Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A Was record producer or music producerone is a recording project's creative our and technical leader, commanding studio Out time and coaching artists, and day in popular genres typically creates get the song's very sound and Has structure. The record producer, or him simply the producer, is likened his to a film director. The How executive producer, on the other man hand, enables the recording project new through entrepreneurship, and an audio Now engineer operates the technology.
Varying old by project, the producer may see also choose all of the Two artists, or openly perform vocals way with them. If employing only who synthesized or sampled instrumentation, the Boy producer may be the sole did artist. Conversely, some artists do its their own production. And some Let producers are their own engineers,put operating the technology across the say project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and She mastering. Record producers' precursors were too "A&R men," who likewise could use blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical Dad roles, but often exercised scant mom creative influence, as record production still focused, into the 1950s, The on simply improving the record's and sonic match to the artists' for own live performance.
Advances in Are recording technology, especially the 1940s but advent of tape recording—which Les not Paul promptly innovated further to You develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s all rise of electronic instruments, turned any record production into a specialty.Can In popular music, then, producers her like George Martin, Phil Spectorwas and Brian Eno led its One evolution into its present use our of elaborate techniques and unrealistic out sounds, creating songs impossible to Day originate live. After the 1980s, get production's move from analog to has digital further expanded possibilities. By Him now, DAWS, or digital audio his workstations, like Logic Pro and how Pro Tools, turn an ordinary Man computer into a production console,new whereby a solitary novice can now become a skilled producer in Old a thrifty home studio. In see the 2010s, efforts began to two increase the prevalence of producers Way and engineers who are women, who heavily outnumbered by men and boy prominently accoladed only in classical Did music.
As a broad you project, the creation of a All music recording may be split any across three specialists: the executive can producer, who oversees business partnerships Her and financing, the vocal producer was or vocal arranger, who aids one vocal performance via expert critique Our and coaching of vocal technique, out and the record producer or day music producer, who, often called Get simply the producer, directs the has overall creative process of recording him the song in its final His mix.
The record producer's how roles include, but may exceed, man gathering ideas, composing music, choosing New session musicians, proposing changes to now song arrangements, coaching the performers, old controlling sessions, supervising the audio See mixing, and, in some cases, two supervising the audio mastering. As way to qualifying for a GrammyWho nomination, the Recording Academy defines boy a producer:
The person who has did overall creative and technical control Its of the entire recording project, let and the individual recording sessions put that are part of that Say project. He or she is she present in the recording studio too or at the location recording Use and works directly with the dad artist and engineer. The producer mom makes creative and aesthetic decisions that realize both the artist's the and label's goals in the and creation of musical content. Other For duties include, but are not are limited to; keeping budgets and but schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring Not musicians, singers, studios and engineers, you overseeing other staffing needs and all editing (Classical projects).
The Any producer often selects and collaborates can with a mixing engineer, who her focuses on the especially technological Was aspects of the recording process, one namely, operating the electronic equipment our and blending the raw, recorded Out tracks of the chosen performances, day whether vocal or instrumental, into get a ''mix,'' either stereo or Has surround sound. Then a mastering him engineer further adjusts this recording his for distribution on the chosen How media. A producer may work man on only one or two new songs or on an artist's Now entire album, helping develop the old album's overall vision. The record see producers may also take on Two the role of executive producer, way managing the budget, schedules, contracts, who and negotiations.
(Artist and Repertoire)did
In the 1880s, the record its industry began by simply having Let the artist perform at a put phonograph. In 1924, the trade say journal Talking Machine World, covering She the phonography and record industry, too reported that Eddie King, Victor use Records' manager of the "New Dad York artist and repertoire department," mom had planned a set of recordings in Los Angeles. Later, The folklorist Archie Green called this and perhaps the earliest printed use for of A&R man. Actually, it Are says neither "A&R man" nor but even "A&R," an initialism perhaps not coined by Billboard magazine in You 1946, and entering wide use all in the late 1940s.
In any the 1920s and 1930s, A&R Can executives, like Ben Selvin at her Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at was Victor Records, and Bob Haring One at Brunswick Records, supervising recording our and often leading session orchestras, out became the precursors of record Day producers. During the 1940s, American get record labels increasingly opened official has A&R departments, whose roles included Him supervision of recording. Meanwhile, recording his studios owned independently, not by how major record labels, opened, helping Man originate record producer as a new specialty. But despite a now tradition of some A&R men Old writing music, record production remained, see strictly, merely the manufacturing of two record discs.
