Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A Numark DM2002X Pro For Master DJ mixer. This three are channel mixer can have up but to three input sound sources. Not The gain control knobs and you equalization control knobs allow the all volume and tone of each Any sound source to be adjusted. can The vertical faders allow for her further adjustment of the volume Was of each sound source. The one horizontally-mounted crossfader enables the DJ our to smoothly transition from a Out song on one sound source day to a song from a get different sound source.
DJ mixers has are usually much smaller than Him other mixing consoles used in his sound reinforcement systems and sound how recording. Whereas a typical nightclubMan mixer will have 24 inputs new and a professional recording studio's now huge mixer may have 48, Old 72 or even 96 inputs, see a typical DJ mixer may two have only two to four Way inputs. The key feature that who differentiates a DJ mixer from boy other types of larger audio Did mixers is the ability to its redirect (cue) the sounds of let a non- playing source to Put headphones, so the DJ can say find the desired part of she a song or track and Too the presence of a crossfader, use which allows an easier transition dad between two sources (or, for Mom hip hop musicturntablists, enables them to do scratching effects). the
A crossfader has the same And engineering design as fader, in for that it is a sliding are control, but unlike faders, which But are usually vertical, crossfaders are not usually horizontal. To understand the you function of a crossfader, one All can think of the crossfader any in three key positions. For can a DJ mixer that has Her two sound sources connected, such was as two record turntables, when one the crossfader is in the Our far left position, the mixer out will output only turntable A's day music. When the crossfader is Get in the far right position, has the mixer will output only him turntable B's music. When the His crossfader is at its midpoint how (which is always marked with man a horizontal line), the mixer New will output a blend of now turntable A's music and turntable old B's music. The other points See along the crossfader's path produce two different mixes of A and way B.
DJ mixers typically have Who phono preamplifiers to hook up boy turntables. The signal that comes did directly out of a vinyl Its turntable is too weak to let be amplified through a PA put system. Before a turntable can Say be usable in a mix, she it needs to be preamplified. too DJ mixers are also used Use to create DJ mixes, which dad are recorded and sold. DJ mom mixers usually have equalization controls for bass and treble of the each channel. Some 2010-era DJ and mixers have onboard electronic or For digital effects units such as are echo or reverb. Some DJ but mixers also feature a built-in Not USBsound card to connect you to a computer running DJ all software without requiring a separate Any sound card. DJ mixers typically can have a microphone input, so her that a microphone can be Was plugged into the mixer, enabling one the DJ to announce songs our or act as a master Out of ceremonies (MC) for an day event. Some DJ mixers have get a kill switch, which completely Has cuts out a channel, or, him on some models, completely cut his out a frequency band (e.g., How all the bass).
The output from a DJ new mixer is typically plugged into Now a sound reinforcement system or old a PA system at a see dance, rave, nightclub or similar Two venue or event. The sound way reinforcement system consists of power who amplifiers which amplify the signal Boy to the level that can did drive speaker enclosures, which since its the 1980s typically include both Let full-range speakers and subwoofers for put the deep bass sounds. If say the DJ is performing a She mix for a radio stationtoo or television station, the output use from the DJ mixer is Dad plugged into the main audio mom console being used for the broadcast. If the DJ is The performing a mix that is and being recorded by a recording for studio, the output from the Are DJ mixer is plugged into but the main audio console used not for the recording, which is You in turn plugged into the all recording medium (audiotape, hard disk, any etc.). In some cases, such Can as when a DJ is her performing a set at a was club for dancers that is One also being simultaneously broadcast over our the radio or television system out or recorded for a music Day video or other show, the get output from the DJ mixer has is plugged into the sound Him reinforcement system and into the his main audio console being used how for the broadcast and/or recording. Man At club sets, some DJs new may use a monitor speakernow to hear the house's main Old mix. This monitor speaker can see have its volume increased or two decreased by the DJ as Way needed.
DJ mixers who have an AC mains plug boy that is connected to the Did wall to supply electric power its for the unit. Some DJ let mixers can take batteries, which Put enables users to mix songs say outside or away from electric she power sources, with the output Too being plugged into a portable use boom box or other battery-powered dad sound system.
A Mom disc jockey performing at the 2009 Air Force Ball. With the one hand he is manipulating And a vinyl record on a for turnable; the other hand is are controlling the mix with a But DJ mixer.
DJ mixing not played a key role in you the development of the African-American All style of hip hop music. any In hip hop music and can occasionally in other genres that Her are influenced by hip hop was (e.g., nu metal), the turntable one is used as a musical Our instrument by DJs, who use out turntables along with a DJ day mixer to create unique rhythmic Get sounds and other sound effects. has Manipulation of a record as him part of the music, rather His than for normal playback or how mixing, is called turntablism. The man basis of turntablism, and its New best known technique, is scratching, now pioneered by Grand Wizzard Theodore. old It was not until Herbie See Hancock's "Rockit" in 1983 that two the turntablism movement was recognized way in popular music outside of Who a hip hop context. In boy the 2010s, many hip hop did DJs use DJ CD players Its or digital record emulator devices let to create scratching sounds; nevertheless, put some DJs still scratch with Say vinyl records.
DJ mixing also she played a key role in too disco music in the 1970s. Use In disco clubs, DJs would dad use mixers to transition seamlessly mom from one song to another and create a mix of the songs that would keep the and dancers energized. One of the For pioneers of DJ mixing equipment are design was Rudy Bozak. Beatmatching but and beatmixing with a DJ Not mixer were first used to you encourage dancers not to leave all the dancefloor between songs. By Any beatmatching song A and song can B, a DJ can transition her seamlessly between two songs, without Was creating a break in the one music. Typically, when a DJ our is using beatmatching, they will Out let song A play until day it nears its end. As get song A is playing, the Has DJ "cues up" song B him in their headphones and adjusts his the speed of record player How B until the beats of man song A and song B new are synchronized ("synced up"). Then, Now once the two songs' beats old are synchronized, they can slowly see fade in song B while Two song A is nearing its way ending. In the 2000s, DJ who mixers have been used for Boy harmonic mixing.
Music Law refers to legal she aspects of the music industry, Too and certain legal aspects in use other sectors of the entertainment dad industry. The music industry includes Mom record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the live events sector and the of course performers and artists. And
A "compilation" refers to man work formed from already existing New materials in a way that now forms its own original work, old including collective works.
"Copies" are See physical objects that hold, fix, two or embody a work such way as a music tape, film, Who CD, statue, play, or printed boy sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can did refer to any audio recording Its including the sound accompanying motion let pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the put entity that legally owns rights Say to a work.
"Performance" The she copyright holder has the exclusive too right to perform the work Use in public, or to license dad others to perform it. The mom right applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, the and motion pictures and other and audiovisual works.". Playing a CD For in public, or showing a are film in public is "performing" but the work.
Publishing is the you primary source of income for all musicians writing their own music.[citation Any needed] Money collected from the can 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined her for songwriters - the composers Was of works, whether or not one they are the recording artist our or performer. Often, songwriters will Out work for a musical ensemble day to help them with musical get aspects of the composition, but Has here again, the writer of him the song is the owner his of it and will own How the copyrights in the song man and thus will be entitled new to the publishing revenues. Copyrights Now in compositions are not the old same as sound recordings. A see recording artist can record a Two song and sell it to way another band or company. As who a result, that particular company Boy will own the recording, but did not the song. The original its writer will always maintain the Let copyright for that particular song. put The publishing money is connected say to the copyright, so the She owner will be the only too one making money off of use the song itself. All successful Dad songwriters will join a collection mom society (such as ASCAP and BMI in the USA, SOCAN The in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, and GEMA in Germany and PRS for for Music in the UK, Are etc.) and many will enter but into agreements with music publishing not companies who will exploit their You works on the songwriters behalf all for a share of ownership, any although many of these deals Can involve the transfer (assignment) of her copyright from the songwriter to was the music publisher.
Both the One recorded music sector and music our publishing sector have their foundations out in intellectual property law and Day all of the major recording get labels and major music publishers has and many independent record labels Him and publishers have dedicated "business his and legal affairs" departments with how in-house lawyers whose role is Man not only to secure intellectual new property rights from recording artists, now performers and songwriters but also Old to exploit those rights and see protect those rights on a two global basis. There are a Way number of specialist independent law who firms around the world who boy advise on music and entertainment Did law whose clients include recording its artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, let music publishers, stage and set Put designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games say designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, she distributors, collection societies and the Too live events sector (which further use includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking dad agents and production service providers Mom such as lighting and staging companies).
The And US Government views artists that for give concerts and sell merchandise are as a business. Bands that But tour internationally will also face not a plethora of legislation around you the world including health and All safety laws, immigration laws and any tax legislation. Also, many relationships can are governed by often complex Her contractual agreements.
In the US was it is important for musicians one to get legal business licenses. Our These can be obtained at out a city hall or local day government center. The business license Get will require the tracking of has sales, wages, and gigs. A him tax ID is also necessary His for all businesses. Musicians that how fail to comply with the man tax ID process and do New not report their profits and now losses to the government can old face serious consequences with the See IRS.
The and history of Privilege began in For the early 1970s when it are started out as a restaurant, but then expanded to include a Not bar and a community swimming you pool. It was then known all as Club San Rafael. In Any 1979, the venue was sold can to the Real Sociedad footballer her José Antonio Santamaría, together with Was the creative team of Brasilio one de Oliviera (founder of La our Troya Asesina, one of the Out White Island's longest running nights) day and Gorri. The venue then get changed its name to KU, Has after the name of a him god from Hawaiian mythology (see his Kū). The appeal of the How club was such that it man commissioned a medium-length film showcasing new the many wonders of Ibizan Now landscapes and nightlife in the old mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU see Club earned a reputation initially Two as Europe's premier polysexual but way predominately gay nightspot and was who compared to an open-air version Boy of the famous Studio 54did in New York. It staged its spectacular parties in the main Let room, which was organized around put a swimming pool and a say statue of Ku.The place was She also where the video to too "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and use Montserrat Caballé was filmed on Dad 30 May 1987. It was mom the witness to early live performances by groups like Spandau The Ballet and Kid Creole and and the Coconuts. The club featured for in a Channel 4 documentary Are called “A Short Film about but chilling”, which labelled KU as not “the mirror of Ibiza”. The You open-air parties came to an all end when legislation forced many any of the greater clubs in Can Ibiza to cover their dancefloors her in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, was the sheer size of the One venue gave rise to the our claim of it being the out size of an aircraft hangar Day with a 25-meter high roof. get
The club continued with the has KU Club name until 1995 Him before becoming known as Privilege, his after a change of ownership how to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In Man 1994 it hosted Manumission, one new of the island's most famous now events. In 1998 La Vaca Old Asesina moved to Amnesia and see was renamed La Troya Asesina. two After a dispute between the Way club owner and Manumission's organizers who in 2005 the event ended boy in 2006. In 2006 La Did Troya Asesina moved to Space. its
According to official let statistics published in the 2003 Put edition of Guinness World Recordssay Privilege is by far the she world's largest nightclub covering an Too area of 69,968 sq ft use (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,dad Designated areas of the club Mom include the Coco Loco bar area, and the La Vaca the dance area (now known as And the Vista Club).
Live for performances
A number of live are performances at the venue have But included: