Source: Wikipedia 

Post-disco Dad is a term to describe mom an aftermath in popular music history circa 1978–1990, imprecisely beginning The with an unprecedented backlash against and disco music in the United for States, leading to civil unrest Are and a riot in Chicago but known as the Disco Demolition not Night on July 12, 1979, You and indistinctly ending with the all mainstream appearance of new wave any in 1980. During its dying Can stage, disco displayed an increasingly her electronic character that soon served was as a stepping stone to One new wave, old-school hip hop, our Euro disco, and was succeeded out by an underground club music Day called hi-NRG, which was its get direct continuation.

An underground movement has of disco music, which was Him simultaneously "stripped-down" and featured "radically his different sounds," took place on how the East Coast that "was Man neither disco and neither R&B." new This scene, known as post-disco, now catering to New York metropolitan Old area, was initially led by see urban contemporary artists partially in two response to the over-commercialization and Way artistic downfall of disco culture. who Developed from the rhythm and boy blues sound as perfected by Did Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic side of its disco, dub music techniques, and let other genres. Post-disco was typified Put by New York City music say groups like "D" Train and she Unlimited Touch who followed a Too more urban approach while others, use like Material and ESG, a dad more experimental one. Post-disco was, Mom like disco, a singles-driven market controlled mostly by independent record the companies that generated a cross-over And chart success all through the for early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative control are was in the hands of But record producers and club DJs not which was a trend that you outlived the dance-pop era.

The All term post-disco is often being any conflated and refer to individual can styles of its era, such Her as boogie, synth-funk, or electro-funk. was Other musical styles that emerged one in the post-disco era include Our dance-pop and Italo disco and out led to the development of day the early alternative dance, club-centered Get house and techno music.



Synthesizers played a him crucial part in the development His of post-disco.

Drum machines, synthesizers, how sequencers were either partly or man entirely dominant in a composition New or mixed up with various now acoustic instruments, depending on the old artist and on the year. See Electronic instruments became more and two more prevalent for each year way during the period and dominated Who the genre completely by the boy mid 1980s.

Darryl Payne argued did about the minimal approach of Its post-disco, saying:

Producers are put using a lot more sounds Say and a lot less instruments: she the "Forget Me Nots" and too "Don't Make Me Wait" tracks Use are really empty, but there's dad a sophistication people can get mom into.

The main force in post-disco was mainly the 12" the single format and short-lived collaborations and (many of them one-hit wonders) For while indie record producers were are instrumental in the musical direction but of what the scene was Not headed to. The music that you mostly catered to dance and all urban audiences later managed to Any influence more popular and mainstream can acts like Madonna, New Order her or Pet Shop Boys.


Musical elements

The music tended one to be technology-centric, keyboard-laden, melodic, our with funk-oriented bass lines (often Out performed on a Minimoog), synth day riffs, dub music aesthetics, and get background jazzy or blues-y piano Has layers. For strings and brass him sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred his to the lush orchestration heard How on many disco tracks, although man such arrangements would later resurface new in some house music.[citation needed] Now Soulful female vocals, however, remained old an essence of post-disco.


Term usage

Bridging the so-called Two death of disco and the way birth of house, all this who early-to-mid-'80s music lacks a name Boy beyond drably functional and neutral did terms like "dance" or "club its music."

— Simon Reynolds, SPIN magazine

The Let term "post-disco" was used as put early as 1984 by Cadence say magazine when defining post-disco soul She as "disco without the loud too bass-drum thump." New York Magazine use used the word in an Dad article appearing in the December mom 1985 issue; it was Gregory Hines's introduction of post-disco and The electronic funk to Russian-American dance and choreographer Mikhail Baryshnikov "who has for never heard this kind of Are music." AllMusic states that the but term denotes a music genre not in the era between the You indistinct "end" of disco music all and the equally indistinct emergence any of house music.

