Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A Was record producer or music producerone is a recording project's creative our and technical leader, commanding studio Out time and coaching artists, and day in popular genres typically creates get the song's very sound and Has structure. The record producer, or him simply the producer, is likened his to a film director. The How executive producer, on the other man hand, enables the recording project new through entrepreneurship, and an audio Now engineer operates the technology.
Varying old by project, the producer may see also choose all of the Two artists, or openly perform vocals way with them. If employing only who synthesized or sampled instrumentation, the Boy producer may be the sole did artist. Conversely, some artists do its their own production. And some Let producers are their own engineers,put operating the technology across the say project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and She mastering. Record producers' precursors were too "A&R men," who likewise could use blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical Dad roles, but often exercised scant mom creative influence, as record production still focused, into the 1950s, The on simply improving the record's and sonic match to the artists' for own live performance.
Advances in Are recording technology, especially the 1940s but advent of tape recording—which Les not Paul promptly innovated further to You develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s all rise of electronic instruments, turned any record production into a specialty.Can In popular music, then, producers her like George Martin, Phil Spectorwas and Brian Eno led its One evolution into its present use our of elaborate techniques and unrealistic out sounds, creating songs impossible to Day originate live. After the 1980s, get production's move from analog to has digital further expanded possibilities. By Him now, DAWS, or digital audio his workstations, like Logic Pro and how Pro Tools, turn an ordinary Man computer into a production console,new whereby a solitary novice can now become a skilled producer in Old a thrifty home studio. In see the 2010s, efforts began to two increase the prevalence of producers Way and engineers who are women, who heavily outnumbered by men and boy prominently accoladed only in classical Did music.
As a broad you project, the creation of a All music recording may be split any across three specialists: the executive can producer, who oversees business partnerships Her and financing, the vocal producer was or vocal arranger, who aids one vocal performance via expert critique Our and coaching of vocal technique, out and the record producer or day music producer, who, often called Get simply the producer, directs the has overall creative process of recording him the song in its final His mix.
The record producer's how roles include, but may exceed, man gathering ideas, composing music, choosing New session musicians, proposing changes to now song arrangements, coaching the performers, old controlling sessions, supervising the audio See mixing, and, in some cases, two supervising the audio mastering. As way to qualifying for a GrammyWho nomination, the Recording Academy defines boy a producer:
The person who has did overall creative and technical control Its of the entire recording project, let and the individual recording sessions put that are part of that Say project. He or she is she present in the recording studio too or at the location recording Use and works directly with the dad artist and engineer. The producer mom makes creative and aesthetic decisions that realize both the artist's the and label's goals in the and creation of musical content. Other For duties include, but are not are limited to; keeping budgets and but schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring Not musicians, singers, studios and engineers, you overseeing other staffing needs and all editing (Classical projects).
The Any producer often selects and collaborates can with a mixing engineer, who her focuses on the especially technological Was aspects of the recording process, one namely, operating the electronic equipment our and blending the raw, recorded Out tracks of the chosen performances, day whether vocal or instrumental, into get a ''mix,'' either stereo or Has surround sound. Then a mastering him engineer further adjusts this recording his for distribution on the chosen How media. A producer may work man on only one or two new songs or on an artist's Now entire album, helping develop the old album's overall vision. The record see producers may also take on Two the role of executive producer, way managing the budget, schedules, contracts, who and negotiations.
(Artist and Repertoire)did
In the 1880s, the record its industry began by simply having Let the artist perform at a put phonograph. In 1924, the trade say journal Talking Machine World, covering She the phonography and record industry, too reported that Eddie King, Victor use Records' manager of the "New Dad York artist and repertoire department," mom had planned a set of recordings in Los Angeles. Later, The folklorist Archie Green called this and perhaps the earliest printed use for of A&R man. Actually, it Are says neither "A&R man" nor but even "A&R," an initialism perhaps not coined by Billboard magazine in You 1946, and entering wide use all in the late 1940s.
In any the 1920s and 1930s, A&R Can executives, like Ben Selvin at her Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at was Victor Records, and Bob Haring One at Brunswick Records, supervising recording our and often leading session orchestras, out became the precursors of record Day producers. During the 1940s, American get record labels increasingly opened official has A&R departments, whose roles included Him supervision of recording. Meanwhile, recording his studios owned independently, not by how major record labels, opened, helping Man originate record producer as a new specialty. But despite a now tradition of some A&R men Old writing music, record production remained, see strictly, merely the manufacturing of two record discs.
