Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockeys (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the early you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record producer or Boy music producer oversees and manages did the sound recording and production its of a band or performer's Let music, which may range from put recording one song to recording say a lengthy concept album. A She producer has many, varying roles too during the recording process. They use may gather musical ideas for Dad the project, collaborate with the mom artists to select cover tunesor original songs by the The artist/group, work with artists and and help them to improve their for songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the her entire process from preproduction, through was to the sound recording and One mixing stages, and, in some our cases, all the way to out the audio mastering stage. The Day producer may perform these roles get themselves, or help select the has engineer, and provide suggestions to Him the engineer. The producer may his also pay session musicians and how engineers and ensure that the Man entire project is completed within new the record label's budget.
A let record producer or music producerPut has a very broad role say in overseeing and managing the she recording and production of a Too band or performer's music. A use producer has many roles that dad may include, but are not Mom limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music the for the project, selecting songs And or session musicians, proposing changes for to the song arrangements, coaching are the artist and musicians in But the studio, controlling the recording not sessions, and supervising the entire you process through audio mixing and, All in some cases, to the any audio mastering stage. Producers also can often take on a wider Her entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for was the budget, schedules, contracts, and one negotiations.
The person day who has overall creative and Get technical control of the entire has recording project, and the individual him recording sessions that are part His of that project. He or how she is present in the man recording studio or at the New location recording and works directly now with the artist and engineer. old The producer makes creative and See aesthetic decisions that realize both two the artist's and label's goals way in the creation of musical Who content. Other duties include, but boy are not limited to; keeping did budgets and schedules, adhering to Its deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios let and engineers, overseeing other staffing put needs and editing (Classical projects). Say
In the 2010s, the she producer role is sometimes divided too among up to three different Use individuals: executive producer, vocal producer dad and music producer. An executive mom producer oversees project finances, a vocal producer (also known as the a vocal arranger) oversees the and vocal production, and a music For producer directs and oversees the are creative process of the production but and recording of a song Not to its final mixing stage. you
The music producer often wears all many hats as a competent Any arranger, composer, programmer, musician or can songwriter who can bring fresh her ideas to a project. As Was well as making any songwriting one and arrangement adjustments, the producer our often selects and/or collaborates with Out the mixing engineer, who takes day the raw recorded tracks and get edits and modifies them with Has hardware and software tools to him create a stereo or surround his sound "mix" of all the How individual voices sounds and instruments, man which is in turn given new further adjustment by a mastering Now engineer for the various distribution old media. The producer also oversees see the recording engineer who concentrates Two on the technical aspects of way recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekwho described his role as "the Boy person who creatively guides or did directs the process of making its a record", like a director Let would a movie. Indeed, in put Bollywood music, the designation is say actually music director. The music She producer's job is to create, too shape, and mold a piece use of music. The scope of Dad responsibility may be one or mom two songs or an artist's entire album – in which The case the producer will typically and develop an overall vision for for the album and how the Are various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of not the record industry, the producer You role was technically limited to all record, in one shot, artists any performing live. The immediate predecessors Can to record producers were the her artists and repertoire executives of was the late 1920s and 1930s One who oversaw the "pop" product our and often led session orchestras. out That was the case of Day Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, get Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordshas and Bob Haring at Brunswick Him Records. By the end of his the 1930s, the first professional how recording studios not owned by Man the major companies were established, new essentially separating the roles of now artists and repertoire (A&R) man Old and producer, although it wouldn't see be until the late 1940s two when the term "producer" became Way widely used in the industry. who
The role of producers changed boy progressively over the 1950s and Did 1960s due to technology. The its development of multitrack recording caused let a major change in the Put recording process. Before multitracking, all say the elements of a song she (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm Too section instrument accompaniment, solos and use orchestral parts) had to be dad performed simultaneously. All of these Mom singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large the studio where the performance was And recorded. With multitrack recording, the for "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment are parts such as the bassline, But drums, and rhythm guitar could not be recorded first, and then you the vocals and solos could All be added later, using as any many "takes" (or attempts) as can necessary. It was no longer Her necessary to get all the was players in the studio at one the same time. A pop Our band could record their backing out tracks one week, and then day a horn section could be Get brought in a week later has to add horn shots and him punches, and then a string His section could be brought in how a week after that.
