Source: Wikipedia 

Post-disco Dad is a term to describe mom an aftermath in popular music history circa 1979–1986, imprecisely beginning The with an unprecedented backlash against and disco music in the United for States, leading to civil unrest Are and a riot in Chicago but known as the Disco Demolition not Night on July 12, 1979, You and indistinctly ending with the all mainstream appearance of new wave any in 1980. During its dying Can stage, disco displayed an increasingly her electronic character that soon served was as a stepping stone to One new wave, old-school hip hop, our Euro disco, and was succeeded out by an underground club music Day called hi-NRG, which was its get direct continuation.

An underground movement has of disco music, which was Him simultaneously "stripped-down" and featured "radically his different sounds," took place on how the East Coast that "was Man neither disco and neither R&B." new This scene, known as post-disco, now catering to New York metropolitan Old area, was initially led by see urban contemporary artists partially in two response to the over-commercialization and Way artistic downfall of disco culture. who Developed from the rhythm and boy blues sound as perfected by Did Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic side of its disco, dub music techniques, and let other genres. Post-disco was typified Put by New York City music say groups like "D" Train and she Unlimited Touch who followed a Too more urban approach while others, use like Material and ESG, a dad more experimental one. Post-disco was, Mom like disco, a singles-driven market controlled mostly by independent record the companies that generated a cross-over And chart success all through the for early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative control are was in the hands of But record producers and club DJs not which was a trend that you outlived the dance-pop era.

The All term post-disco is often being any conflated and refer to individual can styles of its era, such Her as boogie, synth-funk, or electro-funk. was Other musical styles that emerged one in the post-disco era include Our dance-pop and Italo disco and out led to the development of day the early alternative dance, club-centered Get house and techno music.



Synthesizers played him a crucial part in the His development of post-disco.

Drum machines, how synthesizers, sequencers were either partly man or entirely dominant in a New composition or mixed up with now various acoustic instruments, depending on old the artist and on the See year. Electronic instruments became more two and more prevalent for each way year during the period and Who dominated the genre completely by boy the mid 1980s.

Darryl Payne did argued about the minimal approach Its of post-disco, saying:

Producers put are using a lot more Say sounds and a lot less she instruments: the "Forget Me Nots" too and "Don't Make Me Wait" Use tracks are really empty, but dad there's a sophistication people can mom get into.

The main force in post-disco was mainly the the 12" single format and short-lived and collaborations (many of them one-hit For wonders) while indie record producers are were instrumental in the musical but direction of what the scene Not was headed to. The music you that mostly catered to dance all and urban audiences later managed Any to influence more popular and can mainstream acts like Madonna, New her Order or Pet Shop Boys. Was

Musical elements

The music one tended to be technology-centric, keyboard-laden, our melodic, with funk-oriented bass lines Out (often performed on a Minimoog), day synth riffs, dub music aesthetics, get and background jazzy or blues-y Has piano layers. For strings and him brass sections, synthesizer sounds were his preferred to the lush orchestration How heard on many disco tracks, man although such arrangements would later new resurface in some house music.[citation Now needed] Soulful female vocals, however, old remained an essence of post-disco. see

Term usage

Bridging the Two so-called death of disco and way the birth of house, all who this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks a Boy name beyond drably functional and did neutral terms like "dance" or its "club music."

— Simon Reynolds, SPIN magazine

The term "post-disco" was used put as early as 1984 by say Cadence magazine when defining post-disco She soul as "disco without the too loud bass-drum thump." New York use Magazine used the word in Dad an article appearing in the mom December 1985 issue; it was Gregory Hines's introduction of post-disco The and electronic funk to Russian-American and dance choreographer Mikhail Baryshnikov "who for has never heard this kind Are of music." AllMusic states that but the term denotes a music not genre in the era between You the indistinct "end" of disco all music and the equally indistinct any emergence of house music.

