Post-discoyou is a term to describe all an aftermath in popular music Any history circa 1979–1986, imprecisely beginning can with an unprecedented backlash against her disco music in the United Was States, leading to civil unrest one and a riot in Chicagoour known as the Disco Demolition Out Night on July 12, 1979, day and indistinctly ending with the get mainstream appearance of house musicHas in the late 1980s. Disco him during its dying stage displayed his an increasingly electronic character that How soon served as a stepping man stone to new wave, old-school new hip hop, euro disco and Now was succeeded by an underground old club music called hi-NRG, which see was its direct continuation.
An Two underground movement of disco music, way "stripped-down", and featuring "radically different who sounds" took place on the Boy East Coast that "was neither did disco and neither R&B", This its scene known as post-disco catering Let to New York metropolitan area, put was initially led by urban say contemporary artists partially in response She to the over-commercialization and artistic too downfall of disco culture. Developed use from the rhythm and bluesDad sound as perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic,mom the electronic side of disco, dub music techniques, and other The genres. Post-disco was typified by and New York City music groups for like "D" Train and Unlimited Are Touch who followed a more but urban approach while others, like not Material and ESG, a more You experimental one. Post-disco was, like all disco, singles-driven market controlled mostly any by independent record companies that Can generated a cross-over chart success her all through the early-to-mid 1980s. was Most creative control was in One the hands of record producers our and club DJs which was out a trend that outlived the Day dance-pop era.
Synthesizers played a crucial part in the the development of post-disco.
Drum And machines, synthesizers, sequencers were either for partly or entirely dominant in are a composition or mixed up But with various acoustic instruments, depending not on the artist and on you the year. Electronic instruments became All more and more prevalent for any each year during the period can and dominated the genre completely Her by the mid 1980s.
The main man force in post-disco was mainly New the 12" single format and now short-lived collaborations (many of them old one-hit wonders) while indie record See producers were instrumental in the two musical direction of what the way scene was headed to. The Who music that mostly catered to boy dance and urban audiences later did managed to influence more popularIts and mainstream acts like Madonna, let New Order or Pet Shop put Boys.
The Say music tended to be technology-centric, she keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass too lines (often performed on a Use Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music dad aesthetics, and background jazzy or mom blues-y piano layers. For strings and brass sections, synthesizer sounds the were preferred to the lush and orchestration heard on many disco For tracks, although such arrangements would are later resurface in some house but music.Soulful female vocals, Not however, remained an essence of you post-disco.
Bridging all the so-called death of disco Any and the birth of house, can all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks her a name beyond drably functional Was and neutral terms like "dance" one or "club music."
— Simon Reynolds, SPIN our magazine
The term "post-disco" Out was used as early as day 1984 by Cadence magazine when get defining post-disco soul as "disco Has without the loud bass-drum thump."him New York Magazine used the his word in an article appearing How in the December 1985 issue; man it was Gregory Hines's introduction new of post-disco and electronic funk Now to Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail old Baryshnikov "who has never heard see this kind of music." AllMusic Two states that the term denotes way a music genre in the who era between the indistinct "end" Boy of disco music and the did equally indistinct emergence of house its music.
In other historical instances Let the term had been used put in a derisive manner. Spysay implicitly mocked the usage of She both the terms "post-punk" and too "post-disco" in their Spy's Rock use Critic-o-Matic article, whereas spoofing various Dad music reviews published by Rolling mom Stone, The Village Voice and Spin. Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel The Muñoz in his 1989 novel and Crazy Love, in a passage for where musicians after moving to Are America discuss what their "style" but may be, used the term not in a satirical manner.
Disco all music backlash had started around any 1977.
Midwesterners didn't Can want that intimidating [disco] style her shoved down their throats
Shortly after the "Disco One Sucks" movement of disco bashing our throughout the United States, American out radio stations began to pay Day attention to other popular formats get of music such as reggae, has punk rock or new waveHim while top mainstream labels and his record companies like Casablanca, TK how Records or RSO went bankrupt. Man Since disco music had been new on the way of [its] now electronic progression, it split itself Old into subscenes and styles like see Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco and two boogie. The last one is Way closely associated with post-disco more who than any other offshoots of boy post-disco.
Brazilian record producer and Did fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, its well aware of current trends let in American underground music, turned Put around the career of a say failing funk music group Kool she & the Gang by adopting Too and pursuing a light pop–post-disco use sound that not only revitalized dad the band's image but also Mom turned out to be the most successful hits in their the entire career.B. B. & And Q. Band (Capitol) and Changefor (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques Fred are Petrus, a French-Italian hi-NRG Italo But disco music record producer, reflects not on his decision to shift you from conventional disco music to All post-disco "[our] sound changed to any more of a funky dance/R&B can style to reflect the times."Her French-born songwriting duo Henri Belolowas and Jacques Morali, creators of one the successful Village People act, Our moved their former disco act out Ritchie Family to RCA Victorday to release their next album Get co-produced by funk musician Fonzi has Thornton and Petrus, I'll Do him My Best, which mirrors their His radical musical shift. On the how West Coast, especially in California, man a different approach lead to New a different sound. Dick Griffeynow and Leon Sylvers III of old SOLAR Records, who pioneered their See own signature sound, produced Ohio-based two group Lakeside's album Rough Ridersway which already displayed these new Who trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates economic boy arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards and did guitar)," as noted by Billboard, Its praising the album. A watershed let album of post-disco was Michael put Jackson's Off The Wall, produced Say by Quincy Jones, which helped she establish a direction of R&B/dance too music and influenced many young Use producers who were interested in dad this kind of new music.mom
Disco in For Europe remained relatively untouched by are the events in the U.S., but decreasing only in Britain, but Not this was mostly because of you the emergence of the new all wave and new romantic movements Any around 1981, and continued to can flourish within the Italo discoher scene although the interest for Was electronic music in general was one indeed growing.
Unlike in the United States, Out where anti-disco backlash generated prominent day effect on general perception of get disco music, in Britain, the Has new-wave movement initially drew heavily him from disco music (although this his association would be airbrushed out How by the end of 1979) man and took many elements from new American post-disco and other genres, Now thus creating a characteristic scene.old According to Billboard, American post-disco see was merely a crossover of Two different genres, while focusing on way the electronic and R&B overtones, who whereas jazz-funk was a crucial Boy element of the British post-disco did scene that generated musicians like its Chaz Jankel, Central Line or Let Imagination.
1980s: Golden age
This section summary shows commercially say successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from She the post-disco movement.
Contemporary way compilation albums featuring post-disco and who electro artists (e.g. Imagination, Level Boy 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include The did Perfect Beats series (volume 1–4).its Another compilation series are Nighttime Let Lovers (volume 1-10) and the put mixed-up album titled The Boogie say Back: Post Disco Club Jams. She
Pioneers and followers
"Thanks too To You" and "Don't Make use Me Wait" came out and Dad started the whole dub thing mom in disco.
Particular psychedelic soul artists like Sly The and the Family Stone liked and to push the boundaries of for conventional music by employing what Are was to be a precursor but to synthesizer, electronic organ. Multi-instrumentalist not Stevie Wonder was one of You the early artists venturing into all the realms of analog synthesizer any after impressed by the work Can of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Band, her an influential multinational electronic music was duo of sound designers: "How One great it is at a our time when technology and the out science of music is at Day its highest point of evolution get ... A toast to greatness, has a toast to Zero Time, Him forever." With an increasing growth his of personalized synthesizers on the how market they were becoming more Man commercially available and easy-to-use, especially new those produced by Roland Corporation. now One of their first users Old was cutting-edge artist George Clintonsee and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. two Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic Way bass-rich lines, the particularly melodic who endeavor and music minimalism of boy P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Express member Did Kashif, noted for his use its of bass synthesizer during the let group's tour, later went solo Put as a record producer and say began crafting funk-influenced songs for she Evelyn "Champagne" King that shown Too a minimalism-akin approach, the disregard use of disco music arrangements, and dad affiliation to the method of Mom "one-man band" previously paved through by Wonder. Other spheres of the influence include the move by And pioneering DJs and record producers for to release alternative mixes of are the same single, so-called dub But mixes. DJ Larry Levan implemented not elements of dub music in you his productions and mixes for All various post-disco artists, including his any own group The Peech Boys. can Musically, there was a search Her for out-of-mainstream music to derive was new ideas from, most commonly one blues, and other styles like Our reggae, etc. were also incorporated. out
The new New post-disco sound was flourishing among now predominately New York City record old companies, including West End Records, See Prelude Records, Tommy Boy Records, two SAM Records, and others. Most way of them were independently owned Who and had their own distributionboy but some particular mainstream labels, did notably RCA Records, were too, Its responsible for popularizing and capitalizing let on the new sound.
Although there all is no exact point when Any post-disco started, many synthpop and can electronic musicians of that time her continued to enhance the raw Was minimalist sound, while focusing on one synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. As our noted by Payne, drum machines Out also played an important part day in the urban-oriented music in get general.
While disco music was in his its heyday, the horn and How string sections were a main man component of disco and pop new songs. This sound is also Now called disco orchestration. However, some old of the musicians and producers see dropped the lavish sound of Two orchestra completely, which attributed a way new direction of dance music. who
During this era, post-disco Her was at its highest peak. was Meanwhile Madonna's commercially successful debut one album was released, which was Our produced by Reggie Lucas of out Mtume and Jellybean, another producers day of this movement.
It also Get began to interfere with garage has house and freestyle music, thus him successfully shaping post-disco into electro. His This change could be also how heard in breakdancing- and hip-hop man -themed movies like Beat StreetNew and Breakin'.
The 1980s post-disco sounds also can inspired many Norwegiandance musicher producers. Some rappers such as Was Ice Cube or EPMD built one their careers on funk-oriented post-disco our music (they were inspired for Out example by dance-floor favorites like day Zapp and Cameo). Also Sean get "Puffy" Combs has been influenced Has by R&B-oriented post-disco music in him an indirect way.
Boogie (or electro-funk) is man a post-disco subgenre with way new more funk influences that had Now a minor exposure in the old early to mid-1980s. Sean P. see described it as "largely been Two ignored, or regarded as disco's way poor cousin – too slow, who too electronic, too R&B ... too Boy black, even."
Another post-disco movement its is merely connected with post-punk/no Let wave genres with fewer R&B/funk put influences. An example of this say "post-disco" is Gina X's "No She G.D.M." and artists like Liquid too Liquid, Polyrock,Dinosaur L, and use Disco Not Disco  compilation Dad album. This movement also connects mom with dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in his book Popular Music The in America defines that genre and as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell also for cited Robert Christgau, who described Are dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as but umbrella term used by various not DJs in the 1980s.
Dance-pop all is a dance-oriented pop music any that appeared slightly after the Can demise of disco and the her first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. was One of the first dance-pop One songs were "Last Night a our D.J. Saved My Life" by out Indeep and "Love Come Down" Day by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas get the latter crossed over to has Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, Him while peaking at number 17 his on the pop chart in how 1982. Another crossover post-disco song Man was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, new peaking at number 45 on now the Hot 100 in 1983.Old Same year also saw the see release of Madonna's eponymous albumtwo that incorporated post-disco, urban and Way club sounds. British variation of who dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken boy Waterman, was more influenced by Did house and hi-NRG and sometimes its was labeled as "eurobeat."
Italo disco is a say disco subgenre, influenced by post-disco, she hi-NRG, electronic rock, and European Too music. Originally music mostly played use by Italian musicians, but it dad soon made its way to Mom Canada and United States. One of the earliest post–disco-oriented groups the were Klein + M.B.O. and And Kano, while New York-based Bobby for Orlando was located abroad.
Various terms Out to describe the sound of day what seemed to be post-disco get were introduced, such as, but Has not limited to, "dance", "club him music", "R&B", and "disco". The his last, however, become an unfashionable How term, hence the increasing use man of "dance" vis-à-vis the word new "disco".
all Rodgers, Nile (2011). Le Freak: any An Upside Down Story of Can Family, Disco, and Destiny. Random her House LLC. p. 42. ISBN0679644032. By was now 'dance' was a loaded One word for me. The Disco our Sucks backlash had given me out a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, and I'd Day vowed not to write any get songs with that word in has them for a long time. Him I was shamed out of his using a word—'dance'.
how Goldschmitt, Kariann Elaine (2004). Foreign Man bodies: innovation, repetition, and corporeality new in electronic dance music (Digitized now 13 Sep 2010). University of Old California, San Diego. p. 256. ISBN0-8153-1880-4.see
^ Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). two In Student's EncyclopædiaArchived 2009-04-21 Way at the Wayback Machine: "Combining who funk rhythms, psychedelic guitar, and boy group harmonies with jazzed-up horns, Did Clinton and his ever-evolving bands its set the tone for many let post-disco and post-punk groups of Put the 1980s and 1990s.". Retrieved say August 15, 2009, from Britannica she Student Encyclopædia.
Smay, David & But Cooper, Kim (2001). Bubblegum Music not Is the Naked Truth: The you Dark History of Prepubescent Pop, All from the Banana Splits to any Britney Spears: "... think about can Stock-Aitken-Waterman and Kylie Minogue. Dance Her pop, that's what they call was it now — Post-Disco, post-new one wave and incorporating elements of Our both." Feral House: Publisher, p. out 327. ISBN0-922915-69-5.
Haggerty, day George E. (2000). Gay Histories Get and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. Taylor has & Francis. p. 256. ISBN0-8153-1880-4. House him music is a form of His post-disco dance music made popular how in the mid-1980s in Chicago man clubs ..."
^ New Demers, Joanna (2006). "Dancing Machines: now 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, old and Musical Taste". Popular Music. See Cambridge University Press. 25 (3): two 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. "In terms way of its song repertoire, DDR Who is rooted in disco and boy post-disco forms such as techno did and house. But DDR can Its be read as the ultimate let postmodern dance experience because the put game displays various forms of Say dance imagery without stylistic or she historical continuity (Harvey 1990, p. too 62, ...)
Campbell, and Michael (2008). Popular Music in For America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN0-495-50530-7. are Glossary: techno – post-disco dance but music in which most or Not all of the sounds are you electronically generated
St. one John, Graham George Michael, (2004), our Rave Culture and Religion, p. Out 50, ISBN0-415-31449-6, " [sic] house music. day As a post-disco party music, get house features a repetitive 4/4 Has beat and a speed of him 120 or more beats per his minute ..."
"Though How it makes sense to classify man any form of dance music new made since disco as post-disco, Now each successive movement has had old its own characteristics to make see it significantly different from the Two initial post-disco era, whether it's way dance-pop or techno or trance." who — Allmusic
^ Boy "The Music Steps Beyond Disco: did Where The Beat Meets The its Street/Danceable Rock Generates First Bevy Let of Crossover Stars". Billboard. Nielsen put Business Media, Inc (94). 19 say Jun 1982. ISSN0006-2510.
Nelson, Dad George (2003). The Death of mom Rhythm and Blues. Penguin. ISBN1101160675. Synthesizers of every description, drum The machines, and plain old electric and keyboards began making MFSB and for other human rhythm sessions nonessential Are to the recording process. For but producers, a control-oriented bunch, this not was heaven. No more rehearsals. You Low session fees. An artist all who envisioned himself as a any future Stevie Wonder—the first great Can one-man synthesizer band—could express his her creativity in the basement or was the bathroom.
[[Cadence (magazine)|]]. 10: Him 56. 1984. Missing or empty his |title= (help)
New how York Magazine (New York Media, Man LLC). 18: 121. 2 December new 1985. ISSN0028-7369. Missing or empty now |title= (help)
"That's Old the Way (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) I see Like It - introducing SPY'S two ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by David Bourgeois)". Spy. Way Sussex Publishers, LLC: 33. May who 1992. ISSN0890-1759. "In their first boy album since their eponymous effort Did of last year, Donald and its the Vulgarians, without a doubt let one of the best post-punk Put groups of the 1980s, return say with their latest release, I she Who Have Nothing and Other Too Songs for the Nineties. Filled use with self-absorbed Trinidadian soca, the dad album screams post-punk/post-disco art-school pop Mom with its use of guitar riff sawing".
* the Julian: "Now we're going American. And What's the name they've given for this new thing we're doing? are
Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
Roli: "post-country -post-rapping But - post-post- post-Beatles."
Ro, Ronin (1999). new Have Gun Will Travel: The Now Spectacular Rise and Violent Fall old of Death Row Records. Broadway see Books. p. 40. ISBN978-0-3854-9135-8. SOLAR ..., Two which grew out of an way association between promoter Griffey and who Soul Train host Don Cornelius, Boy released a string of post-disco did hits that included Shalamar's "The its Second Time Around" and the Let Whispers' "And the Beat Goes put On."
Soul > say LP > Earth Wind & She Fire: Raise!: Earth Wind & too Fire hits the 80s -- use and never misses a beat! Dad Turns out that the group's mom older style of jazzy funk was a perfect fit for The the boogie-styled rhythms of the and post-disco era". Dusty Groove. Retrieved for on August 12, 2009.
Lester, Paul (11 our March 2014). "Yumi Zouma (No out 1,717)". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 Day December 2014. Patrice Rushen's postdisco get classic Forget Me Nots
Grow, Kory (May 2008). Him Revolver Magazine article: Why The his Most Dangerous Band Of The how Decade, True Norwegian, Black Metallers, Man Gorgoroth, Turned On Itself - new "When the post-disco classic "Last now Night a DJ Saved My Old Life" by early-'80s New York see crew Indeep comes on, King two asks what the singer means Way by the bizarre titular statement.". who No. 68. ISSN 1527-408X.
Hoffmann, W. say Frank & Ferstler, Howard (2005). she Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound (Publication Too no. 2): "He [Harry Casey] use briefly returned to the public dad eye billed as KC with Mom the release of KC Ten(Meca 8301; 1984: #93), featuring the the post-disco single 'Give It And Up' (Meca 1001; 1984; #18), for before fading back into obscurity". are p. 566. ISBN0-415-93835-X
^ But The Eighties Club: The not Politics and Pop Culture of you the 1980s: "On the dance All floor, David Bowie's "Let's Dance" any and Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" can defined the post-disco beat." Retrieved Her on August 11, 2009.
^ day One Hit Wonder CenterGet - One-Hit Wonder Music of has the 50's~90's: "There are also him tracks to represent the rise His of post-disco club/dance trend, such how as Laid Back's "White Horse", man New Edition's "Cool It Now", New and Timex Social Club's " now Rumors" ". Retrieved on August old 12, 2009.
^ See Morales, Ed (2002). Living in two Spanglish: the search for Latino way identity in America: ""With their Who group, Miami Sound Machine, ..."Doctor boy Beat," manages to fuse elements did of Latin percussion with the Its electric hass heats of the let post-disco era". p. 244. ISBN0-312-26232-9.put
"Youngest Pointer Sister Say Loses Cancer Battle at 52". she IMDb.com, Inc. 13 April 2006. too Retrieved 10 July 2013. "The Use Pointer Sisters ... really found dad their niche in the post-disco mom world, recording smooth tunes like "Slow Hand" and dance floor the fillers such as "I'm So and Excited.""