Multitrack man recording had another profound effect New on music production: it enabled now producers and audio engineers to old create new sounds that would See be impossible in a live two performance style ordering. Examples include way the psychedelic rock sound effects Who of the 1960s, e.g. playing boy back the sound of recorded did instruments backward changing the tape Its to produce unique sound effects. let During the same period, the put instruments of popular music began Say to shift from the acoustic she instruments of traditional music (piano, too upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, Use brass and wind instruments) to dad electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, mom electric bass and electric guitar. These new instruments were electric the or electronic, and thus they and used instrument amplifiers and speaker For enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create are sound.
Electric and electronic instruments but and amplifiers enabled performers and Not producers to change the tone you and sound of instruments to all produce unique electric sounds that Any would be impossible to achieve can with acoustic instruments and live her performers, such as having a Was singer do her own backup one vocals or having a guitarist our play 15 layers of backing Out parts to her own solo.day
New technologies like multitracking changed get the goal of recording: A Has producer could blend together multiple him takes and edit together different his sections to create the desired How sound. For example, in jazz man fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album new Bitches Brew, the producer cut Now and edited sections together from old extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the Dad 1960s was the emergence of mom the performer-producer. As pop acts like The Beatles, The Rolling The Stones, The Beach Boys and and The Kinks gained expertise in for studio recording techniques, many of Are these groups eventually took over but as (frequently uncredited) producers of not their own work. Many recordings You by acts such as The all Rolling Stones, The Kinks and any The Who are officially credited Can to their various producers at her the time, but a number was of these performers have since One asserted that many of their our recordings in this period were, out either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Day Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or get collaborations between the group and has their recording engineer (e.g. The Him Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which his were made with Olympic Studioshow engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Man Boys are probably the best new example of the trend of now artists becoming producers – within Old two years of the band's see commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian two Wilson had taken over from Way his father Murry, and he who was the sole producer of boy all their recordings between 1963 Did and 1967. Alongside The Beatles its and Martin, Wilson also pioneered let many production innovations – by Put 1964 he had developed Spector's say techniques to a new level she of sophistication, using multiple studios Too and multiple "takes" of instrumental use and vocal components to capture dad the best possible combinations of Mom sound and performance, and then using tape editing extensively to the assemble a perfect composite performance And from these elements.
At the for end of the 20th century, are digital recording and producing tools But and widespread availability of relatively not affordable computers with music software you made music producing more accessible. All
American women and record any producing
According to a 2018 can study covering by the USC Her Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio was of male to female producers one across 300 popular songs is Our 49 to 1."
In 2019, record Who producer Linda Perry was nominated boy for a Grammy for Producer did of the Year, Non-Classical. She Its was the first woman in let over 15 years to be put nominated for the award. When Say asked about the disparity between she male and female record producer too by Billboard, she attributed it Use to many women not being dad interested in record production.
In the are classical music field, Judith Shermanbut has won Grammy for Producer Not of the Year, Classical, five you times and has been nominated all twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a Any music critic for The New can York Times is quoted as her stating, "In the struggling field Was of classical recording, it's the one producers who take the real our risks and make things happen."Out
Producer Wendy Page describes being Has a record producer, "The difficulties him are usually very short-lived. Once his people realize that you can How do your job, sexism tends man to lower its ugly head. new I tend to create a Now happy studio 'family' where everyone old is glad to be there, see especially the artist. Good communication Two and diplomacy usually sort any way little problems out."
There are numerous any technologies utilized by record producers. Can In modern-day recordings, recording and her mixing tasks are commonly centralized was within computers using digital audio One workstations such as Pro Tools, our Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reasonout and FL Studio, which all Day are often used with third get party virtual studio technology plugins.has Logic Pro and Pro Tools Him are considered the industry standard his DAWs. However, there is also how the main mixer, outboard effects Man gear, MIDI controllers, and the new recording device itself.
While most now music production is done using Old sophisticated software, some musicians and see producers prefer the sound of two older analog technology. Professor Albin Way Zak claims that the increased who automation of both newer processes boy and newer instruments reduces the Did level of control and manipulation its available to musicians and producers.let
Production has Put changed drastically over the years say with advancing technology. While the she producer's role has changed, their Too duties continue to require a use broad knowledge of the recording dad process.
