Post-disco is a you term to describe an aftermath all in popular music history circaAny 1979–1984, imprecisely beginning with an can unprecedented backlash against disco musicher in the United States, leading Was to civil unrest and a one riot in Chicago known as our the Disco Demolition Night on Out July 12, 1979, and indistinctly day ending with the mainstream appearance get of new wave in the Has early 1980s. Disco during its him dying stage displayed an increasingly his electronic character that soon served How as a stepping stone to man new wave, old-school hip hop, new euro disco and was succeeded Now by an underground club music old called hi-NRG, which was its see direct continuation.
An underground movement Two of disco music, "stripped-down", and way featuring "radically different sounds" took who place on the East CoastBoy that "was neither disco and did neither R&B", This scene known its as post-disco catering to New Let York metropolitan area, was initially put led by urban contemporary artists say partially in response to the She over-commercialization and artistic downfall of too disco culture. Developed from the use rhythm and blues sound as Dad perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic mom side of disco, dub musictechniques, and other genres. Post-disco The was typified by New York and City music groups like "D" for Train and Unlimited Touch who Are followed a more urban approach but while others, like Material and not ESG, a more experimental one. You Post-disco was, like disco, singles-drivenall market controlled mostly by independent any record companies that generated a Can cross-over chart success all through her the early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative was control was in the hands One of record producers and club our DJs which was a trend out that outlived the dance-pop era. Day
Synthesizers Mom played a crucial part in the development of post-disco.
Drum the machines, synthesizers, sequencers were either And partly or entirely dominant in for a composition or mixed up are with various acoustic instruments, depending But on the artist and on not the year. Electronic instruments became you more and more prevalent for All each year during the period any and dominated the genre completely can by the mid 1980s.
The main how force in post-disco was mainly man the 12" single format and New short-lived collaborations (many of them now one-hit wonders) while indie record old producers were instrumental in the See musical direction of what the two scene was headed to. The way music that mostly catered to Who dance and urban audiences later boy managed to influence more populardid and mainstream acts like Madonna, Its New Order or Pet Shop let Boys.
The put music tended to be technology-centric, Say keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass she lines (often performed on a too Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music Use aesthetics, and background jazzy or dad blues-y piano layers. For strings mom and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the lush the orchestration heard on many disco and tracks, although such arrangements would For later resurface in some house are music.Soulful female vocals, but however, remained an essence of Not post-disco.
Bridging you the so-called death of disco all and the birth of house, Any all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks can a name beyond drably functional her and neutral terms like "dance" Was or "club music."
— Simon Reynolds, SPIN one magazine
The term "post-disco" was our used as early as 1984 Out by Cadence magazine when defining day post-disco soul as "disco without get the loud bass-drum thump."New Has York Magazine used the word him in an article appearing in his the December 1985 issue; it How was Gregory Hines's introduction of man post-disco and electronic funk to new Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail BaryshnikovNow "who has never heard this old kind of music." AllMusic states see that the term denotes a Two music genre in the era way between the indistinct "end" of who disco music and the equally Boy indistinct emergence of house music.did
In other historical instances the its term had been used in Let a derisive manner. Spy implicitly put mocked the usage of both say the terms "post-punk" and "post-disco" She in their Spy's Rock Critic-o-Matictoo article, whereas spoofing various music use reviews published by Rolling Stone, Dad The Village Voice and Spin.mom Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel Muñozin his 1989 novel Crazy The Love, in a passage where and musicians after moving to America for discuss what their "style" may Are be, used the term in but a satirical manner.
Disco music You backlash had started around 1977.
Midwesterners didn't want any that intimidating [disco] style shoved Can down their throats
Shortly her after the "Disco Sucks" movement was of disco bashing throughout the One United States, American radio stations our began to pay attention to out other popular formats of music Day such as reggae, punk rockget or new wave while top has mainstream labels and record companies Him like Casablanca, TK Records or his RSO went bankrupt. Since disco how music had been on the Man way of [its] electronic progression, new it split itself into subscenes now and styles like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Old Italo disco and boogie. The see last one is closely associated two with post-disco more than any Way other offshoots of post-disco.