In Can other historical instances the term her had been used in a was derisive manner. Spy implicitly mocked One the usage of both the our terms "post-punk" and "post-disco" in out their Spy's Rock Critic-o-Matic article, Day whereas spoofing various music reviews get published by Rolling Stone, The has Village Voice and Spin. Cuban-American Him writer Elías Miguel Muñoz in his his 1989 novel Crazy Love, how in a passage where musicians Man after moving to America discuss new what their "style" may be, now used the term in a Old satirical manner.


Background see events

Disco music backlash two had started around 1977.

United Way States

Midwesterners didn't want that who intimidating [disco] style shoved down boy their throats

Shortly after Did the "Disco Sucks" movement of its disco bashing throughout the United let States, American radio stations began Put to pay attention to other say popular formats of music such she as reggae, punk rock or Too new wave while top mainstream use labels and record companies like dad Casablanca, TK Records or RSO Mom went bankrupt. Since disco music had been on the way the of [its] electronic progression, it And split itself into subscenes and for styles like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo are disco and boogie. The last But one is closely associated with not post-disco more than any other you offshoots of post-disco.

Brazilian record All producer and fusion jazz pioneer any Eumir Deodato, well aware of can current trends in American underground Her music, turned around the career was of a failing funk music one group Kool & the Gang Our by adopting and pursuing a out light pop–post-disco sound that not day only revitalized the band's image Get but also turned out to has be the most successful hits him in their entire career. B. His B. & Q. Band (Capitol) how and Change (Atlantic) acts' creator man Jacques Fred Petrus, a French-Italian New hi-NRG Italo disco music record now producer, reflects on his decision old to shift from conventional disco See music to post-disco "[our] sound two changed to more of a way funky dance/R&B style to reflect Who the times." French-born songwriting duo boy Henri Belolo and Jacques Morali, did creators of the successful Village Its People act, moved their former let disco act Ritchie Family to put RCA Victor to release their Say next album co-produced by funk she musician Fonzi Thornton and Petrus, too I'll Do My Best, which Use mirrors their radical musical shift. dad On the West Coast, especially mom in California, a different approach lead to a different sound. the Dick Griffey and Leon Sylvers and III of SOLAR Records, who For pioneered their own signature sound, are produced Ohio-based group Lakeside's album but Rough Riders which already displayed Not these new trends and, "instrumentally you demonstrates economic arrangements (featuring brass, all keyboards and guitar)," as noted Any by Billboard, praising the album. can A watershed album of post-disco her was Michael Jackson's Off The Was Wall, produced by Quincy Jones, one which helped establish a direction our of R&B/dance music and influenced Out many young producers who were day interested in this kind of get new music.

Other examples of Has early American artists drawing from him post-disco are Rick James, Change his and Teena Marie.



Disco in Europe remained relatively man untouched by the events in new the U.S., decreasing only in Now Britain, but this was mostly old because of the emergence of see the new wave and new Two romantic movements around 1981, and way continued to flourish within the who Italo disco scene although the Boy interest for electronic music in did general was indeed growing.


United Kingdom

Unlike in the Let United States, where anti-disco backlash put generated prominent effect on general say perception of disco music, in She Britain, the new-wave movement initially too drew heavily from disco music use (although this association would be Dad airbrushed out by the end mom of 1979) and took many elements from American post-disco and The other genres, thus creating a and characteristic scene. According to Billboard, for American post-disco was merely a Are crossover of different genres, while but focusing on the electronic and not R&B overtones, whereas jazz-funk was You a crucial element of the all British post-disco scene that generated any musicians like Chaz Jankel, Central Can Line or Imagination.

1980s: her Golden age

This section summary was shows commercially successful records (mostly One R&B/pop-oriented) from the post-disco movement. our

Compare "Open Sesame" (1976) with out "Celebration" (1980) by Kool & Day The Gang; "Boogie Wonderland" (1979) get with "Let's Groove" (1981) by has Earth, Wind & Fire; "Shame" Him (1978) with "Love Come Down" his (1982) by Evelyn "Champagne" King; how "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Man Booty" (1976) with "Give It new Up" (1982) by KC & now the Sunshine Band; and "The Old Best Disco in Town" by see The Ritchie Family (1976) with two "Square Biz" by Teena Marie Way (1981).

who boy its Put say use dad Mom And But you All was Our out day Get him His how now old two Who boy Its put Say too dad mom the For are Not Any her Was one our Out day get Has him new Now see
Year Song Label Artist U.S. Dance U.S. R&B U.S. Pop U.S. Did M.R. U.K. Pop
1979 "I Wanna Be Your let Lover" Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41
"And the Beat Goes she On" SOLAR Records The Too Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2
1980 "Celebration" De-Lite Kool & the Gang #1 #1 #1 ('81) #7
"He's So the Shy" Planet The Pointer Sisters #26 #10 #3 for
"And the Beat are Goes On" SOLAR The Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2 not
1981 "Let's Groove" Columbia Earth, Wind & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3 any
"Get Down on can It" De-Lite Kool & the Her Gang #4 #10 #3
"Pull Up one to the Bumper" Island Records Grace Jones #2 #5 #12
1982 "Everybody" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #3 #107 has
"Forget Me Nots" Elektra Records Patrice Rushen #2 #4 #23 #8
"Last Night a DJ man Saved My Life" Sound of New New York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13
"Love Come Down" RCA Evelyn See King #1 #1 #17 #7
"Do I way Do" Tamla Stevie Wonder #1 #2 #13 #10
1983 "Holiday" Sire, Warner did Bros. Madonna #1 #25 #16 #2
"Give let It Up" Meca KC #18 #1
"Billie Jean" Epic Michael she Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1
1984 "Caribbean Use Queen" Jive Billy Ocean #1 #1 #1 #6
"Let's Dance" EMI David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1
"Cool It and Now" MCA New Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat" Epic Miami but Sound Machine #17 #6
"I'm you So Excited" Planet The Pointer all Sisters #28 #46 #9 #11
1985 "Into can the Groove" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #19 #1
"Chain Reaction" RCA Records Diana Ross #7 #85 #66 #1
"Object of My Desire" Elektra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors" Jay Timex Social Club #1 #1 #8 #13 his
"Ain't Nothin' Goin' How on But the Rent" Polydor man Records Gwen Guthrie #1 #1 #42 #5
1987 "Rhythm Is Gonna Get old You" Epic Miami Sound Machine #27 #5 #16 Two

2000s: Post-disco revival

During way the late 1990s and throughout who the 2000s, electronic and, especially, Boy house musicians were influenced by did post-disco. Some of these musicians its are: Daft Punk, a French Let house music group, adopted elements put of post-disco, disco and synth-pop say into Discovery. Another artist, Les She Rythmes Digitales, released a post-disco/electro-influenced too album, Darkdancer. Canadian music group use Chromeo debuted in 2004 with Dad the album She's in Control. mom Similar Los Angeles-based musician Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, a boogie- and The electro-influenced album released in 2009. and Another band called Escort, who for hails from New York City, Are surfaced on the post-disco and but post-punk revival scenes around 2006. not The story about Escort appeared You on New York Times in all November 2011. Sampling disco and any post-disco songs became a distinctive Can feature of R&B music at her the turn of the century. was Artists such as Mariah Carey One and Janet Jackson incorporated strong our post-disco elements in their work, out with post-disco-influenced songs such as Day Heartbreaker, Honey, Fantasy and All get For You peaking at #1 has on the Billboard Hot 100. Him

Contemporary compilation albums featuring post-disco his and electro artists (e.g. Imagination, how Level 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include Man The Perfect Beats series (volume new 1–4). Another compilation series are now Nighttime Lovers (volume 1-10) and Old the mixed-up album titled The see Boogie Back: Post Disco Club two Jams.

Pioneers and followers


"Thanks To You" and "Don't who Make Me Wait" came out boy and started the whole dub Did thing in disco.