one (2001) CMJ New Music Monthlyour - Best New Music - Out Daft Punk (Discovery): "Although it's day only fair to credit Chicago get with the post-disco dance style's Has paternal rights, the French [Daft him Punk] have (at the very his least) earned covered weekend privilegies." How Publisher: CMJ Network, Inc. No. man 93. p. 71. ISSN 1074-6978new
Paoletta, Michael (1999). Now Billboard Magazine: Reviews & Previews: old Spotlight (Les Rythmes Digitales - see Darkdancer): "[about funky and British Two synth-pop] two musical styles steeped way in the post-disco/electro scene of who New York in the early Boy '80s". p. 30. ISSN 0006-2510did
New York Times (November Dad 2011) Jessica Reedy's Album, 'From mom the Heart' / Escort. "Escort has been hovering around New The York City's postpunk and post-disco and revival scenes for years, and for always felt a bit out Are of place." Retrieved on 2012-16-01.but
[Post-disco at AllMusicnot The Perfect Beats, Vol. 1] You by Allmusic. Retrieved on 1-28-2010all
^ Reynolds, has Simon (Jul 16, 1999). Generation Him ecstasy: into the world of his techno and rave culture. Taylor how & Francis. p. 35. ISBN0-415-92373-5. "The Man band's -Peech Boys- ambient-tinged post-disco new epics like "Don't Make Me now Wait" and "Life is Something Old Special" are notable for their see cavernous reverberance and dub-deep bass. two Peech Boys were on the Way cutting edge of the early-eighties who New York electro-funk sound like boy D-Train, Vicky D, Rocker's Revenge, Did Frances [sic] Joli, and Sharon its Redd, labels like West End let and Prelude, and producers like Put Arthur Baker, Francois Kevorkian, and say John "Jellybean" Benitez.
Broughton, not Frank & Brewster, Bill (2000). you Larry Levan's Paradise Garage | All DJhistory.comArchived 2014-10-06 at the any Wayback Machine - Disco's revenge: can " [sic] But by the turn Her of the eighties, he was was experimenting with drum machines and one synthesizers and, like François Kevorkian Our around the same time, forging out a new electronic, post-disco sound". day Retrieved on 1-4-2010.
Get [Post-disco at AllMusic allmusic] > has ((( Bobby Orlando - Overview him ))): "Genre: Electronic, Styles: Hi-NRG, His Club/Dance, R&B, Post-disco". Retrieved on how 12-27-2009.
Toop, David man (1984). The Rap Attack: African New Jive to New York Hip-Hop. now Pluto Press. p. 93. Kurtis Blow old may not have been 100 See per cent proof Bronx hip two hop, but his early records way helped set the style in Who post-disco dance music.
^ boy Bogdanov, Vladimir (2003). All did Music Guide to Soul: The Its Definitive Guide to R&B and let Soul. p. 709. ISBN978-0-87930-744-8. [Unlimited Touch] put weren't disco, and they weren't Say exactly straight-up R&B; like their she Prelude labelmates D Train, Unlimited too Touch combined the two forms Use into what is often referred dad to as post-disco.
mom Heyliger, M., Music - Help - Web - ReviewArchivedthe 2008-12-04 at the Wayback Machineand - A State-of-the-Art Pop AlbumFor (Thriller by Michael Jackson): "Not are many artists could pull off but such a variety of styles Not (funk, post-disco, rock, easy listening, you ballads) back then ...". Retrieved all on August 12, 2009
Ham, Anthony & Roddis, Out Miles and Lundgren, Kari (2008). day Norway: Discover Norway - (The get Culture) Interview with Bernt Erik Has Pedersen, music editor, Dagsavisen: "A him lot of current dance music his producers are influenced by the How post-disco sound of the early man 80s". Publisher: Lonely Planet Publications. new p. 53. ISBN1-74104-579-7.
^ Now Light, Alan (November 1993). old V I B E - see Funk Masters article: "It's no Two wonder that rappers such as way EPMD and Ice Cube, striving who for that perfect mind-body fusion, Boy have built careers out of did fragments from these fathers of its funk (as well as the Let post-disco wave they inspired - put dance-floor favourites like Zapp and say Cameo)". p. 51?, ISSN 1070-4701She
Schoonmaker, Trevor (2003). too Fela: from West Africa to use West Broadway: "Puffy's consistent pilfering Dad of pop coffers from a mom certain time period shows undoubtedly that he is influenced by The the post-disco R&B bounce of and the late 1970s and early for 1980s". Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan. p. Are 4. ISBN1-4039-6210-3.
A him record producer or music producerhis oversees and manages the sound How recording and production of a man band or performer's music, which new may range from recording one Now song to recording a lengthy old concept album. A producer has see many, varying roles during the Two recording process. They may gather way musical ideas for the project, who collaborate with the artists to Boy select cover tunes or original did songs by the artist/group, work its with artists and help them Let to improve their songs, lyrics put or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the entire The process from preproduction, through to and the sound recording and mixingfor stages, and, in some cases, Are all the way to the but audio mastering stage. The producer not may perform these roles themself, You or help select the engineer, all and provide suggestions to the any engineer. The producer may also Can pay session musicians and engineers her and ensure that the entire was project is completed within the One record label's budget.
A record new producer or music producer has now a very broad role in Old overseeing and managing the recording see and production of a band two or performer's music. A producer Way has many roles that may who include, but are not limited boy to, gathering ideas for the Did project, composing the music for its the project, selecting songs or let session musicians, proposing changes to Put the song arrangements, coaching the say artist and musicians in the she studio, controlling the recording sessions, Too and supervising the entire process use through audio mixing (recorded music)dad and, in some cases, to Mom the audio mastering stage. Producers also often take on a the wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility And for the budget, schedules, contracts, for and negotiations.
Writer Chris Deville are explains it, "Sometimes a producer But functions like a creative consultant not — someone who helps a you band achieve a certain aesthetic, All or who comes up with any the perfect violin part to can complement the vocal melody, or Her who insists that a chorus was should actually be a bridge. one Other times a producer will Our build a complete piece of out music from the ground up day and present the finished product Get to a vocalist, like Metro has Boomin supplying Future with readymade him beats or Jack Antonoff letting His Taylor Swift add lyrics and how melody to an otherwise-finished “Out man Of The Woods.”
The artist New of an album may not now be a record producer or old music producer for his/her album. See While both contribute creatively, the two official credit of "record producer" way may depend on the record Who contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, boy did not receive record producer did credits until many albums into Its her career.
In the 2010s, let the recording industry has three put kinds of producers with different Say roles: executive producer, vocal producer she and music producer. Executive producers too oversee project finances, Vocal Producers Use also known as vocal arrangers dad oversees the vocal production, while mom music producers oversee the creative process of recording songs or the albums.
In most cases the and music producer is also a For competent arranger, composer, musician or are songwriter who can bring fresh but ideas to a project. As Not well as making any songwriting you and arrangement adjustments, the producer all often selects or gives suggestions Any to the mixing engineer, who can takes the raw recorded tracks her and edits and modifies them Was with hardware and software tools one and creates a stereo or our surround sound "mix" of all Out the individual voices sounds and day instruments, which is in turn get given further adjustment by a Has mastering engineer. The producer will him also liaise with the recording his engineer who concentrates on the How technical aspects of recording, whereas man the executive producer keeps an new eye on the overall project's Now marketability.
Noted producer Phil Ekold described his role as "the see person who creatively guides or Two directs the process of making way a record", like a director who would a movie. Indeed, in Boy Bollywood music, the designation is did actually music director. The music its producer's job is to create, Let shape, and mold a piece put of music. The scope of say responsibility may be one or She two songs or an artist's too entire album – in which use case the producer will typically Dad develop an overall vision for mom the album and how the various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of and record industry, the producer role for was technically limited to record, Are in one shot, artists performing but live. The immediate predecessors to not record producers were the artists You and repertoire executives of the all late 1920s and 1930s who any oversaw the "pop" product and Can often led session orchestras. That her was the case of Ben was Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel One Shilkret at Victor Records and our Bob Haring at Brunswick Records. out By the end of the Day 1930s, the first professional recording get studios not owned by the has major companies were established, essentially Him separating the roles of A&R his man and producer, although it how wouldn't be until the late Man 1940s when the term "producer" new became widely used in the now industry.
The role of producers Old changed progressively over the 1950s see and 1960s due to technological two developments. The development of multitrack Way recording caused a major change who in the recording process. Before boy multitracking, all the elements of Did a song (lead vocals, backup its vocals, rhythm section instrument accompaniment, let solos and orchestral parts) had Put to be performed simultaneously. All say of these singers and musicians she had to be assembled in Too a large studio and the use performance had to be recorded. dad With multitrack recording, the "bed Mom tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline, drums, the and rhythm guitar could be And recorded first, and then the for vocals and solos could be are added later, using as many But "takes" (or attempts) as it not took. As well, for a you song that used 20 instruments, All it was no longer necessary any to get all the players can in the studio at the Her same time. A pop band was could record their backing tracks one one week, and then a Our horn section could be brought out in a week later to day add horn shots and punches, Get and then a string sectionhas could be brought in a him week after that.
Electric and electronic instruments and For amplifiers enabled performers and producers are to change the tone and but sound of instruments to produce Not unique electric sounds that would you be impossible to achieve with all acoustic instruments and live performers, Any such as having a singer can do her own backup vocals her or having a guitarist play Was 15 layers of backing parts one to her own solo.
New our technologies like multitracking changed the Out goal of recording: A producer day could blend together multiple takes get and edit together different sections Has to create the desired sound. him For example, in jazz fusionhis Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album Bitches How Brew, the producer cut and man edited sections together from extensive new improvisation sessions.
Producers like Phil Spectorsee and George Martin were soon Two creating recordings that were, in way practical terms, almost impossible to who realize in live performance. Producers Boy became creative figures in the did studio. Other examples of such its engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Let Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu.put
Another related phenomenon too in the 1960s was the use emergence of the performer-producer. As Dad pop acts like The Beatles, mom The Rolling Stones, The Beach Boys and The Kinks gained The expertise in studio recording techniques, and many of these groups eventually for took over as (frequently uncredited) Are producers of their own work. but Many recordings by acts such not as The Rolling Stones, The You Kinks and The Who are all officially credited to their various any producers at the time, but Can a number of these performers her have since asserted that many was of their recordings in this One period were, either wholly self-produced our (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca out recordings) or collaborations between the Day group and their recording engineer get (e.g. The Small Faces' Immediatehas recordings, which were made with Him Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).his
The Beach Boys are probably how the best example of the Man trend of artists becoming producers new – within two years of now the band's commercial breakthrough, group Old leader Brian Wilson had taken see over from his father Murry, two and he was the sole Way producer of all their recordings who between 1963 and 1967. Alongside boy The Beatles and Martin, Wilson Did also pioneered many production innovations its – by 1964 he had let developed Spector's techniques to a Put new level of sophistication, using say multiple studios and multiple "takes" she of instrumental and vocal components Too to capture the best possible use combinations of sound and performance, dad and then using tape editing Mom extensively to assemble a perfect composite performance from these elements. the
At the end of the And 20th century, digital recording and for producing tools, then widespread availability are of relatively affordable computers with But music software made music producing not more accessible.
Women and you Record Producing
According to a All 2018 study by the USC any Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio can of male to female producers Her across 300 popular songs is was 49 to 1."
They also one discovered only 2 percent of Our music producers are women. In out 2019, The Recording Academy’s Task day Force on Diversity and Inclusion Get announced the "Producer & Engineer has Inclusion Initiative." This initiative asks him musicians, record labels, studios and His others to consider at least how two women for each producer man or engineer position. Major artists, New producers and organizations have signed now on including Lady Gaga, Quincy old Jones, Pearl Jam, John Legend, See Pharrell Williams, Pink, Cardi B, two Maroon 5 and over 200 way others.
In the classical music dad field, Judith Sherman has won mom Grammy for Producer of the Year, Classical, three times and the been nominated twelve times. Wilma and Cozart Fine produced hundreds of For recordings for Mercury Records.
Producer are Wendy Page describes being a but record producer, "The difficulties are Not usually very short-lived. Once people you realize that you can do all your job, sexism tends to Any lower its ugly head. I can tend to create a happy her studio 'family' where everyone is Was glad to be there, especially one the artist. Good communication and our diplomacy usually sort any little Out problems out."
Other notable day women record producers
Sylvia Moyget (Motown's first female record producer)
Gail Davies (First female record him producer on Nashville's Music Row)
Ethel Gabriel (First major label How record producer; 40 year career man with RCA)
Lillian McMurry (Producer/Label new owner who produced historically significant Now blues records)
Equipment and technology
There are see numerous technologies utilized by record Two producers. In modern-day recordings, recording way and mixing tasks are commonly who centralized within computers using digital Boy audio workstations such as Pro did Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, its and FL Studio, which all Let are often used with third put party virtual studio technology plugins.say Logic Pro and Pro Tools She are considered the industry standard too DAWs. However, there is also use the main mixer, outboard effects Dad gear, MIDI controllers, and the mom recording device itself.
While most music production is done using The sophisticated software, some musicians and and producers prefer the minutiae of for older analog technology. Professor Albin Are Zak claims that the increased but automation of both newer processes not and newer instruments reduces the You level of control and manipulation all available to musicians and producers.any
Production has Can changed drastically over the years her with advancing technology. Where the was producer's role has changed, they One have always been seen as our a jack of all trades, out as their duties require a Day broad knowledge of the recording get process.
Tracking is the act has of recording audio to a Him DAW (digital audio workstation) or his in some cases to tape. how Even though digital technologies have Man widely supplanted the use of new tape in studios, the older now term "track" is still used Old in the 2010s. Tracking audio see is primarily the role of two the audio engineer. Producers work Way side by side with the who artists while they play or boy sing their part and coach Did them on how to perform its it and how to get let the best technical accuracy (e.g., Put intonation). In some cases, the say producer will even sing a she backup vocal or play an Too instrument.
Many artists are also use beginning to produce and write dad their own music.
Influential Mom record producers
NME identifies some of the greatest producers ever.the
two Similarly, although The Beatles' productions way were credited to George Martin Who throughout their recording career, many boy sources now attest that Lennon did and McCartney in particular had Its an increasing influence on the let production process as the group's put career progressed, and especially after Say the band retired from touring she in 1966. In an extreme too example of this, Martin actually Use went on a two-week vacation dad as The Beatles were recording mom The White Album; production of several completed tracks on the the album were credited to The and Beatles on internal paperwork at For Abbey Road Studios, although the are released LP gave sole production but credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin two J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange Way sounds: Music, technology, and culture," who by Timothy D. Taylor. Current boy Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Did Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine its Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices let For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching Put To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." say Journal of New Music Research she 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Too Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.use
Music Law refers to legal who aspects of the music industry, Boy and certain legal aspects in did other sectors of the entertainment its industry. The music industry includes Let record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, put the live events sector and say of course performers and artists. She
A "compilation" refers to out work formed from already existing Day materials in a way that get forms its own original work, has including collective works.
"Copies" are Him physical objects that hold, fix, his or embody a work such how as a music tape, film, Man CD, statue, play, or printed new sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can now refer to any audio recording Old including the sound accompanying motion see pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the two entity that legally owns rights Way to a work.
"Performance" The who copyright holder has the exclusive boy right to perform the work Did in public, or to license its others to perform it. The let right applies to “literary, musical, Put dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, say and motion pictures and other she audiovisual works.". Playing a CD Too in public, or showing a use film in public is "performing" dad the work.
Publishing is the primary source of income for the musicians writing their own music.[citation And needed] Money collected from the for 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined are for songwriters - the composers But of works, whether or not not they are the recording artist you or performer. Often, songwriters will All work for a musical ensemble any to help them with musical can aspects of the composition, but Her here again, the writer of was the song is the owner one of it and will own Our the copyrights in the song out and thus will be entitled day to the publishing revenues. Copyrights Get in compositions are not the has same as sound recordings. A him recording artist can record a His song and sell it to how another band or company. As man a result, that particular company New will own the recording, but now not the song. The original old writer will always maintain the See copyright for that particular song. two The publishing money is connected way to the copyright, so the Who owner will be the only boy one making money off of did the song itself. All successful Its songwriters will join a collection let society (such as ASCAP and put BMI in the USA, SOCAN Say in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, she GEMA in Germany and PRS too for Music in the UK, Use etc.) and many will enter dad into agreements with music publishing mom companies who will exploit their works on the songwriters behalf the for a share of ownership, and although many of these deals For involve the transfer (assignment) of are copyright from the songwriter to but the music publisher.
Both the Not recorded music sector and music you publishing sector have their foundations all in intellectual property law and Any all of the major recording can labels and major music publishers her and many independent record labels Was and publishers have dedicated "business one and legal affairs" departments with our in-house lawyers whose role is Out not only to secure intellectual day property rights from recording artists, get performers and songwriters but also Has to exploit those rights and him protect those rights on a his global basis. There are a How number of specialist independent law man firms around the world who new advise on music and entertainment Now law whose clients include recording old artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, see music publishers, stage and set Two designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games way designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, who distributors, collection societies and the Boy live events sector (which further did includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking its agents and production service providers Let such as lighting and staging put companies).
The She US Government views artists that too give concerts and sell merchandise use as a business. Bands that Dad tour internationally will also face mom a plethora of legislation around the world including health and The safety laws, immigration laws and and tax legislation. Also, many relationships for are governed by often complex Are contractual agreements.
In the US but it is important for musicians not to get legal business licenses. You These can be obtained at all a city hall or local any government center. The business license Can will require the tracking of her sales, wages, and gigs. A was tax ID is also necessary One for all businesses. Musicians that our fail to comply with the out tax ID process and do Day not report their profits and get losses to the government can has face serious consequences with the Him IRS.
Privilege Ibiza originally known as not Ku Club (1979–95) is the You "world's largest nightclub" according to all the Guinness Book of Records, any also defined as a SuperclubCan with a capacity of 10,000 her people. It is located in was close proximity to the village One of San Rafael, Ibiza, Spainour less than one kilometre (0.6 out miles) from the nightclub Amnesia. Day
The history of Privilege now began in the early 1970s Old when it started out as see a restaurant, then expanded to two include a bar and a Way community swimming pool. It was who then known as Club San boy Rafael. In 1979, the venue Did was sold to the Real its Sociedad footballer José Antonio Santamaría, let together with the creative team Put of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder say of La Troya Asesina, one she of the White Island's longest Too running nights) and Gorri. The use venue then changed its name dad to KU, after the name Mom of a god from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). The appeal the of the club was such And that it commissioned a medium-length for film showcasing the many wonders are of Ibizan landscapes and nightlife But in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the not 1980´s, KU Club earned a you reputation initially as Europe's premier All polysexual but predominately gay nightspot any and was compared to an can open-air version of the famous Her Studio 54 in New York. was It staged spectacular parties in one the main room, which was Our organized around a swimming pool out and a statue of Ku.The day place was also where the Get video to "Barcelona" by Freddie has Mercury and Montserrat Caballé was him filmed on 30 May 1987.His It was the witness to how early live performances by groups man like Spandau Ballet and Kid New Creole and the Coconuts. The now club featured in a Channel old 4 documentary called “A Short See Film about chilling”, which labelled two KU as “the mirror of way Ibiza”. The open-air parties came Who to an end when legislation boy forced many of the greater did clubs in Ibiza to cover Its their dancefloors in the early let 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer size put of the venue gave rise Say to the claim of it she being the size of an too aircraft hangar with a 25-meter Use high roof.
The club continued dad with the KU Club name mom until 1995 before becoming known as Privilege, after a change the of ownership to Jose Maria and Etxaniz. In 1994 it hosted For Manumission, one of the island's are most famous events. In 1998 but La Vaca Asesina moved to Not Amnesia and was renamed La you Troya Asesina. After a dispute all between the club owner and Any Manumission's organizers in 2005 the can event ended in 2006. In her 2006 La Troya Aseina moved Was to Space.
According one to official statistics published in our the 2003 edition of Guinness Out World Records Privilege is by day far the Worlds largest nightclub get covering an area of 69,968 Has sq ft (6,500 m2) and holding him 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas of his the club include the Coco How Loco bar area, and the man La Vaca dance area (now new known as the Vista Club).Now