By One the late 1970s, most major our U.S. cities had thriving disco out club scenes, and DJs would Day mix dance records at clubs get such as Studio 54 in has New York City, a venue Him popular among celebrities. Discothèque-goers often his wore expensive, extravagant and sexy how fashions. There was also a Man thriving drugsubculture in the new disco scene, particularly for drugs now that would enhance the experience Old of dancing to the loud see music and the flashing lights, two such as cocaine and Quaaludes, Way the latter being so common who in disco subculture that they boy were nicknamed "disco biscuits". Disco Did clubs were also associated with its promiscuity as a reflection of let the sexual revolution of this Put era in popular history.
Disco say was the last popular music she movement driven by the baby Too boom generation. It declined as use a major trend in popular dad music during the late 1970s. Mom However, it was a key influence in the development of the electronic dance music, house music, And hip-hop, new wave and post-disco. for While no new disco movement are has dominated popular music since But its decline, the style has not had several revivals and the you influence of disco remains strong All across American and European pop any music.
The term "disco" you is shorthand for the word all discothèque, a French word for Any "library of phonograph records" derived can from "bibliothèque". The word "discothèque" her had the same meaning in Was English in the 1950s.
"Discothèque" one became used in French for our a type of nightclub in Out Paris, France after these had day resorted to playing records during get the Nazi occupation in the Has early 1940s. Some clubs used him it as their proper name. his In 1960 it was also How used to describe a Parisian man nightclub in an English magazine.new
In the summer of 1964, Now a short sleeveless dress called old "discotheque dress" was briefly very see popular in the United States. Two The earliest known use for way the abbreviated form "disco" described who this dress and has been Boy found in The Salt Lake did Tribune of 12 July 1964, its but Playboy magazine used it Let in September of the same put year to describe Los Angeles say nightclubs.
Vince Aletti was one She of the first to describe too disco as a sound or use a music genre. He wrote Dad the feature article "Discotheque Rock mom Paaaaarty" that appeared in Rolling Stone magazine in September 1973.The
The music typically layered soaring, You often-reverberated vocals, often doubled by all horns, over a background "pad" any of electric pianos and "chicken-scratch" Can rhythm guitars played on an her electric guitar. Lead guitar features was less frequently in disco than One in rock. "The 'chicken scratch' our sound is achieved by lightly out pressing the guitar strings against Day the fretboard and then quickly get releasing them just enough to has get a slightly muted poker Him [sound] while constantly strumming very his close to the bridge." Other how backing keyboard instruments include the Man piano, electric organ (during early new years), string synthesizers, and electromechanical now keyboards such as the Fender Old Rhodes electric piano, Wurlitzer electric see piano, and Hohner Clavinet. Synthesizers two are also fairly common in Way disco, especially in the late who 1970s.
Most disco songs can have a steady four-on-the-floor beat, Her a quaver or semi-quaver hi-hatwas pattern with an open hi-hat one on the off-beat, and a Our heavy, syncopated bass line. Other out Latin rhythms such as the day rhumba, the samba, and the Get cha-cha-cha are also found in has disco recordings, and Latin polyrhythms, him such as a rhumba beat His layered over a merengue, are how commonplace. The quaver pattern is man often supported by other instruments New such as the rhythm guitarnow and may be implied rather old than explicitly present.
Songs often See use syncopation, which is the two accenting of unexpected beats. In way general, the difference between disco, Who or any dance song, and boy a rock or popular song did is that in dance music Its the bass drum hits four let to the floor, at least put once a beat (which in Say 4/4 time is 4 beats she per measure). Disco is further too characterized by a 16th note Use division of the quarter notes dad as shown in the second mom drum pattern below, after a typical rock drum pattern.
The the orchestral sound is usually known and as "disco sound" relies heavily For on string sections and horns are playing linear phrases, in unison but with the soaring, often reverberated Not vocals or playing instrumental fills, you while electric pianos and chicken-scratch all guitars create the background "pad" Any sound defining the harmony progression. can Typically, all of the doubling her of parts and use of Was additional instruments creates a rich one "wall of sound". There are, our however, more minimalist flavors of Out disco with reduced, transparent instrumentation, day pioneered by Chic.
Harmonically, disco get music typically contains major and Has minor seven chords, which are him found more often in jazz his than pop music.