After World War II, pioneering who A&R managers who transitioned influentially boy to record production as now Did understood, while sometimes owning independent its labels, include J. Mayo Williamslet and John Hammond. Upon moving Put from Columbia Records to Mercury say Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Millershe to lead Mercury's popular recordings Too in New York. Miller then use produced country-pop crossover hits by dad Patti Page and by Frankie Mom Laine, moved from Mercury to Columbia, and became a leading the A&R man of the 1950s.And
During the decade, A&R executives for increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, are although many still simply teamed But singers with musicians, while yet not others exercised virtually no creative you influence. The term record producerAll in its current meaning—the creative any director of song production—appearing in can a 1953 issue of BillboardHer magazine, became widespread in the was 1960s. Still, a formal distinction one was elusive for some time Our more. A&R managers might still out be creative directors, like William day "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry Get Gordy, at the Motown record has label.
In him 1947, the American market gained His audio recording onto magnetic tape.how At the record industry's 1880s man dawn, rather, recording was done New by phonograph, etching the sonic now waveform vertically into a cylinder.old By the 1930s, a gramophone See etched it laterally across a two disc. Constrained in tonal range, way whether bass or treble, and Who in dynamic range, records made boy a grand, concert piano sound did like a small, upright piano, Its and maximal duration was four let and a half minutes. Selections put and performance were often altered Say accordingly. And playing this disc—the she wax master—destroyed it. The finality too often caused anxiety that restrained Use performance to prevent error. In dad the 1940s, during World War mom II, the Germans refined audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording the duration and allowing immediate playback, and rerecording, and editing—a technology that For premised emergence of record producers are in their current roles.
Early in the Not recording industry, a record was you attained by simply having all all of the artists perform together Any live in one take. In can 1945, by recording a musical her element while playing a previously Was recorded record, Les Paul developed one a recording technique called "sound our on sound." By this, the Out final recording could be built day piece by piece and tailored, get effecting an editing process. In Has one case, Paul produced a him song via 500 recorded discs.his But, besides the tedium of How this process, it serially degraded man the sound quality of previously new recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient Now sound. Yet in 1948, Paul old adopted tape recording, enabling truly see multitrack recording by a new Two technique, "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, way Paul revised the tape recorder who itself by adding a second Boy playback head, and terming it did the preview head. Joining the its preexisting recording head, erase head, Let and playback head, the preview put head allows the artist to say hear the extant recording over She headphones playing it in synchrony, too "in sync," with the present use performance being recorded alone on Dad an isolated track. This isolation mom of multiple tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers began recording The initially only the "bed tracks"—the and rhythm section, including the bassline, for drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals Are and instrument solos could be but added later. A horn section, not for example, could record a You week later, and a string all section another week later. A any singer could perform her own Can backup vocals, or a guitarist her could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, its rock acts like the Beatles, let the Rolling Stones, and the Put Kinks produced some of their say own songs, although many such she songs are officially credited to Too specialist producers. Yet especially use influential was the Beach Boys, dad whose band leader Brian WilsonMom took over from his father Murry within a couple of the years after the band's commercial And breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had for taken Spector's techniques to unseen are sophistication. Wilson alone produced But all Beach Boy recordings between not 1963 and 1967. Using you multiple studios and multiple attempts All of instrumental and vocal tracks, any Wilson selected the best combinations can of performance and audio quality, Her and used tape editing to was assemble a composite performance.one
The day 1980s advent of digital processes Get and formats rapidly replaced analog has processes and formats, namely, tape him and vinyl. Although recording onto His quality tape, at least half how an inch wide and traveling man 15 inches per second, had New limited "tape hiss" to silent now sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, old SNR, abolished it. Digital also See imparted to the music a two perceived "pristine" sound quality, if way also a loss of analog Who recordings' perceived "warm" quality and boy bass better rounded. Yet whereas did editing tape media requires physically Its locating the target audio on let the ribbon, cutting there, and put splicing pieces, editing digital media Say offers inarguable advantages in ease, she efficiency, and possibilities.