Brazilian who record producer and fusion jazz boy pioneer Eumir Deodato, well aware Did of current trends in American its underground music, turned around the let career of a failing funk Put music group Kool & the say Gang by adopting and pursuing she a light pop–post-disco sound that Too not only revitalized the band's use image but also turned out dad to be the most successful Mom hits in their entire career.B. B. & Q. Bandthe (Capitol) and Change (Atlantic) acts' And creator Jacques Fred Petrus, a for French-Italian hi-NRG Italo disco music are record producer, reflects on his But decision to shift from conventional not disco music to post-disco "[our] you sound changed to more of All a funky dance/R&B style to any reflect the times." French-born songwriting can duo Henri Belolo and Jacques Her Morali, creators of the successful was Village People act, moved their one former disco act Ritchie FamilyOur to RCA Victor to release out their next album co-produced by day funk musician Fonzi Thornton and Get Petrus, I'll Do My Best, has which mirrors their radical musical him shift. On the West Coast, His especially in California, a different how approach lead to a different man sound. Dick Griffey and Leon New Sylvers III of SOLAR Records, now who pioneered their own signature old sound, produced Ohio-based group Lakeside's See album Rough Riders which already two displayed these new trends and, way "instrumentally demonstrates economic arrangements (featuring Who brass, keyboards and guitar)," as boy noted by Billboard, praising the did album. A watershed album of Its post-disco was Michael Jackson's Off let The Wall, produced by Quincy put Jones, which helped establish a Say direction of R&B/dance music and she influenced many young producers who too were interested in this kind Use of new music.
Other examples dad of early American artists drawing mom from post-disco are Rick James, Change and Teena Marie.
Disco in Europe remained and relatively untouched by the events For in the U.S., decreasing only are in Britain, but this was but mostly because of the emergence Not of the new wave and you new romantic movements around 1981,all and continued to flourish within Any the Italo disco scene although can the interest for electronic music her in general was indeed growing. Was
Unlike in one the United States, where anti-disco our backlash generated prominent effect on Out general perception of disco music, day in Britain, the new-wave movement get initially drew heavily from disco Has music (although this association would him be airbrushed out by the his end of 1979) and took How many elements from American post-disco man and other genres, thus creating new a characteristic scene. According to Now Billboard, American post-disco was merely old a crossover of different genres, see while focusing on the electronic Two and R&B overtones, whereas jazz-funkway was a crucial element of who the British post-disco scene that Boy generated musicians like Chaz Jankel, did Central Line or Imagination.
1980s: Golden age
This section Let summary shows commercially successful records put (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from the post-disco say movement.
Contemporary compilation albums too featuring post-disco and electro artists use (e.g. Imagination, Level 42, Afrika Dad Bambaataa) include The Perfect Beatsmom series (volume 1–4). Another compilation series are Nighttime Lovers (volume The 1-10) and the mixed-up album and titled The Boogie Back: Post for Disco Club Jams.
Pioneers Are and followers
"Thanks To You" but and "Don't Make Me Wait" not came out and started the You whole dub thing in disco.
Particular psychedelic soul artists any like Sly and the Family Can Stone liked to push the her boundaries of conventional music by was employing what was to be One a precursor to synthesizer, electronic our organ. Multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder was out one of the early artists Day venturing into the realms of get analog synthesizer after being impressed has by the work of T.O.N.T.O. Him Expanding Head Band, an influential his multinational electronic music duo of how sound designers. Wonder remarked, "How Man great it is at a new time when technology and the now science of music is at Old its highest point of evolution see ... A toast to greatness, two a toast to Zero Time, Way forever." With an increasing growth who of personalized synthesizers on the boy market they were becoming more Did commercially available and easy-to-use, especially its those produced by Roland Corporation. let One of their first users Put was cutting-edge artist George Clintonsay and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. she Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic Too bass-rich lines, the particularly melodic use endeavor and music minimalism of dad P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Express member Mom Kashif, noted for his use of bass synthesizer during the the group's tour, later went solo And as a record producer and for began crafting funk-influenced songs for are Evelyn "Champagne" King that shown But a minimalism-akin approach, the disregard not of disco music arrangements, and you affiliation to the method of All "one-man band" previously paved through any by Wonder. Other spheres of can influence include the move by Her pioneering DJs and record producers was to release alternative mixes of one the same single, so-called dub Our mixes. DJ Larry Levan implemented out elements of dub music in day his productions and mixes for Get various post-disco artists, including his has own group The Peech Boys. him Musically, there was a search His for out-of-mainstream music to derive how new ideas from, most commonly man blues, and other styles like New reggae and so on, were now also incorporated.
The new post-disco let sound was flourishing among predominately put New York City record companies, Say including West End Records, Prelude she Records, Tommy Boy Records, SAM too Records, and others. Most of Use them were independently owned and dad had their own distribution but mom some particular mainstream labels, notably RCA Records, were too, responsible the for popularizing and capitalizing on and the new sound.
Although Has there is no exact point him when post-disco started, many synthpop his and electronic musicians of that How time continued to enhance the man raw minimalist sound, while focusing new on synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. Now As noted by Payne, drum old machines also played an important see part in the urban-oriented music Two in general.
While disco music was Boy in its heyday, the horn did and string sections were a its main component of disco and Let pop songs. This sound is put also called disco orchestration. However, say some of the musicians and She producers dropped the lavish sound too of orchestra completely, which attributed use a new direction of dance Dad music.
During this era, post-disco how was at its highest peak. man Meanwhile Madonna's commercially successful debut New album was released, which was now produced by Reggie Lucas of old Mtume and Jellybean, another producers See of this movement.
