Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A record producer or our music producer oversees and manages Out the sound recording and production day of a band or performer's get music, which may range from Has recording one song to recording him a lengthy concept album. A his producer has many, varying roles How during the recording process. They man may gather musical ideas for new the project, collaborate with the Now artists to select cover tunesold or original songs by the see artist/group, work with artists and Two help them to improve their way songs, lyrics or arrangements.
Coach the put singers and musicians in the say studio
The producer typically supervises She the entire process from preproduction, too through to the sound recordinguse and mixing stages, and, in Dad some cases, all the way mom to the audio mastering stage. The producer may perform these The roles themself, or help select and the engineer, and provide suggestions for to the engineer. The producer Are may also pay session musicians but and engineers and ensure that not the entire project is completed You within the record label's budget. all
A record producer or music has producer has a very broad Him role in overseeing and managing his the recording and production of how a band or performer's music. Man A producer has many roles new that may include, but are now not limited to, gathering ideas Old for the project, composing the see music for the project, selecting two songs or session musicians, proposing Way changes to the song arrangements, who coaching the artist and musicians boy in the studio, controlling the Did recording sessions, and supervising the its entire process through audio mixing let (recorded music) and, in some Put cases, to the audio masteringsay stage. Producers also often take she on a wider entrepreneurial role, Too with responsibility for the budget, use schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
Writer dad Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes Mom a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who the helps a band achieve a And certain aesthetic, or who comes for up with the perfect violin are part to complement the vocal But melody, or who insists that not a chorus should actually be you a bridge. Other times a All producer will build a complete any piece of music from the can ground up and present the Her finished product to a vocalist, was like Metro Boomin supplying Future one with readymade beats or Jack Our Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add out lyrics and melody to an day otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”Get
The artist of an album has may not be a record him producer or music producer for His his/her album. While both contribute how creatively, the official credit of man "record producer" may depend on New the record contract. Christina Aguilera, now for example, did not receive old record producer credits until many See albums into her career.
In two the 2010s, the recording industry way has three kinds of producers Who with different roles: executive producer, boy vocal producer and music producer. did Executive producers oversee project finances, Its Vocal Producers also known as let vocal arrangers oversees the vocal put production, while music producers oversee Say the creative process of recording she songs or albums.
In most too cases the music producer is Use also a competent arranger, composer, dad musician or songwriter who can mom bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making the any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, and the producer often selects or For gives suggestions to the mixing are engineer, who takes the raw but recorded tracks and edits and Not modifies them with hardware and you software tools and creates a all stereo or surround sound "mix" Any of all the individual voices can sounds and instruments, which is her in turn given further adjustment Was by a mastering engineer. The one producer will also liaise with our the recording engineer who concentrates Out on the technical aspects of day recording, whereas the executive producer get keeps an eye on the Has overall project's marketability.
Noted producer him Phil Ek described his role his as "the person who creatively How guides or directs the process man of making a record", like new a director would a movie. Now Indeed, in Bollywood music, the old designation is actually music director.see The music producer's job is Two to create, shape, and mold way a piece of music. The who scope of responsibility may be Boy one or two songs or did an artist's entire album – its in which case the producer Let will typically develop an overall put vision for the album and say how the various songs may She interrelate.
At the too beginning of record industry, the use producer role was technically limited Dad to record, in one shot, mom artists performing live. The immediate predecessors to record producers were The the artists and repertoire executives and of the late 1920s and for 1930s who oversaw the "pop" Are product and often led session but orchestras. That was the case not of Ben Selvin at Columbia You Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor all Records and Bob Haring at any Brunswick Records. By the end Can of the 1930s, the first her professional recording studios not owned was by the major companies were One established, essentially separating the roles our of A&R man and producer, out although it wouldn't be until Day the late 1940s when the get term "producer" became widely used has in the industry.