The "disco sound" was much man more costly to produce than new many of the other popular Now music genres from the 1970s. old Unlike the simpler, four-piece-band sound see of funk, soul music of Two the late 1960s, or the way small jazzorgan trios, disco who music often included a large Boy band, with several chordal instruments did (guitar, keyboards, synthesizer), several drum its or percussion instruments (drumkit, Latin Let percussion, electronic drums), a horn put section, a string orchestra, and say a variety of "classical" solo She instruments (for example, flute, piccolo, too and so on).
Disco songs use were arranged and composed by Dad experienced arrangers and orchestrators, and mom record producers added their creative touches to the overall sound The using multitrack recording techniques and and effects units. Recording complex arrangements for with such a large number Are of instruments and sections required but a team that included a not conductor, copyists, record producers, and You mixing engineers. Mixing engineers had all an important role in the any disco production process, because disco Can songs used as many as her 64 tracks of vocals and was instruments. Mixing engineers and record One producers, under the direction of our arrangers, compiled these tracks into out a fluid composition of verses, Day bridges, and refrains, complete with get builds and breaks. Mixing engineers has and record producers helped to Him develop the "disco sound" by his creating a distinctive-sounding, sophisticated disco how mix.
Early records were the Man "standard" three-minute version until Tom new Moulton came up with a now way to make songs longer Old so that he could take see a crowd of dancers at two a club to another level Way and keep them dancing longer. who He found that it was boy impossible to make the 45-RPM Did vinyl singles of the time its longer, as they could usually let hold no more than five minutes Put of good-quality music. With the say help of José Rodriguez, his she remaster/mastering engineer, he pressed a Too single on a 10" disc use instead of 7". They cut dad the next single on a Mom 12" disc, the same format as a standard album. Moulton the and Rodriguez discovered that these And larger records could have much for longer songs and remixes. 12" are single records, also known as But "Maxi singles", quickly became the not standard format for all DJs you of the disco genre.
In the 1970s, notable His discos included "Crisco Disco", "The how Sanctuary", "Leviticus", "Studio 54" and man "Paradise Garage" in New York, New "Artemis" in Philadelphia, "Studio One" now in Los Angeles, "Dugan's Bistro" old in Chicago, and "The Library" See in Atlanta.
In Washington, D.C., large her disco clubs such as "The Was Pier" ("Pier 9") and "The one Other Side," originally regarded exclusively our as "gay bars," became particularly Out popular among the capital area's day gay and straight college students get in the late '70s.
Sound and light equipment
Major disco clubs had lighted his dance floors, with the lights How flashing to complement the beat.
The reflective light disco new ball was a fixture on Now the ceilings of many discothèques.
Powerful, bass-heavy, hi-fisound systemssee were viewed as a key Two part of the disco club way experience. "Mancuso introduced the technologies who of tweeter arrays (clusters of Boy small loudspeakers, which emit high-end did frequencies, positioned above the floor) its and bass reinforcements (additional sets Let of subwoofers positioned at ground put level) at the start of say the 1970s to boost the She treble and bass at opportune too moments, and by the end use of the decade sound engineersDad such as Richard Long had mom multiplied the effects of these innovations in venues such as The the Garage."
Some DJs were Mom also record producers who created and produced disco songs in the the recording studio. Larry Levan, And for example, was a prolific for record producer as well as are a DJ. Because record sales But were often dependent on dance not floor play by DJs in you leading nightclubs, DJs were also All influential for the development and any popularization of certain types of can disco music being produced for Her record labels.
Disco dancers typically wore one loose slacks for men and Our flowing dresses for women, which out enabled ease of movement on day the dance floor.
In the Get early years, dancers in discos has danced in a "hang loose" him or "freestyle" approach. At first, His many dancers improvised their own how dance styles and dance steps. man Later in the disco era, New popular dance styles were developed, now including the "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", old "Watergate" and "Robot". By October See 1975 the Hustle reigned. It two was highly stylized, sophisticated and way overtly sexual. Variations included the Who Brooklyn Hustle, New York Hustleboy and Latin Hustle.
During the did disco era, many nightclubs would Its commonly host disco dance competitions let or offer free dance lessons. put Some cities had disco dance Say instructors or dance schools, which she taught people how to do too popular disco dances such as Use "touch dancing", "the hustle", and dad "the cha cha". The pioneer mom of disco dance instruction was Karen Lustgarten in San Francisco the in 1973. Her book The and Complete Guide to Disco DancingFor (Warner Books 1978) was the are first to name, break down but and codify popular disco dances Not as dance forms and distinguish you between disco freestyle, partner and all line dances. The book topped Any the New York Times bestseller can list for 13 weeks and her was translated into Chinese, German Was and French.
