Source: Wikipedia 


Scratching, sometimes referred to as are scrubbing, is a DJ and but turntablist technique of moving a Not vinyl record back and forth you on a turntable to produce all percussive or rhythmic sounds. A Any crossfader on a DJ mixer can may be used to fade her between two records simultaneously.

While Was scratching is most associated with one hip hop music, where it our emerged in the mid-1970s, from Out the 1990s it has been day used in some styles of get rap rock, rap metal and Has nu metal. In hip hop him culture, scratching is one of his the measures of a DJ's How skills. DJs compete in scratching man competitions at the DMC World new DJ Championships and IDA (International Now DJ Association), formerly known as old ITF (International Turntablist Federation). At see scratching competitions, DJs can use Two only scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ way mixer, digital vinyl systems or who vinyl records only). In recorded Boy hip hop songs, scratched "hooks" did often use portions of other its songs.



Let her

A rudimentary form of turntable was manipulation that is related to One scratching was developed in the our late 1940s by radio music out program hosts, disc jockeys (DJs), Day or the radio program producers get who did their own technical has operation as audio console operators. Him It was known as back-cueing, his and was used to find how the very beginning of the Man start of a song (i.e., new the cue point) on a now vinyl record groove. This was Old done to permit the operator see to back the disc up two (rotate the record or the Way turntable platter itself counter-clockwise) in who order to permit the turntable boy to be switched on, and Did come up to full speed its without ruining the first few let bars of music with the Put "wow" of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed say playing. This permitted the announcer she to time their remarks, and Too start the turntable in time use for when they wanted the dad music on the record to Mom begin.

Back cueing was a basic skill that all radio the production staff needed to learn, And and the dynamics of it for were unique to the brand are of professional turntable in use But at a given radio station. not The older, larger and heavier you turntables needed a 180-degree backward All rotation to allow for run any up to full speed; some can of the newer 1950s models Her used aluminum platters and cloth-backed was rubber mats which required a one third of a rotational turn Our or less to achieve full out speed when the song began. day All this was done in Get order to present a music has show on air with the him least amount of silence ("dead His air") between music, the announcer's how patter and recorded advertising commercials. man The rationale was that any New "dead air" on a radio now station was likely to prompt old a listener to switch stations, See so announcers and program directors two instructed DJs and announcers to way provide a continuous, seamless stream Who of sound–from music to an boy announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, did to a "jingle" (radio station Its theme song), and then immediately let back to more music.

Back-cueing put was a key function in Say delivering this seamless stream of she music. Radio personnel demanded robust too equipment and manufacturers developed special Use tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight dad turntables to meet these demands. mom


In day the mid-1970s in the South get Bronx, a young teen DJ Has named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) him invented the "DJ scratch" technique. his Other DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, How took the technique to higher man levels.

Modern scratching techniques were new made possible by the invention Now of direct-drive turntables, which led old to the emergence of turntablism. see Early belt-drive turntables were unsuitable Two for scratching since they had way a slow start-up time, and who they were prone to wear Boy and tear and breakage, as did the belt would break from its backspinning or scratching. The first Let direct-drive turntable was invented by put Shuichi Obata, an engineer at say Matsushita (now Panasonic), based in She Osaka, Japan. It eliminated belts, too and instead employed a motor use to directly drive a platter Dad on which a vinyl record mom rests. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the The first direct-drive turntable on the and market, and the first in for their influential Technics series of Are turntables.