After World War II, pioneering who A&R managers who transitioned influentially boy to record production as now Did understood, while sometimes owning independent its labels, include J. Mayo Williamslet and John Hammond. Upon moving Put from Columbia Records to Mercury say Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Millershe to lead Mercury's popular recordings Too in New York. Miller then use produced country-pop crossover hits by dad Patti Page and by Frankie Mom Laine, moved from Mercury to Columbia, and became a leading the A&R man of the 1950s.And
During the decade, A&R executives for increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, are although many still simply teamed But singers with musicians, while yet not others exercised virtually no creative you influence. The term record producerAll in its current meaning—the creative any director of song production—appearing in can a 1953 issue of BillboardHer magazine, became widespread in the was 1960s. Still, a formal distinction one was elusive for some time Our more. A&R managers might still out be creative directors, like William day "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry Get Gordy, at the Motown record has label.
In him 1947, the American market gained His audio recording onto magnetic tape.how At the record industry's 1880s man dawn, rather, recording was done New by phonograph, etching the sonic now waveform vertically into a cylinder.old By the 1930s, a gramophone See etched it laterally across a two disc. Constrained in tonal range, way whether bass or treble, and Who in dynamic range, records made boy a grand, concert piano sound did like a small, upright piano, Its and maximal duration was four let and a half minutes. Selections put and performance were often altered Say accordingly. And playing this disc—the she wax master—destroyed it. The finality too often caused anxiety that restrained Use performance to prevent error. In dad the 1940s, during World War mom II, the Germans refined audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording the duration and allowing immediate playback, and rerecording, and editing—a technology that For premised emergence of record producers are in their current roles.
Early in the Not recording industry, a record was you attained by simply having all all of the artists perform together Any live in one take. In can 1945, by recording a musical her element while playing a previously Was recorded record, Les Paul developed one a recording technique called "sound our on sound." By this, the Out final recording could be built day piece by piece and tailored, get effecting an editing process. In Has one case, Paul produced a him song via 500 recorded discs.his But, besides the tedium of How this process, it serially degraded man the sound quality of previously new recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient Now sound. Yet in 1948, Paul old adopted tape recording, enabling truly see multitrack recording by a new Two technique, "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, way Paul revised the tape recorder who itself by adding a second Boy playback head, and terming it did the preview head. Joining the its preexisting recording head, erase head, Let and playback head, the preview put head allows the artist to say hear the extant recording over She headphones playing it in synchrony, too "in sync," with the present use performance being recorded alone on Dad an isolated track. This isolation mom of multiple tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers began recording The initially only the "bed tracks"—the and rhythm section, including the bassline, for drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals Are and instrument solos could be but added later. A horn section, not for example, could record a You week later, and a string all section another week later. A any singer could perform her own Can backup vocals, or a guitarist her could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, its rock acts like the Beatles, let the Rolling Stones, and the Put Kinks produced some of their say own songs, although many such she songs are officially credited to Too specialist producers. Yet especially use influential was the Beach Boys, dad whose band leader Brian WilsonMom took over from his father Murry within a couple of the years after the band's commercial And breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had for taken Spector's techniques to unseen are sophistication. Wilson alone produced But all Beach Boy recordings between not 1963 and 1967. Using you multiple studios and multiple attempts All of instrumental and vocal tracks, any Wilson selected the best combinations can of performance and audio quality, Her and used tape editing to was assemble a composite performance.one
The day 1980s advent of digital processes Get and formats rapidly replaced analog has processes and formats, namely, tape him and vinyl. Although recording onto His quality tape, at least half how an inch wide and traveling man 15 inches per second, had New limited "tape hiss" to silent now sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, old SNR, abolished it. Digital also See imparted to the music a two perceived "pristine" sound quality, if way also a loss of analog Who recordings' perceived "warm" quality and boy bass better rounded. Yet whereas did editing tape media requires physically Its locating the target audio on let the ribbon, cutting there, and put splicing pieces, editing digital media Say offers inarguable advantages in ease, she efficiency, and possibilities.
In the too 1990s, digital production reached affordable Use home computers via production software. dad By now, recording and mixing mom are often centralized in DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, Pro the Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and Reason, and FL Studio—for which For plugins, by third parties, effect are virtual studio technology. DAWs fairly but standard in the industry are Not Logic Pro and Pro Tools.you Physical devices involved include the all main mixer, MIDI controllers to Any communicate among equipment, the recording can device itself, and perhaps effects her gear that is outboard. Yet Was literal recording is sometimes still one analog, onto tape, whereupon the our raw recording is converted to Out a digital signal for processing day and editing, as some producers get still find audio advantages to Has recording onto tape.
Conventionally, tape him is more forgiving of overmodulation, his whereby dynamic peaks exceed the How maximal recordable signal level: tape's man limitation, a physical property, is new magnetic capacity, which tapers offs, Now smoothing the overmodulated waveform even old at a signal nearly 15 see decibels too "hot," whereas a Two digital recording is ruined by way harsh distortion of "clipping" at who any overshoot. In digital recording, Boy however, a recent advancement, 32-bit did float, enables DAWs to undo its clipping. Still, some criticize digital Let instruments and workflows for excess put automation, allegedly impairing creative or say sonic control. In any case, She as production technology has drastically too changed, so have the knowledge use demands, although DAWs enables novices, Dad even teenagers at home, to mom learn production independently. Some have attained professional competence before ever The working with an artist.