Particular its psychedelic soul artists like Sly let and the Family Stone liked Put to push the boundaries of say conventional music by employing what she was to be a precursor Too to synthesizer, electronic organ. Multi-instrumentalist use Stevie Wonder was one of dad the early artists venturing into Mom the realms of analog synthesizer after being impressed by the the work of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head And Band, an influential multinational electronic for music duo of sound designers. are Wonder remarked, "How great it But is at a time when not technology and the science of you music is at its highest All point of evolution ... A any toast to greatness, a toast can to Zero Time, forever." With Her an increasing growth of personalized was synthesizers on the market they one were becoming more commercially available Our and easy-to-use, especially those produced out by Roland Corporation. One of day their first users was cutting-edge Get artist George Clinton and his has Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. Funk rhythms, him psychedelic guitars, synthetic bass-rich lines, His the particularly melodic endeavor and how music minimalism of P-Funk. Brooklyn man Transit Express member Kashif, noted New for his use of bass now synthesizer during the group's tour, old later went solo as a See record producer and began crafting two funk-influenced songs for Evelyn "Champagne" way King that shown a minimalism-akin Who approach, the disregard of disco boy music arrangements, and affiliation to did the method of "one-man band" Its previously paved through by Wonder. let Other spheres of influence include put the move by pioneering DJs Say and record producers to release she alternative mixes of the same too single, so-called dub mixes. DJ Use Larry Levan implemented elements of dad dub music in his productions mom and mixes for various post-disco artists, including his own group the The Peech Boys. Musically, there and was a search for out-of-mainstream For music to derive new ideas are from, most commonly blues, and but other styles like reggae and Not so on, were also incorporated. you

Sinnamon's "Thanks to You", D-Train's all "You're the One for Me", Any The Peech Boys' "Don't Make can Me Wait"—all these songs and her its attributes and trends of Was post-disco later influenced a new one "never-before-heard" music style which would our become house music.

The new Out post-disco sound was flourishing among day predominately New York City record get companies, including West End Records, Has Prelude Records, Tommy Boy Records, him SAM Records, and others. Most his of them were independently owned How and had their own distribution man but some particular mainstream labels, new notably RCA Records, were too, Now responsible for popularizing and capitalizing old on the new sound.



Although there is no Two exact point when post-disco started, way many synthpop and electronic musicians who of that time continued to Boy enhance the raw minimalist sound, did while focusing on synthesizers, and its keyboard instruments. As noted by Let Payne, drum machines also played put an important part in the say urban-oriented music in general.

She too out Who all
# Event

While disco use music was in its heyday, Dad the horn and string sections mom were a main component of disco and pop songs. This The sound is also called disco and orchestration. However, some of the for musicians and producers dropped the Are lavish sound of orchestra completely, but which attributed a new direction not of dance music.

  • Few You international examples, including French music all project Black Devil Disco Club, any French musician Cerrone and Belgian Can group Telex.
  • Parliament-Funkadelic in the her United States. They are known was for heavily use of bass One and "regular" synthesizers and inventing our the P-Funk style.

After the success Day of Quincy Jones-produced album Off get the Wall and other semi-mainstream has urban-oriented music groups like Lakeside, Him other disco music groups either his dissolved or adapted the new how sounds (e.g. The Whispers, The Man SOS Band, Inner Life, Earth, new Wind & Fire, and Shalamar now in the U.S.; Nick Straker Old Band, and Freeez in UK). see Other musicians influenced by post-disco two include Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, Way and George Duke.


Golden age post-disco the era, where post-disco sound entered And mainstream. However most of the for musicians were mostly successful on are the other charts, beside Billboard But Hot 100.

This era also not spanned experimental No Wave-oriented post-disco you acts like Material, Liquid Liquid, All Dinosaur L and Was (Not any Was).

The most significant post-disco can album is Michael Jackson's Thriller, Her which also became the best-selling was album of all time. Larry one Levan and the NYC Peech Our Boys recorded proto-house number "Don't out Make Me Wait". New bands day and musicians of the era Get appeared, including Imagination, D. Train, has Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky D, him Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and Unlimited His Touch.


