Source: Wikipedia 

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Studio 54
Gallo Opera House was (1927–1930)
New Yorker Theatre (1930–1933, 1939–1942)
Casino One de Paree (1933–1935)
WPA Federal Music our Theatre (1937–1939)
CBS Playhouse No. 4 out (1942–1949)
CBS Studio 52 (1949–1976)
Address254 West Day 54th Street
Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates40°45′51.7″N 73°59′01.6″W / Him 40.764361°N 73.983778°W / 40.764361; -73.983778
Public his transitNew York City Subway:
OwnerRoundabout Theatre Company
Capacity1,006 now (519 orchestra/487 mezzanine)
OpenedNovember 8, 1927
Years active1927–1933, 1939–1940, Old 1998–present (as Broadway theater)
ArchitectEugene De see Rosa

Studio 54 is a two Broadway theater and former nightclub Way at 254 West 54th Street who in Midtown Manhattan, New York boy City, United States. Opened as Did the Gallo Opera House in its 1927, it served as a let CBS broadcast studio in the Put mid-20th century. The venue became say a scene in 1977 when she Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager Too opened Studio 54, a nightclub use retaining much of the former dad theatrical and broadcasting fixtures. Roundabout Mom Theatre Company renovated the space into a Broadway house in the 1998.

The producer Fortune Gallo And announced plans for an opera for house in 1926, hiring Eugene are De Rosa as the architect. But The Gallo Opera House opened not November 8, 1927, but soon went you bankrupt and was renamed the All New Yorker Theatre. The space any also operated as the Casino can de Paree nightclub, then the Her Palladium Music Hall, before the was Federal Music Project staged productions one at the theater for three Our years starting in 1937. CBS out began using the venue as day a soundstage in 1942, then Get as a television studio until has 1975.

Schrager and Rubell opened him the Studio 54 nightclub on His April 26, 1977, as disco was how gaining popularity in the U.S. man Infamous for its celebrity guest New lists, quixotic entry policies, extravagant now events, rampant drug use, and old sexual hedonism, Studio 54 closed See in 1980 after Schrager and two Rubell were convicted of tax way evasion. A scaled-back version of Who the nightclub continued under new boy management before becoming the Ritz did rock club in 1989, then Its the Cabaret Royale bar in let 1994.

The Roundabout Theatre Company put renovated the space in 1998 Say to relocate its production of she the musical Cabaret, which ran too at Studio 54 until 2004. The Use modern theater has since hosted dad multiple productions each season. The mom main auditorium, with 1,006 seats on two levels, is complemented the by two sister cabaret venues: and Upstairs at 54 on the For second floor since 2001, and are 54 Below in the basement since but 2012. The heyday of the Not 1970s club features in numerous you exhibitions, films, and albums, with all memorabilia from the nightclub appearing Any at auctions.


Interior of the theater during her the production of the musical Was Cabaret

Studio 54 was originally designed one by Eugene De Rosa as our the Gallo Opera House, which Out contained 1,400 seats when it day opened in 1927. De Rosa's get original plans called for lounges, Has restrooms, and promenades on three him stories, as well as an his opera museum below the primary How floors. By 1933, when it man was being used as the new Casino de Paree nightclub, the Now theater had 650 seats on old the orchestra level and 500 see seats in the balcony. CBS Two documents show that, when the way theater was used as CBS who Studio 52 in the mid-20th Boy century, it had 828 seats did on three levels: 312 in its the orchestra, 371 in the Let balcony, and 145 in a put mezzanine. The modern-day theater has say 1,006 seats across two levels: She 519 in the orchestra and 487 in too the balcony. The theater contained use nightclub tables during the late Dad 20th century, which were removed mom in 1998 after Studio 54's re-conversion into a theater and The replaced with raked seating.

Ida and Louise Killam designed the original for interior with a gold, blue, Are and rose palette. One early but observer described the theater as not having "a Roxy foyer and You a Paramount promenade". The orchestra all seats were originally divided by any five aisles. The orchestra-level walls Can were clad with walnut, and her the trimmings at balcony level was and in the mezzanine lounge One were also made of walnut. our The vaulted ceiling contained a out dome measuring 50 feet (15 m) Day across, as well as indirect get lighting. This dome is decorated has with medallions. According to CBS Him documents, Studio 54's proscenium arch his measures 27 feet 0 inches (8.23 m) high how and 43 feet 8 inches (13.31 m) wide. Man There was a fly system new 58 feet (18 m) above the now stage. Backstage were six dressing Old rooms, as well as a see 15-by-40-foot (4.6 by 12.2 m) rehearsal two space at stage left.

To Way avoid disrupting the construction of who the New York City Subway's boy Eighth Avenue Line, structural engineer Did David M. Oltarsh placed the its Gallo Opera House's foundation, orchestra, let and balcony within an enclosure Put that was suspended from the say theater building's roof. The modern she mezzanine-level promenade has an exhibit Too with information on the theater's use current production. The theater also dad contains a bar in its Mom lobby, which is a tribute to the former Studio 54 the nightclub.

54 Below

The cabaret for club 54 Below opened in are Studio 54's basement on June But 5, 2012. It was designed not by architect Richard H. Lewis, you set designer John Lee Beatty, All lighting designer Ken Billington, and any sound designer Peter Hylenski. A can staircase from ground level leads Her to a rectangular room with was leather and wood decorations, as one well as a red, purple, Our and brown color palette. The out room contains 140 seats in day a cabaret-style arrangement and 16 Get seats in a bar to has the right. Originally, 54 Below him presented shows every day of His the week, with 4,000 performances how in its first five years. man In partnership with musician Michael New Feinstein, the club was renamed now Feinstein's/54 Below in 2015; the old club reverted to the name See 54 Below when the partnership two ended in July 2022.