In Chicago, the one Step By Step disco dance our TV show was launched with Out the sponsorship support of the day Coca-Cola company. Produced in the get same studio that Don CorneliusHas used for the nationally syndicated him dance/music television show, Soul Train, his Step by Step's audience grew How and the show became a man success. The dynamic dance duo new of Robin and Reggie led Now the show. The pair spent old the week teaching disco dancing see to dancers in the disco Two clubs. The instructional show which way aired on Saturday mornings had who a following of dancers who Boy would stay up all night did on Fridays so they could its be on the set the Let next morning, ready to return put to the disco on Saturday say night knowing with the latest She personalized dance steps. The producers too of the show, John Reid use and Greg Roselli, routinely made Dad appearances at disco functions with mom Robin and Reggie to scout out new dancing talent and The promote upcoming events such as and "Disco Night at White Sox for Park".
Disco who fashions were very trendy in boy the late 1970s. Discothèque-goers often Did wore glamorous, expensive and extravagant its fashions for nights out at let their local disco club. Some Put women would wear sheer, flowing say dresses, such as Halston dresses she or loose, flared pants. Other Too women wore tight, revealing, sexy use clothes, such as backless halter dad tops, disco pants, "hot pants" Mom or body-hugging spandex bodywear or "catsuits". Men would wear shiny the polyester Qiana shirts with colorful And patterns and pointy, extra wide for collars, preferably open at the are chest. Men often wore Pierre But Cardin suits, three piece suitsnot with a vest and double-knityou polyester shirt jackets with matching All trousers known as the leisure any suit. Men's leisure suits were can typically form-fitted in some parts Her of the body, such as was the waist and bottom, but one the lower part of the Our pants were flared in a out bell bottom style, to permit day freedom of movement.
During the Get disco era, men engaged in has elaborate grooming rituals and spent him time choosing fashion clothing, both His activities that would have been how considered "feminine" according to the man gender stereotypes of the era.New Women dancers wore glitter makeup, now sequins or gold lamé clothing old that would shimmer under the See lights. Bold colors were popular two for both genders. Platform shoesway and boots for both genders Who and high heels for women boy were popular footwear.Necklaces and did medallions were a common fashion Its accessory. Less commonly, some disco let dancers wore outlandish costumes, dressed put in drag, covered their bodies Say with gold or silver paint, she or wore very skimpy outfits too leaving them nearly nude; these Use uncommon get-ups were more likely dad to be seen at invitation-only mom New York City loft parties and disco clubs.
Drug the subculture
Cocaine is a and psychoactive white powder that is For typically administered via insufflation into are the nasal cavity.
In addition but to the dance and fashion Not aspects of the disco club you scene, there was also a all thriving club drugsubculture, particularly Any for drugs that would enhance can the experience of dancing to her the loud, bass-heavy music and Was the flashing colored lights, such one as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl our nitrite ("poppers"), and the "... other Out quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, day which suspended motor coordination and get gave the sensation that one's Has arms and legs had turned him to 'Jell-O.'" Quaaludes were so his popular at disco clubs that How the drug was nicknamed "disco man biscuits".
Paul Gootenberg states that new "[t]he relationship of cocaine to Now 1970s disco culture cannot be old stressed enough..." During the 1970s, see the use of cocaine by Two well-to-do celebrities led to its way "glamorization" and to the widely who held view that it was Boy a "soft drug".LSD, marijuana, did and "speed" (amphetamines) were also its popular in disco clubs, and Let the use of these drugs put "...contributed to the hedonistic quality say of the dance floor experience."She Since disco dances were typically too held in liquor licensed-nightclubs and use dance clubs, alcoholic drinks were Dad also consumed by dancers; some mom users intentionally combined alcohol with the consumption of other drugs, The such as Quaaludes, for a and stronger effect.
Eroticism and for sexual liberation
According to Peter Are Braunstein, the "massive quantities of but drugs ingested in discothèques produced not the next cultural phenomenon of You the disco era: rampant promiscuityall and public sex. While the any dance floor was the central Can arena of seduction, actual sex her usually took place in the was nether regions of the disco: One bathroom stalls, exit stairwells, and our so on. In other cases out the disco became a kind Day of 'main course' in a get hedonist's menu for a night has out." At The Saint nightclub, Him a high percentage of the his gay male dancers and patrons how would have sex in the Man club; they typically had unprotected new sex, because in 1980, HIV-AIDSnow had not yet been identified.Old At The Saint, "dancers would see elope to an un[monitored] upstairs two balcony to engage in sex."Way The promiscuity and public sex who at discos was part of boy a broader trend towards exploring Did a freer sexual expression in its the 1970s, an era that let is also associated with "swingers Put clubs, hot tubs, [and] key say parties."