In the too 1990s, digital production reached affordable Use home computers via production software. dad By now, recording and mixing mom are often centralized in DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, Pro the Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and Reason, and FL Studio—for which For plugins, by third parties, effect are virtual studio technology. DAWs fairly but standard in the industry are Not Logic Pro and Pro Tools.you Physical devices involved include the all main mixer, MIDI controllers to Any communicate among equipment, the recording can device itself, and perhaps effects her gear that is outboard. Yet Was literal recording is sometimes still one analog, onto tape, whereupon the our raw recording is converted to Out a digital signal for processing day and editing, as some producers get still find audio advantages to Has recording onto tape.
Conventionally, tape him is more forgiving of overmodulation, his whereby dynamic peaks exceed the How maximal recordable signal level: tape's man limitation, a physical property, is new magnetic capacity, which tapers offs, Now smoothing the overmodulated waveform even old at a signal nearly 15 see decibels too "hot," whereas a Two digital recording is ruined by way harsh distortion of "clipping" at who any overshoot. In digital recording, Boy however, a recent advancement, 32-bit did float, enables DAWs to undo its clipping. Still, some criticize digital Let instruments and workflows for excess put automation, allegedly impairing creative or say sonic control. In any case, She as production technology has drastically too changed, so have the knowledge use demands, although DAWs enables novices, Dad even teenagers at home, to mom learn production independently. Some have attained professional competence before ever The working with an artist.
Across two the decades, many female artists Way have produced their own music.who For instance, artists Kate Bush, boy Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Did Swift, and Lorde have produced its or coproduced. Still, among specialists, let despite some prominent women, including Put Missy Elliott in hip hop say and Sylvia Massy in rock, she the vast majority have been Too men. Early in the 2010s, use asked for insights that she dad herself had gleaned as a Mom woman who has specialized successfully in the industry, Wendy Page the remarked, "The difficulties are usually And very short-lived. Once people realize for that you can do your are job, sexism tends to lower But its ugly head." Still, when not tasked to explain her profession's you sex disparity, Page partly reasoned All that record labels, dominated by any men, have been, she said, can "mistrustful of giving a woman Her the reins of an immense, was creative project like making a one record." Ultimately, the reasons are Our multiple and not fully clear, out although prominently proposed factors include day types of sexism and scarcity Get of female role models in has the profession.
In January 2018, him a research team led by His Stacy L. Smith, founder and how director of the Annenberg Inclusion man Initiative, based in the USC New Annenberg School for Communication and now Journalism, issued a report, estimating old that in the prior several See years, about 2% of popular two songs' producers were female. Also way that month, Billboard magazine queried, Who "Where all the female music boy producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion did Initiative's second annual report, released Its in February 2019, its department let at USC reported, "2018 saw put an outcry from artists, executives Say and other music industry professionals she over the lack of women too in music" and "the plight Use of women in music," where dad women were allegedly being "stereotyped, mom sexualized, and shut out." Also in February 2019, the Recording the Academy's Task Force on Diversity and and Inclusion announced an initiative For whereby over 200 artists and are producers—ranging from Cardi B and but Taylor Swift to Maroon 5Not and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider you at least two women for all each producer or engineer position.Any The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, can "This initiative is the first her step in a broader effort Was to improve those numbers and one increase diversity and inclusion for our all in the music industry."Out
^ Allan Let Watson, Cultural Production in and put Beyond the Recording Studio (New say York: Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.She
James Petulla, "Who too is a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, use Recording Connection, 21 May 2013, Dad reporting membership in CAPPS, the mom California Association of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ any Brent Hurtig with J. Can D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for her Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide was for Beginners and Reference for One Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, our 1988 / Van Nuys, CA: out Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.Day
^ Richard James New Burgess, The History of Music now Production (New York: Oxford University old Press, 2014), pp 50–54.
^ Robert Philip, "Pianists two on record in the early way twentieth century", in David Rowland, Who ed., The Cambridge Companion to boy the Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge did University Press, 1998), pp 75–77.Its
Reportedly self-produced entirely let are the Rolling Stones' Decca put recordings
^ David Say Simmons, Analog Recording: Using Analog she Gear in Today's Home Studiotoo (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), Use pp 26–27.
