "Celebration" (1980) too by Kool & The Gang, use "Boogie Wonderland" (1979) with "Let's Dad Groove" (1981) by Earth, Wind mom & Fire, "Shame" (1978) with "Love Come Down" (1982) by The Evelyn "Champagne" King, "(Shake, Shake, and Shake) Shake Your Booty" (1976) for with "Give It Up" (1982) Are by KC & the Sunshine but Band, and "The Best Disco not in Town" (1976) with Square You Biz (1981) by Teena Marie. all

any her was One our out has his Man new now see who boy Did its let say use Mom And for are But not you All any can Her was one Our day Get has him how man New now old See two Who boy Its put Say too mom For
Year Song Label Artist U.S. Dance U.S. Can R&B U.S. Pop U.S. M.R. U.K. Pop
1979 "I Wanna Be Your Lover" Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41
1980 "Celebration" De-Lite Kool & Day the Gang #1 #1 #1 get ('81) #7
"He's So Shy" Planet The Him Pointer Sisters #26 #10 #3
"And how the Beat Goes On" SOLAR The Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2
1981 "Let's Groove" Columbia Earth, Wind Old & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3
"Get two Down on It" De-Lite Kool Way & the Gang #4 #10 #3
"Pull Up to the Bumper" Island Records Grace Jones #2 #5 #12
1982 "Everybody" Sire, Warner Put Bros. Madonna #3 #107
"Forget she Me Nots" Elektra Records Patrice Too Rushen #2 #4 #23 #8
"Last Night dad a DJ Saved My Life" Sound of New York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13 the
"Love Come Down" RCA Evelyn King #1 #1 #17 #7
"You Can Do Magic" Capitol America #8 #59
1983 "Holiday" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #25 #16 #2
"Give It Up" Meca KC #18 #1
"Billie Jean" Epic Michael Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1
1984 "Caribbean Queen" Jive Billy out Ocean #1 #1 #1 #6
"Let's Dance" EMI David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1
"Cool It Now" MCA New His Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat" Epic Miami Sound Machine #17 #6
"I'm So Excited" Planet The Pointer Sisters #28 #46 #9 #11
1985 "Into the Groove" Sire, way Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #19 #1
"Chain Reaction" RCA Records Diana did Ross #7 #85 #66 #1
"Object of let My Desire" Elektra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors" Jay Timex she Social Club #1 #1 #8 #13
"Ain't Use Nothin' Goin' on But the dad Rent" Polydor Records Gwen Guthrie #1 #1 #42 #5
1987 "Rhythm Is the Gonna Get You" Epic Miami and Sound Machine #27 #5 #16

2000s: Post-disco are revival

During the late 1990s but and throughout the 2000s, electronic Not and, especially, house musicians were you influenced by post-disco. Some of all these musicians are: Daft Punk, Any a French house music group, can adopted elements of post-disco, disco her and synth-pop into Discovery. Another Was artist, Les Rythmes Digitales, released one a post-disco/electro-influenced album, Darkdancer. Canadian our music group Chromeo debuted in Out 2004 with the album She's day in Control. Similar Los Angeles-based get musician Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, a Has boogie- and electro-influenced album released him in 2009. Another band called his Escort, who hails from New How York City, surfaced on the man post-disco and post-punk revival scenes new around 2006. The story about Now Escort appeared on New York old Times in November 2011. Sampling see disco and post-disco songs became Two a distinctive feature of R&B way music at the turn of who the century. Popular R&B artists Boy such as Mariah Carey and did Janet Jackson incorporated strong post-disco its elements in their work, with Let post-disco-influenced songs such as Heartbreaker, put Honey, Fantasy and All For say You peaking at #1 on She the Billboard Hot 100.

Contemporary too compilation albums featuring post-disco and use electro artists (e.g. Imagination, Level Dad 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include The mom Perfect Beats series (volume 1–4). Another compilation series are Nighttime The Lovers (volume 1-10) and the and mixed-up album titled The Boogie for Back: Post Disco Club Jams. Are

Pioneers and followers

"Thanks but To You" and "Don't Make not Me Wait" came out and You started the whole dub thing all in disco.