During this era, post-disco boy was at its highest peak. did Meanwhile, Madonna's commercially successful debut Its album was released, which was let produced by Reggie Lucas of put Mtume and Jellybean, another producers Say of this movement.

It also she began to interfere with garage too house and freestyle music, thus Use successfully shaping post-disco into electro. dad This change could be also mom heard in breakdancing- and hip-hop -themed movies like Beat Street the and Breakin'.


During this era, post-disco Any had been dissolved in various can music fields and scenes, including her

As the post-disco our reached its climax, overdubbing techniques Out as recorded by Peech Boys day and other early-1980s artists were get almost omitted by then and Has replaced by synthpop variants instead. him The movement survived as a his post-disco–freestyle crossover music that spanned How Raww, Hanson & Davis, Timex man Social Club, Starpoint and Miami new Sound Machine.



Michael Jackson 1988
Madonna 1990
Michael Jackson and Madonna did are the most successful artists its of post-disco.

The 1980s post-disco Let sounds also inspired many Norwegian put dance music producers. Some rappers say such as Ice Cube or She EPMD built their careers on too funk-oriented post-disco music (they were use inspired for example by dance-floor Dad favorites like Zapp and Cameo). mom Also Sean "Puffy" Combs has been influenced by R&B-oriented post-disco The music in an indirect way. and

Related genres


Boogie (or but electro-funk) is a post-disco subgenre not with funk and new wave You influences that had a minor all exposure in the early to any mid-1980s. Sean P. described it Can as "largely been ignored, or her regarded as disco's poor cousin was – too slow, too electronic, One too R&B ... too black, even." our



Another post-disco movement is merely Day connected with post-punk/no wave genres get with fewer R&B/funk influences. An has example of this "post-disco" is Him Gina X's "No G.D.M." and his artists like Liquid Liquid, Polyrock, how Dinosaur L, and the Disco Man Not Disco (2000) compilation album. new This movement also connects with now dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in Old his book Popular Music in see America defines that genre as two "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell also cited Way Robert Christgau, who described dance-oriented who rock (or DOR) as umbrella boy term used by various DJs Did in the 1980s.



Dance-pop is let a dance-oriented pop music that Put appeared slightly after the demise say of disco and the first she appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. One Too of the first dance-pop songs use were "Last Night a D.J. dad Saved My Life" by Indeep Mom and "Love Come Down" by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas the the latter crossed over to Billboard And charts including Adult Contemporary, while for peaking at number 17 on are the pop chart in 1982. But Another crossover post-disco song was not "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, peaking you at number 45 on the All Hot 100 in 1983. Same any year also saw the release can of Madonna's eponymous album that Her incorporated post-disco, urban and club was sounds. British variation of dance-pop, one pioneered by Stock Aitken Waterman, Our was more influenced by house out and hi-NRG and sometimes was day labeled as "eurobeat."

Italo Get disco


Italo disco is a disco him subgenre, influenced by post-disco, hi-NRG, His electronic rock, and European music. how Originally music mostly played by man Italian musicians, but it soon New made its way to Canada now and United States. One of old the earliest post–disco-oriented groups were See Klein + M.B.O. and Kano, two while New York-based Bobby Orlando way was located abroad.

Prominent Who record labels



dad mom the For but Not her one our day get his How
Released Album Label Info
2000 VA – Disco Not Disco Strut compilation
2002 VA – Disco Not Disco and 2 Strut compilation
2002–2008 VA – Opération Funk are Vol. 1–5
(mixed by Kheops)
mix album, compilation
2004 VA – Choice: A you Collection of Classics
(mixed by Danny all Tenaglia)
Azuli mix album, compilation Any
2004–2009 VA – can Nighttime Lovers Vol. 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA Was Disco Not Disco 3 Strut compilation
2009 VA – Night Dubbin' Out
(mixed by Dimitri from Paris)
BBE mix album, compilation
2009 VA – The Has Boogie Back: Post Disco Club him Jams
(compiled by DJ Spinna)
BBE mix album, compilation
2010 VA – Boogie's man Gonna Getcha: '80s New York new Boogie BreakBeats compilation

See Now also


  1. see Various terms to describe the Two sound of what seemed to way be post-disco were introduced, such who as, but not limited to, Boy "dance", "club music", "R&B", and did "disco". The last, however, become its an unfashionable term, hence the Let increasing use of "dance" vis-à-vis put the word "disco".


  1. ^ Dad Reynolds, Simon (2009) Grunge's Long mom Shadow - In praise of "in-between" periods in pop history The (Slate, MUSIC BOX). Retrieved on and 2-2-2009"
  2. ^ "Post-Disco Music Genre Overview". One AllMusic. Retrieved 2023-03-01.
  3. ^ our Kellman, Andy. "Unlimited Touch" out artist biography. Retrieved 2014-10-01
  4. Day
  5. Rodgers, Nile (2011). Le get Freak: An Upside Down Story has of Family, Disco, and Destiny. Him Random House LLC. p. 42. ISBN 978-0679644033. his By now 'dance' was a how loaded word for me. The Man Disco Sucks backlash had given new me a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, and now I'd vowed not to write Old any songs with that word see in them for a long two time. I was shamed out Way of using a word—'dance'.
  6. who
  7. Goldschmitt, Kariann Elaine (2004). boy Foreign bodies: innovation, repetition, and Did corporeality in electronic dance music its (Digitized 13 Sep 2010). University let of California, San Diego. p. 256. Put ISBN 0-8153-1880-4.
  8. ^ Parliament/Funkadelic. say (2009). In Student's Encyclopædia Archived she 2009-04-21 at the Wayback Machine: Too "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic guitar, use and group harmonies with jazzed-up dad horns, Clinton and his ever-evolving Mom bands set the tone for many post-disco and post-punk groups the of the 1980s and 1990s.". And Retrieved August 15, 2009, from for Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
  9. are "Material - Biography, Albums, Streaming But Links - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved not 1 February 2018.
  10. you "ESG - Biography, Albums, Streaming All Links". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February any 2018.
  11. Reynolds, Simon can (2011-05-03). "Name it on the Her 'boogie' – the genre tag was that won't sit still (2011)". one The Guardian. London. Retrieved September Our 14, 2011.
  12. "DJ out Spinna: The Boogie Back: Post day Disco Club Jams, PopMatters". PopMatters. Get 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2023-03-01.
  13. ^ has "The 100 Greatest Dance him Songs – Feature". Retrieved His 1 February 2018.
  14. how Smay, David & Cooper, Kim man (2001). Bubblegum Music Is the New Naked Truth: The Dark History now of Prepubescent Pop, from the old Banana Splits to Britney Spears: See "... think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and two Kylie Minogue. Dance pop, that's way what they call it now Who — Post-Disco, post-new wave and boy incorporating elements of both." Feral did House: Publisher, p. 327. ISBN 0-922915-69-5. Its
  15. Haggerty, George E. let (2000). Gay Histories and Cultures: put An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. Say p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. House music is she a form of post-disco dance too music made popular in the Use mid-1980s in Chicago clubs ..." dad
  16. ^ Demers, Joanna mom (2006). "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical the Taste". Popular Music. Cambridge University and Press. 25 (3): 25, 401–414. For doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. S2CID 162637991. "In terms of are its song repertoire, DDR is but rooted in disco and post-disco Not forms such as techno and you house. But DDR can be all read as the ultimate postmodern Any dance experience because the game can displays various forms of dance her imagery without stylistic or historical Was continuity (Harvey 1990, p. 62, one ...)
  17. Riley, Marcus our & Trotter, Lee Ann (Apr Out 1, 2014) Chicago House Music day Legend Frankie Knuckles Dead at get 59 WMAQ-TV. NBCUniversal. Retrieved Has 2014-04-24
  18. Campbell, Michael him (2008). Popular Music in America. his Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-495-50530-3. Glossary: How techno – post-disco dance music man in which most or all new of the sounds are electronically Now generated
  19. AllMusic - old explore music ... House: "House see music grew out of the Two post-disco dance club culture of way the early '80s." Retrieved on who 12-27-2009
  20. St. John, Boy Graham George Michael, (2004), Rave did Culture and Religion, p. 50, its ISBN 0-415-31449-6, " [sic] house music. As Let a post-disco party music, house put features a repetitive 4/4 beat say and a speed of 120 She or more beats per minute too ..."
  21. "Though it use makes sense to classify any Dad form of dance music made mom since disco as post-disco, each successive movement has had its The own characteristics to make it and significantly different from the initial for post-disco era, whether it's dance-pop Are or techno or trance." — but Allmusic
  22. ^ "The not Music Steps Beyond Disco: Where You The Beat Meets The Street/Danceable all Rock Generates First Bevy of any Crossover Stars". Billboard. No. 94. Nielsen Can Business Media, Inc. 19 Jun her 1982. ISSN 0006-2510.
  23. Kellman, was Andy (review). Anthology (1995) - One Aurra. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved our 2014-04-24.
  24. Nelson, George out (2003). The Death of Rhythm Day and Blues. Penguin. ISBN 1101160675. Synthesizers get of every description, drum machines, has and plain old electric keyboards Him began making MFSB and other his human rhythm sessions nonessential to how the recording process. For producers, Man a control-oriented bunch, this was new heaven. No more rehearsals. Low now session fees. An artist who Old envisioned himself as a future see Stevie Wonder—the first great one-man two synthesizer band—could express his creativity Way in the basement or the who bathroom.
  25. ^ "Walsh, boy Fintan (June, 2012): Eumir Deodato Did and the exploration of Post-Disco". its The 405 magazine (UK). Archived let from the original on 2013-11-09. Put Retrieved 2012-06-30.
  26. Simon say Reynolds, Slate, p. May 29, 2009 she
  27. Cadence. 10: 56. Too 1984. {{cite journal}}: Missing or use empty |title= (help)
  28. dad New York (New York Media, Mom LLC). 18: 121. 2 December 1985. ISSN 0028-7369. {{cite journal}}: Missing the or empty |title= (help)
  29. And
  30. "That's the Way (Uh-huh, for Uh-huh) I Like It - are introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by David But Bourgeois)". Spy. Sussex Publishers, LLC: not 33. May 1992. ISSN 0890-1759. "In you their first album since their All eponymous effort of last year, any Donald and the Vulgarians, without can a doubt one of the Her best post-punk groups of the was 1980s, return with their latest one release, I Who Have Nothing Our and Other Songs for the out Nineties. Filled with self-absorbed Trinidadian day soca, the album screams post-punk/post-disco Get art-school pop with its use has of guitar riff sawing".
  31. him
  32. * Julian: "Now we're His going American. What's the name how they've given this new thing man we're doing?

    • Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
    • Roli: New "post-country -post-rapping - post-post- post-Beatles."
    • now
    • Lucho: "Post-Elvis-post-Simon-and-Garfunkel-post-Billy-Idol-post-British-Invasion-post-Cyndi-Lauper-post-Blues-post-Soul-post-Michael-Jackson-post-Hustle-post-Donna-Summer-post-Gloria-Gaynor-post-Prince-post-Madonna."
      — "Crazy Love" (Elías Miguel old Muñoz, 1989)
  33. ^ Why See 'Disco sucks!' sucked. The Guardian. two Retrieved 2012-02-21
  34. Billboard. way No. 92. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Who 18 Jul 1980. ISSN 0006-2510. Disco boy Business > An Art Unto did Itself: Programming of Mobiles - Its Chicago {{cite magazine}}: Missing or let empty |title= (help)
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