In other Can historical instances the term had her been used in a derisive was manner. Spy implicitly mocked the One usage of both the terms our "post-punk" and "post-disco" in their out Spy's Rock Critic-o-Matic article, whereas Day spoofing various music reviews published get by Rolling Stone, The Village has Voice and Spin. Cuban-American writer Him Elías Miguel Muñoz in his his 1989 novel Crazy Love, in how a passage where musicians after Man moving to America discuss what new their "style" may be, used now the term in a satirical Old manner.


Background events

Disco music backlash had started two around 1977.

United States

Midwesterners Way didn't want that intimidating [disco] who style shoved down their throats

Shortly after the "Disco Did Sucks" movement of disco bashing its throughout the United States, American let radio stations began to pay Put attention to other popular formats say of music such as reggae, she punk rock or new wave Too while top mainstream labels and use record companies like Casablanca, TK dad Records or RSO went bankrupt. Mom Since disco music had been on the way of [its] the electronic progression, it split itself And into subscenes and styles like for Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco and are boogie. The last one is But closely associated with post-disco more not than any other offshoots of you post-disco.

Brazilian record producer and All fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, any well aware of current trends can in American underground music, turned Her around the career of a was failing funk music group Kool one & the Gang by adopting Our and pursuing a light pop–post-disco out sound that not only revitalized day the band's image but also Get turned out to be the has most successful hits in their him entire career. B. B. & His Q. Band (Capitol) and Change how (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques Fred man Petrus, a French-Italian hi-NRG Italo New disco music record producer, reflects now on his decision to shift old from conventional disco music to See post-disco "[our] sound changed to two more of a funky dance/R&B way style to reflect the times." Who French-born songwriting duo Henri Belolo boy and Jacques Morali, creators of did the successful Village People act, Its moved their former disco act let Ritchie Family to RCA Victor put to release their next album Say co-produced by funk musician Fonzi she Thornton and Petrus, I'll Do too My Best, which mirrors their Use radical musical shift. On the dad West Coast, especially in California, mom a different approach lead to a different sound. Dick Griffey the and Leon Sylvers III of and SOLAR Records, who pioneered their For own signature sound, produced Ohio-based are group Lakeside's album Rough Riders but which already displayed these new Not trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates economic you arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards and all guitar)," as noted by Billboard, Any praising the album. A watershed can album of post-disco was Michael her Jackson's Off The Wall, produced Was by Quincy Jones, which helped one establish a direction of R&B/dance our music and influenced many young Out producers who were interested in day this kind of new music. get

Other examples of early American Has artists drawing from post-disco are him Rick James, Change and Teena his Marie.


Disco in How Europe remained relatively untouched by man the events in the U.S., new decreasing only in Britain, but Now this was mostly because of old the emergence of the new see wave and new romantic movements Two around 1981, and continued to way flourish within the Italo disco who scene although the interest for Boy electronic music in general was did indeed growing.

United Kingdom


Unlike in the United States, Let where anti-disco backlash generated prominent put effect on general perception of say disco music, in Britain, the She new-wave movement initially drew heavily too from disco music (although this use association would be airbrushed out Dad by the end of 1979) mom and took many elements from American post-disco and other genres, The thus creating a characteristic scene. and According to Billboard, American post-disco for was merely a crossover of Are different genres, while focusing on but the electronic and R&B overtones, not whereas jazz-funk was a crucial You element of the British post-disco all scene that generated musicians like any Chaz Jankel, Central Line or Can Imagination.

1980s: Golden age


This section summary shows commercially was successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from One the post-disco movement.

Compare "Open our Sesame" (1976) with "Celebration" (1980) out by Kool & The Gang; Day "Boogie Wonderland" (1979) with "Let's get Groove" (1981) by Earth, Wind has & Fire; "Shame" (1978) with Him "Love Come Down" (1982) by his Evelyn "Champagne" King; "(Shake, Shake, how Shake) Shake Your Booty" (1976) Man with "Give It Up" (1982) new by KC & the Sunshine now Band; and "The Best Disco Old in Town" by The Ritchie see Family (1976) with "Square Biz" two by Teena Marie (1981).