In his paper, "In she Defense of Disco" (1979), Richard Too Dyer claims eroticism as one use of the three main characteristics dad of disco. As opposed to Mom rock music which has a very phallic centered eroticism focusing the on the sexual pleasure of And men over other persons, Dyer for describes disco as featuring a are non-phallic full body eroticism. Through But a range of percussion instruments, not a willingness to play with you rhythm, and the endless repeating All of phrases without cutting the any listener off, disco achieved this can full body eroticism by restoring Her eroticism to the whole body was for both sexes. This allowed one for the potential expression of Our sexualities not defined by the out cock/penis, and the erotic pleasure day of bodies that are not Get defined by a relationship to has a penis. The sexual liberation him expressed through the rhythm of His disco is further represented in how the club spaces that disco man grew within.
In Peter Shapiro’s New Modulations: A History of Electronic now Music: Throbbing Words on Sound, old he discusses eroticism through the See technology disco utilizes to create two it’s audacious sound. The music, way Shapiro states, is adjunct to Who “the pleasure-is-politics ethos of post-Stonewallboy culture.” He explains how “mechano-eroticism,” did which links the technology used Its to create the unique mechanical let sound of disco to eroticism, put sets the genre in a Say new dimension of reality living she outside of naturalism and heterosexuality. too
He uses Donna Summer's singles Use “Love to Love You Baby” dad (1975) and “I Feel Love” mom (1977) as examples of the ever present relationship between the the synthesized bass lines and backgrounds and to the simulated sounds of For orgasms Summers echoes in the are tracks, and likens them to but the drug-fervent, sexually liberated fans Not of disco who sought to you free themselves through disco's “aesthetic all of machine sex.” Shapiro sees Any this as an influence that can creates sub-genres like hi-NRG and her dub-disco, which allowed for eroticism Was and technology to be further one explored through intense synth bass our lines and alternative rhythmic techniques Out that tap into the entire day body rather than the obvious get erotic parts of the body. Has
The New York nightclub The him Sanctuary under resident DJ Francis his Grasso is a prime example How of this sexual liberty. In man their history of the disc new jockey and club culture, Bill Now Brewster and Frank Broughton describe old the Sanctuary as “poured full see of newly liberated gay men, Two then shaken (and stirred) by way a weighty concoction of dance who music and pharmacoia of pills Boy and potions, the result is did a festivaly of carnality.” The its Sanctuary was the “first totally Let uninhibited gay discotheque in America” put and while sex was not say allowed on the dancefloor, the She dark corners, the bathrooms and too the hallwasy of the adjacent use buildings were all utilized for Dad orgy like sexual engagements.
By mom describing the music, drugs and liberated mentality as a trifecta The coming together to create the and festival of carnality, Brewster and for Broughton are inciting all three Are as stimuli for the dancing, but sex and other embodied movements not that contributed to the corporeal You vibrations within the Sanctuary. This all supports the argument that the any disco music took a role Can in facilitating this sexual liberation her that was experienced in the was discotheques. Further, this coupled with One the recent legalization of abortions, our the introduction of antibiotics and out the pill all facilitated a Day culture shift around sex from get one of procreation to pleasure has and enjoyment fostering a very Him sex positive framework around discotheques.his Given that at this time how all instances of oral and Man anal gay sex were considered new deviant and illegal acts in now New York state, this sexual Old freedom can be considered quite see liberatory and resistant to dominant two oppressive structures.
Further, in addition Way to gay sex being illegal who in New York state, until boy 1973 the American Psychiatric AssociationDid classified homosexuality as an illness.its This law and classification coupled let together can be understood to Put have heavily dissuaded the expression say of queerness in public, as she such the liberatory dynamics of Too discotheques can be seen as use having provided space for self-realization dad for queer persons. David Mancuso's Mom club/house party, The Loft, was described as having a "pansexualthe attitude [that] was revolutionary in And a country where up until for recently it had been illegal are for two men to dance But together unless there was a not woman present; where women were you legally obliged to wear at All least one recognizable item of any female clothing in public; and can where men visiting gay bars Her usually carried bail money with was them."