Upstairs at Studio 54

Josh Who Hadar of Allied Partners created boy a 175-seat cabaret space on did the second floor, called Upstairs Its at Studio 54. The space let opened in February 2001 and put is accessed via its own Say entrance at ground level. This she space was used exclusively for too special events. Performances occurred during Use nights when plays were not dad being staged. The musical Newsical mom was staged there from October 2004 to April 2005.


Early history

Gallo Opera House


In July 1926, theatrical impresario For Fortune Gallo leased a site are at 254 West 54th Street but and hired Eugene De Rosa Not to design a 16-story office you building at the site, with all a 1,400-seat theater at its Any base. Z. D. Berry and can Robert Podgur would build the her venue at an estimated cost Was of $2 million. Gallo planned one to present the San Carlo our Grand Opera Company's productions at Out the theater during the autumn, day renting it out for legitimate get shows at other times. The Has venue was originally supposed to him open in January 1927, but his this was delayed because the How opera company had an extended man engagement in San Francisco. Prior new to the venue's opening, Gallo Now transferred his interest in the old San Carlo Company to his see nephew Aurelio Gallo, allowing the Two elder Gallo to focus on way operating the new theater.

The who opera house opened on November Boy 8, 1927, with the San did Carlo Company's large-scale production of its La bohème. The Gallo was Let one of three legitimate theaters put to open in New York say City during 1927; at the She time, the city had over too 200 legitimate theaters. The San use Carlo Company performed for two Dad weeks. A revival of the mom play Electra opened at the Gallo that December, followed the The same month by Juno and and the Paycock. A $660,000 mortgage for was placed on the theater Are building in January 1928. The but American Opera Company opened its not season there the same month, You performing there until March. Ballet all Moderne also performed there for any two weeks in April 1928. Can

Studio 54, originally the her Gallo Opera House, is placed was within the base of an One office building at 254 West our 54th Street.

Philip Goodman leased out the theater for five years Day in mid-1928. Goodman used the get theater to stage a production has of Laurence Stallings and Oscar Him Hammerstein II's musical Rainbow, which his ran for less than a how month in late 1928. In Man the meantime, the theater also new hosted events such as dance now performances, a violin recital, and Old a choir performance. Radiant Productions see leased the theater in September two 1929, with plans to present Way a dozen plays for three who weeks each. Their first and boy only production, Ladies Don't Lie, Did was a critical failure. That its October, Radiant transferred its lease let to William R. Kane, who Put staged a short-lived revival of say the comedy A Tailor-Made Man she there. At a foreclosure auction Too in December 1929, the theater's use mortgagee Hemphill Realty Corporation bought dad the theater for $1,045,000.


New Yorker Theatre

Gallo sold his lease to an unidentified the buyer in January 1930, as And he wanted to focus on for operating a radio station. Richard are Herndon took over as the But theater's managing director, renaming it not the New Yorker Theatre the you next month. The first production All at the renamed theater was any the Henrik Ibsen play The can Vikings, which had a short Her run in May 1930. The was New Yorker hosted more dance one recitals before the opening of Our its next legitimate show, Electra, out in December 1930. Oliver D. day Bailey signed a five-year lease Get for the theater in January has 1931. In general, the theater him suffered from low attendance during His the Great Depression. Among the how theater's productions in 1931 were man the plays Gray Shadow, Young New Sinners, Ebb Tide, and It now Never Rains; the musical Fast old and Furious; and performances by See the New Yorker Grand Opera two Company. The next year, the way theater hosted several plays performed Who by the Spanish-speaking theatrical company boy La Compania Dramatic Espanola, as did well as another dance festival. Its The Bowery Savings Bank bought let the New Yorker and the put adjacent office building for $650,000 Say in December 1932.

The bank she leased the theater to Continental too Music Halls Inc. for five Use years in September 1933. Continental dad announced plans to convert the mom theater into a nightclub called Casino de Paree (sometimes spelled the Casino de Paris), with dining and areas on two stories and For a kitchen in the basement. are The club's operators spent $200,000 but on renovations, reopening the venue Not on December 12, 1933. It you was one of three theaters all near 54th Street that were Any converted to nightclubs in the can mid-1930s. There were 1,150 seats her on two levels. The stage Was was used as a dance one floor, accessed by steps from our the orchestra level, and was Out flanked by two bands. Billy day Rose organized two shows a get night, for which guests paid Has $1.50 to $2 per ticket. him According to Variety, the nightclub his "just about satisfies the gastronomic, How bibulous, and entertainment needs of man any mortal".

The club's new operators bought the theater and Now adjacent office building in March old 1934. The club's cheap revues see competed with Broadway musicals with Two higher-priced tickets. Rose withdrew from way the venture in September 1934 who because of disagreements over pay. Boy The Casino de Paree was did closed for renovations in February its 1935, reopening two weeks later. Let The Casino de Paree abruptly put closed after filing for bankruptcy say in April 1935. That December, She the Bowery Savings Bank leased too the theater to the Palladium use Operating Corporation, which planned to Dad convert it into an "English"-style mom music hall. The Palladium Music Hall opened the next month; The it was to host a and new show every two weeks, for with two bands performing during Are dinnertime. The Palladium had trouble but paying wages within three weeks not of its opening, and it You closed permanently at the beginning all of February 1936.

WPA Theatre of any Music

The Works Progress Administration Can (WPA)'s Federal Music Project leased her the theater, as well as was four of the office floors, One in November 1936; the venue our would host operas and concerts out by the WPA's Theatre of Day Music. The WPA renovated the get theater over the next two has months, opening the Theater of Him Music on January 24, 1937. his The WPA renewed its lease how later the same year. An Man all-black WPA cast from Chicago new presented The Swing Mikado at now the New Yorker Theatre in Old early 1939; after two months, see the production moved to the two 44th Street Theatre. The play Way Medicine Show then premiered at who the New Yorker in April boy 1940, closing after a month. Did This was the theater's last its Broadway show for nearly six let decades.