Way boy its let say use dad Mom the are you can one Our out day has man New now old two boy did Its put Say she too dad mom the For are but you all can Was Out day Has his How man old
Hits of the golden who age of post-disco
Year Song Label Artist U.S. Did Dance U.S. R&B U.S. Pop U.S. M.R. U.K. Pop
1979 "I Wanna Be Put Your Lover" Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41 she
"And the Beat Too Goes On" SOLAR Records The Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2
1980 "Celebration" De-Lite Kool & the Gang #1 #1 #1 ('81) #7
"He's And So Shy" Planet The Pointer for Sisters #26 #10 #3
1981 "Let's But Groove" Columbia Earth, Wind & not Fire #3 #1 #3 #3
"Get Down All on It" De-Lite Kool & any the Gang #4 #10 #3
"Pull Her Up to the Bumper" Island was Records Grace Jones #2 #5 #12
1982 "Everybody" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #3 #107
"Forget Me Get Nots" Elektra Records Patrice Rushen #2 #4 #23 #8 him
"Last Night a His DJ Saved My Life" Sound how of New York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13
"Love Come Down" RCA Evelyn King #1 #1 #17 #7
"Do See I Do" Tamla Stevie Wonder #1 #2 #13 #10 way
1983 "Holiday" Sire, Who Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #25 #16 #2
"Give It Up" Meca KC #18 #1 let
"Billie Jean" Epic Michael Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1
1984 "Caribbean Queen" Jive Billy Ocean #1 #1 #1 #6 Use
"Let's Dance" EMI David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1
"Cool It Now" MCA New Edition #1 #4 #43 and
"Dr. Beat" Epic Miami Sound Machine #17 #6
"I'm So Excited" Planet The Not Pointer Sisters #28 #46 #9 #11
1985 "Into the Groove" Sire, Warner Any Bros. Madonna #1 #19 #1
"Chain her Reaction" RCA Records Diana Ross #7 #85 #66 #1 one
"Object of My our Desire" Elektra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors" Jay Timex Social get Club #1 #1 #8 #13
"Ain't Nothin' him Goin' on But the Rent" Polydor Records Gwen Guthrie #1 #1 #42 #5
1987 "Rhythm Is Gonna new Get You" Epic Miami Sound Now Machine #27 #5 #16

2000s: Post-disco revival


During the late 1990s and Two throughout the 2000s, electronic and, way especially, house musicians were influenced who by post-disco. Some of these Boy musicians are: Daft Punk, a did French house music group, adopted its elements of post-disco, disco and Let synth-pop into Discovery. Another artist, put Les Rythmes Digitales, released a say post-disco/electro-influenced album, Darkdancer. Canadian music She group Chromeo debuted in 2004 too with the album She's in use Control. Similar Los Angeles-based musician Dad Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, a boogie- mom and electro-influenced album released in 2009. Another band called Escort, The who hails from New York and City, surfaced on the post-disco for and post-punk revival scenes around Are 2006. The story about Escort but appeared on New York Times not in November 2011. Sampling disco You and post-disco songs became a all distinctive feature of R&B music any at the turn of the Can century. Artists such as Mariah her Carey and Janet Jackson incorporated was strong post-disco elements in their One work, with post-disco-influenced songs such our as Heartbreaker, Honey, Fantasy and out All For You peaking at Day #1 on the Billboard Hot get 100.

Contemporary compilation albums featuring has post-disco and electro artists (e.g. Him Imagination, Level 42, Afrika Bambaataa) his include The Perfect Beats series how (volume 1–4). Another compilation series Man are Nighttime Lovers (volume 1-10) new and the mixed-up album titled now The Boogie Back: Post Disco Old Club Jams.