In the 1970s, hip but hop musicians and club DJs not began to use this specialized You turntable equipment to move the all record back and forth, creating any percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain Can their dance floor audiences. Whereas her the 1940s–1960s radio DJs had was used back-cueing while listening to One the sounds through their headphones, our without the audience hearing, with out scratching, the DJ intentionally lets Day the audience hear the sounds get that are being created by has manipulating the record on the Him turntable, by directing the output his from the turntable to a how sound reinforcement system so that Man the audience can hear the new sounds. Scratching was developed by now early hip hop DJs from Old New York City such as see Grand Wizzard Theodore, who described two scratching as, "nothing but the Way back-cueing that you hear in who your ear before you push boy it [the recorded sound] out Did to the crowd." He developed its the technique when experimenting with let the Technics SL-1200, a direct-drive Put turntable released by Matsushita in say 1972 when he found that she the motor would continue to Too spin at the correct RPM use even if the DJ wiggled dad the record back and forth Mom on the platter. Afrika Bambaataa made a similar discovery with the the SL-1200 in the 1970s. And The Technics SL-1200 went on for to become the most widely are used turntable for the next But several decades.

Jamaican-born DJ Kool not Herc, who immigrated to New you York City, influenced the early All development of scratching. Kool Herc any developed break-beat DJing, where the can breaks of funk songs—being the Her most danceable part, often featuring was percussion—were isolated and repeated for one the purpose of all-night dance Our parties. He was influenced by out Jamaican dub music, and developed day his turntable techniques using the Get Technics SL-1100, released in 1971, has due to its strong motor, him durability, and fidelity.

Although previous His artists such as writer and how poet William S. Burroughs had man experimented with the idea of New manipulating a reel-to-reel tape manually now to make sounds, as with old his 1950s recording, "Sound Piece"), See vinyl scratching as an element two of hip hop pioneered the way idea of making the sound Who an integral and rhythmic part boy of music instead of an did uncontrolled noise. Scratching is related Its to "scrubbing" (in terms of let audio editing and production) when put the reels of an open Say reel-to-reel tape deck (typically 1/4 she inch magnetic audiotape) are gently too rotated back and forth while Use the playback head is live dad and amplified, to isolate a mom specific spot on the tape where an editing "cut" is the to be made. In the and 2010s, both scratching and scrubbing For can be done on digital are audio workstations (DAWs) which are but equipped for these techniques.


Christian Marclay was one Was of the earliest musicians to one scratch outside hip hop. In our the mid-1970s, Marclay used gramophone Out records and turntables as musical day instruments to create sound collages. get He developed his turntable sounds Has independently of hip hop DJs. him Although he is little-known to his mainstream audiences, Marclay has been How described as "the most influential man turntable figure outside hip hop" new and the "unwitting inventor of Now turntablism."

In 1981 Grandmaster Flash old released the song "The Adventures see of Grandmaster Flash on the Two Wheels of Steel" which is way notable for its use of who many DJ scratching techniques. It Boy was the first commercial recording did produced entirely using turntables. In its 1982, Malcolm McLaren & the Let World's Famous Supreme Team released put a single "Buffalo Gals", juxtaposing say extensive scratching with calls from She square dancing, and, in 1983, too the EP, D'ya Like Scratchin'?, use which is entirely focused on Dad scratching. Another 1983 release to mom prominently feature scratching is Herbie Hancock's Grammy Award-winning single "Rockit". The This song was also performed and live at the 1984 Grammy for Awards, and in the documentary Are film Scratch, the performance is but cited by many 1980s-era DJs not as their first exposure to You scratching. The Street Sounds Electro all compilation series which started in any 1983 is also notable for Can early examples of scratching. Also, her a notable piece was "For was A Few Dollars More" by One Bill Laswell-Michael Beinhorn band Material, our released on 12" single in out Japan and containing scratch performed Day by Grand Mixer DXT, another get pioneer of scratching.

Basic has techniques

Vinyl recordings

Most scratches Him are produced by rotating a his vinyl record on a direct how drive turntable rapidly back and Man forth with the hand with new the stylus ("needle") in the now record's groove. This produces the Old distinctive sound that has come see to be one of the two most recognizable features of hip Way hop music. Over time with who excessive scratching, the stylus will boy cause what is referred to Did as "cue burn", or "record its burn".[citation needed]

The use basic equipment setup for scratching dad includes two turntables and a Mom DJ mixer, which is a small mixer that has a the crossfader and cue buttons to And allow the DJ to cue for up new music in their are headphones without the audience hearing.[citation But needed] When scratching, this crossfader not is utilized in conjunction with you the scratching hand that is All manipulating the record platter. The any hand manipulating the crossfader is can used to cut in and Her out of the record's sound.[citation was needed]

Digital vinyl systems


Using a digital vinyl system Our (DVS) consists of playing vinyl out discs on turntables whose contents day are a timecode signal instead Get of a real music record. has

  1. The turntables' audio outputs him are connected to the audio His inputs of a computer audio how interface.
  2. The audio interface digitizes man the timecode signal from the New turntables and transfers it to now the computer's DJ software.
  3. The old DJ software uses this data See (e.g., about how fast the two platter is spinning) to determine way the playback status, speed, scratch Who sound of the hardware turntables, boy etc., and it duplicates these did effects on the digital audio Its files or computer tracks the let DJ is using.
  4. By manipulating put the turntables' platters, speed controls, Say and other elements, the DJ she thus controls how the computer too plays back digitized audio and Use can therefore produce "scratching" and dad other turntablism effects on songs mom which exist as digital audio files or computer tracks.

There the is not a single standard and of DVS, so each form For of DJ software has its are own settings. Some DJ software but such as Traktor Scratch Pro Not or Serato Scratch Live supports you only the audio interface sold all with their software, requiring multiple Any interfaces for one computer to can run multiple programs.

Some digital her vinyl systems software include:


Non-vinyl Out scratching

While some turntablists consider day the only true scratching media get to be the vinyl disc, Has there are other ways to him scratch, such as:

  • Specialized his DJ-CD players (CDJ) with jog How wheels, allowing the DJ to man manipulate a CD as if new it were a vinyl record, Now have become widely available in old the 2000s.
  • A vinyl emulation see is an emulation software, which Two may be combined with hardware way elements, which allows a DJ who to manipulate the playback of Boy digital music files on a did computer via a DJ control its surface (generally MIDI or a Let HID controller). DJs can scratch, put beatmatch, and perform other turntablist say operations that cannot be done She with a conventional keyboard and too mouse. DJ software performing computer use scratch operations include Traktor Pro, Dad Mixxx, Serato Scratch Live & mom Itch, VirtualDJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
  • DJs have also The used magnetic tape, such as and cassette or reel to reel for to both mix and scratch. Are Tape DJing is rare, but but Ruthless Ramsey in the US, not TJ Scratchavite in Italy and You Mr Tape in Latvia use all exclusively tape formats to perform.


Sounds that are frequently Can scratched include but are not her limited to drum beats, horn was stabs, spoken word samples, and One vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any our sound recorded to vinyl can out be used, and CD players Day providing a turntable-like interface allow get DJs to scratch not only has material that was never released Him on vinyl, but also field his recordings and samples from television how and movies that have been Man burned to CD-R. Some DJs new and anonymous collectors release 12-inch now singles called battle records that Old include trademark, novel or hard-to-find see scratch "fodder" (material). The most two recognizable samples used for scratching Way are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" who samples, which originate from the boy song "Change the Beat" by Did Fab 5 Freddy.

There are its many scratching techniques, which differ let in how the movements of Put the record are combined with say opening and closing the crossfader she (or another fader or switch, Too such as a kill switch, use where "open" means that the dad signal is audible, and "closed" Mom means that the signal is inaudible). This terminology is not the unique; the following discussion, however, And is consistent with the terminology for used by DJ QBert on are his Do It Yourself Scratching But DVD.

Sophisticated techniques

  • Baby not scratch - The simplest scratch you form, it is performed with All the scratching hand only, moving any the record back and forth can in continuous movements while the Her crossfader is in the open was position.
  • Forward and backward scratch one - The forward scratch, also Our referred to as scrubbing, is out a baby scratch where the day crossfader is closed during the Get backwards movement of the record. has If the record is let him go instead of being pushed His forward it is also called how "release scratch". Cutting out the man forward part of the record New movement instead of the backward now part gives a "backward scratch".
  • old
  • Tear scratch - Tear See scratches are scratches where the two record is moved in a way staggered fashion, dividing the forward Who and backward movement into two boy or more movements. This allows did creating sounds similar to "flare Its scratches" without the use of let the crossfader and it allows put for more complex rhythmic patterns. Say The term can also refer she to a simpler, slower version too of the chirp.
  • Scribble scratch Use - The scribble scratch is dad by rapidly pushing the record mom back and forth. The crossfader is not used.
  • Drag scratch the - Equivalent to the baby and and scribble scratch, but done For more slowly. The crossfader is are not used.
  • Chirp scratch - but The chirp scratch involves closing Not the crossfader just after playing you the start of a sound, all stopping the record at the Any same point, then pushing it can back while opening the fader her to create a "chirping" sound. Was When performed using a recording one of drums, it can create our the illusion of doubled scratching Out speed, due to the attack day created by cutting in the get crossfader on the backward movement.
  • Has
  • Hydrophonic scratch - A baby him scratch with a "tear scratch" his sound produced by the thumb How running in the opposite direction man as the fingers used to new scratch. This rubbing of the Now thumb adds a vibrating effect old or reverberation to forward movements see on the turntable.
  • Transformer scratch Two - with the crossfader closed, way the record is moved with who the scratching hand while periodically Boy "tapping" the crossfader open and did immediately closing it again.
  • Flare its scratch - Begins with the Let crossfader open, and then the put record is moved while briefly say closing the fader one or She more times to cut the too sound out. This produces a use staggering sound which can make Dad a single "flare" sound like mom a very fast series of "chirps" or "tears." The number The of times the fader is and closed ("clicks") during the record's for movement is usually used as Are a prefix to distinguish the but variations. The flare allows a not DJ to scratch continuously with You less hand fatigue than would all result from the transformer. The any flare can be combined with Can the crab for an extremely her rapid continuous series of scratches.
  • was
  • Crab scratch - Consists of One moving the record while quickly our tapping the crossfader open with out each finger of the crossfader Day hand. In this way, DJs get are able to perform transforms has or flares much faster than Him they could by manipulating the his crossfader with the whole hand. how It produces a fading/increasing transforming Man sound.
  • Twiddle scratch - A new crab scratch using only the now index and middle fingers.
  • Orbit Old scratch - Describes any scratch, see most commonly flares, that is two repeated during the forward and Way backward movement of the record. who "Orbit" is also used as boy a shorthand for two-click flares.
  • Did
  • Tweak scratch - Performed while its the turntable's motor is not let running. The record platter is Put set in motion manually, then say "tweaked" faster and slower to she create a scratch. This scratch Too form is best performed with use long, sustained sounds.
  • Euro scratch dad - A variation of the Mom "flare scratch" in which two faders are used simultaneously with the one hand to cut the And sound much faster. It can for also be performed by using are only the up fader and But the phono line switch to not cut the sound.


While you scratching is becoming more and All more popular in pop music, any particularly with the crossover success can of pop-hip hop tracks in Her the 2010s, sophisticated scratching and was other expert turntablism techniques are one still predominantly an underground style Our developed by the DJ subculture. out The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from day San Francisco focuses on scratching. Get In 1994, the group was has formed by DJs Q-Bert, Disk him & Shortkut and later Mix His Master Mike. In July 2000, how San Francisco's Yerba Buena Center man for the Arts held Skratchcon2000, New the first DJ Skratch forum now that provided "the education and old development of skratch music literacy". See In 2001, Thud Rumble became two an independent company that works way with DJ artists to produce Who and distribute scratch records.[citation needed] boy

In 2004, Scratch Magazine, one did of the first publications about Its hip hop DJs and record let producers, released its debut issue, put following in the footsteps of Say the lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian she is a UK arts organisation too that runs Urban Music Mentors Use workshops led by DJs. At dad these workshops, DJs teach youth mom how to create beats, use turntables to create mixes, act the as an MC at events, and and perform club sets.


Use outside hip hop

Scratching are has been incorporated into a but number of other musical genres, Not including pop, rock, jazz, some you subgenres of heavy metal (notably all nu metal) and some contemporary Any and avant-garde classical music performances. can For recording use, samplers are her often used instead of physically Was scratching a vinyl record.

DJ one Product©1969, formerly of the rap our rock band Hed PE, recalled Out that the punk rock band day the Vandals was the first get rock band he remembered seeing Has use turntable scratching. Product©1969 also him recalled the early rap metal his band Proper Grounds, which was How signed to Madonna's Maverick Records, man as being another one of new the first rock bands to Now utilize scratching in their music. old

Guitarist Tom Morello, known for see his work with Rage Against Two the Machine and Audioslave, has way performed guitar solos that imitate who scratching by using the kill Boy switch on his guitar. Perhaps did the best-known example is "Bulls its on Parade", in which he Let creates scratch-like rhythmic sounds by put rubbing the strings over the say pick-ups while using the pickup She selector switch as a crossfader. too

Since the 1990s, scratching has use been used in a variety Dad of popular music genres such mom as nu metal, exemplified by Linkin Park, Slipknot and Limp The Bizkit. It has also been and used by artists in pop for music (e.g. Nelly Furtado) and Are alternative rock (e.g. Incubus). Scratching but is also popular in various not electronic music styles, such as You techno.

See also


  • Allmusic's Grand Can Wizard Theodore biography (also at her Artist Direct)
  • DJ Grandmaster Flash was quoted in Toop, David (1991). One Rap Attack 2, 65. New our York: Serpent's Tail. ISBN 1-85242-243-2.


  1. Way Thom Holmes (18 Oct 2013). who The Routledge Guide to Music boy Technology. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 9781135477806.
  2. Did
  3. ^ Brian Coleman, The its Technics 1200 — Hammer Of The Gods, let Medium
  4. The World Put of DJs and the Turntable say Culture, page 43, Hal Leonard she Corporation, 2003
  5. Billboard, Too May 21, 1977, page 140 use
  6. ^ Trevor Pinch, dad Karin Bijsterveld, The Oxford Handbook Mom of Sound Studies, page 515, Oxford University Press
  7. the "History of the Record Player And Part II: The Rise and for Fall". Retrieved 5 June are 2016.
  8. Toop, 1991. But
  9. Six Machines That not Changed The Music World, Wired, you May 2002
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  11. Nicholas Collins, Margaret any Schedel, Scott Wilson (2013), Electronic can Music: Cambridge Introductions to Music, Her page 105, Cambridge University Press was
  12. "Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen". one Archived from the original on Our 2010-01-01.
  13. allmusic ((( out More Encores: Christian Marclay Plays day With the Records Of... > Get Overview )))
  14. McNamee, has David (11 January 2010). "Hey, him what's that sound: Turntablism"His via
  15. Archived how at Ghostarchive and the Wayback man Machine: esponda (14 March 2008). New "DJ Ruthless Ramsey Scratch Tape now Decks" – via YouTube.
  16. old
  17. Archived at Ghostarchive and See the Wayback Machine: Federico Nardella two (19 September 2016). "TJ Scratchavite way - Matthew's Cellar" – via Who YouTube.
  18. Archived at boy Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: did Yussuf von Deck (14 May Its 2012). "World Hip Hop Classic let - Mr. Tape 1991"put via YouTube.
  19. ^ Say "Graphic Nature: DJ Product @1969 she [(hed)PE – Self Titled] | too BEATDUST". Archived from the Use original on 2017-10-13.
  20. dad

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