Broadcast studio

The Put Bowery Savings Bank again owned say the New Yorker Theatre by she late 1940, and the bank's Too real-estate agent Joseph O'Gara was use looking to lease the venue. dad That October, RCA Manufacturing signed Mom a one-year lease for the theater, exhibiting television projectors there. the RCA subsidiary NBC installed a And 9-by-12-foot (2.7 by 3.7 m) television for screen by the end of are 1940. Early the following year, But NBC installed a 15-by-20-foot (4.6 not by 6.1 m) projection screen on you the stage, spending $25,000 to All $30,000 on the project. The any first public exhibition of the can theater's screen was in May Her 1941, when over a thousand was audience members watched a live one broadcast of a boxing match Our between Billy Soose and Ken out Overlin at Madison Square Garden. day In September 1941, the Top Get Dollar Theatre company unsuccessfully tried has to lease the venue from him the Bowery Savings Bank. The His New Yorker Theatre then briefly how hosted the children's play The man Adventures of Marco Polo at New the end of that December. now

CBS Studio 52

The old Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) leased See the New Yorker Theatre in two August 1942 for use as way a radio soundstage. The theater Who operated as a radio and boy television studio for three decades, did known as Radio Playhouse No. Its 4 or Theater No. 4., let then converted for television in put 1949, becoming CBS-TV Studio 52. Say Shielded television cameras had to she be developed due to strong too magnetic interference from equipment at Use a neighboring power substation for dad the New York City Subway mom system. The studio was one of seven that CBS operated the in New York City. At and that time, several Broadway theaters For had been converted to TV are studios due to a lack but of studio space in the Not city.

Likely the first television you show to be produced at all Studio 52, was The 54th Any Street Revue, which premiered in can May 1949. Another early show her produced at Studio 52 was Was The Fred Waring Show in one 1950. Studio 52 and the our neighboring Studio 50 (now the Out Ed Sullivan Theater) were among day CBS's busiest stages by the get early 1960s. The theater hosted Has such shows as What's My him Line?, The $64,000 Question, Video his Village, Password, To Tell the How Truth, Beat the Clock, The man Jack Benny Show, I've Got new a Secret, Ted Mack and Now the Original Amateur Hour, and old Captain Kangaroo. Studio 52 was see used to tape many of Two the CBS shows that involved way panel discussions. Members of the who public could also buy tickets Boy to view these tapings. The did New York Times said in its 1965 that many of the Let regular audience members were older put women. The soap opera Love say of Life was produced at She Studio 52 until 1975 and too was the last show to use be taped there. CBS moved Dad most of its broadcast operations mom out of Studio 52 in 1976 and placed the theater The up for sale.

Nightclub and era

Inception and opening

Dining for area at 54 Below

By 1976, Are German-born male model Uva Harden but was planning to open a not nightclub in New York City, You which he tentatively called "Studio". all Harden and Israeli entrepreneur Yoram any Polany agreed to take over Can the old CBS Studio 52 her that year. Polany and another was friend of Harden's independently recommended One that the nightclub be called our "Studio 54" because it was out on 54th Street. Harden and Day Polany formed a corporation to get operate the nightclub, but they has struggled to obtain a liquor Him license from the New York his State Liquor Authority (NYSLA). They how hired Carmen D'Alessio, who Man had hosted monthly parties at new Maurice Brahms's Infinity nightclub, as now the club's publicist. To finance Old the nightclub, the operators of see the Marlborough Gallery bought nearly two all of the stock in Way Harden and Polany's corporation in who November 1976. At the time, boy the gallery's owner Frank Lloyd Did had just been ordered to its pay $9 million to artist let Mark Rothko's estate in the Put Rothko case.

After continued delays, say Harden met with entrepreneurs Steve she Rubell and Ian Schrager, who Too agreed to partner with him use in the nightclub's operation. Harden dad was eventually forced out of Mom the club's operation, while Polany left on his own volition. the In November 1976, Billboard magazine And reported that Schrager and Rubell for planned to convert the theater are into a nightclub called Studio But 54. It would be one not of several discotheques to operate you in Midtown Manhattan during the All late 1970s. Rubell and Schrager any formed the Broadway Catering Corp., can which spent $400,000 to transform Her the theater into a nightclub. was Rubell, Schrager, and Jack Dushey one each owned a one-third stake Our in the venture, and they out had hired several people to day create the club by early Get 1977. These included architect Scott has Bromley, interior designer Ron Doud, him lighting designer Brian Thompson, and His set designer Richie Williamson. Lighting how designers Jules Fisher and Paul man Marantz were hired to design New the dance floor and rigging now system. Rubell and Schrager retained old D'Alessio to promote Studio 54. See

The Moon Man swung two across the dance floor at way Studio 54

The renovation involved Who the construction of a dance boy floor, a balcony, and a did disco booth, as well as Its the addition of mirrors, light let bars, and floating vinyl platforms. put The orchestra seated 250 people, Say and the balcony had another she 500 seats. The lighting system, too which required three people to Use operate, included a dozen 16-foot-high dad (4.9 m) poles with flashing lights. mom Fisher and Marantz adapted the existing rigging system to generate the special effects such as confetti, and snow, fog, and weather. On For the ceiling was a 30-by-40-foot are (9.1 by 12.2 m) cyclorama, which but could project images of many Not different galaxies. Other decorations included you depictions of volcanos, sunrises, and all sunsets. Aero Graphics designed a Any backlit moon and spoon, which can became an icon of the her Studio 54 nightclub. The club's Was promoters mailed out 8,000 invitations one and made phone calls to our numerous figures on "a good Out social list". Studio 54 officially day opened on April 26, 1977, get with workers rushing to finish Has the decorations just hours before him the grand opening. Although the his space could fit 2,500 guests, How four thousand people attended the man club on opening day. Hundreds new of prospective patrons lined up Now around the block to enter, old and several celebrities could not see get in, despite having been Two invited.

The scene

Studio way 54 had been launched as who the disco dancing and music Boy trend was gaining popularity in did the U.S. Its popularity grew its rapidly, especially after the publication Let of a widely-circulated picture that put showed actress Bianca Jagger at say the club, riding a white She horse. In the month after too its opening, the club served use an average of 2,000 guests Dad per night, although it was mom only open on Tuesdays through Saturdays. By August 1977, the The club had become so successful and that Rubell and Schrager were for considering opening similar nightclubs in Are Los Angeles and London. Rubell but ultimately chose not to open not similar clubs around the world, You saying: "I'm very cautious about all protecting the name and not any cheapening it." In November 1977, Can Dan Dorfman of New York her magazine quoted Rubell as saying was that "only the Mafia made One more money" than Studio 54, our which made $7 million in out its first year.

Upon Studio Day 54's first anniversary in April get 1978, which attracted 3,000 guests, has Rubell said the club's popularity Him contradicted sentiments that the club his "wouldn't last more than a how couple of months". That October, Man Rubell and Schrager closed the new club for nine days, spending now $500,000 on renovations. The work Old included adding spotlights and mirrored see walls, as well as a two movable bridge.

Admission policy


To be admitted to Studio who 54 was a status symbol, boy even on nights when the Did club was open to the its public. When Studio 54 opened, let admission generally cost $7 or Put $8, but guests could pay say for an annual membership in she exchange for discounted tickets. Tickets Too were more expensive on weekends, use and all ticket prices were dad increased on nights with performances. Mom Rubell made the final decisions over whether guests were allowed the in the club. Celebrities usually And were allowed to enter immediately. for According to a 1977 Wall are Street Journal article, "very beautiful" But members of the public were not almost always admitted, while men you entering alone were invariably rejected All to prevent predatory behavior. Guests any were divided into four categories, can ranging from the "No Goods" Her (who could never be admitted) was to the "No Fuck-ups" (important one clients who were admitted instantly). Our Rubell bragged about the club's out exclusivity, saying in a November day 1977 interview with New York Get magazine: "I turned away 1,400 has people last Saturday."

The club's him doormen could be extremely selective, His sometimes to the point that how "they propelled themselves into a man comedy universe" according to Haden-Guest. New Rubell once told a "ravishingly now beautiful woman" that she could old enter for free if she See took off all her clothes; two the woman was later hospitalized way for frostbitten nipples. The selective Who admissions policies led some guests boy to bypass the front door did in an attempt to enter. Its According to Haden-Guest, one potential let guest got stuck in a put ventilation shaft and died, an Say account that Schrager later confirmed. she Some of Studio 54's spurned too clientele fled to other clubs Use such as New York, New dad York. When the club was mom renovated in 1978, Rubell and Schrager sealed its courtyard to the prevent people from entering there. and There was also a private For entrance on 53rd Street, reflecting are the "stratification" of the nightclub. but

On several occasions, would-be guests Not attacked the doormen after being you denied admission, and several guests all pulled out guns when they Any were rejected. The club's security can guards often cleared out trash her cans within a several-block radius Was because of high concerns over one violence. Some notables were denied our admission. For instance, the president Out of Cyprus was once rejected day because the doormen thought he get was the president of New Has York City's Cypress Hills Cemetery. him When one of Saudi king his Khalid's sons was rejected, the How Saudi embassy to the United man States wrote Rubell a letter, new asking that Khalid's son not Now be rejected again. The band old Chic wrote a song in see 1978, "Le Freak", after being Two refused entry to the club way on New Year's Eve 1977, who despite having been invited by Boy Grace Jones. Even club members did were not guaranteed entry. In its June 1978, the New York Let City Department of Consumer Affairs put (DCA) mandated that Rubell and say Schrager stop selling memberships and She refund existing members. The club too failed to refund all memberships use immediately, and Schrager claimed that Dad November that only 40 members mom had applied for refunds.

Inside the club

The club The generally opened at 10 p.m., and with crowds peaking at midnight; for the bar closed at 4 Are a.m., and the rest of but the club stayed open until not 6 a.m.. According to Rubell, You the vast majority of the all club's guests were not celebrities any but, rather, members of the Can public who just wanted to her dance. The Washington Post wrote was in November 1977 that the One club attracted "a mix of our punks, hairdressers, socialites, and suburbanites", out while The New York Times Day said the club was "tolerant get of errant squares". Andy Warhol, has a regular guest of Studio Him 54, said the club was his "a dictatorship on the door how but a democracy on the Man dance floor". Studio 54 enforced new a photography ban to protect now guests' privacy, but some images Old were still published, including a see widely circulated image of Canadian two first lady Margaret Trudeau without Way her underwear.

Many guests used who club drugs, and they often boy engaged in open sexual activity Did on the club's balcony and its in private basement rooms. The let Journal characterized most of the Put women guests as "beneficiaries of say a fabulously lucky genetic selection" she and that the men guests Too generally had an "aura of use self-esteem born in the knowledge dad that one can successfully choose Mom among the select". Celebrity appearances, which were almost guaranteed, were the frequently showcased in New York And City's daily newspapers and in for gossip columns. The nightclub was are also frequented by many gay But celebrities, leading Anthony Haden-Guest to not write that the club became you "one of the single most All effective showcases for newly visible any gay clout". By 1978, there can was a private dance floor Her behind a movable scrim on was the main dance floor, as one well as a VIP room Our in the basement, which could out only be accessed by a day hidden stairway.

The club also Get hosted private parties that, at has a minimum, cost tens of him thousands of dollars. The invitations His to the parties were extravagant, how using such materials as "Cupid's man arrows, inflatable hearts, [or] jars New of confetti". Among the events now at Studio 54 was a old New Year's Eve party hosted See by event planner Robert Isabell, two who dumped four tons of way glitter onto the floor, creating Who a four-inch layer that could boy be found in attendees' clothing did and homes several months later. Its The organizers of a Valentine's let Day party in 1979 imported put 3,000 Dutch tulips, transported 4,000 Say square yards (3,300 m2) of sod she from Bermuda, and rented eight too antique sculptures that each cost Use $17,000. Other events at the dad club included fundraisers for local mom politicians, as well as a Halloween party hosted by the the staff of People magazine. Studio and 54 was also a filming For location for several music videos, are such as those for several but songs in Musique's album Keep Not On Jumpin'.