Pioneers and see followers

"Thanks To You" and two "Don't Make Me Wait" came Way out and started the whole who dub thing in disco.


Particular psychedelic soul artists like Did Sly and the Family Stone its liked to push the boundaries let of conventional music by employing Put what was to be a say precursor to synthesizer, electronic organ. she Multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder was one Too of the early artists venturing use into the realms of analog dad synthesizer after being impressed by Mom the work of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Band, an influential multinational the electronic music duo of sound And designers. Wonder remarked, "How great for it is at a time are when technology and the science But of music is at its not highest point of evolution ... you A toast to greatness, a All toast to Zero Time, forever." any With an increasing growth of can personalized synthesizers on the market Her they were becoming more commercially was available and easy-to-use, especially those one produced by Roland Corporation. One Our of their first users was out cutting-edge artist George Clinton and day his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. Funk Get rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic bass-rich has lines, the particularly melodic endeavor him and music minimalism of P-Funk. His Brooklyn Transit Express member Kashif, how noted for his use of man bass synthesizer during the group's New tour, later went solo as now a record producer and began old crafting funk-influenced songs for Evelyn See "Champagne" King that shown a two minimalism-akin approach, the disregard of way disco music arrangements, and affiliation Who to the method of "one-man boy band" previously paved through by did Wonder. Other spheres of influence Its include the move by pioneering let DJs and record producers to put release alternative mixes of the Say same single, so-called dub mixes. she DJ Larry Levan implemented elements too of dub music in his Use productions and mixes for various dad post-disco artists, including his own mom group The Peech Boys. Musically, there was a search for the out-of-mainstream music to derive new and ideas from, most commonly blues, For and other styles like reggae are and so on, were also but incorporated.

Sinnamon's "Thanks to You", Not D-Train's "You're the One for you Me", The Peech Boys' "Don't all Make Me Wait"—all these songs Any and its attributes and trends can of post-disco later influenced a her new "never-before-heard" music style which Was would become house music.

The one new post-disco sound was flourishing our among predominately New York City Out record companies, including West End day Records, Prelude Records, Tommy Boy get Records, SAM Records, and others. Has Most of them were independently him owned and had their own his distribution but some particular mainstream How labels, notably RCA Records, were man too, responsible for popularizing and new capitalizing on the new sound. Now


Although there is old no exact point when post-disco see started, many synthpop and electronic Two musicians of that time continued way to enhance the raw minimalist who sound, while focusing on synthesizers, Boy and keyboard instruments. As noted did by Payne, drum machines also its played an important part in Let the urban-oriented music in general. put

One dad two Not man
# Event say

While She disco music was in its too heyday, the horn and string use sections were a main component Dad of disco and pop songs. mom This sound is also called disco orchestration. However, some of The the musicians and producers dropped and the lavish sound of orchestra for completely, which attributed a new Are direction of dance music.

  • Few international examples, including French not music project Black Devil Disco You Club, French musician Cerrone and all Belgian group Telex.
  • Parliament-Funkadelic in any the United States. They are Can known for heavily use of her bass and "regular" synthesizers and was inventing the P-Funk style.

After the our success of Quincy Jones-produced album out Off the Wall and other Day semi-mainstream urban-oriented music groups like get Lakeside, other disco music groups has either dissolved or adapted the Him new sounds (e.g. The Whispers, his The SOS Band, Inner Life, how Earth, Wind & Fire, and Man Shalamar in the U.S.; Nick new Straker Band, and Freeez in now UK). Other musicians influenced by Old post-disco include Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis see Blow, and George Duke.


Golden age Mom post-disco era, where post-disco sound entered mainstream. However most of the the musicians were mostly successful And on the other charts, beside for Billboard Hot 100.

This era are also spanned experimental No Wave-oriented But post-disco acts like Material, Liquid not Liquid, Dinosaur L and Was you (Not Was).