Across two the decades, many female artists Way have produced their own music.who For instance, artists Kate Bush, boy Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Did Swift, and Lorde have produced its or coproduced. Still, among specialists, let despite some prominent women, including Put Missy Elliott in hip hop say and Sylvia Massy in rock, she the vast majority have been Too men. Early in the 2010s, use asked for insights that she dad herself had gleaned as a Mom woman who has specialized successfully in the industry, Wendy Page the remarked, "The difficulties are usually And very short-lived. Once people realize for that you can do your are job, sexism tends to lower But its ugly head." Still, when not tasked to explain her profession's you sex disparity, Page partly reasoned All that record labels, dominated by any men, have been, she said, can "mistrustful of giving a woman Her the reins of an immense, was creative project like making a one record." Ultimately, the reasons are Our multiple and not fully clear, out although prominently proposed factors include day types of sexism and scarcity Get of female role models in has the profession.
In January 2018, him a research team led by His Stacy L. Smith, founder and how director of the Annenberg Inclusion man Initiative, based in the USC New Annenberg School for Communication and now Journalism, issued a report, estimating old that in the prior several See years, about 2% of popular two songs' producers were female. Also way that month, Billboard magazine queried, Who "Where all the female music boy producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion did Initiative's second annual report, released Its in February 2019, its department let at USC reported, "2018 saw put an outcry from artists, executives Say and other music industry professionals she over the lack of women too in music" and "the plight Use of women in music," where dad women were allegedly being "stereotyped, mom sexualized, and shut out." Also in February 2019, the Recording the Academy's Task Force on Diversity and and Inclusion announced an initiative For whereby over 200 artists and are producers—ranging from Cardi B and but Taylor Swift to Maroon 5Not and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider you at least two women for all each producer or engineer position.Any The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, can "This initiative is the first her step in a broader effort Was to improve those numbers and one increase diversity and inclusion for our all in the music industry."Out
^ Allan Let Watson, Cultural Production in and put Beyond the Recording Studio (New say York: Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.She
James Petulla, "Who too is a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, use Recording Connection, 21 May 2013, Dad reporting membership in CAPPS, the mom California Association of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ any Brent Hurtig with J. Can D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for her Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide was for Beginners and Reference for One Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, our 1988 / Van Nuys, CA: out Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.Day
^ Richard James New Burgess, The History of Music now Production (New York: Oxford University old Press, 2014), pp 50–54.
^ Robert Philip, "Pianists two on record in the early way twentieth century", in David Rowland, Who ed., The Cambridge Companion to boy the Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge did University Press, 1998), pp 75–77.Its
Reportedly self-produced entirely let are the Rolling Stones' Decca put recordings
^ David Say Simmons, Analog Recording: Using Analog she Gear in Today's Home Studiotoo (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), Use pp 26–27.
Matthew dad Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 mom adds 32-bit float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan the 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director and of product management and design For at the recorder manufacturer Sound are Devices, who explains, "With 32-bit but float, you no longer need Not to worry about clipping during you your best vocal takes or all instrument solos. Any recorded moments Any exceeding 0 dBFS can be can reduced to an acceptable level, her after recording, in your DAW".Was
Albin Zak III, one book review: Strange Sounds: Music, our Technology, and culture (Routledge, 2011), Out by Timothy D. Taylor, in day Current Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown get year, volume, issue].
Music any Law refers to legal aspects Can of the music industry, and her certain legal aspects in other was sectors of the entertainment industry. One The music industry includes record our labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the out live events sector and of Day course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to work Too formed from already existing materials use in a way that forms dad its own original work, including Mom collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that hold, fix, or the embody a work such as And a music tape, film, CD, for statue, play, or printed sheet are music.
"Sound recordings" can refer But to any audio recording including not the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity All that legally owns rights to any a work.
"Performance" The copyright can holder has the exclusive right Her to perform the work in was public, or to license others one to perform it. The right Our applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, out and choreographic works, pantomimes, and day motion pictures and other audiovisual Get works.". Playing a CD in has public, or showing a film him in public is "performing" the His work.