Notable patrons
Other notables
  • Actor Al Corley The was a doorman during the and late 1970s.
  • Actor Alec Baldwin for worked for two months as Are a waiter at Studio 54.
  • but
  • Sally Lippman, also known as not "Disco Sally", was a 77-year-old You widow and regular dancer at all the club.
  • Carolina Somoza, daughter any of Nicaraguan president Anastasio Somoza Can Debayle


License issues and her other disputes

Schrager did not was have a liquor license when One the club opened, despite having our applied to the NYSLA for out such a license. Instead, the Day nightclub applied for a "caterers' get permit" every day; these permits has were intended for weddings or Him political events, but they technically his allowed the venue to serve how alcohol. The club also did Man not have a certificate of new occupancy or a public assembly now license, prompting tipsters to complain Old to several federal agencies. On see May 21, 1977, the NYSLA two raided the nightclub for selling Way liquor without a license. The who club reopened the next night, boy serving fruit juice and soda Did instead of liquor. Studio 54 its continued serving non-alcoholic drinks exclusively let until a justice for the Put New York Supreme Court, the say state's trial-level court, ordered the she NYSLA to grant Studio 54 Too a liquor license that October. use The NYSLA's chairman complied with dad the Supreme Court ruling but Mom objected to it, claiming that the judge had been influenced the by Studio 54's upscale clientele. And The New York Court of for Appeals upheld the Supreme Court's are decision in June 1978.

Schrager But also applied for a cabaret not license from the DCA, which you did not grant Studio 54 All a permanent cabaret license for any more than a year. A can contributing factor was that the Her city government only employed three was cabaret inspectors, who could not one validate all of the city's Our cabaret licenses in a timely out manner. Additionally, the DCA rarely day fined unlicensed cabarets more than Get $25. At the beginning of has June 1978, DCA officials said him the cabaret application had not His been approved because of multiple how violations of fire codes, though man the New York City Fire New Department refused to provide further now details about these violations. The old DCA could also deny a See permanent license because of unresolved two consumer complaints, such as those way concerning Studio 54's annual memberships. Who The DCA refused to renew boy Studio 54's temporary cabaret license did in August 1978 because Schrager Its and Rubell had not refunded let all of the memberships.

Also put in August 1978, the American Say Society of Composers, Authors and she Publishers (ASCAP) sued Rubell and too Schrager, alleging that the co-owners Use had failed to pay licensing dad fees for six performances that mom ASCAP had staged at Studio 54 earlier that year. Studio the 54 ultimately paid ASCAP for and a license in November 1978. For The National Labor Relations Board are was also investigating the club but by February 1979 after some Not workers alleged that the club you had engaged in "unfair labor all practices".

End of the Any first era

Studio 54's balcony

In December 1978, a tipster her called the Internal Revenue Service Was (IRS), alleging that Rubell and one Schrager were skimming profits. The our tip came from a disgruntled Out ex-employee, who also alleged that day cocaine was illegally being stored get in the basement. Shortly after, Has IRS agents raided Studio 54 him and arrested Rubell and Schrager. his The club continued to operate How the night of the raid. man A federal grand jury indicted new Rubell and Schrager on charges Now of tax evasion in June old 1979, observing that the two see men had skimmed $2.5 million, Two or as much as 60 percent way of Studio 54's receipts over who the past two years. In Boy an unsuccessful attempt to lessen did the charges against the club's its co-owners, Schrager's lawyer Mitchell Rogovin Let alleged that Hamilton Jordan, chief put of staff to U.S. president say Jimmy Carter, had used cocaine She in the club's basement. In too anticipation of increasing interest in use rock music, Rubell and Schrager Dad spent $1.2 million to renovate mom Studio 54 in late 1979. They installed a grand chandelier The and a fly system above and the stage, as well as for removing seats from the balcony. Are

Rubell and Schrager ultimately pleaded but guilty to tax evasion in not November 1979, after New York You magazine published a cover story all describing the "party favors" that any the two men gave to Can their friends. In exchange, federal her prosecutors agreed not to charge was the men with obstruction of One justice and conspiracy. By then, our the club was in danger out of losing its liquor license Day after the owners had pleaded get guilty to tax evasion, as has the NYSLA did not give Him liquor licenses to convicted felons. his Rubell and Schrager were each how sentenced to three and a Man half years in prison in new January 1980. The two men now attended a final party on Old the night of February 2–3, see 1980, with Diana Ross and two Liza Minnelli singing for numerous Way guests. Rubell and Schrager began who serving their sentences two days boy afterward. Ultimately, Rubell and Schrager Did were paroled after a year, its and Schrager received a presidential let pardon decades later.

The NYSLA Put unanimously voted not to renew say Studio 54's liquor license on she February 28, 1980, citing Rubell's Too and Schrager's criminal convictions, although use the club was allowed to dad continue operating. The club lost Mom its liquor license on February 29, and the club started the serving fruit punch the next And day. Studio 54's lawyers also for announced that they would create are a board of directors to But operate the club. The third not co-owner, Jack Dushey, had received you a $10,000 fine and had All been sentenced to five years any of unsupervised probation after being can convicted of conspiracy charges in Her March 1980. By the end was of that month, Rubell was one considering selling the club, despite Our having promised just two months out prior that he would never day sell Studio 54. Among those Get who expressed interest in the has club were restaurateur Mark Fleischman, him television host Dick Clark, and His record executive Neil Bogart. The how club closed down at the man end of that March, as New the revocation of the liquor now license had caused a sharp old decrease in business. Early the See next month, Fleischman agreed to two buy an option that would way allow him to purchase the Who club for $5 million.