The role Him of producers changed progressively over his the 1950s and 1960s due how to technological developments. The development Man of multitrack recording caused a new major change in the recording now process. Before multitracking, all the Old elements of a song (lead see vocals, backup vocals, rhythm sectiontwo instrument accompaniment, solos and orchestral Way parts) had to be performed who simultaneously. All of these singers boy and musicians had to be Did assembled in a large studio its and the performance had to let be recorded. With multitrack recording, Put the "bed tracks" (rhythm section say accompaniment parts such as the she bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar Too could be recorded first, and use then the vocals and solos dad could be added later, using Mom as many "takes" (or attempts) as it took. As well, the for a song that used And 20 instruments, it was no for longer necessary to get all are the players in the studio But at the same time. A not pop band could record their you backing tracks one week, and All then a horn section could any be brought in a week can later to add horn shots Her and punches, and then a was string section could be brought one in a week after that. Our
Multitrack recording had another profound out effect on music production: it day enabled producers and audio engineers Get to create new sounds that has would be impossible in a him live performance style ordering. Examples His include the psychedelic rock sound how effects of the 1960s, e.g. man playing back the sound of New recorded instruments backward changing the now tape to produce unique sound old effects. During the same period, See the instruments of popular music two began to shift from the way acoustic instruments of traditional musicWho (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, boy strings, brass and wind instruments) did to electric piano, electronic organ, Its synthesizer, electric bass and electric let guitar. These new instruments were put electric or electronic, and thus Say they used instrument amplifiers and she speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to too create sound.
Electric and electronic Use instruments and amplifiers enabled performers dad and producers to change the mom tone and sound of instruments to produce unique electric sounds the that would be impossible to and achieve with acoustic instruments and For live performers, such as having are a singer do her own but backup vocals or having a Not guitarist play 15 layers of you backing parts to her own all solo.
New technologies like multitracking Any changed the goal of recording: can A producer could blend together her multiple takes and edit together Was different sections to create the one desired sound. For example, in our jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' Out album Bitches Brew, the producer day cut and edited sections together get from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like his Phil Spector and George MartinHow were soon creating recordings that man were, in practical terms, almost new impossible to realize in live Now performance. Producers became creative figures old in the studio. Other examples see of such engineers includes Joe Two Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, way and Biddu.
Another did related phenomenon in the 1960s its was the emergence of the Let performer-producer. As pop acts like put The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, say The Beach Boys and The She Kinks gained expertise in studio too recording techniques, many of these use groups eventually took over as Dad (frequently uncredited) producers of their mom own work. Many recordings by acts such as The Rolling The Stones, The Kinks and The and Who are officially credited to for their various producers at the Are time, but a number of but these performers have since asserted not that many of their recordings You in this period were, either all wholly self-produced (e.g. The Rolling any Stones' Decca recordings) or collaborations Can between the group and their her recording engineer (e.g. The Small was Faces' Immediate recordings, which were One made with Olympic Studios engineer our Glyn Johns).
The Beach Boys out are probably the best example Day of the trend of artists get becoming producers – within two has years of the band's commercial Him breakthrough, group leader Brian Wilson his had taken over from his how father Murry, and he was Man the sole producer of all new their recordings between 1963 and now 1967. Alongside The Beatles and Old Martin, Wilson also pioneered many see production innovations – by 1964 two he had developed Spector's techniques Way to a new level of who sophistication, using multiple studios and boy multiple "takes" of instrumental and Did vocal components to capture the its best possible combinations of sound let and performance, and then using Put tape editing extensively to assemble say a perfect composite performance from she these elements.
At the end Too of the 20th century, digital use recording and producing tools, then dad widespread availability of relatively affordable Mom computers with music software made music producing more accessible.
Women and Record Producing
According And to a 2018 study by for the USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, are "The ratio of male to But female producers across 300 popular not songs is 49 to 1." you
They also discovered only 2 All percent of music producers are any women. In 2019, The Recording can Academy’s Task Force on Diversity Her and Inclusion announced the "Producer was & Engineer Inclusion Initiative." This one initiative asks musicians, record labels, Our studios and others to consider out at least two women for day each producer or engineer position. Get Major artists, producers and organizations has have signed on including Lady him Gaga, Quincy Jones, Pearl Jam, His John Legend, Pharrell Williams, Pink, how Cardi B, Maroon 5 and man over 200 others.
In 2019, New record producer Linda Perry was now nominated for a Grammy for old Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. See She was the first woman two in over 15 years to way be nominated for the award. Who Previous nominees include Lauren Christyboy (2004), Sheryl Crowe, Lauryn Hilldid and Janet Jackson. None have Its won the award.