Publishing is the primary man source of income for musicians New writing their own music.now Money collected from the 'publishing' old rights is ultimately destined for See songwriters - the composers of two works, whether or not they way are the recording artist or Who performer. Often, songwriters will work boy for a musical ensemble to did help them with musical aspects Its of the composition, but here let again, the writer of the put song is the owner of Say it and will own the she copyrights in the song and too thus will be entitled to Use the publishing revenues. Copyrights in dad compositions are not the same mom as sound recordings. A recording artist can record a song the and sell it to another and band or company. As a For result, that particular company will are own the recording, but not but the song. The original writer Not will always maintain the copyright you for that particular song. The all publishing money is connected to Any the copyright, so the owner can will be the only one her making money off of the Was song itself. All successful songwriters one will join a collection society our (such as ASCAP and BMI Out in the USA, SOCAN in day Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA get in Germany and PRS for Has Music in the UK, etc.) him and many will enter into his agreements with music publishing companies How who will exploit their works man on the songwriters behalf for new a share of ownership, although Now many of these deals involve old the transfer (assignment) of copyright see from the songwriter to the Two music publisher.
Both the recorded way music sector and music publishing who sector have their foundations in Boy intellectual property law and all did of the major recording labels its and major music publishers and Let many independent record labels and put publishers have dedicated "business and say legal affairs" departments with in-house She lawyers whose role is not too only to secure intellectual property use rights from recording artists, performers Dad and songwriters but also to mom exploit those rights and protect those rights on a global The basis. There are a number and of specialist independent law firms for around the world who advise Are on music and entertainment law but whose clients include recording artists, not performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music You publishers, stage and set designers, all choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, any merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, Can collection societies and the live her events sector (which further includes was festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents One and production service providers such our as lighting and staging companies). out
The US get Government views artists that give has concerts and sell merchandise as Him a business. Bands that tour his internationally will also face a how plethora of legislation around the Man world including health and safety new laws, immigration laws and tax now legislation. Also, many relationships are Old governed by often complex contractual see agreements.
In the US it two is important for musicians to Way get legal business licenses. These who can be obtained at a boy city hall or local government Did center. The business license will its require the tracking of sales, let wages, and gigs. A tax Put ID is also necessary for say all businesses. Musicians that fail she to comply with the tax Too ID process and do not use report their profits and losses dad to the government can face Mom serious consequences with the IRS.
Since 2011, Ultra has taken New place across three days (Friday now through Sunday) during the month old of March. In 2012, it See had a record attendance, of two 155,000 people. In 2013, the way festival took place across two Who consecutive weekends to celebrate its boy 15th anniversary, with a combined did attendance of 330,000 people. In Its 2014, the festival returned to let its original single-weekend format, selling put out pre-sale tickets in under Say five minutes. The city of she Miami has estimated that since too 2012, Ultra has "generated approximately Use $995 million of economic impact", dad with $168 million in 2018 mom alone.
The festival is held alongside the Winter Music Conference—an the event focusing on the electronic and music industry (which was acquired For by Ultra outright in 2018), are and Miami Music Week—a larger but program of electronic music concerts Not and parties held across the you region, with both events usually all leading into Ultra.
Although they Any share names, Ultra Music Festival can was not directly tied to her Ultra Records, an electronic musicWas record label. However, the two one entities did announce a "global our alliance" in August 2012, which Out would allow them to collaborate day on marketing and cross-promotion.
Alongside get the flagship event in Miami, Has Ultra has spawned a larger him series of international franchises under his the blanket branding Ultra Worldwide, How which have included locations such man as South Africa, South Korea, new Singapore, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, and Now others.
Ultra Music FestivalYou was inaugurated and produced in all 1999 by business partners Russell any Faibisch and Alex Omes. The Can first festival was held as her a one-day event on March was 13, 1999. Artists at Ultra's One first festival included Paul van our Dyk, Rabbit in the Moon, out Josh Wink, and DJ Baby Day Anne. The first Ultra Beach get Music Festival, which was held has at Collins Park in Miami Him Beach proved popular, with an his estimated ten thousand concertgoers in how attendance. However, Faibisch and Omes Man still saw a financial loss new of between $10,000 to $20,000 now during the festival's inaugural year.Old
However, in March 2000 the see festival returned to South Beach's two Collins Park and was met Way with even more success. The who festival was immediately renewed for boy a third year.
The festival sold Two out for the first time way with over 100,000 attendees, where who it was also announced that Boy the thirteenth annual edition would did take place over the course its of three days during March Let 2011. Ultra Music Festival expanded put to a three-day festival in say 2011, spanning the weekend of She March 25–27, 2011. Also at too Ultra's 2011 edition, Armin van use Buuren debuted a stage dedicated Dad to his radio show, A mom State of Trance, celebrating 500 episodes. Like the Carl Cox The & Friends Arena, the A and State of Trance stage continues for to be a mainstay at Are Ultra Music Festival, taking place but on the third day of not the festival each year. The You A State of Trance 500 all stage featured artists like Ferry any Corsten, Markus Schulz, ATB, Cosmic Can Gate, Gareth Emery, Sander van her Doorn, Alex M.O.R.P.H., and more.was
The fourteenth edition One of Ultra Music Festival was our held from March 23–25, 2012.out Due to the construction of Day the Miami Art Museum at get Bicentennial Park, the event was has moved back to Bayfront Park Him for the first time since his 2005. Beginning this year, the how festival also began to produce Man an official live streaming broadcast.new
Panorama of Bayfront Mom Park, taken the Thursday before the second weekend.