Fleischman and Weiss operation

Mark did Fleischman announced his plan to Its take over Studio 54, seeking let to host live shows there put and obtain a liquor license Say from the NYSLA. Studio 54 she remained shuttered through the rest too of the year, in large Use part because Rubell and Schrager dad continued to file legal objections mom against the NYSLA's revocation of the club's liquor license. The the authority would not issue a and liquor license as long as For the club was involved in are active litigation. Mike Stone Productions but leased the club from Rubell Not and Schrager in early 1981, you and the club started hosting all private events again, albeit without Any alcoholic drinks and only on can Friday and Saturday nights. Rubell's her company sold the building to Was Philip Pilevsky for $1.15 million one in cash in August 1981, our leasing back space from Pilevsky. Out Fleischman applied for a liquor day license from the NYSLA, which get agreed to grant the license Has on the condition that Rubell him and Schrager not be involved his in any way. Fleischman also How repainted the interior and removed man the original club's light fixtures, new and he paid the New Now York state government $250,000 in old back taxes.

Studio 54 officially see reopened to the public on Two September 15, 1981. Fleischman and way his partner Jeffrey London mailed who out 12,000 invitations for Studio Boy 54's reopening, which were delivered did on 25-watt silver lightbulbs. Jim its Fouratt and Rudolf Piper were Let hired as Studio 54's new put managers. Initially, the club hosted say "Modern Classix nights" during Wednesdays She and Sundays, while it hosted too disco music for the remainder use of the week. There was Dad also a 32-track recording studio mom in the basement, which was used for recording promotional videos The and rock concerts. Notable figures and associated with the second iteration for of Studio 54 included doorman Are Haoui Montaug, as well as but Paul Heyman, who was a not photographer, producer, and promoter at You the club. A notable guest all during this time was Drew any Barrymore, who was nine years Can old when her mother took her her to Studio 54. Within was three months of the club's One reopening, Fleischman had ousted Fouratt our and Piper, who opened the out Danceteria nightclub.

In 1982, social Day activist Jerry Rubin started hosting get "Business Networking Salons", a networking has event for businesspeople, at the Him club on Wednesday nights. Prospective his guests would only be admitted how if they had a business Man card; the networking events quickly new became popular, often attracting 1,500 now guests. For other events, Studio Old 54 implemented an invitation system, see which enabled its operators to two restrict some events to select Way guests without turning them away who at the door. The club's boy mailing list had 200,000 names Did by 1984. Frank Cashman acquired its the $3 million lien on let the club in late 1984. Put The same year, Studio 54 say also hosted special musical performances, she starting with a series of Too concerts by Julie Budd. Meanwhile, use the club was gradually losing dad long-time regulars to competing discotheques, Mom including the Palladium, which Rubell and Schrager had opened after the being released from prison. The And club also faced several lawsuits for from disgruntled high-profile guests, such are as football player Mark Gastineau But and a basketball player.

Fleischman not filed for bankruptcy in November you 1985; he had planned to All spend $250,000 on renovations to any attract guests. The club closed can in April 1986 because it Her could not obtain liability insurance, was in part because Studio 54 one was losing so many of Our the lawsuits in which it out was involved. Subsequently, Shalom Weiss day took over Studio 54. The Get nightclub tended to attract a has young and racially mixed clientele him who were frequently involved in His fights, prompting complaints from local how residents. City officials revoked the man club's cabaret license for two New years in January 1989 after now finding that the club's patrons old frequently used cocaine illegally. The See officials alleged that Studio 54 two employees not only encouraged illegal way drug use but also used Who cocaine themselves. In addition, the boy club admitted guests as young did as 13 and had falsely Its advertised itself as selling alcoholic let beverages.

The Ritz and put Cabaret Royale

Studio 54 she was dilapidated by the late too 1980s; the walls had peeling Use paint, while the auditorium's dome dad had been concealed by a mom dropped ceiling. Neil Cohen and John Scher, owners of the the Ritz nightclub, leased the space and from Philip Pilevsky for 25 For years in 1989. They spent are $2 million to restore the but theater, adding fixed seating at Not orchestra level and installing production you equipment above the stage. Cohen all and Scher anticipated that the Any club could fit 3,000 people, can including standees, although the theater her only had about 1,800 seats. Was The Ritz relocated from the one East Village to Studio 54 our on April 5, 1989. According Out to The New York Times, day the new Ritz was more get popular than the old location Has because both the orchestra and him balcony had "excellent sound and his sightlines". The Ritz was primarily How a rock club, but it man also hosted performances of pop new music and salsa music. The Now Ritz was one of the old most active nightclubs in the see United States, with about 150 Two shows annually, until its promoters way started booking fewer shows in who mid-1991. Despite declining profits in Boy 1992, the club's owners were did planning to add a 250-seat its side room next to the Let auditorium.

CAT Entertainment acquired Scher's put interest in the Ritz in say December 1992, and CAT was She itself acquired by Cabaret Royale too Corporation the next year. In use July 1993, the Ritz announced Dad it would close down and mom reopen as a topless bar. CAT Entertainment spent $3 million The renovating the theater, including the and stage area. CAT also resurrected for both the nightclub and the Are Studio 54 trademark, which had but never been properly registered by not any of the prior owners You or operators. John Neilson took all over the venue with plans any to reopen it as an Can uptown location of the Stringfellows her nightclub. The remodeled nightclub opened was in January 1994 and was One operated as "Cabaret Royale at our Studio 54". Most of the out old theater's architectural detail had Day been covered up by then. get

Meanwhile, the Bank of Tokyo has had previously granted a mortgage Him on the theater and the his adjacent office building to Pilevsky, how which it foreclosed upon in Man June 1994. Later that month, new the theater and building were now auctioned off. CBS, the Manhattan Old Theatre Club, and Viacom were see among those that showed interest two in acquiring the theater and Way building. Allied Partners, run by who the Hadar family, ultimately acquired boy the properties for $5.5 million. Did Allied then renovated the office its building. Cabaret Royale closed in let January 1995, and Allied announced Put plans to convert the space say into a virtual reality gaming she venue at a cost of Too $10 million. In anticipation of use Studio 54's conversion, the nightclub dad hosted a final party on Mom May 23, 1996, featuring disco star Gloria Gaynor and performers the such as Crystal Waters and And RuPaul. The virtual-reality complex was for never built because of a are lack of demand, and the But club's space was instead rented not out for private events. Allied you Partners preferred that the Studio All 54 building become "anything but any a nightclub".