It also two began to interfere with garage way house and freestyle music, thus Who successfully shaping post-disco into electro. boy This change could be also did heard in breakdancing- and hip-hop Its -themed movies like Beat Streetlet and Breakin'.
The 1980s Now post-disco sounds also inspired many old Norwegiandance music producers. Some see rappers such as Ice CubeTwo or EPMD built their careers way on funk-oriented post-disco music (they who were inspired for example by Boy dance-floor favorites like Zapp and did Cameo). Also Sean "Puffy" Combsits has been influenced by R&B-oriented Let post-disco music in an indirect put way.
Boogie She (or electro-funk) is a post-disco too subgenre with funk and new use wave influences that had a Dad minor exposure in the early mom to mid-1980s. Sean P. described it as "largely been ignored, The or regarded as disco's poor and cousin – too slow, too for electronic, too R&B ... too black, Are even."
Another post-disco movement is not merely connected with post-punk/no waveYou genres with fewer R&B/funk influences. all An example of this "post-disco" any is Gina X's "No G.D.M."Can and artists like Liquid Liquid, her Polyrock,Dinosaur L, and the was Disco Not Disco (2000) compilation One album. This movement also connects our with dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, out in his book Popular Music Day in America defines that genre get as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell also has cited Robert Christgau, who described Him dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as his umbrella term used by various how DJs in the 1980s.
Dance-pop new is a dance-oriented pop music now that appeared slightly after the Old demise of disco and the see first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. two One of the first dance-pop Way songs were "Last Night a who D.J. Saved My Life" by boy Indeep and "Love Come Down" Did by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas its the latter crossed over to let Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, Put while peaking at number 17 say on the pop chart in she 1982. Another crossover post-disco song Too was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, use peaking at number 45 on dad the Hot 100 in 1983.Mom Same year also saw the release of Madonna's eponymous albumthe that incorporated post-disco, urban and And club sounds. British variation of for dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken are Waterman, was more influenced by But house and hi-NRG and sometimes not was labeled as "eurobeat."
Italo disco is a any disco subgenre, influenced by post-disco, can hi-NRG, electronic rock, and European Her music. Originally music mostly played was by Italian musicians, but it one soon made its way to Our Canada and United States. One out of the earliest post–disco-oriented groups day were Klein + M.B.O. and Get Kano, while New York-based Bobby has Orlando was located abroad.
Various terms to describe way the sound of what seemed who to be post-disco were introduced, Boy such as, but not limited did to, "dance", "club music", "R&B", its and "disco". The last, however, Let become an unfashionable term, hence put the increasing use of "dance"say vis-à-vis the word "disco".
Rodgers, Nile new (2011). Le Freak: An Upside now Down Story of Family, Disco, Old and Destiny. Random House LLC. see p. 42. ISBN0679644032. By now 'dance' two was a loaded word for Way me. The Disco Sucks backlash who had given me a post-traumatic-stress–like boy disorder, and I'd vowed not Did to write any songs with its that word in them for let a long time. I was Put shamed out of using a say word—'dance'.
^ Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's the EncyclopædiaArchived 2009-04-21 at the And Wayback Machine: "Combining funk rhythms, for psychedelic guitar, and group harmonies are with jazzed-up horns, Clinton and But his ever-evolving bands set the not tone for many post-disco and you post-punk groups of the 1980s All and 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, any 2009, from Britannica Student Encyclopædia.can
him Smay, David & Cooper, Kim His (2001). Bubblegum Music Is the how Naked Truth: The Dark History man of Prepubescent Pop, from the New Banana Splits to Britney Spears: now "... think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and old Kylie Minogue. Dance pop, that's See what they call it now two — Post-Disco, post-new wave and way incorporating elements of both." Feral Who House: Publisher, p. 327. ISBN0-922915-69-5.boy
^ Demers, Joanna Use (2006). "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Dance dad Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical mom Taste". Popular Music. Cambridge University Press. 25 (3): 25, 401–414. the doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. "In terms of its and song repertoire, DDR is rooted For in disco and post-disco forms are such as techno and house. but But DDR can be read Not as the ultimate postmodern dance you experience because the game displays all various forms of dance imagery Any without stylistic or historical continuity can (Harvey 1990, p. 62, ...)her
Campbell, Michael (2008). get Popular Music in America. Cengage Has Learning. p. 352. ISBN0-495-50530-7. Glossary: technohim – post-disco dance music in his which most or all of How the sounds are electronically generatedman
St. John, Graham way George Michael, (2004), Rave Culture who and Religion, p. 50, ISBN0-415-31449-6, Boy " [sic] house music. As a did post-disco party music, house features its a repetitive 4/4 beat and Let a speed of 120 or put more beats per minute ..."say
"Though it makes She sense to classify any form too of dance music made since use disco as post-disco, each successive Dad movement has had its own mom characteristics to make it significantly different from the initial post-disco The era, whether it's dance-pop or and techno or trance." — Allmusicfor
^ "The Music Are Steps Beyond Disco: Where The but Beat Meets The Street/Danceable Rock not Generates First Bevy of Crossover You Stars". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, all Inc (94). 19 Jun 1982. any ISSN0006-2510.