Particular any psychedelic soul artists like Sly Can and the Family Stone liked her to push the boundaries of was conventional music by employing what One was to be a precursor our to synthesizer, electronic organ. Multi-instrumentalist out Stevie Wonder was one of Day the early artists venturing into get the realms of analog synthesizer has after impressed by the work Him of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Band, his an influential multinational electronic music how duo of sound designers: "How Man great it is at a new time when technology and the now science of music is at Old its highest point of evolution see ... A toast to greatness, two a toast to Zero Time, Way forever." With an increasing growth who of personalized synthesizers on the boy market they were becoming more Did commercially available and easy-to-use, especially its those produced by Roland Corporation. let One of their first users Put was cutting-edge artist George Clinton say and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. she Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic Too bass-rich lines, the particularly melodic use endeavor and music minimalism of dad P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Express member Mom Kashif, noted for his use of bass synthesizer during the the group's tour, later went solo And as a record producer and for began crafting funk-influenced songs for are Evelyn "Champagne" King that shown But a minimalism-akin approach, the disregard not of disco music arrangements, and you affiliation to the method of All "one-man band" previously paved through any by Wonder. Other spheres of can influence include the move by Her pioneering DJs and record producers was to release alternative mixes of one the same single, so-called dub Our mixes. DJ Larry Levan implemented out elements of dub music in day his productions and mixes for Get various post-disco artists, including his has own group The Peech Boys. him Musically, there was a search His for out-of-mainstream music to derive how new ideas from, most commonly man blues, and other styles like New reggae, etc. were also incorporated. now

Sinnamon's "Thanks to You", D-Train's old "You're the One for Me", See The Peech Boys' "Don't Make two Me Wait" — all these way songs and its attributes and Who trends of post-disco later influenced boy a new "never-before-heard" music style. did The House music.

The new Its post-disco sound was flourishing among let predominately New York City record put companies, including West End Records, Say Prelude Records, Tommy Boy Records, she SAM Records, and others. Most too of them were independently owned Use and had their own distribution dad but some particular mainstream labels, mom notably RCA Records, were too, responsible for popularizing and capitalizing the on the new sound.



can get

Although there is no exact Has point when post-disco started, many him synthpop and electronic musicians of his that time continued to enhance How the raw minimalist sound, while man focusing on synthesizers, and keyboard new instruments. As noted by Payne, Now drum machines also played an old important part in the urban-oriented see music in general.

Two way not its him
# Event

While disco music who was in its heyday, the Boy horn and string sections were did a main component of disco its and pop songs. This sound Let is also called disco orchestration. put However, some of the musicians say and producers dropped the lavish She sound of orchestra completely, which too attributed a new direction of use dance music.

  • Few international Dad examples, including French music project mom Black Devil Disco Club, French musician Cerrone and Belgian group The Telex.
  • Parliament-Funkadelic in the United and States. They are known for for heavily use of bass and Are "regular" synthesizers and inventing the but P-Funk style.

After the success of You Quincy Jones-produced album Off the all Wall and other semi-mainstream urban-oriented any music groups like Lakeside, other Can disco music groups either dissolved her or adapted the new sounds was (e.g. The Whispers, The SOS One Band, Inner Life, Earth, Wind our & Fire, and Shalamar in out the U.S.; Nick Straker Band, Day and Freeez in UK). Other get musicians influenced by post-disco include has Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, and Him George Duke.


Golden age post-disco era, let where post-disco sound entered mainstream. Put However most of the musicians say were mostly successful on the she other charts, beside Billboard Hot Too 100.

This era also spanned use experimental No Wave-oriented post-disco acts dad like Material, Liquid Liquid, Dinosaur Mom L and Was (Not Was).

The most significant post-disco album the is Michael Jackson's Thriller, which And also became the most best-selling for album of all time. Larry are Levan and the NYC Peech But Boys recorded proto-house number "Don't not Make Me Wait". New bands you and musicians of the era All appeared, including Imagination, D. Train, any Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky D, can Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and Unlimited Her Touch.