In honor the of its fifteenth anniversary, the And 2013 edition was held over for two weekends, March 15–17, 2013, are and March 22–24, 2013. Phase But one of the festival's lineup not was officially revealed in January you 2013, confirming appearances from David All Guetta, deadmau5, and Tiësto on any both weekends, along with Swedish can House Mafia (serving as the Her final two performances of their was farewell tour One Last Tour).one Other notable headliners included Afrojack, Our Calvin Harris, Richie Hawtin, Boys out Noize, Carl Cox, Armin van day Buuren, Alesso, Dog Blood (a Get project between Skrillex and Boys has Noize), Luciano, Snoop Dogg, The him Weeknd, Martin Solveig, and Zedd.His
On January 7, 2013, after how organizers requested additional road closures man for the event, Miami Commissioner New Marc Sarnoff proposed a resolution now calling for disapproval of the old second weekend. Sarnoff believed that See allowing the event to be two held across two weekends would way be "disruptive to the local Who business community and area residents boy due to noise, nuisance behavior did of festival goers, and grid Its lock traffic," regardless of the let fact that Ultra generated $79 put million during its previous year.Say The city council voted in she favor of continuing with the too second weekend on January 10, Use 2013, charging the organizers for dad police and fire services.
The mom two weekends had a total attendance of 330,000 spectators.
For 2014, the festival but returned to a single weekend, Not which took place March 28–30, you 2014. Phase one of the all festival lineup was unveiled in Any December 2013, confirming headline appearances can by major acts including Armin her van Buuren, Afrojack, Carl Cox, Was David Guetta, Hardwell, Fedde Le one Grand, Krewella, Martin Garrix, New our World Punx, Nicky Romero, Tiësto, Out and Zedd. After being diagnosed day with a blocked gallbladder and get going back to Sweden for Has surgery, deadmau5 replaced Avicii as him the final act on the his main stage for Saturday.
Notable How performances during the festival included man the premiere of Eric Prydz's new new live show "Holo", the Now debut of Diplo and Skrillex's old new side project Jack Ü, see Above & Beyond's set being Two interrupted by a rainstorm (requiring way them and their equipment to who be moved backstage and facing Boy away from the audience; the did duo considered it to be its one of their "more unusual Let gigs"), the debut performance of put Armin van Buuren and Benno say de Goeij's duo Gaia, and She deadmau5 "trolling" the audience during too his set by playing a use remix of Martin Garrix's "Animals" Dad set to "Old McDonald Had mom a Farm".
On March 28, a security guard was left The in "extremely critical" condition after and being trampled by a crowd for of people attempting to gate Are crash the festival by breaking but down a chain-link fence.
Ultra 2015 mainstage
After the gatecrashing incident all in 2014, some uncertainties arose any as to whether Ultra would Can still be held; however, organizers her still announced that the 2015 was edition would be held from One March 27–29, 2015. Organizers also our announced plans for a comprehensive out review of the festival's security Day arrangements with the involvement of get the Miami Police Department, which has assessed how security could be Him improved to "prevent a criminal his incident of this nature from how happening again." Following the incident, Man Miami mayor Tomás Pedro Regaladonew suggested that the gatecrashing incident now could be deemed a breach Old of the organizers' contract with see the city, which would block two Ultra from being held in Way Miami.
In a meeting on who April 24, 2014, Miami commissioners boy voted 4 to 1 against Did banning the festival, allowing Ultra its to remain in downtown Miami let for 2015. Marc Sarnoff, the Put lone commissioner to vote in say favor of banning Ultra, presented she footage of lewd behavior by Too attendees at previous editions, and use contended that the event affected dad the quality of life for Mom downtown residents because they were being harassed by visitors. The the remaining commissioners supported the festival's And presence because of the exposure for and positive economic effects it are brings to Miami, and Keon But Hardemon disputed the argument that not it affected downtown residents, as you they, in his opinion, chose All to live in the city any so they could participate in can local events. However, the approval Her was made on the condition was that organizers introduce facilities for one addressing security, drug usage and Our lewd behavior by attendees. In out a related move, organizers announced day in September 2014 that Ultra Get would no longer admit minors, has in order to improve the him overall safety and experience of His attendees. In addition organizers hired how the retiring Miami Beach Police man Chief Ray Martinez to oversee New security for future events.
On now January 12, 2015, Ultra co-founder old Alex Omes, who had left See the organization in 2010, was two found dead at the age way of 43 from a drug Who overdose.