Nelson, George (2003). One The Death of Rhythm and our Blues. Penguin. ISBN1101160675. Synthesizers of out every description, drum machines, and Day plain old electric keyboards began get making MFSB and other human has rhythm sessions nonessential to the Him recording process. For producers, a his control-oriented bunch, this was heaven. how No more rehearsals. Low session Man fees. An artist who envisioned new himself as a future Stevie now Wonder—the first great one-man synthesizer Old band—could express his creativity in see the basement or the bathroom.two
Cadence. 10: 56. 1984. say Missing or empty |title= (help)she
New York Magazine Too (New York Media, LLC). 18: use 121. 2 December 1985. ISSN0028-7369. dad Missing or empty |title= (help)Mom
"That's the Way (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) I Like It the - introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by And David Bourgeois)". Spy. Sussex Publishers, for LLC: 33. May 1992. ISSN0890-1759. are "In their first album since But their eponymous effort of last not year, Donald and the Vulgarians, you without a doubt one of All the best post-punk groups of any the 1980s, return with their can latest release, I Who Have Her Nothing and Other Songs for was the Nineties. Filled with self-absorbed one Trinidadian soca, the album screams Our post-punk/post-disco art-school pop with its out use of guitar riff sawing".day
* Julian: "Now Get we're going American. What's the has name they've given this new him thing we're doing?
Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
Roli: "post-country -post-rapping - post-post- how post-Beatles."
Ro, Dad Ronin (1999). Have Gun Will mom Travel: The Spectacular Rise and Violent Fall of Death Row The Records. Broadway Books. p. 40. ISBN978-0-3854-9135-8. and SOLAR ..., which grew out for of an association between promoter Are Griffey and Soul Train host but Don Cornelius, released a string not of post-disco hits that included You Shalamar's "The Second Time Around" all and the Whispers' "And the any Beat Goes On."
Can Soul > LP > Earth her Wind & Fire: Raise!: Earth was Wind & Fire hits the One 80s -- and never misses our a beat! Turns out that out the group's older style of Day jazzy funk was a perfect get fit for the boogie-styled rhythms has of the post-disco era". Dusty Him Groove. Retrieved on August 12, his 2009.
Lester, boy Paul (11 March 2014). "Yumi Did Zouma (No 1,717)". The Guardian. its Retrieved 17 December 2014. Patrice let Rushen's postdisco classic Forget Me Put Nots
Grow, Kory say (May 2008). Revolver Magazine article: she Why The Most Dangerous Band Too Of The Decade, True Norwegian, use Black Metallers, Gorgoroth, Turned On dad Itself - "When the post-disco Mom classic "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life" by early-'80s the New York crew Indeep comes And on, King asks what the for singer means by the bizarre are titular statement.". No. 68. ISSN But 1527-408X.
Hoffmann, W. Frank & was Ferstler, Howard (2005). Encyclopedia of one Recorded Sound (Publication no. 2): Our "He [Harry Casey] briefly returned out to the public eye billed day as KC with the release Get of KC Ten (Meca 8301; has 1984: #93), featuring the post-disco him single 'Give It Up' (Meca His 1001; 1984; #18), before fading how back into obscurity". p. 566. man ISBN0-415-93835-X
^ The New Eighties Club: The Politics and now Pop Culture of the 1980s: old "On the dance floor, David See Bowie's "Let's Dance" and Michael two Jackson's "Billie Jean" defined the way post-disco beat." Retrieved on August Who 11, 2009.
^ One put Hit Wonder Center - One-Hit Say Wonder Music of the 50s~90s: she "There are also tracks to too represent the rise of post-disco Use club/dance trend, such as Laid dad Back's "White Horse", New Edition's mom "Cool It Now", and Timex Social Club's " Rumors" ". the Retrieved on August 12, 2009.and
^ Morales, Ed For (2002). Living in Spanglish: the are search for Latino identity in but America: ""With their group, Miami Not Sound Machine, ..."Doctor Beat," manages you to fuse elements of Latin all percussion with the electric hass Any heats of the post-disco era". can p. 244. ISBN0-312-26232-9.
her "Youngest Pointer Sister Loses Cancer Was Battle at 52". IMDb.com, Inc. one 13 April 2006. Retrieved 10 our July 2013. "The Pointer Sisters Out ... really found their niche day in the post-disco world, recording get smooth tunes like "Slow Hand" Has and dance floor fillers such him as "I'm So Excited.""