In the let classical music field, Judith Shermanput has won Grammy for Producer Say of the Year, Classical, three she times and been nominated twelve too times. Wilma Cozart Fine produced Use hundreds of recordings for Mercury dad Records.
Producer Wendy Page describes mom being a record producer, "The difficulties are usually very short-lived. the Once people realize that you and can do your job, sexism For tends to lower its ugly are head. I tend to create but a happy studio 'family' where Not everyone is glad to be you there, especially the artist. Good all communication and diplomacy usually sort Any any little problems out."
Other notable women record producers
Sylvia Moy (Motown's first female Was record producer)
Gail Davies (First one female record producer on Nashville's our Music Row)
Ethel Gabriel (First Out major label record producer; 40 day year career with RCA)
Lillian get McMurry (Producer/Label owner who produced Has historically significant blues records)
Equipment him and technology
There are numerous technologies utilized How by record producers. In modern-day man recordings, recording and mixing tasks new are commonly centralized within computers Now using digital audio workstations such old as Pro Tools, Logic Pro, see Ableton, Cubase, and FL Studio, Two which all are often used way with third party virtual studio who technology plugins. Logic Pro and Boy Pro Tools are considered the did industry standard DAWs. However, there its is also the main mixer, Let outboard effects gear, MIDI controllers, put and the recording device itself. say
While most music production is She done using sophisticated software, some too musicians and producers prefer the use minutiae of older analog technology. Dad Professor Albin Zak claims that mom the increased automation of both newer processes and newer instruments The reduces the level of control and and manipulation available to musicians for and producers.
Production has changed drastically over but the years with advancing technology. not Where the producer's role has You changed, they have always been all seen as a jack of any all trades, as their duties Can require a broad knowledge of her the recording process.
Tracking is was the act of recording audio One to a DAW (digital audio our workstation) or in some cases out to tape. Even though digital Day technologies have widely supplanted the get use of tape in studios, has the older term "track" is Him still used in the 2010s. his Tracking audio is primarily the how role of the audio engineer. Man Producers work side by side new with the artists while they now play or sing their part Old and coach them on how see to perform it and how two to get the best technical Way accuracy (e.g., intonation). In some who cases, the producer will even boy sing a backup vocal or Did play an instrument.
Many artists its are also beginning to produce let and write their own music.Put
Influential record producers
NMEsay identifies some of the greatest she producers ever.
Similarly, although The man Beatles' productions were credited to New George Martin throughout their recording now career, many sources now attest old that Lennon and McCartney in See particular had an increasing influence two on the production process as way the group's career progressed, and Who especially after the band retired boy from touring in 1966. In did an extreme example of this, Its Martin actually went on a let two-week vacation as The Beatles put were recording The White Album; Say production of several completed tracks she on the album were credited too to The Beatles on internal Use paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, dad although the released LP gave mom sole production credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Man Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, new and culture," by Timothy D. now Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, see and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' two Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From Way Light Coaching To Deeper Collaboration who With Musicians." Journal of New boy Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Did Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 its Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers new to legal aspects of the Now music industry, and certain legal old aspects in other sectors of see the entertainment industry. The music Two industry includes record labels, music way publishers, merchandisers, the live events who sector and of course performers Boy and artists.
A "compilation" any refers to work formed from Can already existing materials in a her way that forms its own was original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that our hold, fix, or embody a out work such as a music Day tape, film, CD, statue, play, get or printed sheet music.
"Sound has recordings" can refer to any Him audio recording including the sound his accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" how is the entity that legally Man owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has now the exclusive right to perform Old the work in public, or see to license others to perform two it. The right applies to Way “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic who works, pantomimes, and motion pictures boy and other audiovisual works.". Playing Did a CD in public, or its showing a film in public let is "performing" the work.