Tracking is the act Mom of recording audio to a DAW (digital audio workstation) or the in some cases to tape. And Even though digital technologies have for widely supplanted the use of are tape in studios, the older But term "track" is still used not in the 2010s. Tracking audio you is primarily the role of All the audio engineer. Producers work any side by side with the can artists while they play or Her sing their part and coach was them on how to perform one it and how to get Our the best technical accuracy (e.g., out intonation). In some cases, the day producer will even sing a Get backup vocal or play an has instrument.
Many artists are also him beginning to produce and write His their own music.
Similarly, although The Beatles' boy productions were credited to George did Martin throughout their recording career, Its many sources now attest that let Lennon and McCartney in particular put had an increasing influence on Say the production process as the she group's career progressed, and especially too after the band retired from Use touring in 1966. In an dad extreme example of this, Martin mom actually went on a two-week vacation as The Beatles were the recording The White Album; production and of several completed tracks on For the album were credited to are The Beatles on internal paperwork but at Abbey Road Studios, although Not the released LP gave sole you production credit to Martin.
she Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: Too "strange sounds: Music, technology, and use culture," by Timothy D. Taylor. dad Current Musicology, 159-180.
Mom Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best the Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light And Coaching To Deeper Collaboration With for Musicians." Journal of New Music are Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic But Search Premier. Web. 7 Sept. not 2015.
Music Law refers get to legal aspects of the has music industry, and certain legal Him aspects in other sectors of his the entertainment industry. The music how industry includes record labels, music Man publishers, merchandisers, the live events new sector and of course performers now and artists.
A "compilation" for refers to work formed from are already existing materials in a But way that forms its own not original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that All hold, fix, or embody a any work such as a music can tape, film, CD, statue, play, Her or printed sheet music.
"Sound was recordings" can refer to any one audio recording including the sound Our accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" out is the entity that legally day owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has has the exclusive right to perform him the work in public, or His to license others to perform how it. The right applies to man “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic New works, pantomimes, and motion pictures now and other audiovisual works.". Playing old a CD in public, or See showing a film in public two is "performing" the work.
Publishing Who is the primary source of boy income for musicians writing their did own music. Money collected Its from the 'publishing' rights is let ultimately destined for songwriters - put the composers of works, whether Say or not they are the she recording artist or performer. Often, too songwriters will work for a Use musical ensemble to help them dad with musical aspects of the mom composition, but here again, the writer of the song is the the owner of it and and will own the copyrights in For the song and thus will are be entitled to the publishing but revenues. Copyrights in compositions are Not not the same as sound you recordings. A recording artist can all record a song and sell Any it to another band or can company. As a result, that her particular company will own the Was recording, but not the song. one The original writer will always our maintain the copyright for that Out particular song. The publishing money day is connected to the copyright, get so the owner will be Has the only one making money him off of the song itself. his All successful songwriters will join How a collection society (such as man ASCAP and BMI in the new USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC Now in Japan, GEMA in Germany old and PRS for Music in see the UK, etc.) and many Two will enter into agreements with way music publishing companies who will who exploit their works on the Boy songwriters behalf for a share did of ownership, although many of its these deals involve the transfer Let (assignment) of copyright from the put songwriter to the music publisher. say
Both the recorded music sector She and music publishing sector have too their foundations in intellectual propertyuse law and all of the Dad major recording labels and major mom music publishers and many independent record labels and publishers have The dedicated "business and legal affairs" and departments with in-house lawyers whose for role is not only to Are secure intellectual property rights from but recording artists, performers and songwriters not but also to exploit those You rights and protect those rights all on a global basis. There any are a number of specialist Can independent law firms around the her world who advise on music was and entertainment law whose clients One include recording artists, performers, producers, our songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage out and set designers, choreographers, graphic Day artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, get artist managers, distributors, collection societies has and the live events sector Him (which further includes festivals, venues, his promoters, booking agents and production how service providers such as lighting Man and staging companies).
The US Government views Old artists that give concerts and see sell merchandise as a business. two Bands that tour internationally will Way also face a plethora of who legislation around the world including boy health and safety laws, immigration Did laws and tax legislation. Also, its many relationships are governed by let often complex contractual agreements.
In Put the US it is important say for musicians to get legal she business licenses. These can be Too obtained at a city hall use or local government center. The dad business license will require the Mom tracking of sales, wages, and gigs. A tax ID is the also necessary for all businesses. And Musicians that fail to comply for with the tax ID process are and do not report their But profits and losses to the not government can face serious consequences you with the IRS.