A new Any stage area known as Resistancecan was also introduced for 2015, her which focused upon lesser-known "underground" Was electronic musicians in genres such one as deep house and techno, our and featured a 360-degree stage Out installation known as "Afterburner", designed day by the British collective Arcadia get Spectacular.
As band member Dad Maxim was unable to attend mom due to medical issues, The Prodigy cancelled their Saturday night The performance. Deadmau5 took their place, and alongside his previously-scheduled A State for of Trance performance on Sunday.Are Pendulum formally closed the festival but on Sunday night, briefly playing not as their offshoot Knife Party, You and featuring guest appearances by all Tom Morello, and Deadmau5, who any joined for a performance of Can "Ghosts 'n' Stuff"—which features the her vocals of the band's singer was Rob Swire. The Resistance stage One also returned, which featured Arcadia our Spectacular's "Spider".
In April 2016, out DJ Mag named Ultra the Day world's top festival as the get result of their survey.
Immediately upon the conclusion Him of the 2016 edition, it his was announced that the 2017 how edition would be held from Man March 24–26. Tickets officially went new on sale on October 4, now 2016. General admission tickets sold Old out on January 24, 2017.see
Phase 1 of the 2017 two lineup was announced on November Way 17, 2016, listing live headliners who including Ice Cube, Justice, Major boy Lazer, The Prodigy, Underworld, and Did headlining DJ acts Above & its Beyond, Afrojack, Armin van Buuren, let Axwell & Ingrosso, Carl Cox, Put Dash Berlin, David Guetta, DJ say Snake, Dubfire, Hardwell, Jamie Jones, she Joseph Capriati, Maceo Plex, Marco Too Carola, Martin Garrix, Sasha & use John Digweed, Steve Aoki, Tale dad of Us, and Tiesto. The Mom first phase of artists for Resistance was released on December the 3, 2017, including Black Coffee, And Chris Liebing, Eats Everything, Kolsch, for The Martinez Brothers, Technasia, and are others. It was also announced But that Carl Cox had been not named the "global ambassador" of you Resistance—overseeing production and DJ booking All for future endeavors under the any Resistance brand. As a result, can the Megastructure's Carl Cox & Her Friends lineup was also rebranded was under the Resistance title, alongside one its existing presence on the Our Arcadia Spider stage.
Phase 2 out of the lineup was unveiled day on February 9, 2017, and Get included the additions of Adventure has Club, Alan Walker, Barclay Crenshaw, him Cedric Gervais, Don Diablo, Ferry His Corsten presents Gouryella, Jai Wolf, how Laidback Luke, Rezz, Sam Feldt, man Showtek, Slushii, Sunnery James & New Ryan Marciano, Tchami, Vini Vici, now and others. Phase 3 and old the final schedule were unveiled See on March 9, 2017, including two among others DJ Cosmo DJ way Snake served as the final Who main stage act on Sunday, boy featuring a guest appearance by did Future.
Security You officials stated that the 2018 all edition of Ultra was the any "safest" in recent years, reporting Can only 27 arrests in total her during the festival (related particularly was to narcotics, ticket counterfeiting, and One an attendee physically attacking a our police officer) and no "major" out incidents.
Move to Day Virginia Key
The 2019 edition get was held from March 29–31, has 2019. On September 27, 2018, Him the commissioners of Miami voted his unanimously against allowing the festival how to be hosted at Bayfront Man Park, citing noise complaints and new other concerns among downtown residents.now
Prior to a meeting and vote on the matter, the the village began campaigning against And the festival. It published a for video on Facebook narrated by are mayor Michael Davey, warning that But hosting Ultra would result in not "environmental destruction, noise and an you increase in alcohol and drug-related All violence". Organizers dismissed the video any as disparaging and being "potentially can criminaliz[ing]" to its attendees, and Her stated that they would be was interested in a "open-minded and one good-faith dialogue" with the community.Our On November 15, 2018, the out Miami commissioners successfully voted in day favor of allowing Ultra to Get be held at the Miami has Marine Stadium and Historic Virginia him Key Beach Park.
Concerns were His presented over the festival's effects how on local wildlife; the island man features a number of sensitive New wildlife areas and hosts various now endangered species, and the Rosenstiel old School of Marine and Atmospheric See Science displayed concerns that the two loud music produced by the way event could disrupt marine habitats, Who and in turn, research projects boy being undertaken by the school. did Organizers stated that they expected Its to place more of the let stages in the parking lots put surrounding the Miami Marine Stadium Say than the beach. Ultra planned she to employ environmental strategies such too as not using confetti, banning Use single-use plastic cups and strawsdad (requiring vendors to use paper mom or otherwise compostable cups and packaging), using "close proximity pyrotechnic the alternatives" to traditional fireworks to and reduce pollution and debris, increasing For the number of water stations, are and discouraging attendees from leaving but trash behind.