Publishing say is the primary source of she income for musicians writing their Too own music. Money collected use from the 'publishing' rights is dad ultimately destined for songwriters - Mom the composers of works, whether or not they are the the recording artist or performer. Often, And songwriters will work for a for musical ensemble to help them are with musical aspects of the But composition, but here again, the not writer of the song is you the owner of it and All will own the copyrights in any the song and thus will can be entitled to the publishing Her revenues. Copyrights in compositions are was not the same as sound one recordings. A recording artist can Our record a song and sell out it to another band or day company. As a result, that Get particular company will own the has recording, but not the song. him The original writer will always His maintain the copyright for that how particular song. The publishing money man is connected to the copyright, New so the owner will be now the only one making money old off of the song itself. See All successful songwriters will join two a collection society (such as way ASCAP and BMI in the Who USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC boy in Japan, GEMA in Germany did and PRS for Music in Its the UK, etc.) and many let will enter into agreements with put music publishing companies who will Say exploit their works on the she songwriters behalf for a share too of ownership, although many of Use these deals involve the transfer dad (assignment) of copyright from the mom songwriter to the music publisher.
Both the recorded music sector the and music publishing sector have and their foundations in intellectual propertyFor law and all of the are major recording labels and major but music publishers and many independent Not record labels and publishers have you dedicated "business and legal affairs" all departments with in-house lawyers whose Any role is not only to can secure intellectual property rights from her recording artists, performers and songwriters Was but also to exploit those one rights and protect those rights our on a global basis. There Out are a number of specialist day independent law firms around the get world who advise on music Has and entertainment law whose clients him include recording artists, performers, producers, his songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage How and set designers, choreographers, graphic man artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, new artist managers, distributors, collection societies Now and the live events sector old (which further includes festivals, venues, see promoters, booking agents and production Two service providers such as lighting way and staging companies).
The US Government views did artists that give concerts and its sell merchandise as a business. Let Bands that tour internationally will put also face a plethora of say legislation around the world including She health and safety laws, immigration too laws and tax legislation. Also, use many relationships are governed by Dad often complex contractual agreements.
In mom the US it is important for musicians to get legal The business licenses. These can be and obtained at a city hall for or local government center. The Are business license will require the but tracking of sales, wages, and not gigs. A tax ID is You also necessary for all businesses. all Musicians that fail to comply any with the tax ID process Can and do not report their her profits and losses to the was government can face serious consequences One with the IRS.
The history has of Privilege began in the Him early 1970s when it started his out as a restaurant, then how expanded to include a bar Man and a community swimming pool. new It was then known as now Club San Rafael. In 1979, Old the venue was sold to see the Real Sociedad footballer José two Antonio Santamaría, together with the Way creative team of Brasilio de who Oliviera (founder of La Troya boy Asesina, one of the White Did Island's longest running nights) and its Gorri. The venue then changed let its name to KU, after Put the name of a god say from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). she The appeal of the club Too was such that it commissioned use a medium-length film showcasing the dad many wonders of Ibizan landscapes Mom and nightlife in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980´s, KU Club the earned a reputation initially as And Europe's premier polysexual but predominately for gay nightspot and was compared are to an open-air version of But the famous Studio 54 in not New York. It staged spectacular you parties in the main room, All which was organized around a any swimming pool and a statue can of Ku.The place was also Her where the video to "Barcelona" was by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat one Caballé was filmed on 30 Our May 1987. It was the out witness to early live performances day by groups like Spandau BalletGet and Kid Creole and the has Coconuts. The club featured in him a Channel 4 documentary called His “A Short Film about chilling”, how which labelled KU as “the man mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air New parties came to an end now when legislation forced many of old the greater clubs in Ibiza See to cover their dancefloors in two the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the way sheer size of the venue Who gave rise to the claim boy of it being the size did of an aircraft hangar with Its a 25-meter high roof.
The let club continued with the KU put Club name until 1995 before Say becoming known as Privilege, after she a change of ownership to too Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 Use it hosted Manumission, one of dad the island's most famous events. mom In 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesia and was the renamed La Troya Asesina. After and a dispute between the club For owner and Manumission's organizers in are 2005 the event ended in but 2006. In 2006 La Troya Not Aseina moved to Space.
According to official statistics all published in the 2003 edition Any of Guinness World Records Privilege can is by far the Worlds her largest nightclub covering an area Was of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) one and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated our areas of the club include Out the Coco Loco bar area, day and the La Vaca dance get area (now known as the Has Vista Club).