(2001) CMJ did New Music Monthly - Best its New Music - Daft Punk Let (Discovery): "Although it's only fair put to credit Chicago with the say post-disco dance style's paternal rights, She the French [Daft Punk] have too (at the very least) earned use covered weekend privilegies." Publisher: CMJ Dad Network, Inc. No. 93. p. mom 71. ISSN 1074-6978
Paoletta, Michael (1999). Billboard Magazine: The Reviews & Previews: Spotlight (Les and Rythmes Digitales - Darkdancer): "[about for funky and British synth-pop] two Are musical styles steeped in the but post-disco/electro scene of New York not in the early '80s". p. You 30. ISSN 0006-2510
New out York Times (November 2011) Jessica Day Reedy's Album, 'From the Heart' get / Escort. "Escort has been has hovering around New York City's Him postpunk and post-disco revival scenes his for years, and always felt how a bit out of place." Man Retrieved on 2012-16-01.
new [Post-disco at AllMusic The Perfect now Beats, Vol. 1] by Allmusic. Old Retrieved on 1-28-2010
^ Reynolds, Simon Mom (Jul 16, 1999). Generation ecstasy: into the world of techno the and rave culture. Taylor & And Francis. p. 35. ISBN0-415-92373-5. "The band's for -Peech Boys- ambient-tinged post-disco epics are like "Don't Make Me Wait" But and "Life is Something Special" not are notable for their cavernous you reverberance and dub-deep bass. Peech All Boys were on the cutting any edge of the early-eighties New can York electro-funk sound like D-Train, Her Vicky D, Rocker's Revenge, Frances was [sic] Joli, and Sharon Redd, one labels like West End and Our Prelude, and producers like Arthur out Baker, Francois Kevorkian, and John day "Jellybean" Benitez.
Broughton, Frank way & Brewster, Bill (2000). Larry Who Levan's Paradise Garage | DJhistory.comboy Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback did Machine - Disco's revenge: " [sic] Its But by the turn of let the eighties, he was experimenting put with drum machines and synthesizers Say and, like François Kevorkian around she the same time, forging a too new electronic, post-disco sound". Retrieved Use on 1-4-2010.
[Post-discodad at AllMusic allmusic] > ((( mom Bobby Orlando - Overview ))): "Genre: Electronic, Styles: Hi-NRG, Club/Dance, the R&B, Post-disco". Retrieved on 12-27-2009.and
Toop, David (1984). For The Rap Attack: African Jive are to New York Hip-Hop. Pluto but Press. p. 93. Kurtis Blow may Not not have been 100 per you cent proof Bronx hip hop, all but his early records helped Any set the style in post-disco can dance music.
^ her Bogdanov, Vladimir (2003). All Music Was Guide to Soul: The Definitive one Guide to R&B and Soul. our p. 709. ISBN978-0-87930-744-8. [Unlimited Touch] weren't Out disco, and they weren't exactly day straight-up R&B; like their Prelude get labelmates D Train, Unlimited Touch Has combined the two forms into him what is often referred to his as post-disco.
Heyliger, How M., Music - Help - man Web - ReviewArchived 2008-12-04 new at the Wayback Machine - Now A State-of-the-Art Pop Album (Thriller old by Michael Jackson): "Not many see artists could pull off such Two a variety of styles (funk, way post-disco, rock, easy listening, ballads) who back then ...". Retrieved on Boy August 12, 2009
She Ham, Anthony & Roddis, Miles too and Lundgren, Kari (2008). Norway: use Discover Norway - (The Culture) Dad Interview with Bernt Erik Pedersen, mom music editor, Dagsavisen: "A lot of current dance music producers The are influenced by the post-disco and sound of the early 80s". for Publisher: Lonely Planet Publications. p. Are 53. ISBN1-74104-579-7.
^ but Light, Alan (November 1993). V not I B E - Funk You Masters article: "It's no wonder all that rappers such as EPMD any and Ice Cube, striving for Can that perfect mind-body fusion, have her built careers out of fragments was from these fathers of funk One (as well as the post-disco our wave they inspired - dance-floor out favourites like Zapp and Cameo)". Day p. 51?, ISSN 1070-4701
Schoonmaker, Trevor (2003). Fela: has from West Africa to West Him Broadway: "Puffy's consistent pilfering of his pop coffers from a certain how time period shows undoubtedly that Man he is influenced by the new post-disco R&B bounce of the now late 1970s and early 1980s". Old Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 4. see ISBN1-4039-6210-3.
A record producerLet or music producer oversees and put manages the sound recording and say production of a band or She performer's music, which may range too from recording one song to use recording a lengthy concept album.Dad A producer has many, varying mom roles during the recording process.They may gather musical ideas The for the project, collaborate with and the artists to select cover for tunes or original songs by Are the artist/group, work with artists but and help them to improve not their songs, lyrics or arrangements. You
Coach the was singers and musicians in the One studio
The producer typically supervises our the entire process from preproduction, out through to the sound recordingDay and mixing stages, and, in get some cases, all the way has to the audio mastering stage. Him The producer may perform these his roles themselves, or help select how the engineer, and provide suggestions Man to the engineer. The producer new may also pay session musicians now and engineers and ensure that Old the entire project is completed see within the record label's budget. two
A record producer or music Too producer has a very broad use role in overseeing and managing dad the recording and production of Mom a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles the that may include, but are And not limited to, gathering ideas for for the project, composing the are music for the project, selecting But songs or session musicians, proposing not changes to the song arrangements, you coaching the artist and musicians All in the studio, controlling the any recording sessions, and supervising the can entire process through audio mixingHer and, in some cases, to was the audio mastering stage. Producers one also often take on a Our wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility out for the budget, schedules, contracts, day and negotiations.