Matthew dad Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 mom adds 32-bit float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan the 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director and of product management and design For at the recorder manufacturer Sound are Devices, who explains, "With 32-bit but float, you no longer need Not to worry about clipping during you your best vocal takes or all instrument solos. Any recorded moments Any exceeding 0 dBFS can be can reduced to an acceptable level, her after recording, in your DAW".Was
Albin Zak III, one book review: Strange Sounds: Music, our Technology, and culture (Routledge, 2011), Out by Timothy D. Taylor, in day Current Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown get year, volume, issue].
Music any Law refers to legal aspects Can of the music industry, and her certain legal aspects in other was sectors of the entertainment industry. One The music industry includes record our labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the out live events sector and of Day course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to work Too formed from already existing materials use in a way that forms dad its own original work, including Mom collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that hold, fix, or the embody a work such as And a music tape, film, CD, for statue, play, or printed sheet are music.
"Sound recordings" can refer But to any audio recording including not the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity All that legally owns rights to any a work.
"Performance" The copyright can holder has the exclusive right Her to perform the work in was public, or to license others one to perform it. The right Our applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, out and choreographic works, pantomimes, and day motion pictures and other audiovisual Get works.". Playing a CD in has public, or showing a film him in public is "performing" the His work.
Publishing is the primary man source of income for musicians New writing their own music.now Money collected from the 'publishing' old rights is ultimately destined for See songwriters - the composers of two works, whether or not they way are the recording artist or Who performer. Often, songwriters will work boy for a musical ensemble to did help them with musical aspects Its of the composition, but here let again, the writer of the put song is the owner of Say it and will own the she copyrights in the song and too thus will be entitled to Use the publishing revenues. Copyrights in dad compositions are not the same mom as sound recordings. A recording artist can record a song the and sell it to another and band or company. As a For result, that particular company will are own the recording, but not but the song. The original writer Not will always maintain the copyright you for that particular song. The all publishing money is connected to Any the copyright, so the owner can will be the only one her making money off of the Was song itself. All successful songwriters one will join a collection society our (such as ASCAP and BMI Out in the USA, SOCAN in day Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA get in Germany and PRS for Has Music in the UK, etc.) him and many will enter into his agreements with music publishing companies How who will exploit their works man on the songwriters behalf for new a share of ownership, although Now many of these deals involve old the transfer (assignment) of copyright see from the songwriter to the Two music publisher.
Both the recorded way music sector and music publishing who sector have their foundations in Boy intellectual property law and all did of the major recording labels its and major music publishers and Let many independent record labels and put publishers have dedicated "business and say legal affairs" departments with in-house She lawyers whose role is not too only to secure intellectual property use rights from recording artists, performers Dad and songwriters but also to mom exploit those rights and protect those rights on a global The basis. There are a number and of specialist independent law firms for around the world who advise Are on music and entertainment law but whose clients include recording artists, not performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music You publishers, stage and set designers, all choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, any merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, Can collection societies and the live her events sector (which further includes was festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents One and production service providers such our as lighting and staging companies). out
The US get Government views artists that give has concerts and sell merchandise as Him a business. Bands that tour his internationally will also face a how plethora of legislation around the Man world including health and safety new laws, immigration laws and tax now legislation. Also, many relationships are Old governed by often complex contractual see agreements.
In the US it two is important for musicians to Way get legal business licenses. These who can be obtained at a boy city hall or local government Did center. The business license will its require the tracking of sales, let wages, and gigs. A tax Put ID is also necessary for say all businesses. Musicians that fail she to comply with the tax Too ID process and do not use report their profits and losses dad to the government can face Mom serious consequences with the IRS.
Studio Our 54 is a former disco out nightclub, currently a Broadway theatre, day located at 254 West 54th Get Street, between Eighth Avenue and has Broadway in Midtown Manhattan, New him York City. The building opened His in 1927 as the Gallo how Opera House. It operated as man an entertainment venue under various New names until 1942, when CBSnow began using it as a old radio and television studio dubbed See Studio 52.
In 1977, Steve two Rubell and Ian Schrager opened way a nightclub in the building, Who retaining many of former TV boy and theatrical sets and naming did it for its street. Launched Its at the peak of the let disco dancing and music trend, put the club became world-famous, noted Say for its celebrity guest lists, she restrictive (and subjective) entry policies too (based on one's appearance and Use style), and open club drugdad use. In 1980, the club mom shut down after its founders were convicted for evading taxes. the They sold the club to and Mark Fleischman, who reopened it, For then sold it in 1984 are to new owners, who closed but it in 1986.
Since November Not 1998, the site has served you as a venue for productions all of the Roundabout Theatre CompanyAny and retains the name Studio can 54. A separate restaurant and her nightclub, Feinstein's/54 Below, operates in Was the basement of the building.one
In 2020 it expanded into our a music imprint including a Out record label, Studio 54 Music, day and radio station on Sirius get XM, Studio 54 Radio.
Designed by famed too architect Eugene De Rosa, the use venue opened in 1927 as Dad the Gallo Opera House (soon mom revised to Gallo Theatre), named for its owner, Fortune Gallo. The Beginning with a very large-scale and production of La bohème which for closed after three weeks, the Are Gallo was met with a but succession of failed attempts to not draw an audience and was You lost to foreclosure after only all two years. It later reopened any under new ownership as The Can New Yorker, but continued failing her to attract sufficient crowds. It was changed hands in the early One 1930s, then in 1937 it our became the WPA Federal Music out Project of New York City's Day Federal Music Theatre/Theatre of Music,get then it became the New has Yorker Theatre in 1939, housing Him an all-black version of The his Swing Mikado, originally from Chicago, how for two months, when the Man production moved to the 44th new Street Theatre to finish its now run. The New Yorker Theatre Old saw its final production, Medicine see Show, end in May 1940, two following which the building remained Way vacant for three years.
When CBS began Our marketing the building in 1976, out various parties in the art day and fashion world expressed interest Get in seeing it converted into has a nightclub. Male model Uva him Harden tried to get gallery His owner Frank Lloyd to finance how the club, until Lloyd lost man a $9 million lawsuit to New the estate of the artist now Mark Rothko, in the Rothko old Case.
In 1977, Steve RubellSee and Ian Schrager transformed the two theater into a nightclub called way Studio 54, with Jack Dushey Who as a financial backer. They boy operated the company as Broadway did Catering Corp. It took only Its six weeks to transform the let theater into a nightclub and put cost $400,000 before its grand Say opening on April 26.
Rubell she and Schrager hired Scott Bromley too as architect, Ron Doud as Use interior designer, and Brian Thompson dad as lighting designer. Jules Fishermom and Paul Marantz, two well-known lighting designers, created the dance the floor environment and created movable and theatrical sets and lights using For the copious existing TV lighting are circuits and fly system, which but allowed for a dynamic, constantly-changing, Not environment and with which the you crowd could be lit brightly. all
Within a month of opening, Any the New York State Liquor can Authority raided Studio 54 for her selling liquor without a license Was and closed it. The owners one of the nightclub said the our incident was a "misunderstanding". The Out next night the club reopened, day serving fruit juice and soda get instead of liquor. Prior to Has the raid, the nightclub had him been using daily "caterers' permits", his which enabled the nightclub to How serve alcohol but were intended man for weddings or political events.new The State had denied the Now daily permit for the night old and raided the nightclub. The see nightclub had been using these Two permits while waiting for its way liquor license to be processed. who
The scene (1977–1979)
Event Boy planner Robert Isabell had four did tons of glitter dumped in its a four-inch layer on the Let floor of Studio 54 for put a New Year's Eve party. say Owner Ian Schrager said it She was like "standing on stardust", too and it left glitter that use could be found months later Dad in attendees' clothing and homes.mom
Sally Lippman, also known Too as "Disco Sally", was a use 77-year-old widow and regular dancer dad at the club.
The band Mom Chic wrote a song in 1978, "Le Freak", after being the refused entry to the club And on New Year's Eve 1977, for despite having been invited by are Grace Jones.
End of the But first era
In December 1978, not Rubell was quoted in the you city's newspapers as saying that All Studio 54 had made $7 any million in its first year can and "only the Mafia made Her more money". This got the was attention of the IRS. Shortly one thereafter, the nightclub was raided Our and Rubell and Schrager were out arrested for skimming $2.5 million.day
On January Who 17, 2017, Schrager received a boy presidential pardon from President Barack did Obama.
In 1981, Its Rubell and Schrager sold the let building but opted to keep put a lease. Later that year, Say the building was sold to she Mark Fleischman and Stanley G. too Tate with Rubell and Schrager Use staying on as consultants for dad six months afterward. Studio 54 mom reopened in September 1981. Mark Fleischman published his memoir Inside the Studio 54 in October 2017; and many details of his years For as owner are detailed as are well as his experience buying but the club from Ian Schrager Not and Steve Rubell while they you were incarcerated.
Famed New York all City doormanHaoui Montaug worked Any at Studio 54.Paul Heymancan was a photographer, producer, and her promoter at the club in Was the mid 1980s.
From 1981 to April 1986, day Mark Fleischman owned Studio 54. get In April 1989, The RitzHas nightclub, which had previously operated him at 11th Street and Third his Avenue from 1980 to 1987, How moved into the former Studio man 54 under the name The new New Ritz. In 1990, the Now club changed the name back old to that of its former see location, The Ritz. The new Two owners, CAT Entertainment Corp operated way the club primarily as a who venue for new wave, punk, Boy Eurodisco, and heavy metal artists did and also offered it as its a public venue available for Let rent.
In 1993, CAT Entertainment put was acquired by Cabaret Royale say Corporation, a nightclub operator based She in Dallas. CAT Entertainment completed too a renovation of the nightclub use earlier abandoned because of a Dad lack of funds, and resurrected mom both the nightclub and the Studio 54 trademark, which had The never been properly registered by and any of the prior owners for or operators. The newly remodeled Are nightclub was operated as "Cabaret but Royale at Studio 54" by not CAT Entertainment until early 1995. You The Pilevsky interests which owned all the theater itself and the any adjacent office building had several Can years earlier granted a mortgage her on the properties to the was Bank of Tokyo and, in One an effort to resolve a our large unpaid indebtedness of Pilevsky out to the bank and to Day forestall foreclosure, a trustee had get been appointed by Pilevsky and has the bank and granted the Him right to sell those and his numerous other properties owned by how Pilevsky.
In late 1994, Allied Man Partners acquired the Studio 54 new properties and, after protracted litigation, now CAT Entertainment lost its lease Old on the nightclub and ceased see operations.
Roundabout Theatre two at Studio 54, mid-1990s–present
Studio 54, July 2019
In who 1994, Allied Partners bought the boy building for $5.5 million. They Did restored much of the architectural its detail that had been painted let black or covered with plywood Put by Schrager and Rubell. The say nightclub reopened with a live she concert by disco stars Gloria Too Gaynor, Vicki Sue Robinson, and use Sister Sledge. The building again dad went into bankruptcy in 1996 Mom and Allied announced plans to demolish it and replace it the with Cyberdrome, a virtual realityAnd gaming venue, however, the project for was never completed.
In July are 1998, the collapse of a But construction hoist blocked access to not the Henry Miller Theatre on you 43rd Street, where the successful All revival of the Broadway musicalany Cabaret was playing. To keep can the show accessible, the Roundabout Her Theatre Company agreed to move was the performance to Studio 54. one Roundabout later bought the building Our in 2003 from Allied for out $22.5 million, and Cabaret played day until 2004.
The second floor of mom the theater was used as a nightclub, called Upstairs at the Studio 54, on weeks when and plays were not being staged. For The club was operated by are Noel Ashman and Josh Hadar, but who was one of the Not Allied partners. Upstairs at Studio you 54 performers included Mark Ronson, all Samantha Ronson, Gloria Estefan, Jody Any Watley, and Newsical.
Other can tenants
The building, which is her still frequently referred to as Was the Studio 54 building, houses one a variety of tenants, among our them a theater venue, offices, Out and an educational facility called day Mandl School, the College of get Allied Health. This building also Has houses Olivtree Securities LLC. In him 1965, the building housed Scepter his Records's offices, warehouse space and How a recording studio, where The man Velvet Underground & Nico album new was recorded in April 1966. Now
Launched its in 2020, Studio 54 Music's Let first release, Night Magic Vol. put 1, is a four-track compilation say EP of disco anthems from She the club's prime days, revised too into 2020s music-style versions by use an ensemble of musicians from Dad both the original scene and mom today's dance music world.