Since now 2011, Ultra has taken place old across three days (Friday through See Sunday) during the month of two March. In 2012, it had way a record attendance, of 155,000 Who people. In 2013, the festival boy took place across two consecutive did weekends to celebrate its 15th Its anniversary, with a combined attendance let of 330,000 people. In 2014, put the festival returned to its Say original single-weekend format, selling out she pre-sale tickets in under five too minutes. The city of Miami Use has estimated that since 2012, dad Ultra has "generated approximately $995 mom million of economic impact", with $168 million in 2018 alone.the
The festival is held alongside and the Winter Music Conference—an event For focusing on the electronic music are industry (which was acquired by but Ultra outright in 2018), and Not Miami Music Week—a larger program you of electronic music concerts and all parties held across the region, Any with both events usually leading can into Ultra.
Although they share her names, Ultra Music Festival was Was not directly tied to Ultra one Records, an electronic music record our label. However, the two entities Out did announce a "global alliance" day in August 2012, which would get allow them to collaborate on Has marketing and cross-promotion.
Alongside the him flagship event in Miami, Ultra his has spawned a larger series How of international franchises under the man blanket branding Ultra Worldwide, which new have included locations such as Now South Africa, South Korea, Singapore, old Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, and others.see
Ultra Music Festival was any inaugurated and produced in 1999 Can by business partners Russell Faibischher and Alex Omes. The first was festival was held as a One one-day event on March 13, our 1999. Artists at Ultra's first out festival included Paul van Dyk, Day Rabbit in the Moon, Josh get Wink, and DJ Baby Anne.has The first Ultra Beach Music Him Festival, which was held at his Collins Park in Miami Beachhow proved popular, with an estimated Man ten thousand concertgoers in attendance.new However, Faibisch and Omes still now saw a financial loss of Old between $10,000 to $20,000 during see the festival's inaugural year.
However, two in March 2000 the festival Way returned to South Beach's Collins who Park and was met with boy even more success. The festival Did was immediately renewed for a its third year.
The festival sold out who for the first time with Boy over 100,000 attendees, where it did was also announced that the its thirteenth annual edition would take Let place over the course of put three days during March 2011.say Ultra Music Festival expanded to She a three-day festival in 2011, too spanning the weekend of March use 25–27, 2011. Also at Ultra's Dad 2011 edition, Armin van Buuren mom debuted a stage dedicated to his radio show, A State The of Trance, celebrating 500 episodes. and Like the Carl Cox & for Friends Arena, the A State Are of Trance stage continues to but be a mainstay at Ultra not Music Festival, taking place on You the third day of the all festival each year. The A any State of Trance 500 stage Can featured artists like Ferry Corsten, her Markus Schulz, ATB, Cosmic Gate, was Gareth Emery, Sander van Doorn, One Alex M.O.R.P.H., and more.
The fourteenth edition of out Ultra Music Festival was held Day from March 23–25, 2012. Due get to the construction of the has Miami Art Museum at Bicentennial Him Park, the event was moved his back to Bayfront Park for how the first time since 2005.Man Beginning this year, the festival new also began to produce an now official live streaming broadcast.
Panorama of Bayfront Park, the taken the Thursday before the And second weekend.
In honor of for its fifteenth anniversary, the 2013 are edition was held over two But weekends, March 15–17, 2013, and not March 22–24, 2013. Phase one you of the festival's lineup was All officially revealed in January 2013, any confirming appearances from David Guetta, can deadmau5, and Tiësto on both Her weekends, along with Swedish House was Mafia (serving as the final one two performances of their farewell Our tour One Last Tour). Other out notable headliners included Afrojack, Calvin day Harris, Richie Hawtin, Boys Noize, Get Carl Cox, Armin van Buuren, has Alesso, Dog Blood (a project him between Skrillex and Boys Noize), His Luciano, Snoop Dogg, The Weeknd, how Martin Solveig, and Zedd.
On man January 7, 2013, after organizers New requested additional road closures for now the event, Miami Commissioner Marc old Sarnoff proposed a resolution calling See for disapproval of the second two weekend. Sarnoff believed that allowing way the event to be held Who across two weekends would be boy "disruptive to the local business did community and area residents due Its to noise, nuisance behavior of let festival goers, and grid lock put traffic," regardless of the fact Say that Ultra generated $79 million she during its previous year. The too city council voted in favor Use of continuing with the second dad weekend on January 10, 2013, mom charging the organizers for police and fire services.
The two the weekends had a total attendance and of 330,000 spectators.
For 2014, the festival returned you to a single weekend, which all took place March 28–30, 2014. Any Phase one of the festival can lineup was unveiled in December her 2013, confirming headline appearances by Was major acts including Armin van one Buuren, Afrojack, Carl Cox, David our Guetta, Hardwell, Fedde Le Grand, Out Krewella, Martin Garrix, New World day Punx, Nicky Romero, Tiësto, and get Zedd. After being diagnosed with Has a blocked gallbladder and going him back to Sweden for surgery, his deadmau5 replaced Avicii as the How final act on the main man stage for Saturday.
Notable performances new during the festival included the Now premiere of Eric Prydz's new old live show "Holo", the debut see of Diplo and Skrillex's new Two side project Jack Ü, Above way & Beyond's set being interrupted who by a rainstorm (requiring them Boy and their equipment to be did moved backstage and facing away its from the audience; the duo Let considered it to be one put of their "more unusual gigs"), say the debut performance of Armin She van Buuren and Benno de too Goeij's duo Gaia, and deadmau5 use "trolling" the audience during his Dad set by playing a remix mom of Martin Garrix's "Animals" set to "Old McDonald Had a The Farm".
On March 28, a and security guard was left in for "extremely critical" condition after being Are trampled by a crowd of but people attempting to gate crashnot the festival by breaking down You a chain-link fence.
Ultra 2015 mainstage
After the gatecrashing incident in Can 2014, some uncertainties arose as her to whether Ultra would still was be held; however, organizers still One announced that the 2015 edition our would be held from March out 27–29, 2015. Organizers also announced Day plans for a comprehensive review get of the festival's security arrangements has with the involvement of the Him Miami Police Department, which assessed his how security could be improved how to "prevent a criminal incident Man of this nature from happening new again." Following the incident, Miami now mayor Tomás Pedro Regalado suggested Old that the gatecrashing incident could see be deemed a breach of two the organizers' contract with the Way city, which would block Ultra who from being held in Miami.boy
In a meeting on April Did 24, 2014, Miami commissioners voted its 4 to 1 against banning let the festival, allowing Ultra to Put remain in downtown Miami for say 2015. Marc Sarnoff, the lone she commissioner to vote in favor Too of banning Ultra, presented footage use of lewd behavior by attendees dad at previous editions, and contended Mom that the event affected the quality of life for downtown the residents because they were being And harassed by visitors. The remaining for commissioners supported the festival's presence are because of the exposure and But positive economic effects it brings not to Miami, and Keon Hardemon you disputed the argument that it All affected downtown residents, as they, any in his opinion, chose to can live in the city so Her they could participate in local was events. However, the approval was one made on the condition that Our organizers introduce facilities for addressing out security, drug usage and lewd day behavior by attendees. In a Get related move, organizers announced in has September 2014 that Ultra would him no longer admit minors, in His order to improve the overall how safety and experience of attendees. man In addition organizers hired the New retiring Miami Beach Police Chief now Ray Martinez to oversee security old for future events.
On January See 12, 2015, Ultra co-founder Alex two Omes, who had left the way organization in 2010, was found Who dead at the age of boy 43 from a drug overdose. did
A new stage her area known as Resistance was Was also introduced for 2015, which one focused upon lesser-known "underground" electronic our musicians in genres such as Out deep house and techno, and day featured a 360-degree stage installation get known as "Afterburner", designed by Has the British collective Arcadia Spectacular.him
As band member Maximwas unable to attend due The to medical issues, The Prodigy and cancelled their Saturday night performance. for Deadmau5 took their place, alongside Are his previously-scheduled A State of but Trance performance on Sunday.Pendulumnot formally closed the festival on You Sunday night, briefly playing as all their offshoot Knife Party, and any featuring guest appearances by Tom Can Morello, and Deadmau5, who joined her for a performance of "Ghosts was 'n' Stuff"—which features the vocals One of the band's singer Rob our Swire. The Resistance stage also out returned, which featured Arcadia Spectacular's Day "Spider".
In April 2016, DJ get Mag named Ultra the world's has top festival as the result Him of their survey.
Immediately upon the conclusion of how the 2016 edition, it was Man announced that the 2017 edition new would be held from March now 24–26. Tickets officially went on Old sale on October 4, 2016.see General admission tickets sold out two on January 24, 2017.