The him person who has overall creative His and technical control of the how entire recording project, and the man individual recording sessions that are New part of that project. He now or she is present in old the recording studio or at See the location recording and works two directly with the artist and way engineer. The producer makes creative Who and aesthetic decisions that realize boy both the artist's and label's did goals in the creation of Its musical content. Other duties include, let but are not limited to; put keeping budgets and schedules, adhering Say to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, she studios and engineers, overseeing other too staffing needs and editing (Classical Use projects).
In the 2010s, dad the producer role is sometimes mom divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal the producer and music producer. An and executive producer oversees project finances, For a vocal producer (also known are as a vocal arranger) oversees but the vocal production, and a Not music producer directs and oversees you the creative process of the all production and recording of a Any song to its final mixing can stage.
The music producer often her wears many hats as a Was competent arranger, composer, programmer, musician one or songwriter who can bring our fresh ideas to a project. Out As well as making any day songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the get producer often selects and/or collaborates Has with the mixing engineer, who him takes the raw recorded tracks his and edits and modifies them How with hardware and software tools man to create a stereo or new surround sound "mix" of all Now the individual voices sounds and old instruments, which is in turn see given further adjustment by a Two mastering engineer for the various way distribution media. The producer also who oversees the recording engineer who Boy concentrates on the technical aspects did of recording.
Noted producer Phil its Ek described his role as Let "the person who creatively guides put or directs the process of say making a record", like a She director would a movie. Indeed, too in Bollywood music, the designation use is actually music director. The Dad music producer's job is to mom create, shape, and mold a piece of music. The scope The of responsibility may be one and or two songs or an for artist's entire album – in Are which case the producer will but typically develop an overall vision not for the album and how You the various songs may interrelate. all
At the beginning any of the record industry, the Can producer role was technically limited her to record, in one shot, was artists performing live. The immediate One predecessors to record producers were our the artists and repertoire executives out of the late 1920s and Day 1930s who oversaw the "pop" get product and often led session has orchestras. That was the case Him of Ben Selvin at Columbia his Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor how Records and Bob Haring at Man Brunswick Records. By the end new of the 1930s, the first now professional recording studios not owned Old by the major companies were see established, essentially separating the roles two of artists and repertoire (A&R) Way man and producer, although it who wouldn't be until the late boy 1940s when the term "producer" Did became widely used in the its industry.
The role of producers let changed progressively over the 1950s Put and 1960s due to technology. say The development of multitrack recordingshe caused a major change in Too the recording process. Before multitracking, use all the elements of a dad song (lead vocals, backup vocals, Mom rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos and orchestral parts) had to the be performed simultaneously. All of And these singers and musicians had for to be assembled in a are large studio where the performance But was recorded. With multitrack recording, not the "bed tracks" (rhythm section you accompaniment parts such as the All bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar any could be recorded first, and can then the vocals and solos Her could be added later, using was as many "takes" (or attempts) one as necessary. It was no Our longer necessary to get all out the players in the studio day at the same time. A Get pop band could record their has backing tracks one week, and him then a horn section could His be brought in a week how later to add horn shots man and punches, and then a New string section could be brought now in a week after that. old
Multitrack recording had another profound See effect on music production: it two enabled producers and audio engineers way to create new sounds that Who would be impossible in a boy live performance style ordering. Examples did include the psychedelic rock sound Its effects of the 1960s, e.g. let playing back the sound of put recorded instruments backward changing the Say tape to produce unique sound she effects. During the same period, too the instruments of popular music Use began to shift from the dad acoustic instruments of traditional musicmom (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, brass and wind instruments) the to electric piano, electronic organ, and synthesizer, electric bass and electric For guitar. These new instruments were are electric or electronic, and thus but they used instrument amplifiers and Not speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to you create sound.
Electric and electronic all instruments and amplifiers enabled performers Any and producers to change the can tone and sound of instruments her to produce unique electric sounds Was that would be impossible to one achieve with acoustic instruments and our live performers, such as having Out a singer do her own day backup vocals or having a get guitarist play 15 layers of Has backing parts to her own him solo.