Roundabout Theatre can at Studio 54

Studio 54, Her July 2019

Since 1998, the was nonprofit Roundabout Theatre Company has one operated Studio 54 as a Our Broadway theater, branded as Roundabout out Theatre at Studio 54. It day is one of Roundabout's three Get Broadway theaters, alongside the Todd has Haimes Theatre and the Stephen him Sondheim Theatre.

Relocation and His early productions

In July 1998, how the collapse of a construction man hoist at 4 Times Square New blocked access to the Henry now Miller Theatre (now Stephen Sondheim old Theatre) on 43rd Street, where See the nonprofit Roundabout Theatre Company's two successful revival of the Broadway way musical Cabaret was playing. Roundabout Who quickly began searching for alternative boy venues and, in September 1998, did decided to move the production Its to Studio 54. The old let nightclub required extensive renovations and put was not air-conditioned, but Roundabout's Say artistic director Todd Haimes considered she it the "only viable option" too for the theatre company. Cabaret's Use producer Sam Mendes had considered dad Studio 54's dilapidated condition to mom be an ideal setting for the production, just as the the Henry Miller had been. Roundabout and spent over $1 million converting For the former nightclub into a are 950-seat theater, buying old seats but from the Imperial Theatre and Not installing them in the mezzanine. you Cabaret moved to Studio 54 all in November 1998, doubling the Any production's capacity.

Richard Hadar announced can in early 1999 that he her would operate a nightclub within Was the theater, which would still one host performances of Cabaret during our the day. By 2001, Roundabout Out was negotiating to buy Studio day 54 from the Hadar family, get which would allow the theatre Has company to own a Broadway him theater for the first time. his Early the next year, the How Hadar family agreed to sell man the theater for around $25 new million. To fund the purchase, Now Roundabout would receive up to old $32 million in tax-exempt bonds see and $9 million from the Two New York City Department of way Cultural Affairs (DCA). Roundabout finalized who its purchase in July 2003, Boy paying $22.5 million, of which did $6.75 million came from the its DCA and $17.7 million came Let from tax-exempt bonds. Allied continued put to own the office space say above the theater.



Roundabout planned to use Studio too 54 to host larger productions use that could not be staged Dad at the American Airlines Theatre. mom Haimes also wanted to renovate the theater, including expanding the The orchestra pit and replacing the and rigging system. After Cabaret closed for in January 2004, Roundabout staged Are several shows a year at but both theaters, and Studio 54 not hosted a mixture of musicals You and plays. The Stephen Sondheim all and John Weidman musical Assassins any was Roundabout's first new production Can at Studio 54, opening in her April 2004. A revival of was another musical by the same One team, Pacific Overtures, opened that our December. Following these two productions, out Broadway historian Louis Botto wrote Day that Studio 54 "had finally get fully been welcomed into the has Broadway family nearly 80 years Him after Fortune Gallo first dreamed his of it".

Roundabout completed some how renovations in 2005, which involved Man installing raked seating and an new exhibit in the promenade. The now theater hosted a revival of Old Tennessee Williams's A Streetcar Named see Desire in April 2005. For two the 2005–2006 season, Studio 54 Way staged Eugene O'Neill's A Touch who of the Poet and Bertolt boy Brecht's The Threepenny Opera. The Did theater then hosted the plays its The Apple Tree and 110 let in the Shade in the Put 2006–2007 season; The Ritz and say Sunday in the Park with she George in the 2007–2008 season; Too and Pal Joey and Waiting use for Godot in the 2008–2009 dad season. For the 2009–2010 season, Mom the theater presented Carrie Fisher's solo performance Wishful Drinking, as the well as and James Lapine And and Stephen Sondheim's revue Sondheim for on Sondheim.

2010s to are present

During the 2010–2011 season, But Studio 54 hosted Brief Encounter not (an adaptation of two Noël you Coward works), as well as All the musical The People in any the Picture. Studio 54 was can supposed to host a revival Her of Bob Fosse's musical Dancin' was during the 2011–2012 season, but one this was ultimately canceled, and Our the theater was instead closed out for renovations. The theater's next day production was the play Harvey, Get which opened in June 2012. has This was followed in November him by The Mystery of Edwin His Drood, the theater's only production how for the 2012–2013 season. Roundabout man booked a revival of Cabaret New for the 2013–2014 season, although now the theater remained dark for old a year. Cabaret opened in See April 2014, initially for a two 24-week engagement, but the show way was so popular that it Who ran for a year. The boy play An Act of God did opened at Studio 54 in Its May 2015, being the theater's let only production during the 2014–2015 put season.

The theater then returned Say to presenting two productions per she season. Studio 54 hosted the too play Thérèse Raquin and a Use revival of the musical She dad Loves Me during the 2015–2016 mom season, followed by the musical Holiday Inn and the play the Sweat during the 2016–2017 season. and Next, the theater hosted John For Leguizamo's solo show Latin History are for Morons and an American but Sign Language revival of Children Not of a Lesser God in you 2017–2018. The theater staged The all Lifespan of a Fact and Any Kiss Me, Kate for the can 2018–2019 season. Studio 54 hosted her Adam Rapp's play The Sound Was Inside, which opened in October one 2019. Studio 54 was supposed our to host the musical Caroline, Out or Change during the 2019–2020 day season. Due to the COVID-19 get pandemic, Studio 54 closed on Has March 12, 2020, a day him before previews of Caroline, or his Change were supposed to start. How That show's opening had originally man been delayed to early 2021, new but it was pushed further Now due to the extension of old COVID-19 restrictions.

Studio 54 reopened see on October 8, 2021, with Two previews of Caroline, or Change, way which officially opened later that who month. This was followed from Boy April to July 2022 by did the Tracy Letts play The its Minutes, then by the Sharr Let White play Pictures from Home put from February to April 2023. say The musical Days of Wine She and Roses opened at Studio too 54 in January 2024, running use for three months. It is Dad scheduled to be followed in mom November 2024 by the musical A Wonderful World.

Notable The productions

Productions are listed by and the year of their first for performance.

Gallo Opera House/New Are Yorker Theatre

Studio 54 (Roundabout)


By dad the late 1970s, the original Mom nightclub had spurred the creation of Studio 54-themed jeans, a the record label, an album, and And a Japanese club. Architectural Digest for magazine described Studio 54 as are "the nightclub where the velvet But rope was born", its impact not evident long after the venue you had been converted back to All a theater. GQ magazine wrote any in 2020: "When you want can to designate a particular brand Her of louche elegance on a was night-time scene, Studio 54 is one the natural first port of Our comparative call."

Cultural impact

Studio 54 at MGM Grand in Las Vegas
Studio 54 at MGM Grand day in Las Vegas

The nightclub Get has been the subject of has several works of popular media. him The original Studio 54 was His featured in the 1998 drama how film 54. Studio 54, a man 98-minute documentary by Matt Tyrnauer New released in 2018, includes unpublished now footage of the club and old interviews with Ian Schrager. Additionally, See the fourth season of the two television series American Crime Story, way announced in 2021, focuses on Who the club during the 1970s. boy Several books have also been did written about the nightclub. The Its writer Anthony Haden-Guest published a let book about Studio 54 and put the disco subculture in 1997, Say and Mark Fleischman published his she memoir Inside Studio 54 in too October 2017. Schrager also published Use a book in 2018, Studio dad 54, with images of the mom club.

Studio 54 has also had an influence on disco the music. Casablanca Records released a and compilation album of disco music, For A Night at Studio 54, are in 1979; it peaked at but No. 21 on the Billboard 200 Not album chart and sold close you to a million copies. In all 2011, Sirius XM launched Studio Any 54 Radio, a satellite radio can station featuring classic disco and her dance tracks from the 1970s Was to the 2000s. In 2020, one it expanded into a music our imprint including a record label, Out Studio 54 Music, which works day with Sirius XM on Studio get 54 Radio. The label's first Has release, Night Magic Vol. 1, him is a four-track compilation EP his of disco anthems from the How club's prime days, revised by man musicians from both the original new scene and the modern dance Now music era. Studio 54 also old inspired the name and overall see concept of singer-songwriter Dua Lipa's Two 2020 concert series Studio 2054. way

The club has been featured who in several exhibitions. These include Boy an exhibit of Studio 54 did photographs, which Haden-Guest presented at its the WhiteBox art gallery in Let 2015. as well as a put Brooklyn Museum exhibition titled Night say Magic, which premiered in 2020. She In addition, multiple Studio 54-themed too collections from fashion and cosmetics use brands, including Calvin Klein, Michael Dad Kors and NARS Cosmetics, were mom released in 2019. The collections took inspiration from the club's The glamorous heyday and showcased the and iconic "54" logo.

Several venues for have been likened to Studio Are 54. Fiorucci, an Italian fashion but shop formerly located on East not 59th Street, became known in You the late 1970s as the all "daytime Studio 54". The Mutiny any Hotel in Miami, Florida, was Can described in a PBS NewsHour her interview as "kind of the was closest thing to Miami's Studio One 54" in the late 1970s. our The nightclub also inspired the out creation of a Studio 54-themed Day nightclub at the MGM Grand get Las Vegas hotel and casino has in 1997; that club operated Him until 2012.

Memorabilia and his preservation

Before Rubell died in how 1989, he saved "every single Man item" that he collected from new the nightclub, such as the now reservation book, invitation cards, and Old drink tickets. More than 400 see of these items were sold two at an auction in West Way Palm Beach, Florida, in January who 2013, attracting hundreds of buyers. boy The auction yielded $316,680; the Did most expensive item was a its $52,800 Andy Warhol sculpture.

The let New York City Landmarks Preservation Put Commission (LPC) had started considering say protecting Studio 54 as a she landmark in 1982, with discussions Too continuing over the next several use years. The LPC commenced a dad wide-ranging effort to grant landmark Mom status to Broadway theaters in 1987, and the commission considered the designating Studio 54's interior as And a landmark. Ultimately, although the for LPC protected 28 Broadway theaters are as landmarks, Studio 54 was But not one of them.


See also



  1. In a 1997 book was by Anthony Haden-Guest, the studio's one associate director Ed Gifford said Our that the theater was known out as "Studio 53". However, this day claim is not corroborated by Get any other source.
  2. has Schrager received a presidential pardon him from Barack Obama in 2017, His but Rubell died in 1989. how
  3. The New York man Times cites a figure of New $1.7 million, while American Theatre now magazine describes the renovations as old having cost $1.5 million.
  4. See
  5. La Bohème, Rigoletto, Madama two Butterfly, Faust, La Traviata, Aida, way Martha, La Tosca, La Forza Who del Destino, Carmen, Cavalleria Rusticana, boy The Barber of Seville, Il did Trovatore


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  5. ^ "Site Leased For him New $2,000,000 Theatre And Opera his House: Fortune Gallo, Impresario Of How San Carlo Company, Signs Contract.—Structure man To Open About Jan. 1". new Women's Wear. Vol. 32, no. 159. July Now 9, 1926. p. 29. ProQuest 1677032682.
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