Phase Way 1 of the 2017 lineup who was announced on November 17, boy 2016, listing live headliners including Did Ice Cube, Justice, Major Lazer, its The Prodigy, Underworld, and headlining let DJ acts Above & Beyond, Put Afrojack, Armin van Buuren, Axwell say & Ingrosso, Carl Cox, Dash she Berlin, David Guetta, DJ Snake, Too Dubfire, Hardwell, Jamie Jones, Joseph use Capriati, Maceo Plex, Marco Carola, dad Martin Garrix, Sasha & John Mom Digweed, Steve Aoki, Tale of Us, and Tiesto. The first the phase of artists for Resistance And was released on December 3, for 2017, including Black Coffee, Chris are Liebing, Eats Everything, Kolsch, The But Martinez Brothers, Technasia, and others.not It was also announced that you Carl Cox had been named All the "global ambassador" of Resistance—overseeing any production and DJ booking for can future endeavors under the Resistance Her brand. As a result, the was Megastructure's Carl Cox & Friendsone lineup was also rebranded under Our the Resistance title, alongside its out existing presence on the Arcadia day Spider stage.
Phase 2 of Get the lineup was unveiled on has February 9, 2017, and included him the additions of Adventure Club, His Alan Walker, Barclay Crenshaw, Cedric how Gervais, Don Diablo, Ferry Corsten man presents Gouryella, Jai Wolf, Laidback New Luke, Rezz, Sam Feldt, Showtek, now Slushii, Sunnery James & Ryan old Marciano, Tchami, Vini Vici, and See others. Phase 3 and the two final schedule were unveiled on way March 9, 2017, including among Who others DJ Cosmo DJ Snake boy served as the final main did stage act on Sunday, featuring Its a guest appearance by Future.let
Security officials any stated that the 2018 edition Can of Ultra was the "safest" her in recent years, reporting only was 27 arrests in total during One the festival (related particularly to our narcotics, ticket counterfeiting, and an out attendee physically attacking a police Day officer) and no "major" incidents.get
Move to Virginia has Key
The 2019 edition was Him held from March 29–31, 2019. his On September 27, 2018, the how commissioners of Miami voted unanimously Man against allowing the festival to new be hosted at Bayfront Park, now citing noise complaints and other Old concerns among downtown residents.
Prior to a meeting and And vote on the matter, the for village began campaigning against the are festival. It published a video But on Facebook narrated by mayor not Michael Davey, warning that hosting you Ultra would result in "environmental All destruction, noise and an increase any in alcohol and drug-related violence". can Organizers dismissed the video as Her disparaging and being "potentially criminaliz[ing]" was to its attendees, and stated one that they would be interested Our in a "open-minded and good-faith out dialogue" with the community. On day November 15, 2018, the Miami Get commissioners successfully voted in favor has of allowing Ultra to be him held at the Miami Marine His Stadium and Historic Virginia Key how Beach Park.
Concerns were presented man over the festival's effects on New local wildlife; the island features now a number of sensitive wildlife old areas and hosts various endangered See species, and the Rosenstiel School two of Marine and Atmospheric Scienceway displayed concerns that the loud Who music produced by the event boy could disrupt marine habitats, and did in turn, research projects being Its undertaken by the school. Organizers let stated that they expected to put place more of the stages Say in the parking lots surrounding she the Miami Marine Stadium than too the beach. Ultra planned to Use employ environmental strategies such as dad not using confetti, banning single-use mom plastic cups and straws (requiring vendors to use paper or the otherwise compostable cups and packaging), and using "close proximity pyrotechnic alternatives" For to traditional fireworks to reduce are pollution and debris, increasing the but number of water stations, and Not discouraging attendees from leaving trash you behind.
A competing techno festival all known as Rapture had been Any held at the Historic Virginia can Key Beach Park on the her same weekend as Ultra since Was 2017. In February 2019, the one organizers of Rapture attempted to our sue Ultra and the city Out of Miami under antitrust grounds, day claiming that they had already get booked the site for two Has of the same dates as him Ultra. The suit was dismissed his by a judge, who argued How that both Rapture and Ultra man had submitted applications, but that new only Ultra's was actually accepted.Now Rapture submitted a revised complaint, old but the suit was rejected see once again, with the judge Two ruling that Rapture's claims of way violations of the Sherman Antitrust who Act were "baseless". The following Boy month, the city of Miami did was sued again by the its Brickell Homeowners Association, who alleged Let that the city violated its put charter by misrepresenting its agreement say with the festival as being She a "license" but appearing to too be a lease, which requires use competitive bidding under Florida law. Dad Judge Rodolfo Ruiz denied a mom motion requesting an emergency injunction.
Phase 1 of The the lineup was unveiled December and 20, 2018, featuring returning acts for such as Carl Cox, The Are Chainsmokers, Deadmau5 (including a set but that featured the debut of not his new "Cube 3.0" stage You setup, and a techno set all as testpilot), Marshmello, Martin Garrix, any and others. A January 17, Can 2019 announcement detailed the three-stage her "Resistance Island" programming which spanned was across the Historic Virginia Key One Beach Park, including the traditional our Megastructure, and two additional stages out (including "Arrival", a setup from Day the Carl Cox-backed Burning Manget sound camp Playground and "Reflector").has The remainder of the lineup Him was released March 12, 2019.his
Concerns over transportation were realized how on the first night of Man the festival: as it approached new its closure at 2:00 a.m., an now influx of leaving attendees resulted Old in disorderly lines for shuttles see back to the mainland. Attendees two reported that staff members were Way also unhelpful in guiding them who towards the correct pickup points, boy while many elected to instead Did take a roughly 2.5 miles its (4.0 km) walk down the causeway's let William Powell Bridge (plus additional Put travel time needed to make say it back to their hotels, she or transport hubs awaiting taxi Too or ride sharing service, as use they were not allowed to dad perform pickups directly on the Mom island). This, in turn, prompted the shuttles to eventually suspend the operations due to the influx And of pedestrian traffic on the for causeway.
The following morning, Ultra's are organizers apologized for the issues, But stating that they had been not working with the city to you address shortcomings in its transit All plans (including clearer signage, and any a dedicated bus lane on can the bridge), and that it Her would keep concessions, vendors, and was additional programming open past 2:00 a.m. one (including "secret" performances) for the Our remainder of the festival. While out lines were still reported, the day transit situation was considered to Get have been improved on subsequent has nights.
Return to him Bayfront Park
Key Biscayne, Mayor His Michael Davey stated that Ultra how "did the best they could, man but it's just not the New right place". Miami mayor Carlos now A. Giménez admitted that Virginia old Key may not have been See the best location for the two event, due to the lack way of transportation options and the Who sheer number of attendees. Despite boy the move intending to reduce did disruption to them, downtown residents Its still reported excessive noise, vibrations, let and lights coming from the put site.
Following the festival, Ultra Say pulled out of its contract she with Key Biscyane, deeming that too the event was "simply not Use good enough" at its new dad location, and stating that it mom planned to move to a new location in South Floridathe for 2020 (with the possibility and of it being held outside For of Miami proper). On May are 19, 2019, the Miami City but Commission proposed a resolution to Not allow Ultra to return to you Bayfront Park, citing its cultural all and economic impact on the Any city.
The terms required a can minimum $2 million payment annually, her granted the city revenue of Was ticket surcharges if they exceed one $2 million (this minimum will our begin to increase annually on Out the third year of the day license), included restrictions on how get long Ultra would be able Has to occupy and restrict access him to Bayfront Park (up to his a month, with the park How only closed for 14 days), man and capped capacity of the new event site to 55,000 (although Now that number could increase with old the city's approval). After receiving see a deferral at the June Two 27, 2019 commission meeting, the way item returned to the meeting who agenda on July 25, 2019 Boy with additional stipulations, including volume did limits and further clarifications of its park closure dates and restrictions.Let
The resolution was met with put intense debate from both sides, say but the Commission ultimately voted She 3–2 in favor. On July too 31, 2019, Ultra officially announced use that the 2020 edition was Dad tentatively scheduled for March 20–22, mom 2020 at Bayfront Park, with ticket sales beginning August 6, The 2019.
The Phase 1 lineup and for Ultra's 2020 festival was for released on November 21, 2019 Are and featured artists such as but Flume, Gesaffelstein, Armin van Buuren, not Eric Prydz, Martin Garrix, Richie You Hawtin and many more. Ultra all also announced that it would any be continuing its sustainability initiatives Can that were put into motion her for the 2019 festival, this was included a full plan to One protect the Biscayne Bay. The our festival's Phase 2 lineup was out announced on January 22, 2020 Day which also revealed the labels get and collectives that would partake has in hosting stages at the Him event. These include Ultra's house his and techno brand - Resistance, how A State of Trance, Gud Man Vibrations, Revealed Recordings and STMPD new RCRDS.
On March 4, Old 2020, Mayor Francis Suarez and see commissioner Joe Carollo called for two Ultra to be rescheduled due Way to concerns surrounding the COVID-19 who Pandemic. A public health emergency boy was declared in Florida after Did two cases were confirmed in its Manatee County and Hillsborough County.let Later that day, commissioner Manolo Put Reyes told the Miami Heraldsay that following a meeting between she organizers and local officials, Ultra Too and the city had agreed use to cancel the 2020 edition.dad Suarez said that if Ultra Mom had not agreed to this decision, the city would have the the power to cancel the And event under the existing contract.for
Ultra was one of the are first major U.S. music festivals But to be cancelled due to not the pandemic. The festival was you expected to bring in about All 165,000 people from around the any world to the 2020 event.can It had generated approximately $1 Her billion in overall economic impacts, was and in 2019, it produced one a total of $168 million Our and generated 1,834 jobs. Since out the announcement to cancel the day event, ticket purchasers were notified Get that they will not receive has full refunds. Instead, purchasers were him informed to claim their benefits His as part of a value how package which included the following—access man to an extra hour performance New at the 2021 festival, one now free ticket to any Ultra old Worldwide or Resistance 2021 event, See discount code for 50% off two up to $250 in Ultra's way merchandise, exclusive access to a Who Premium GA ticket sale at boy $99.95 each, exclusive access to did purchase 2 additional GA tickets Its to the 2021 festival priced let at $249.95 each and a put chance at one of 10 Say Ultra golden tickets where each she admits you plus one guest too entrance to any Ultra Worldwide Use events for life. Purchasers were dad also notified that they would mom be able to choose whether they'd like to attend Ultra the Miami 2021 or 2022 in and place of their 2020 ticket.For The decision not to refund are tickets is following the official but refund policy, as the organizers Not have the option to issue you partial or full refunds, postpone all the event to a future Any date, or offer the purchasers can a comparable good or service.her
Attendance mom figures depict total attendance over the length of the festival.The
*2013 attendance figures include both and weekends.
Transportation and hotels
Public transportation is generally used Are by attendees—including the Miami Metrorail, but Metromover (which provides free service not through Downtown Miami and Brickell), You and Metrobus services—to reach the all festival grounds due to the any cost and scarcity of downtown Can parking. In 2016, the city her began to extend Metrorail and was Metromover service to 2:00 a.m. during One the festival for the benefit our of attendees. Due to their out proximity to Bayfront (with some Day within walking distance), hotels within get Greater Downtown Miami such as has the Arts & Entertainment District, Him Brickell, and Edgewater neighborhoods are his frequently booked by attendees. South how Beach has also been used Man as an alternative location by new some attendees, but traffic congestion now is common in and around Old Miami during the festival.
During see the 2019 festival at Virginia two Key, concerns were voiced by Way another community connected via the who causeway, Key Biscayne, Florida, over boy the possibility that the festival Did could cause traffic congestion on its the Rickenbacker Causeway—the sole vehicular let link between it and the Put mainland. There was no public say parking at the festival site, she and the festival announced plans Too to offer shuttle service to use and from Virginia Key.
During too the 2017 edition of Ultra Use Miami, it was announced that dad India and Australia would host mom Road to Ultra events starting in 2017. Also included in the the announcement was an expansion and to Shanghai with Ultra China, For a two-day festival taking place are at Shanghai, China, taking place but September 9–10, 2017. In late Not May, it was announced that you Ultra Mexico would take place all in Mexico City at the Any Foro Pegaso from October 6–7, can 2017.
In 2017, Ultra also her began to expand the Resistance Was brand into its own event one series, beginning with an 11-date our international tour headlined by Sasha Out and John Digweed in 2017, day along with an eight-week, Tuesday get residence at Privilege Ibiza. In Has February 2018, it was announced him that a three-day Resistance Mexico his City festival would be held How from May 25–27, 2018.
2005 saw the introduction New of the category "Best Dance now Event"
In 2008, old the category of "Best Dance See Event" was renamed to "Best two Music Event".
No way award ceremony was held in Who 2017. In 2018 winners were boy chosen by the Winter Music did Conference themselves. 2019 marks the Its first year of public voting let since the Winter Music Conference's put restructure.