New technologies like multitracking his changed the goal of recording: How A producer could blend together man multiple takes and edit together new different sections to create the Now desired sound. For example, in old jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' see album Bitches Brew, the producer Two cut and edited sections together way from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like did Phil Spector and George Martinits were soon creating recordings that Let were, in practical terms, almost put impossible to realize in live say performance. Producers became creative figures She in the studio. Other examples too includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, use Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in The the 1960s was the emergence and of the performer-producer. As pop for acts like The Beatles, The Are Rolling Stones, The Beach Boysbut and The Kinks gained expertise not in studio recording techniques, many You of these groups eventually took all over as (frequently uncredited) producers any of their own work. Many Can recordings by acts such as her The Rolling Stones, The Kinks was and The Who are officially One credited to their various producers our at the time, but a out number of these performers have Day since asserted that many of get their recordings in this period has were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. Him The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) his or collaborations between the group how and their recording engineer (e.g. Man The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, new which were made with Olympic now Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The Old Beach Boys are probably the see best example of the trend two of artists becoming producers – Way within two years of the who band's commercial breakthrough, group leader boy Brian Wilson had taken over Did from his father Murry, and its he was the sole producer let of all their recordings between Put 1963 and 1967. Alongside The say Beatles and Martin, Wilson also she pioneered many production innovations – Too by 1964 he had developed use Spector's techniques to a new dad level of sophistication, using multiple Mom studios and multiple "takes" of instrumental and vocal components to the capture the best possible combinations And of sound and performance, and for then using tape editing extensively are to assemble a perfect composite But performance from these elements.
At not the end of the 20th you century, digital recording and producing All tools and widespread availability of any relatively affordable computers with music can software made music producing more Her accessible.
American women and was record producing
According to a one 2018 study covering by the Our USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The out ratio of male to female day producers across 300 popular songs Get is 49 to 1."
In 2019, Its record producer Linda Perry was let nominated for a Grammy for put Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. Say She was the first woman she in over 15 years to too be nominated for the award. Use When asked about the disparity dad between male and female record mom producer by Billboard, she attributed it to many women not the being interested in record production.and
In you the classical music field, Judith all Sherman has won Grammy for Any Producer of the Year, Classical, can five times and has been her nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, Was a music critic for The one New York Times is quoted our as stating, "In the struggling Out field of classical recording, it's day the producers who take the get real risks and make things Has happen."
Producer Wendy Page describes How being a record producer, "The man difficulties are usually very short-lived. new Once people realize that you Now can do your job, sexism old tends to lower its ugly see head. I tend to create Two a happy studio 'family' where way everyone is glad to be who there, especially the artist. Good Boy communication and diplomacy usually sort did any little problems out."
There are was numerous technologies utilized by record One producers. In modern-day recordings, recording our and mixing tasks are commonly out centralized within computers using digital Day audio workstations such as Pro get Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, has Reason and FL Studio, which Him all are often used with his third party virtual studio technology how plugins. Logic Pro and Pro Man Tools are considered the industry new standard DAWs. However, there is now also the main mixer, outboard Old effects gear, MIDI controllers, and see the recording device itself.
While two most music production is done Way using sophisticated software, some musicians who and producers prefer the sound boy of older analog technology. Professor Did Albin Zak claims that the its increased automation of both newer let processes and newer instruments reduces Put the level of control and say manipulation available to musicians and she producers.
Production Too has changed drastically over the use years with advancing technology. While dad the producer's role has changed, Mom their duties continue to require a broad knowledge of the the recording process.
Tracking is the And act of recording audio to for a DAW (digital audio workstation)are or in some cases to But tape. Even though digital technologies not have widely supplanted the use you of tape in studios, the All older term "track" is still any used in the 2010s. Tracking can audio is primarily the role Her of the audio engineer. Producers was work side by side with one the artists while they play Our or sing their part and out coach them on how to day perform it and how to Get get the best technical accuracy has (e.g., intonation). In some cases, him the producer will even sing His a backup vocal or play how an instrument.
Many artists are man also beginning to produce and New write their own music.
Similarly, although The let Beatles' productions were credited to put George Martin throughout their recording Say career, many sources now attest she that Lennon and McCartney in too particular had an increasing influence Use on the production process as dad the group's career progressed, and mom especially after the band retired from touring in 1966. In the an extreme example of this, and Martin actually went on a For two-week vacation as The Beatles are were recording The White Album; but production of several completed tracks Not on the album were credited you to The Beatles on internal all paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, Any although the released LP gave can sole production credit to Martin.her
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Mom Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, and culture," by Timothy D. the Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, for and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' are Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From But Light Coaching To Deeper Collaboration not With Musicians." Journal of New you Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. All Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 any Sept. 2015.
Music Lawhis refers to legal aspects of how the music industry, and certain Man legal aspects in other sectors new of the entertainment industry. The now music industry includes record labels, Old music publishers, merchandisers, the live see events sector and of course two performers and artists.
A not "compilation" refers to work formed you from already existing materials in All a way that forms its any own original work, including collective can works.