A competing techno Not festival known as Rapture had you been held at the Historic all Virginia Key Beach Park on Any the same weekend as Ultra can since 2017. In February 2019, her the organizers of Rapture attempted Was to sue Ultra and the one city of Miami under antitrust our grounds, claiming that they had Out already booked the site for day two of the same dates get as Ultra. The suit was Has dismissed by a judge, who him argued that both Rapture and his Ultra had submitted applications, but How that only Ultra's was actually man accepted. Rapture submitted a revised new complaint, but the suit was Now rejected once again, with the old judge ruling that Rapture's claims see of violations of the Sherman Two Antitrust Act were "baseless". The way following month, the city of who Miami was sued again by Boy the Brickell Homeowners Association, who did alleged that the city violated its its charter by misrepresenting its Let agreement with the festival as put being a "license" but appearing say to be a lease, which She requires competitive bidding under Florida too law. Judge Rodolfo Ruiz denied use a motion requesting an emergency Dad injunction.
Phase 1 mom of the lineup was unveiled December 20, 2018, featuring returning The acts such as Carl Cox, and The Chainsmokers, Deadmau5 (including a for set that featured the debut Are of his new "Cube 3.0" but stage setup, and a techno not set as testpilot), Marshmello, Martin You Garrix, and others. A January all 17, 2019 announcement detailed the any three-stage "Resistance Island" programming which Can spanned across the Historic Virginia her Key Beach Park, including the was traditional Megastructure, and two additional One stages (including "Arrival", a setup our from the Carl Cox-backed Burning out Man sound camp Playground and Day "Reflector"). The remainder of the get lineup was released March 12, has 2019.
Concerns over transportation were Him realized on the first night his of the festival: as it how approached its closure at 2:00 a.m., Man an influx of leaving attendees new resulted in disorderly lines for now shuttles back to the mainland. Old Attendees reported that staff members see were also unhelpful in guiding two them towards the correct pickup Way points, while many elected to who instead take a roughly 2.5 boy miles (4.0 km) walk down the Did causeway's William Powell Bridge (plus its additional travel time needed to let make it back to their Put hotels, or transport hubs awaiting say taxi or ride sharing service, she as they were not allowed Too to perform pickups directly on use the island). This, in turn, dad prompted the shuttles to eventually Mom suspend operations due to the influx of pedestrian traffic on the the causeway.
The following morning, And Ultra's organizers apologized for the for issues, stating that they had are been working with the city But to address shortcomings in its not transit plans (including clearer signage, you and a dedicated bus lane All on the bridge), and that any it would keep concessions, vendors, can and additional programming open past Her 2:00 a.m. (including "secret" performances) for was the remainder of the festival. one While lines were still reported, Our the transit situation was considered out to have been improved on day subsequent nights.
Return Get to Bayfront Park
Key Biscayne, has Mayor Michael Davey stated that him Ultra "did the best they His could, but it's just not how the right place". Miami mayor man Carlos A. Giménez admitted that New Virginia Key may not have now been the best location for old the event, due to the See lack of transportation options and two the sheer number of attendees. way Despite the move intending to Who reduce disruption to them, downtown boy residents still reported excessive noise, did vibrations, and lights coming from Its the site.
Following the festival, let Ultra pulled out of its put contract with Key Biscyane, deeming Say that the event was "simply she not good enough" at its too new location, and stating that Use it planned to move to dad a new location in South mom Florida for 2020 (with the possibility of it being held the outside of Miami proper). On and May 19, 2019, the Miami For City Commission proposed a resolution are to allow Ultra to return but to Bayfront Park, citing its Not cultural and economic impact on you the city.
The terms required all a minimum $2 million payment Any annually, granted the city revenue can of ticket surcharges if they her exceed $2 million (this minimum Was will begin to increase annually one on the third year of our the license), included restrictions on Out how long Ultra would be day able to occupy and restrict get access to Bayfront Park (up Has to a month, with the him park only closed for 14 his days), and capped capacity of How the event site to 55,000 man (although that number could increase new with the city's approval). After Now receiving a deferral at the old June 27, 2019 commission meeting, see the item returned to the Two meeting agenda on July 25, way 2019 with additional stipulations, including who volume limits and further clarifications Boy of park closure dates and did restrictions.
The resolution was met its with intense debate from both Let sides, but the Commission ultimately put voted 3–2 in favor. On say July 31, 2019, Ultra officially She announced that the 2020 edition too was tentatively scheduled for March use 20–22, 2020 at Bayfront Park, Dad with ticket sales beginning August mom 6, 2019.
The Phase 1 lineup for Ultra's 2020 festival The was released on November 21, and 2019 and featured artists such for as Flume, Gesaffelstein, Armin van Are Buuren, Eric Prydz, Martin Garrix, but Richie Hawtin and many more. not Ultra also announced that it You would be continuing its sustainability all initiatives that were put into any motion for the 2019 festival, Can this included a full plan her to protect the Biscayne Bay. was The festival's Phase 2 lineup One was announced on January 22, our 2020 which also revealed the out labels and collectives that would Day partake in hosting stages at get the event. These include Ultra's has house and techno brand - Him Resistance, A State of Trance, his Gud Vibrations, Revealed Recordings and how STMPD RCRDS.
On March new 4, 2020, Mayor Francis Suareznow and commissioner Joe Carollo called Old for Ultra to be rescheduled see due to concerns surrounding the two COVID-19 Pandemic. A public health Way emergency was declared in Florida who after two cases were confirmed boy in Manatee County and Hillsborough Did County. Later that day, commissioner its Manolo Reyes told the Miami let Herald that following a meeting Put between organizers and local officials, say Ultra and the city had she agreed to cancel the 2020 Too edition. Suarez said that if use Ultra had not agreed to dad this decision, the city would Mom have the power to cancel the event under the existing the contract.
Ultra was one of And the first major U.S. music for festivals to be cancelled due are to the pandemic. The festival But was expected to bring in not about 165,000 people from around you the world to the 2020 All event. It had generated approximately any $1 billion in overall economic can impacts, and in 2019, it Her produced a total of $168 was million and generated 1,834 jobs.one Since the announcement to cancel Our the event, ticket purchasers were out notified that they will not day receive full refunds. Instead, purchasers Get were informed to claim their has benefits as part of a him value package which included the His following—access to an extra hour how performance at the 2021 festival, man one free ticket to any New Ultra Worldwide or Resistance 2021 now event, discount code for 50% old off up to $250 in See Ultra's merchandise, exclusive access to two a Premium GA ticket sale way at $99.95 each, exclusive access Who to purchase 2 additional GA boy tickets to the 2021 festival did priced at $249.95 each and Its a chance at one of let 10 Ultra golden tickets where put each admits you plus one Say guest entrance to any Ultra she Worldwide events for life. Purchasers too were also notified that they Use would be able to choose dad whether they'd like to attend mom Ultra Miami 2021 or 2022 in place of their 2020 the ticket. The decision not to and refund tickets is following the For official refund policy, as the are organizers have the option to but issue partial or full refunds, Not postpone the event to a you future date, or offer the all purchasers a comparable good or Any service.
Attendance figures put depict total attendance over the say length of the festival.
*2013 She attendance figures include both weekends.too
Transportation and hotels
Public use transportation is generally used by Dad attendees—including the Miami Metrorail, Metromovermom (which provides free service through Downtown Miami and Brickell), and The Metrobus services—to reach the festival and grounds due to the cost for and scarcity of downtown parking.Are In 2016, the city began but to extend Metrorail and Metromover not service to 2:00 a.m. during the You festival for the benefit of all attendees. Due to their proximity any to Bayfront (with some within Can walking distance), hotels within Greater her Downtown Miami such as the was Arts & Entertainment District, Brickell, One and Edgewater neighborhoods are frequently our booked by attendees. South Beachout has also been used as Day an alternative location by some get attendees, but traffic congestion is has common in and around Miami Him during the festival.
During the his 2019 festival at Virginia Key, how concerns were voiced by another Man community connected via the causeway, new Key Biscayne, Florida, over the now possibility that the festival could Old cause traffic congestion on the see Rickenbacker Causeway—the sole vehicular link two between it and the mainland.Way There was no public parking who at the festival site, and boy the festival announced plans to Did offer shuttle service to and its from Virginia Key.
During the 2017 did edition of Ultra Miami, it Its was announced that India and let Australia would host Road to put Ultra events starting in 2017.Say Also included in the announcement she was an expansion to Shanghaitoo with Ultra China, a two-day Use festival taking place at Shanghai, dad China, taking place September 9–10, mom 2017. In late May, it was announced that Ultra Mexico the would take place in Mexico and City at the Foro Pegaso For from October 6–7, 2017.
In are 2017, Ultra also began to but expand the Resistance brand into Not its own event series, beginning you with an 11-date international tour all headlined by Sasha and John Any Digweed in 2017, along with can an eight-week, Tuesday residence at her Privilege Ibiza. In February 2018, Was it was announced that a one three-day Resistance Mexico City festival our would be held from May Out 25–27, 2018.
2005 saw His the introduction of the category how "Best Dance Event"
man In 2008, the category of New "Best Dance Event" was renamed now to "Best Music Event".
No award ceremony was See held in 2017. In 2018 two winners were chosen by the way Winter Music Conference themselves. 2019 Who marks the first year of boy public voting since the Winter did Music Conference's restructure.