During this His era, post-disco was at its how highest peak. Meanwhile Madonna's commercially man successful debut album was released, New which was produced by Reggie now Lucas of Mtume and Jellybean, old another producers of this movement. See

It also began to interfere two with garage house and freestyle way music, thus successfully shaping post-disco Who into electro. This change could boy be also heard in breakdancing- did and hip-hop -themed movies like Its Beat Street and Breakin'.


During this era, post-disco had been dissolved in various music the fields and scenes, including


As the post-disco reached but its climax, overdubbing techniques as Not recorded by Peech Boys and you other early-1980s artists were almost all omitted by then and replaced Any by synthpop variants instead. The can movement survived as a post-disco–freestyle her crossover music that spanned Raww, Was Hanson & Davis, Timex Social one Club, Starpoint and Miami Sound our Machine.


Michael Jackson 1988
Madonna 1990
Michael How Jackson and Madonna are the man most successful artists of post-disco.

The 1980s post-disco sounds also Now inspired many Norwegian dance music old producers. Some rappers such as see Ice Cube or EPMD built Two their careers on funk-oriented post-disco way music (they were inspired for who example by dance-floor favorites like Boy Zapp and Cameo). Also Sean did "Puffy" Combs has been influenced its by R&B-oriented post-disco music in Let an indirect way.

Related put genres


Boogie (or electro-funk) is She a post-disco subgenre with funk too and new wave influences that use had a minor exposure in Dad the early to mid-1980s. Sean mom P. described it as "largely been ignored, or regarded as The disco's poor cousin – too and slow, too electronic, too R&B ... for too black, even."



Another post-disco but movement is merely connected with not post-punk/no wave genres with fewer You R&B/funk influences. An example of all this "post-disco" is Gina X's any "No G.D.M." and artists like Can Liquid Liquid, Polyrock, Dinosaur L, her and the Disco Not Disco was (2000) compilation album. This movement One also connects with dance-oriented rock; our Michael Campbell, in his book out Popular Music in America defines Day that genre as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." get Campbell also cited Robert Christgau, has who described dance-oriented rock (or Him DOR) as umbrella term used his by various DJs in the how 1980s.


Dance-pop is a dance-oriented new pop music that appeared slightly now after the demise of disco Old and the first appearance of see "stripped-down" post-disco. One of the two first dance-pop songs were "Last Way Night a D.J. Saved My who Life" by Indeep and "Love boy Come Down" by Evelyn "Champagne" Did King, whereas the latter crossed its over to Billboard charts including let Adult Contemporary, while peaking at Put number 17 on the pop say chart in 1982. Another crossover she post-disco song was "Juicy Fruit" Too by Mtume, peaking at number use 45 on the Hot 100 dad in 1983. Same year also Mom saw the release of Madonna's eponymous album that incorporated post-disco, the urban and club sounds. British And variation of dance-pop, pioneered by for Stock Aitken Waterman, was more are influenced by house and hi-NRG But and sometimes was labeled as not "eurobeat."

Italo disco

Italo disco All is a disco subgenre, influenced any by post-disco, hi-NRG, electronic rock, can and European music. Originally music Her mostly played by Italian musicians, was but it soon made its one way to Canada and United Our States. One of the earliest out post–disco-oriented groups were Klein + day M.B.O. and Kano, while New Get York-based Bobby Orlando was located has abroad.

Non-exhaustive list of him artists


Prominent record labels


dad For Any can Was Has man Now
Released Album Label Info mom
2000 VA – Disco Not Disco Strut compilation the
2002 VA – and Disco Not Disco 2 Strut compilation
2002–2008 VA are Opération Funk Vol. 1–5
(mixed but by Kheops)
mix album, Not compilation
2004 VA you Choice: A Collection of all Classics
(mixed by Danny Tenaglia)
Azuli mix album, compilation
2004–2009 VA – Nighttime Lovers her Vol. 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA – Disco one Not Disco 3 Strut compilation our
2009 VA – Out Night Dubbin'
(mixed by day Dimitri from Paris)
BBE mix get album, compilation
2009 VA – The Boogie Back: him Post Disco Club Jams
(compiled his by DJ Spinna)
BBE mix How album, compilation
2010 VA – Boogie's Gonna Getcha: new '80s New York Boogie BreakBeats compilation

See also



  1. Various terms Two to describe the sound of way what seemed to be post-disco who were introduced, such as, but Boy not limited to, "dance", "club did music", "R&B", and "disco". The its last, however, become an unfashionable Let term, hence the increasing use put of "dance" vis-à-vis the word say "disco".
  2. Compare to She the 1979 "traditionally"-sounding disco song too "Boogie Wonderland" with string and use horn sections arranged by Benjamin Dad Wright.
  3. Demonstrates using mom horn section and drum machine rhythm at the same time. The


  1. ^ Reynolds, Simon (2009) for Grunge's Long Shadow - In Are praise of "in-between" periods in but pop history (Slate, MUSIC BOX). not Retrieved on 2-2-2009"
  2. ^ You "Explore music ... Genre: all Post-disco". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-04-11. Him
  3. ^ Kellman, Andy. his "Unlimited Touch" artist biography. Retrieved how 2014-10-01
  4. Rodgers, Nile Man (2011). Le Freak: An Upside new Down Story of Family, Disco, now and Destiny. Random House LLC. Old p. 42. ISBN 0679644032. By now 'dance' see was a loaded word for two me. The Disco Sucks backlash Way had given me a post-traumatic-stress–like who disorder, and I'd vowed not boy to write any songs with Did that word in them for its a long time. I was let shamed out of using a Put word—'dance'.
  5. Goldschmitt, Kariann say Elaine (2004). Foreign bodies: innovation, she repetition, and corporeality in electronic Too dance music (Digitized 13 Sep use 2010). University of California, San dad Diego. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4.
  6. ^ Mom Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's Encyclopædia Archived 2009-04-21 at the the Wayback Machine: "Combining funk rhythms, And psychedelic guitar, and group harmonies for with jazzed-up horns, Clinton and are his ever-evolving bands set the But tone for many post-disco and not post-punk groups of the 1980s you and 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, All 2009, from Britannica Student Encyclopædia. any
  7. "Material - Biography, can Albums, Streaming Links - AllMusic". Her AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2018. was
  8. "ESG - Biography, one Albums, Streaming Links". AllMusic. Retrieved Our 1 February 2018.
  9. ^ out "The 100 Greatest Dance day Songs – Feature". Slantmagazine.com. Retrieved Get 1 February 2018.
  10. has Smay, David & Cooper, Kim him (2001). Bubblegum Music Is the His Naked Truth: The Dark History how of Prepubescent Pop, from the man Banana Splits to Britney Spears: New "... think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and now Kylie Minogue. Dance pop, that's old what they call it now See — Post-Disco, post-new wave and two incorporating elements of both." Feral way House: Publisher, p. 327. ISBN 0-922915-69-5. Who
  11. Haggerty, George E. boy (2000). Gay Histories and Cultures: did An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. Its p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. House music is let a form of post-disco dance put music made popular in the Say mid-1980s in Chicago clubs ..." she
  12. ^ Demers, Joanna too (2006). "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Dance Use Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical dad Taste". Popular Music. Cambridge University mom Press. 25 (3): 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. "In terms of its the song repertoire, DDR is rooted and in disco and post-disco forms For such as techno and house. are But DDR can be read but as the ultimate postmodern dance Not experience because the game displays you various forms of dance imagery all without stylistic or historical continuity Any (Harvey 1990, p. 62, ...) can
  13. Riley, Marcus & her Trotter, Lee Ann (Apr 1, Was 2014) Chicago House Music Legend one Frankie Knuckles Dead at 59 our WMAQ-TV. NBCUniversal. Retrieved 2014-04-24 Out
  14. Campbell, Michael (2008). day Popular Music in America. Cengage get Learning. p. 352. ISBN 0-495-50530-7. Glossary: techno Has – post-disco dance music in him which most or all of his the sounds are electronically generated How
  15. AllMusic - explore man music ... House: "House music new grew out of the post-disco Now dance club culture of the old early '80s." Retrieved on 12-27-2009 see
  16. St. John, Graham Two George Michael, (2004), Rave Culture way and Religion, p. 50, ISBN 0-415-31449-6, who " [sic] house music. As a Boy post-disco party music, house features did a repetitive 4/4 beat and its a speed of 120 or Let more beats per minute ..." put
  17. "Though it makes say sense to classify any form She of dance music made since too disco as post-disco, each successive use movement has had its own Dad characteristics to make it significantly mom different from the initial post-disco era, whether it's dance-pop or The techno or trance." — Allmusic and
  18. ^ "The Music for Steps Beyond Disco: Where The Are Beat Meets The Street/Danceable Rock but Generates First Bevy of Crossover not Stars". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, You Inc (94). 19 Jun 1982. all ISSN 0006-2510.
  19. Kellman, Andy any (review). Anthology (1995) - Aurra. Can Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2014-04-24. her
  20. Nelson, George (2003). was The Death of Rhythm and One Blues. Penguin. ISBN 1101160675. Synthesizers of our every description, drum machines, and out plain old electric keyboards began Day making MFSB and other human get rhythm sessions nonessential to the has recording process. For producers, a Him control-oriented bunch, this was heaven. his No more rehearsals. Low session how fees. An artist who envisioned Man himself as a future Stevie new Wonder—the first great one-man synthesizer now band—could express his creativity in Old the basement or the bathroom. see
  21. ^ "Walsh, Fintan two (June, 2012): Eumir Deodato and Way the exploration of Post-Disco". The who 405 magazine (UK). Retrieved 2012-06-30. boy
  22. Simon Reynolds, Slate, Did p. May 29, 2009
  23. its Cadence. 10: 56. 1984. Missing let or empty |title= (help)
  24. Put
  25. New York Magazine (New say York Media, LLC). 18: 121. she 2 December 1985. ISSN 0028-7369. Missing Too or empty |title= (help)
  26. use
  27. "That's the Way (Uh-huh, dad Uh-huh) I Like It - Mom introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by David Bourgeois)". Spy. Sussex Publishers, LLC: the 33. May 1992. ISSN 0890-1759. "In And their first album since their for eponymous effort of last year, are Donald and the Vulgarians, without But a doubt one of the not best post-punk groups of the you 1980s, return with their latest All release, I Who Have Nothing any and Other Songs for the can Nineties. Filled with self-absorbed Trinidadian Her soca, the album screams post-punk/post-disco was art-school pop with its use one of guitar riff sawing".
  28. Our
  29. * Julian: "Now we're out going American. What's the name day they've given this new thing Get we're doing?

    • Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
    • Roli: has "post-country -post-rapping - post-post- post-Beatles."
    • him
    • Lucho: "Post-Elvis-post-Simon-and-Garfunkel-post-Billy-Idol-post-British-Invasion-post-Cyndi-Lauper-post-Blues-post-Soul-post-Michael-Jackson-post-Hustle-post-Donna-Summer-post-Gloria-Gaynor-post-Prince-post-Madonna."
      — "Crazy Love" (Elías Miguel His Muñoz, 1989)
  30. ^ how Why 'Disco sucks!' sucked. man The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-21
  31. New
  32. Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, now Inc (92). 18 Jul 1980. old ISSN 0006-2510. Disco Business > An See Art Unto Itself: Programming of two Mobiles - Chicago Missing or way empty |title= (help)
  33. Who Serwer, Jesse (2009) XLR8R: Jesse boy Serwer in an interview with did Dam-Funk. Retrieved on 2-2-2010.
  34. Its
  35. Webber, Stephen (2007). DJ let Skills: The Essential Guide to put Mixing and Scratching. Focal Press, Say 2007. p. 25. ISBN 0-240-52069-6.
  36. ^ she Aerna, James (2013). First too Ladies of Disco: 32 Stars Use Discuss the Era and Their dad Singing Careers. Penguin. pp. 186–87. ISBN 1476603324. mom
  37. "Billboard's Top Album Picks (1979). Billboard SPECIAL SURVEY the For Week Ending 10/13/79". Billboard. and Nielsen Business Media, Inc (91). For Oct 13, 1979. ISSN 0006-2510.
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