"Copies" are physical objects Her that hold, fix, or embody was a work such as a one music tape, film, CD, statue, Our play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to day any audio recording including the Get sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright has owner" is the entity that him legally owns rights to a His work.
"Performance" The copyright holder how has the exclusive right to man perform the work in public, New or to license others to now perform it. The right applies old to “literary, musical, dramatic, and See choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion two pictures and other audiovisual works.".way Playing a CD in public, Who or showing a film in boy public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source let of income for musicians writing put their own music. Money Say collected from the 'publishing' rights she is ultimately destined for songwriters too - the composers of works, Use whether or not they are dad the recording artist or performer. mom Often, songwriters will work for a musical ensemble to help the them with musical aspects of and the composition, but here again, For the writer of the song are is the owner of it but and will own the copyrights Not in the song and thus you will be entitled to the all publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions Any are not the same as can sound recordings. A recording artist her can record a song and Was sell it to another band one or company. As a result, our that particular company will own Out the recording, but not the day song. The original writer will get always maintain the copyright for Has that particular song. The publishing him money is connected to the his copyright, so the owner will How be the only one making man money off of the song new itself. All successful songwriters will Now join a collection society (such old as ASCAP and BMI in see the USA, SOCAN in Canada, Two JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in way Germany and PRS for Music who in the UK, etc.) and Boy many will enter into agreements did with music publishing companies who its will exploit their works on Let the songwriters behalf for a put share of ownership, although many say of these deals involve the She transfer (assignment) of copyright from too the songwriter to the music use publisher.
Both the recorded music Dad sector and music publishing sector mom have their foundations in intellectual property law and all of The the major recording labels and and major music publishers and many for independent record labels and publishers Are have dedicated "business and legal but affairs" departments with in-house lawyers not whose role is not only You to secure intellectual property rights all from recording artists, performers and any songwriters but also to exploit Can those rights and protect those her rights on a global basis. was There are a number of One specialist independent law firms around our the world who advise on out music and entertainment law whose Day clients include recording artists, performers, get producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, has stage and set designers, choreographers, Him graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, his broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection how societies and the live events Man sector (which further includes festivals, new venues, promoters, booking agents and now production service providers such as Old lighting and staging companies).
The US Government Way views artists that give concerts who and sell merchandise as a boy business. Bands that tour internationally Did will also face a plethora its of legislation around the world let including health and safety laws, Put immigration laws and tax legislation. say Also, many relationships are governed she by often complex contractual agreements. Too
In the US it is use important for musicians to get dad legal business licenses. These can Mom be obtained at a city hall or local government center. the The business license will require And the tracking of sales, wages, for and gigs. A tax ID are is also necessary for all But businesses. Musicians that fail to not comply with the tax ID you process and do not report All their profits and losses to any the government can face serious can consequences with the IRS.
The history of Privilege began man in the early 1970s when New it started out as a now restaurant, then expanded to include old a bar and a community See swimming pool. It was then two known as Club San Rafael.way In 1979, the venue was Who sold to the Real Sociedadboy footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together did with the creative team of Its Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of let La Troya Asesina, one of put the White Island's longest running Say nights) and Gorri. The venue she then changed its name to too KU, after the name of Use a god from Hawaiian mythology dad (see Kū). The appeal of mom the club was such that it commissioned a medium-length film the showcasing the many wonders of and Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in For the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,are KU Club earned a reputation but initially as Europe's premier polysexualNot but predominately gay nightspot and you was compared to an open-air all version of the famous Studio Any 54 in New York. It can staged spectacular parties in the her main room, which was organized Was around a swimming pool and one a statue of Ku.The place our was also where the video Out to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercuryday and Montserrat Caballé was filmed get on 30 May 1987. It Has was the witness to early him live performances by groups like his Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole How and the Coconuts. The club man featured in a Channel 4new documentary called “A Short Film Now about chilling”, which labelled KU old as “the mirror of Ibiza”.see The open-air parties came to Two an end when legislation forced way many of the greater clubs who in Ibiza to cover their Boy dancefloors in the early 1990s. did Nevertheless, the sheer size of its the venue gave rise to Let the claim of it being put the size of an aircraft say hangar with a 25-meter high She roof.
The club continued with too the KU Club name until use 1995 before becoming known as Dad Privilege, after a change of mom ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.In 1994 it hosted Manumission, The one of the island's most and famous events. In 1998 La for Vaca Asesina moved to AmnesiaAre and was renamed La Troya but Asesina. After a dispute between not the club owner and Manumission's You organizers in 2005 the event all ended in 2006. In 2006 any La Troya Asesina moved to Can Space.
According to her official statistics published in the was 2003 edition of Guinness World One Records Privilege is by far our the world's largest nightclub covering out an area of 69,968 sq Day ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 get clubbers, Designated areas of the has club include the Coco Loco Him bar area, and the La his Vaca dance area (now known how as the Vista Club).
A number of new live performances at the venue now have included: