Source: Wikipedia 

Post-disco you is a term to describe all an aftermath in popular music Any history circa 1979–1986, imprecisely beginning can with an unprecedented backlash against her disco music in the United Was States, leading to civil unrest one and a riot in Chicago our known as the Disco Demolition Out Night on July 12, 1979, day and indistinctly ending with the get mainstream appearance of house music Has in the late 1980s. Disco him during its dying stage displayed his an increasingly electronic character that How soon served as a stepping man stone to new wave, old-school new hip hop, euro disco and Now was succeeded by an underground old club music called hi-NRG, which see was its direct continuation.

An Two underground movement of disco music, way "stripped-down", and featuring "radically different who sounds" took place on the Boy East Coast that "was neither did disco and neither R&B", This its scene known as post-disco catering Let to New York metropolitan area, put was initially led by urban say contemporary artists partially in response She to the over-commercialization and artistic too downfall of disco culture. Developed use from the rhythm and blues Dad sound as perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic, mom the electronic side of disco, dub music techniques, and other The genres. Post-disco was typified by and New York City music groups for like "D" Train and Unlimited Are Touch who followed a more but urban approach while others, like not Material and ESG, a more You experimental one. Post-disco was, like all disco, singles-driven market controlled mostly any by independent record companies that Can generated a cross-over chart success her all through the early-to-mid 1980s. was Most creative control was in One the hands of record producers our and club DJs which was out a trend that outlived the Day dance-pop era.

Other musical styles get that emerged in the post-disco has era include dance-pop, boogie, and Him Italo disco and led to his the development of the early how alternative dance, club-centered house and Man techno music.


Synthesizers played a crucial part in the the development of post-disco.

Drum And machines, synthesizers, sequencers were either for partly or entirely dominant in are a composition or mixed up But with various acoustic instruments, depending not on the artist and on you the year. Electronic instruments became All more and more prevalent for any each year during the period can and dominated the genre completely Her by the mid 1980s.

Darryl was Payne arguing about the minimal one approach of post-disco

Producers out are using a lot more day sounds and a lot less Get instruments: the 'Forget Me Nots' has and 'Don't Make Me Wait him Tracks' are really empty, but His there's a sophistication people can how get into.

The main man force in post-disco was mainly New the 12" single format and now short-lived collaborations (many of them old one-hit wonders) while indie record See producers were instrumental in the two musical direction of what the way scene was headed to. The Who music that mostly catered to boy dance and urban audiences later did managed to influence more popular Its and mainstream acts like Madonna, let New Order or Pet Shop put Boys.

Musical elements

The Say music tended to be technology-centric, she keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass too lines (often performed on a Use Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music dad aesthetics, and background jazzy or mom blues-y piano layers. For strings and brass sections, synthesizer sounds the were preferred to the lush and orchestration heard on many disco For tracks, although such arrangements would are later resurface in some house but music.[citation needed] Soulful female vocals, Not however, remained an essence of you post-disco.

Term usage

Bridging all the so-called death of disco Any and the birth of house, can all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks her a name beyond drably functional Was and neutral terms like "dance" one or "club music."

— Simon Reynolds, SPIN our magazine

The term "post-disco" Out was used as early as day 1984 by Cadence magazine when get defining post-disco soul as "disco Has without the loud bass-drum thump." him New York Magazine used the his word in an article appearing How in the December 1985 issue; man it was Gregory Hines's introduction new of post-disco and electronic funk Now to Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail old Baryshnikov "who has never heard see this kind of music." AllMusic Two states that the term denotes way a music genre in the who era between the indistinct "end" Boy of disco music and the did equally indistinct emergence of house its music.

In other historical instances Let the term had been used put in a derisive manner. Spy say implicitly mocked the usage of She both the terms "post-punk" and too "post-disco" in their Spy's Rock use Critic-o-Matic article, whereas spoofing various Dad music reviews published by Rolling mom Stone, The Village Voice and Spin. Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel The Muñoz in his 1989 novel and Crazy Love, in a passage for where musicians after moving to Are America discuss what their "style" but may be, used the term not in a satirical manner.



Background events

Disco all music backlash had started around any 1977.

United States

Midwesterners didn't Can want that intimidating [disco] style her shoved down their throats


Shortly after the "Disco One Sucks" movement of disco bashing our throughout the United States, American out radio stations began to pay Day attention to other popular formats get of music such as reggae, has punk rock or new wave Him while top mainstream labels and his record companies like Casablanca, TK how Records or RSO went bankrupt. Man Since disco music had been new on the way of [its] now electronic progression, it split itself Old into subscenes and styles like see Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco and two boogie. The last one is Way closely associated with post-disco more who than any other offshoots of boy post-disco.

Brazilian record producer and Did fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, its well aware of current trends let in American underground music, turned Put around the career of a say failing funk music group Kool she & the Gang by adopting Too and pursuing a light pop–post-disco use sound that not only revitalized dad the band's image but also Mom turned out to be the most successful hits in their the entire career. B. B. & And Q. Band (Capitol) and Change for (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques Fred are Petrus, a French-Italian hi-NRG Italo But disco music record producer, reflects not on his decision to shift you from conventional disco music to All post-disco "[our] sound changed to any more of a funky dance/R&B can style to reflect the times." Her French-born songwriting duo Henri Belolo was and Jacques Morali, creators of one the successful Village People act, Our moved their former disco act out Ritchie Family to RCA Victor day to release their next album Get co-produced by funk musician Fonzi has Thornton and Petrus, I'll Do him My Best, which mirrors their His radical musical shift. On the how West Coast, especially in California, man a different approach lead to New a different sound. Dick Griffey now and Leon Sylvers III of old SOLAR Records, who pioneered their See own signature sound, produced Ohio-based two group Lakeside's album Rough Riders way which already displayed these new Who trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates economic boy arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards and did guitar)," as noted by Billboard, Its praising the album. A watershed let album of post-disco was Michael put Jackson's Off The Wall, produced Say by Quincy Jones, which helped she establish a direction of R&B/dance too music and influenced many young Use producers who were interested in dad this kind of new music. mom

Other examples of early American artists drawing from post-disco are the Rick James, Change and Teena and Marie.


Disco in For Europe remained relatively untouched by are the events in the U.S., but decreasing only in Britain, but Not this was mostly because of you the emergence of the new all wave and new romantic movements Any around 1981, and continued to can flourish within the Italo disco her scene although the interest for Was electronic music in general was one indeed growing.

United Kingdom

Unlike in the United States, Out where anti-disco backlash generated prominent day effect on general perception of get disco music, in Britain, the Has new-wave movement initially drew heavily him from disco music (although this his association would be airbrushed out How by the end of 1979) man and took many elements from new American post-disco and other genres, Now thus creating a characteristic scene. old According to Billboard, American post-disco see was merely a crossover of Two different genres, while focusing on way the electronic and R&B overtones, who whereas jazz-funk was a crucial Boy element of the British post-disco did scene that generated musicians like its Chaz Jankel, Central Line or Let Imagination.

1980s: Golden age


This section summary shows commercially say successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from She the post-disco movement.

Compare "Open too Sesame" (1976) with "Celebration" (1980) use by Kool & The Gang, Dad "Boogie Wonderland" (1979) with "Let's mom Groove" (1981) by Earth, Wind & Fire, "Shame" (1978) with The "Love Come Down" (1982) by and Evelyn "Champagne" King and "(Shake, for Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty" Are (1976) with "Give It Up" but (1982) by KC & the not Sunshine Band and The Best You Disco in Town (1976) with all Square Biz (1981) by Teena any Marie.

Can One our out Day get his Man now Old see Way Did its let Put say Too Mom the And are But not you All any can Her was one Our out day has him His how New now old See two way Who did Its put she too dad the but
Year Song Label Artist U.S. Dance her U.S. R&B U.S. was Pop U.S. M.R. U.K. Pop
1979 "I Wanna Be Your Lover" Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41
1980 "Celebration" De-Lite Kool & has the Gang #1 #1 #1 Him ('81) #7
"He's So Shy" Planet The how Pointer Sisters #26 #10 #3
"And new the Beat Goes On" SOLAR The Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2
1981 "Let's Groove" Columbia Earth, Wind two & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3
"Get who Down on It" De-Lite Kool boy & the Gang #4 #10 #3
"Pull Up to the Bumper" Island Records Grace Jones #2 #5 #12
1982 "Everybody" Sire, Warner she Bros. Madonna #3 #107
"Forget use Me Nots" Elektra Records Patrice dad Rushen #2 #4 #23 #8
"Last Night a DJ Saved My Life" Sound of New York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13 for
"Love Come Down" RCA Evelyn King #1 #1 #17 #7
"You Can Do Magic" Capitol America #8 #59
1983 "Holiday" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #25 #16 #2
"Give It Up" Meca KC #18 #1
"Billie Jean" Epic Michael Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1
1984 "Caribbean Queen" Jive Billy Get Ocean #1 #1 #1 #6
"Let's Dance" EMI David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1
"Cool It Now" MCA New man Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat" Epic Miami Sound Machine #17 #6
"I'm So Excited" Planet The Pointer Sisters #28 #46 #9 #11
1985 "Into the Groove" Sire, boy Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #19 #1
"Chain Reaction" RCA Records Diana let Ross #7 #85 #66 #1
"Object of Say My Desire" Elektra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors" Jay Timex Use Social Club #1 #1 #8 #13
"Ain't mom Nothin' Goin' on But the Rent" Polydor Records Gwen Guthrie #1 #1 #42 #5 and
1987 "Rhythm Is For Gonna Get You" Epic Miami are Sound Machine #27 #5 #16

2000s: Post-disco Not revival

During the late 1990s you and throughout the 2000s, electronic all and, especially, house musicians were Any influenced by post-disco. Some of can these musicians are: Daft Punk, her a French house music group, Was adopted elements of post-disco, disco one and synth-pop into Discovery. Another our artist, Les Rythmes Digitales, released Out a post-disco/electro-influenced album, Darkdancer. Canadian day music group Chromeo debuted in get 2004 with the album She's Has in Control. Similar Los Angeles-based him musician Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, a his boogie- and electro-influenced album released How in 2009. Another band called man Escort, who hails from New new York City, surfaced on the Now post-disco and post-punk revival scenes old around 2006. The story about see Escort appeared on New York Two Times in November 2011.

Contemporary way compilation albums featuring post-disco and who electro artists (e.g. Imagination, Level Boy 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include The did Perfect Beats series (volume 1–4). its Another compilation series are Nighttime Let Lovers (volume 1-10) and the put mixed-up album titled The Boogie say Back: Post Disco Club Jams. She

Pioneers and followers

"Thanks too To You" and "Don't Make use Me Wait" came out and Dad started the whole dub thing mom in disco.

Particular psychedelic soul artists like Sly The and the Family Stone liked and to push the boundaries of for conventional music by employing what Are was to be a precursor but to synthesizer, electronic organ. Multi-instrumentalist not Stevie Wonder was one of You the early artists venturing into all the realms of analog synthesizer any after impressed by the work Can of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Band, her an influential multinational electronic music was duo of sound designers: "How One great it is at a our time when technology and the out science of music is at Day its highest point of evolution get ... A toast to greatness, has a toast to Zero Time, Him forever." With an increasing growth his of personalized synthesizers on the how market they were becoming more Man commercially available and easy-to-use, especially new those produced by Roland Corporation. now One of their first users Old was cutting-edge artist George Clinton see and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. two Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic Way bass-rich lines, the particularly melodic who endeavor and music minimalism of boy P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Express member Did Kashif, noted for his use its of bass synthesizer during the let group's tour, later went solo Put as a record producer and say began crafting funk-influenced songs for she Evelyn "Champagne" King that shown Too a minimalism-akin approach, the disregard use of disco music arrangements, and dad affiliation to the method of Mom "one-man band" previously paved through by Wonder. Other spheres of the influence include the move by And pioneering DJs and record producers for to release alternative mixes of are the same single, so-called dub But mixes. DJ Larry Levan implemented not elements of dub music in you his productions and mixes for All various post-disco artists, including his any own group The Peech Boys. can Musically, there was a search Her for out-of-mainstream music to derive was new ideas from, most commonly one blues, and other styles like Our reggae, etc. were also incorporated. out

Sinnamon's "Thanks to You", D-Train's day "You're the One for Me", Get The Peech Boys' "Don't Make has Me Wait" — all these him songs and its attributes and His trends of post-disco later influenced how a new "never-before-heard" music style. man The House music.

The new New post-disco sound was flourishing among now predominately New York City record old companies, including West End Records, See Prelude Records, Tommy Boy Records, two SAM Records, and others. Most way of them were independently owned Who and had their own distribution boy but some particular mainstream labels, did notably RCA Records, were too, Its responsible for popularizing and capitalizing let on the new sound.



Although there all is no exact point when Any post-disco started, many synthpop and can electronic musicians of that time her continued to enhance the raw Was minimalist sound, while focusing on one synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. As our noted by Payne, drum machines Out also played an important part day in the urban-oriented music in get general.

Has can boy
# Event

While disco music was in his its heyday, the horn and How string sections were a main man component of disco and pop new songs. This sound is also Now called disco orchestration. However, some old of the musicians and producers see dropped the lavish sound of Two orchestra completely, which attributed a way new direction of dance music. who

  • Few international examples, including Boy French music project Black Devil did Disco Club, French musician Cerrone its and Belgian group Telex.
  • Parliament-Funkadelic Let in the United States. They put are known for heavily use say of bass and "regular" synthesizers She and inventing the P-Funk style.

After use the success of Quincy Jones-produced Dad album Off the Wall and mom other semi-mainstream urban-oriented music groups like Lakeside, other disco music The groups either dissolved or adapted and the new sounds (e.g. The for Whispers, The SOS Band, Inner Are Life, Earth, Wind & Fire, but and Shalamar in the U.S.; not Nick Straker Band, and Freeez You in UK). Other musicians influenced all by post-disco include Stacy Lattisaw, any Kurtis Blow, and George Duke. Can


Golden new age post-disco era, where post-disco now sound entered mainstream. However most Old of the musicians were mostly see successful on the other charts, two beside Billboard Hot 100.

This Way era also spanned experimental No who Wave-oriented post-disco acts like Material, boy Liquid Liquid, Dinosaur L and Did Was (Not Was).

The most its significant post-disco album is Michael let Jackson's Thriller, which also became Put the most best-selling album of say all time. Larry Levan and she the NYC Peech Boys recorded Too proto-house number "Don't Make Me use Wait". New bands and musicians dad of the era appeared, including Mom Imagination, D. Train, Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky D, Rockers Revenge, the Dayton, and Unlimited Touch.


During this era, post-disco Her was at its highest peak. was Meanwhile Madonna's commercially successful debut one album was released, which was Our produced by Reggie Lucas of out Mtume and Jellybean, another producers day of this movement.

It also Get began to interfere with garage has house and freestyle music, thus him successfully shaping post-disco into electro. His This change could be also how heard in breakdancing- and hip-hop man -themed movies like Beat Street New and Breakin'.


During this did era, post-disco had been dissolved Its in various music fields and let scenes, including

As she the post-disco reached its climax, too overdubbing techniques as recorded by Use Peech Boys and other early-1980s dad artists were almost omitted by mom then and replaced by synthpop variants instead. The movement survived the as a post-disco–freestyle crossover music and that spanned Raww, Hanson & For Davis, Timex Social Club, Starpoint are and Miami Sound Machine.



Michael Jackson 1988
Madonna 1990
Michael you Jackson and Madonna are the all most successful artists of post-disco.

The 1980s post-disco sounds also can inspired many Norwegian dance music her producers. Some rappers such as Was Ice Cube or EPMD built one their careers on funk-oriented post-disco our music (they were inspired for Out example by dance-floor favorites like day Zapp and Cameo). Also Sean get "Puffy" Combs has been influenced Has by R&B-oriented post-disco music in him an indirect way.

Related his genres


Boogie (or electro-funk) is man a post-disco subgenre with way new more funk influences that had Now a minor exposure in the old early to mid-1980s. Sean P. see described it as "largely been Two ignored, or regarded as disco's way poor cousin – too slow, who too electronic, too R&B ... too Boy black, even."


Another post-disco movement its is merely connected with post-punk/no Let wave genres with fewer R&B/funk put influences. An example of this say "post-disco" is Gina X's "No She G.D.M." and artists like Liquid too Liquid, Polyrock, Dinosaur L, and use Disco Not Disco [2000] compilation Dad album. This movement also connects mom with dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in his book Popular Music The in America defines that genre and as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell also for cited Robert Christgau, who described Are dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as but umbrella term used by various not DJs in the 1980s.



Dance-pop all is a dance-oriented pop music any that appeared slightly after the Can demise of disco and the her first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. was One of the first dance-pop One songs were "Last Night a our D.J. Saved My Life" by out Indeep and "Love Come Down" Day by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas get the latter crossed over to has Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, Him while peaking at number 17 his on the pop chart in how 1982. Another crossover post-disco song Man was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, new peaking at number 45 on now the Hot 100 in 1983. Old Same year also saw the see release of Madonna's eponymous album two that incorporated post-disco, urban and Way club sounds. British variation of who dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken boy Waterman, was more influenced by Did house and hi-NRG and sometimes its was labeled as "eurobeat."


Italo disco

Italo disco is a say disco subgenre, influenced by post-disco, she hi-NRG, electronic rock, and European Too music. Originally music mostly played use by Italian musicians, but it dad soon made its way to Mom Canada and United States. One of the earliest post–disco-oriented groups the were Klein + M.B.O. and And Kano, while New York-based Bobby for Orlando was located abroad.


Non-exhaustive list of artists


Prominent record labels


old boy she too dad are all can
Released Album Label Info See
2000 VA – two Disco Not Disco Strut compilation way
2002 VA – Who Disco Not Disco 2 Strut compilation
2002–2008 VA did Opération Funk Vol. 1–5
(mixed Its by Kheops)
mix album, let compilation
2004 VA put Choice: A Collection of Say Classics
(mixed by Danny Tenaglia)
Azuli mix album, compilation
2004–2009 VA – Nighttime Lovers Use Vol. 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA – Disco mom Not Disco 3 Strut compilation
2009 VA – the Night Dubbin'
(mixed by and Dimitri from Paris)
BBE mix For album, compilation
2009 VA – The Boogie Back: but Post Disco Club Jams
(compiled Not by DJ Spinna)
BBE mix you album, compilation
2010 VA – Boogie's Gonna Getcha: Any '80s New York Boogie BreakBeats compilation

See also



  1. Various terms Out to describe the sound of day what seemed to be post-disco get were introduced, such as, but Has not limited to, "dance", "club him music", "R&B", and "disco". The his last, however, become an unfashionable How term, hence the increasing use man of "dance" vis-à-vis the word new "disco".
  2. Compare to Now the 1979 "traditionally"-sounding disco song old "Boogie Wonderland" with string and see horn sections arranged by Benjamin Two Wright.
  3. Demonstrates using way horn section and drum machine who rhythm at the same time. Boy