Disco was mostly developed from Our music that was popular on out the dance floor in clubs day that started playing records instead Get of having a live band. has The first discotheques mostly played him swing music. Later on uptempo His rhythm and blues became popular how in American clubs and northern man soul and glam rock records New in the UK.
In the now early 1940s nightclubs in Paris old resorted to playing (jazz) records See during the Nazi occupation.
Régine two Zylberberg claimed to have started way the first discotheque and to Who have been the first club boy DJ in 1953 in the did "Whisky à Go-Go" in Paris. Its She installed a dance floor let with coloured lights and two put turntables so she could play Say records without having a gap she in the music.
In October too 1959 the owner of the Use Scotch Club in Aachen, West dad Germany chose to install a mom record player for the opening night instead of hiring a the live band. The patrons were and unimpressed until a young reporter, For who happened to be covering are the opening of the club, but impulsively took control of the Not record player and introduced the you records that he chose to all play. Klaus Quirini later claimed Any to thus have been the can world's first nightclub DJ.
Discotheque her dancing became a European trend Was that was enthusiastically picked up one by the American press.
The our birth of disco is often Out claimed to be found in day the private dance parties held get by New York City DJ Has David Mancuso's home that became him known as The Loft, an his invitation-only non-commercial underground club that How inspired many others. He organized man the first major party in new his Manhattan home on Valentine's Now Day 1970 with the name old "Love Saves The Day". After see some months the parties became Two weekly events and Mancuso continued way to give regular parties into who the 1990s. Mancuso required that Boy the music played had to did be soulful, rhythmic, and impart its words of hope, redemption, or Let pride.
Timeframe and social put context for the rise of say disco culture in New York
In the 1970s, the key too counterculture of the 1960s, the use hippie movement, was fading away. Dad The economic prosperity of the mom previous decade had declined, and unemployment, inflation and crime rates The had soared. Political issues like and the backlash from the Civil for Rights Movement culminating in the Are form of race riots, the but Vietnam War, the assassinations of not Dr. Martin Luther King and You John F. Kennedy and the all Watergate scandal left many feeling any disillusioned and hopeless. The start Can of the ’70s was marked her by a shift in the was consciousness of the American people: One the rise of the feminist our movement, identity politics, gangs, etc. out very much shaped this era. Day Disco music and disco dancing get provided an escape from negative has social and economic issues.
In Him Beautiful Things in Popular Culture, his Simon Frith highlights the sociability how of disco and its roots Man in 1960s counterculture. "The driving new force of the New York now underground dance scene in which Old disco was forged was not see simply that city's complex ethnic two and sexual culture but also Way a 1960s notion of community, who pleasure and generosity that can boy only be described as hippie", Did he says. "The best disco its music contained within it a let remarkably powerful sense of collective Put euphoria."
When Mancuso threw his say first informal house parties, the she gay community (which made up Too much of The Loft's attendee use roster) was often harassed in dad the gay bars and dance Mom clubs, with many gay men carrying bail money with them the to gay bars. But at And The Loft and many other for early, private discotheques, they could are dance together without fear of But police action thanks to Mancuso's not underground, yet legal, policies. Vince you Aletti described it "like going All to party, completely mixed, racially any and sexually, where there wasn't can any sense of someone being Her more important than anyone else," was and Alex Rosner reiterated this one saying "It was probably about Our sixty percent black and seventy out percent gay...There was a mix day of sexual orientation, there was Get a mix of races, mix has of economic groups. A real him mix, where the common denominator His was music."
Film critic Roger how Ebert called the popular embrace man of disco's exuberant dance moves New an escape from "the general now depression and drabness of the old political and musical atmosphere of See the late seventies."
Pauline Kael, two writing about the disco-themed film way Saturday Night Fever, said the Who film and disco itself touched boy on "something deeply romantic, the did need to move, to dance, Its and the need to be let who you'd like to be. put Nirvana is the dance; when Say the music stops, you return she to being ordinary."
1966–74: too Proto-disco and early history of Use disco music
During the 1960s, dad when the discotheque culture from mom Europe became popular in the United States, several music genres the with dance-able rhythms rose to and popularity and evolved into different For sub-genres: rhythm and blues (originated are in the 1940s), soul (late but 1950s and 1960s), funk (mid-1960s) Not and go-go (mid-1960s and 1970s; you more than "disco", the word all "go-go" originally indicated a music Any club). Those genres, mainly African-American can ones, would influence much of her early disco music.