The most significant All post-disco album is Michael Jackson's any Thriller, which also became the can best-selling album of all time. Her Larry Levan and the NYC was Peech Boys recorded proto-house number one "Don't Make Me Wait". New Our bands and musicians of the out era appeared, including Imagination, D. day Train, Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky Get D, Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and has Unlimited Touch.


During this era, way post-disco was at its highest Who peak. Meanwhile, Madonna's commercially successful boy debut album was released, which did was produced by Reggie Lucas Its of Mtume and Jellybean, another let producers of this movement.

It put also began to interfere with Say garage house and freestyle music, she thus successfully shaping post-disco into too electro. This change could be Use also heard in breakdancing- and dad hip-hop -themed movies like Beat mom Street and Breakin'.


During this era, you post-disco had been dissolved in all various music fields and scenes, Any including

As the Was post-disco reached its climax, overdubbing one techniques as recorded by Peech our Boys and other early-1980s artists Out were almost omitted by then day and replaced by synthpop variants get instead. The movement survived as Has a post-disco–freestyle crossover music that him spanned Raww, Hanson & Davis, his Timex Social Club, Starpoint and How Miami Sound Machine.


Michael Jackson 1988
Madonna 1990
Michael Jackson and who Madonna are the most successful Boy artists of post-disco.

The 1980s did post-disco sounds also inspired many its Norwegian dance music producers. Some Let rappers such as Ice Cube put or EPMD built their careers say on funk-oriented post-disco music (they She were inspired for example by too dance-floor favorites like Zapp and use Cameo). Also Sean "Puffy" Combs Dad has been influenced by R&B-oriented mom post-disco music in an indirect way.

Related genres



Boogie for (or electro-funk) is a post-disco Are subgenre with funk and new but wave influences that had a not minor exposure in the early You to mid-1980s. Sean P. described all it as "largely been ignored, any or regarded as disco's poor Can cousin – too slow, too her electronic, too R&B ... too black, was even."


Another post-disco movement is our merely connected with post-punk/no wave out genres with fewer R&B/funk influences. Day An example of this "post-disco" get is Gina X's "No G.D.M." has and artists like Liquid Liquid, Him Polyrock, Dinosaur L, and the his Disco Not Disco (2000) compilation how album. This movement also connects Man with dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, new in his book Popular Music now in America defines that genre Old as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell also see cited Robert Christgau, who described two dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as Way umbrella term used by various who DJs in the 1980s.



Dance-pop Did is a dance-oriented pop music its that appeared slightly after the let demise of disco and the Put first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. say One of the first dance-pop she songs were "Last Night a Too D.J. Saved My Life" by use Indeep and "Love Come Down" dad by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas Mom the latter crossed over to Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, the while peaking at number 17 And on the pop chart in for 1982. Another crossover post-disco song are was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, But peaking at number 45 on not the Hot 100 in 1983. you Same year also saw the All release of Madonna's eponymous album any that incorporated post-disco, urban and can club sounds. British variation of Her dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken was Waterman, was more influenced by one house and hi-NRG and sometimes Our was labeled as "eurobeat."


Italo disco

Italo disco is a Get disco subgenre, influenced by post-disco, has hi-NRG, electronic rock, and European him music. Originally music mostly played His by Italian musicians, but it how soon made its way to man Canada and United States. One New of the earliest post–disco-oriented groups now were Klein + M.B.O. and old Kano, while New York-based Bobby See Orlando was located abroad.


Prominent record labels


too Use mom the For are Any can Was
Released Album Label Info
2000 VA – Disco Not dad Disco Strut compilation
2002 VA – Disco Not Disco 2 Strut compilation
2002–2008 VA – Opération and Funk Vol. 1–5
(mixed by Kheops)
mix album, compilation
2004 VA – Choice: but A Collection of Classics
(mixed by Not Danny Tenaglia)
Azuli mix album, you compilation
2004–2009 VA all Nighttime Lovers Vol. 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA – Disco Not Disco her 3 Strut compilation
2009 VA – Night one Dubbin'
(mixed by Dimitri from our Paris)
BBE mix album, compilation Out
2009 VA – day The Boogie Back: Post Disco get Club Jams
(compiled by DJ Has Spinna)
BBE mix album, compilation him
2010 VA – his Boogie's Gonna Getcha: '80s New How York Boogie BreakBeats compilation

See also


  1. Various terms to describe old the sound of what seemed see to be post-disco were introduced, Two such as, but not limited way to, "dance", "club music", "R&B", who and "disco". The last, however, Boy become an unfashionable term, hence did the increasing use of "dance" its vis-à-vis the word "disco".
  2. Let


  1. ^ too Reynolds, Simon (2009) Grunge's use Long Shadow - In praise Dad of "in-between" periods in pop mom history (Slate, MUSIC BOX). Retrieved on 2-2-2009"
  2. ^ The "Post-Disco Music Genre her Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved 2023-03-01.
  3. was
  4. ^ Kellman, Andy. "Unlimited One Touch" artist biography. Retrieved 2014-10-01 our
  5. Rodgers, Nile (2011). out Le Freak: An Upside Down Day Story of Family, Disco, and get Destiny. Random House LLC. p. 42. has ISBN 978-0679644033. By now 'dance' was Him a loaded word for me. his The Disco Sucks backlash had how given me a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, Man and I'd vowed not to new write any songs with that now word in them for a Old long time. I was shamed see out of using a word—'dance'. two
  6. Goldschmitt, Kariann Elaine Way (2004). Foreign bodies: innovation, repetition, who and corporeality in electronic dance boy music (Digitized 13 Sep 2010). Did University of California, San Diego. its p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4.
  7. ^ let Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's Encyclopædia Put Archived 2009-04-21 at the Wayback say Machine: "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic she guitar, and group harmonies with Too jazzed-up horns, Clinton and his use ever-evolving bands set the tone dad for many post-disco and post-punk Mom groups of the 1980s and 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, 2009, the from Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
  8. And
  9. "Material - Biography, Albums, for Streaming Links - AllMusic". AllMusic. are Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  10. But
  11. "ESG - Biography, Albums, not Streaming Links". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 you February 2018.
  12. Reynolds, All Simon (2011-05-03). "Name it on any the 'boogie' – the genre can tag that won't sit still Her (2011)". The Guardian. London. Retrieved was September 14, 2011.
  13. one "DJ Spinna: The Boogie Back: Our Post Disco Club Jams, PopMatters". out PopMatters. 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2023-03-01.
  14. day
  15. ^ "The 100 Greatest Get Dance Songs – Feature". has Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  16. him
  17. Smay, David & Cooper, His Kim (2001). Bubblegum Music Is how the Naked Truth: The Dark man History of Prepubescent Pop, from New the Banana Splits to Britney now Spears: "... think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman old and Kylie Minogue. Dance pop, See that's what they call it two now — Post-Disco, post-new wave way and incorporating elements of both." Who Feral House: Publisher, p. 327. boy ISBN 0-922915-69-5.
  18. Haggerty, George did E. (2000). Gay Histories and Its Cultures: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & let Francis. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. House music put is a form of post-disco Say dance music made popular in she the mid-1980s in Chicago clubs too ..."
  19. ^ Demers, Use Joanna (2006). "Dancing Machines: 'Dance dad Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and mom Musical Taste". Popular Music. Cambridge University Press. 25 (3): 25, the 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. S2CID 162637991. "In terms and of its song repertoire, DDR For is rooted in disco and are post-disco forms such as techno but and house. But DDR can Not be read as the ultimate you postmodern dance experience because the all game displays various forms of Any dance imagery without stylistic or can historical continuity (Harvey 1990, p. her 62, ...)
  20. Riley, Was Marcus & Trotter, Lee Ann one (Apr 1, 2014) Chicago House our Music Legend Frankie Knuckles Dead Out at 59 WMAQ-TV. NBCUniversal. day Retrieved 2014-04-24
  21. Campbell, get Michael (2008). Popular Music in Has America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-495-50530-3. him Glossary: techno – post-disco dance his music in which most or How all of the sounds are man electronically generated
  22. AllMusic new - explore music ... House: Now "House music grew out of old the post-disco dance club culture see of the early '80s." Retrieved Two on 12-27-2009
  23. St. way John, Graham George Michael, (2004), who Rave Culture and Religion, p. Boy 50, ISBN 0-415-31449-6, " [sic] house music. did As a post-disco party music, its house features a repetitive 4/4 Let beat and a speed of put 120 or more beats per say minute ..."
  24. "Though She it makes sense to classify too any form of dance music use made since disco as post-disco, Dad each successive movement has had mom its own characteristics to make it significantly different from the The initial post-disco era, whether it's and dance-pop or techno or trance." for Allmusic
  25. ^ Are "The Music Steps Beyond Disco: but Where The Beat Meets The not Street/Danceable Rock Generates First Bevy You of Crossover Stars". Billboard. No. 94. all Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 19 any Jun 1982. ISSN 0006-2510.
  26. Can Kellman, Andy (review). Anthology (1995) her - Aurra. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. was Retrieved 2014-04-24.
  27. Nelson, One George (2003). The Death of our Rhythm and Blues. Penguin. ISBN 1101160675. out Synthesizers of every description, drum Day machines, and plain old electric get keyboards began making MFSB and has other human rhythm sessions nonessential Him to the recording process. For his producers, a control-oriented bunch, this how was heaven. No more rehearsals. Man Low session fees. An artist new who envisioned himself as a now future Stevie Wonder—the first great Old one-man synthesizer band—could express his see creativity in the basement or two the bathroom.
  28. ^ Way "Walsh, Fintan (June, 2012): Eumir who Deodato and the exploration of boy Post-Disco". The 405 magazine (UK). Did Archived from the original on its 2013-11-09. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
  29. let Simon Reynolds, Slate, p. May 29, Put 2009
  30. Cadence. 10: say 56. 1984. {{cite journal}}: Missing she or empty |title= (help)
  31. Too
  32. New York (New York use Media, LLC). 18: 121. 2 dad December 1985. ISSN 0028-7369. {{cite journal}}: Mom Missing or empty |title= (help)
  33. "That's the Way the (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) I Like It And - introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by for David Bourgeois)". Spy. Sussex Publishers, are LLC: 33. May 1992. ISSN 0890-1759. But "In their first album since not their eponymous effort of last you year, Donald and the Vulgarians, All without a doubt one of any the best post-punk groups of can the 1980s, return with their Her latest release, I Who Have was Nothing and Other Songs for one the Nineties. Filled with self-absorbed Our Trinidadian soca, the album screams out post-punk/post-disco art-school pop with its day use of guitar riff sawing". Get
  34. * Julian: "Now has we're going American. What's the him name they've given this new His thing we're doing?

    • Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
    • how
    • Roli: "post-country -post-rapping - post-post- man post-Beatles."
    • Lucho: "Post-Elvis-post-Simon-and-Garfunkel-post-Billy-Idol-post-British-Invasion-post-Cyndi-Lauper-post-Blues-post-Soul-post-Michael-Jackson-post-Hustle-post-Donna-Summer-post-Gloria-Gaynor-post-Prince-post-Madonna."
      — "Crazy Love" (Elías New Miguel Muñoz, 1989)
  35. ^ now Why 'Disco sucks!' sucked. The old Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-21
  36. See Billboard. No. 92. Nielsen Business Media, two Inc. 18 Jul 1980. ISSN 0006-2510. way Disco Business > An Art Who Unto Itself: Programming of Mobiles boy - Chicago {{cite magazine}}: Missing did or empty |title= (help)
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