  1. ^ Reynolds, Simon (2009) its Grunge's Long Shadow - In Let praise of "in-between" periods in put pop history (Slate, MUSIC BOX). say Retrieved on 2-2-2009"
  2. ^ She "Explore music ... Genre: too Post-disco". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
  3. ^ not Kellman, Andy. "Unlimited Touch" artist You biography. Retrieved 2014-10-01
  4. all Rodgers, Nile (2011). Le Freak: any An Upside Down Story of Can Family, Disco, and Destiny. Random her House LLC. p. 42. ISBN 0679644032. By was now 'dance' was a loaded One word for me. The Disco our Sucks backlash had given me out a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, and I'd Day vowed not to write any get songs with that word in has them for a long time. Him I was shamed out of his using a word—'dance'.
  5. how Goldschmitt, Kariann Elaine (2004). Foreign Man bodies: innovation, repetition, and corporeality new in electronic dance music (Digitized now 13 Sep 2010). University of Old California, San Diego. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. see
  6. ^ Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). two In Student's Encyclopædia Archived 2009-04-21 Way at the Wayback Machine: "Combining who funk rhythms, psychedelic guitar, and boy group harmonies with jazzed-up horns, Did Clinton and his ever-evolving bands its set the tone for many let post-disco and post-punk groups of Put the 1980s and 1990s.". Retrieved say August 15, 2009, from Britannica she Student Encyclopædia.
  7. "Material Too - Biography, Albums, Streaming Links use - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 dad February 2018.
  8. "ESG Mom - Biography, Albums, Streaming Links". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2018. the
  9. ^ "The 100 And Greatest Dance Songs – Feature". for Retrieved 1 February 2018. are
  10. Smay, David & But Cooper, Kim (2001). Bubblegum Music not Is the Naked Truth: The you Dark History of Prepubescent Pop, All from the Banana Splits to any Britney Spears: "... think about can Stock-Aitken-Waterman and Kylie Minogue. Dance Her pop, that's what they call was it now — Post-Disco, post-new one wave and incorporating elements of Our both." Feral House: Publisher, p. out 327. ISBN 0-922915-69-5.
  11. Haggerty, day George E. (2000). Gay Histories Get and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. Taylor has & Francis. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. House him music is a form of His post-disco dance music made popular how in the mid-1980s in Chicago man clubs ..."
  12. ^ New Demers, Joanna (2006). "Dancing Machines: now 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, old and Musical Taste". Popular Music. See Cambridge University Press. 25 (3): two 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. "In terms way of its song repertoire, DDR Who is rooted in disco and boy post-disco forms such as techno did and house. But DDR can Its be read as the ultimate let postmodern dance experience because the put game displays various forms of Say dance imagery without stylistic or she historical continuity (Harvey 1990, p. too 62, ...)
  13. Riley, Use Marcus & Trotter, Lee Ann dad (Apr 1, 2014) Chicago House mom Music Legend Frankie Knuckles Dead at 59 WMAQ-TV. NBCUniversal. the Retrieved 2014-04-24
  14. Campbell, and Michael (2008). Popular Music in For America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN 0-495-50530-7. are Glossary: techno – post-disco dance but music in which most or Not all of the sounds are you electronically generated
  15. AllMusic all - explore music ... House: Any "House music grew out of can the post-disco dance club culture her of the early '80s." Retrieved Was on 12-27-2009
  16. St. one John, Graham George Michael, (2004), our Rave Culture and Religion, p. Out 50, ISBN 0-415-31449-6, " [sic] house music. day As a post-disco party music, get house features a repetitive 4/4 Has beat and a speed of him 120 or more beats per his minute ..."
  17. "Though How it makes sense to classify man any form of dance music new made since disco as post-disco, Now each successive movement has had old its own characteristics to make see it significantly different from the Two initial post-disco era, whether it's way dance-pop or techno or trance." who Allmusic
  18. ^ Boy "The Music Steps Beyond Disco: did Where The Beat Meets The its Street/Danceable Rock Generates First Bevy Let of Crossover Stars". Billboard. Nielsen put Business Media, Inc (94). 19 say Jun 1982. ISSN 0006-2510.
  19. She Kellman, Andy (review). Anthology (1995) too - Aurra. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. use Retrieved 2014-04-24.
  20. Nelson, Dad George (2003). The Death of mom Rhythm and Blues. Penguin. ISBN 1101160675. Synthesizers of every description, drum The machines, and plain old electric and keyboards began making MFSB and for other human rhythm sessions nonessential Are to the recording process. For but producers, a control-oriented bunch, this not was heaven. No more rehearsals. You Low session fees. An artist all who envisioned himself as a any future Stevie Wonder—the first great Can one-man synthesizer band—could express his her creativity in the basement or was the bathroom.
  21. ^ One "Walsh, Fintan (June, 2012): Eumir our Deodato and the exploration of out Post-Disco". The 405 magazine (UK). Day Retrieved 2012-06-30.
  22. Simon get Reynolds, Slate, p. May 29, 2009 has
  23. [[Cadence (magazine)|]]. 10: Him 56. 1984. Missing or empty his |title= (help)
  24. New how York Magazine (New York Media, Man LLC). 18: 121. 2 December new 1985. ISSN 0028-7369. Missing or empty now |title= (help)
  25. "That's Old the Way (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) I see Like It - introducing SPY'S two ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by David Bourgeois)". Spy. Way Sussex Publishers, LLC: 33. May who 1992. ISSN 0890-1759. "In their first boy album since their eponymous effort Did of last year, Donald and its the Vulgarians, without a doubt let one of the best post-punk Put groups of the 1980s, return say with their latest release, I she Who Have Nothing and Other Too Songs for the Nineties. Filled use with self-absorbed Trinidadian soca, the dad album screams post-punk/post-disco art-school pop Mom with its use of guitar riff sawing".
  26. * the Julian: "Now we're going American. And What's the name they've given for this new thing we're doing? are

    • Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
    • Roli: "post-country -post-rapping But - post-post- post-Beatles."
    • Lucho: "Post-Elvis-post-Simon-and-Garfunkel-post-Billy-Idol-post-British-Invasion-post-Cyndi-Lauper-post-Blues-post-Soul-post-Michael-Jackson-post-Hustle-post-Donna-Summer-post-Gloria-Gaynor-post-Prince-post-Madonna."
      — "Crazy not Love" (Elías Miguel Muñoz, 1989)
  27. ^ Why All 'Disco sucks!' sucked. The Guardian. any Retrieved 2012-02-21
  28. Billboard. can Nielsen Business Media, Inc (92). Her 18 Jul 1980. ISSN 0006-2510. Disco was Business > An Art Unto one Itself: Programming of Mobiles - Our Chicago Missing or empty |title= out (help)
  29. Serwer, Jesse day (2009) XLR8R: Jesse Serwer in Get an interview with Dam-Funk. Retrieved has on 2-2-2010.
  30. Webber, him Stephen (2007). DJ Skills: The His Essential Guide to Mixing and how Scratching. Focal Press, 2007. p. 25. man ISBN 0-240-52069-6.
  31. ^ Aerna, New James (2013). First Ladies of now Disco: 32 Stars Discuss the old Era and Their Singing Careers. See Penguin. pp. 186–87. ISBN 1476603324.
  32. two "Billboard's Top Album Picks (1979). way Billboard SPECIAL SURVEY For Week Who Ending 10/13/79". Billboard. Nielsen Business boy Media, Inc (91). Oct 13, did 1979. ISSN 0006-2510.
  33. The Its '80s Producers.
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