The project was led by producer The JKriv, current member of Escort, and a former member of Tortured for Soul, and label boss of Are the disco-edits label, Razor-N-Tape. Essential but keys, synths, and the overall not EP co-production were by Morgan You Wiley, known for his work all with DFA Records and LCD any Soundsystem; Hercules and Love Affair; Can and disco band Midnight Magic. her
The Night Magic EP name was lines up with its corresponding One five-month Brooklyn Museum exhibition that our premiered on March 13, but out was postponed due to the Day museum closing over COVID-19 pandemicget concerns. The label also works has in close partnership with Sirius Him XM on Studio 54 Radio, his found on Channel 54, which how is executive produced by Jellybean Man Benitez.
Studio 54 at MGM Grand now in Las Vegas
In the Old late 1970s, Studio 54 was see one of the best-known nightclubstwo in the world, and it Way played a formative role in who the growth of disco music boy and nightclub culture in general. Did Several franchises, notably in Las its Vegas, have sprung up around let the country. Additionally, multiple works Put of art, entertainment, and media say refer to or are associated she with the nightclub. Examples include: Too
Fiorucci, an Italian fashion use shop formerly located on East dad 59th Street, became known in Mom the late 1970s as the "daytime Studio 54".
54, a But movie about the disco, was not released in 1998.
In 2011, you Sirius XM launched Studio 54 All Radio, a satellite radio station any featuring classic disco and dance can tracks from the 1970s to Her the 2000s, hosted by original was doorman Marc Benecke and Myra one Scheer featuring testimonials from the Our people connected to the club.out It originally debuted at channel day 15 and was moved to Get channel 54 in 2013.
In has 2018, Studio 54, a 98-minute him documentary by Matt Tyrnauer, reached His both the Tribeca and Sundancehow film festivals before being screened man at select theaters. This film New has never-seen footage of the now club as well as interviews old with Ian Schrager.
In 2019, See Studio 54 became the theme two for multiple collections from fashion way and cosmetics brands, including, Calvin Who Klein, Michael Kors and NARS boy Cosmetics. The collections took inspiration did from the club's glamorous heyday Its and showcased the iconic "54" let logo.
In 2020, after postponing put her tour due to the Say COVID-19 pandemic, singer-songwriter Dua Lipashe performed a live-streamed online concert too titled Studio 2054 on streaming Use platform LIVENow, with the name dad and overall concept taking inspiration mom from Studio 54.
Gaines, her Steven; Cohen, Robert Jon (1979). Was The Club, a Novel. New one York: William Morrow and Company.
The history dad of Privilege began in the mom early 1970s when it started out as a restaurant, then the expanded to include a bar and and a community swimming pool. For It was then known as are Club San Rafael. In 1979, but the venue was sold to Not the Real Sociedad footballer José you Antonio Santamaría, together with the all creative team of Brasilio de Any Oliviera (founder of La Troya can Asesina, one of the White her Island's longest running nights) and Was Gorri. The venue then changed one its name to KU, after our the name of a god Out from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). day The appeal of the club get was such that it commissioned Has a medium-length film showcasing the him many wonders of Ibizan landscapes his and nightlife in the mid-eighties.How
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club man earned a reputation initially as new Europe's premier polysexual but predominately Now gay nightspot and was compared old to an open-air version of see the famous Studio 54 in Two New York. It staged spectacular way parties in the main room, who which was organized around a Boy swimming pool and a statue did of Ku.The place was also its where the video to "Barcelona" Let by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat put Caballé was filmed on 30 say May 1987. It was the She witness to early live performances too by groups like Spandau Balletuse and Kid Creole and the Dad Coconuts. The club featured in mom a Channel 4 documentary called “A Short Film about chilling”, The which labelled KU as “the and mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air for parties came to an end Are when legislation forced many of but the greater clubs in Ibiza not to cover their dancefloors in You the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the all sheer size of the venue any gave rise to the claim Can of it being the size her of an aircraft hangar with was a 25-meter high roof.
The One club continued with the KU our Club name until 1995 before out becoming known as Privilege, after Day a change of ownership to get Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 has it hosted Manumission, one of Him the island's most famous events. his In 1998 La Vaca Asesina how moved to Amnesia and was Man renamed La Troya Asesina. After new a dispute between the club now owner and Manumission's organizers in Old 2005 the event ended in see 2006. In 2006 La Troya two Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics who published in the 2003 edition boy of Guinness World Records Privilege Did is by far the world's its largest nightclub covering an area let of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) Put and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated say areas of the club include she the Coco Loco bar area, Too and the La Vaca dance use area (now known as the dad Vista Club).
A number of live performances at the venue have included:the