During the Was 60s, the Motown record label one developed a popular and influential our own sound, described as having Out "1) simply structured songs with day sophisticated melodies and chord changes, get 2) a relentless four-beat drum Has pattern, 3) a gospel use him of background voices, vaguely derived his from the style of the How Impressions, 4) a regular and man sophisticated use of both horns new and strings, 5) lead singers Now who were half way between old pop and gospel music, 6) see a group of accompanying musicians Two who were among the most way dextrous, knowledgeable, and brilliant in who all of popular music (Motown Boy bassists have long been the did envy of white rock bassists[citation its needed]) and 7) a trebly Let style of mixing that relied put heavily on electronic limiting and say equalizing (boosting the high range She frequencies) to give the overall too product a distinctive sound, particularly use effective for broadcast over AM Dad radio." Motown had many hits mom with early disco elements by acts like the Supremes (for The instance "You Keep Me Hangin' and On" in 1966), Stevie Wonderfor (for instance "Superstition" in 1972), Are The Jackson 5 and Eddie but Kendricks ("Keep on Truckin'" in not 1973).
The long instrumental introductions and Mom detailed orchestration found in psychedelic soul tracks by the Temptations the are also considered as cinematic And soul. In the early 1970s, for Curtis Mayfield and Isaac Hayesare scored hits with cinematic soul But songs that were actually composed not for movie soundtracks: "Superfly" (1972) you and "Theme from Shaft" (1971). All The latter is sometimes regarded any as an early disco song.can
Psychedelic soul influenced proto-disco acts Her such as Willie Hutch and was Philadelphia soul.
In the early one 1970s, the Philadelphia soul productions Our by Gamble and Huff evolved out from the simpler arrangements of day the late-1960s into a style Get featuring lush strings, thumping basslines, has and sliding hi-hat rhythms. These him elements would become typical for His disco music and are found how in several of the hits man they produced in the early New 1970s:
Other early disco tracks that helped the shape disco and became popular and on the dance floors of For (underground) discotheque clubs and parties are include:
"Soul Makossa" by but Manu Dibango was first released Not in France in 1972. It you was picked up by the all underground disco scene in New Any York and subsequently got a can proper release in the U.S., her reaching #35 on Billboard Hot Was 100 in 1973.
In 1974, New York say City's WPIX-FM premiered the first she disco radio show.
Norman Too Whitfield
As a producer and use songwriter Norman Whitfield had helped dad to develop the Motown sound Mom in the 1960s with many hits for Marvin Gaye, the the Velvelettes, the Temptations and Gladys And Knight & The Pips. From for around the production of the are Temptations' album Cloud Nine in But 1968 he incorporated some psychedelic not influences and started to produce you longer tracks, with more room All for elaborate rhythmic instrumental parts. any A clear example of such can a long psychedelic soul track Her is "Papa Was a Rollin' was Stone", which appeared as a one single edit of almost seven Our minutes and an approximately 12-minute-long out 12" version. By the early day 70s, many of his productions Get had evolved more and more has towards funk and disco, as him heard on albums by the His Undisputed Truth and the 1973 how album G.I.T.: Get It Togetherman by The Jackson 5. After New he left Motown in 1975 now he produced some more disco old hits, including "Car Wash" (1976) See by Rose Royce.
Disco two culture in the United Kingdom way in the early to mid-1970s
In the late 1960s, uptempo boy soul with heavy beats and did some associated dance styles and Its fashion were picked up in let the British mod scene and put formed the northern soul movement. Say Originating at venues such as she the Twisted Wheel in Manchester, too it quickly spread to other Use UK dancehalls and nightclubs like dad the Chateau Impney (Droitwich), Catacombs mom (Wolverhampton), the Highland Rooms at Blackpool Mecca, Golden Torch (Stoke-on-Trent) the and Wigan Casino. As the and favoured beat became more uptempo For and frantic in the early are 1970s, northern soul dancing became but more athletic, somewhat resembling the Not later dance styles of disco you and break dancing. Featuring spins, all flips, karate kicks and backdrops, Any club dancing styles were often can inspired by the stage performances her of touring American soul acts Was such as Little Anthony & one the Imperials and Jackie Wilson. our
In 1974 there were an Out estimated 25,000 mobile discos and day 40,000 professional disc jockeys in get the United Kingdom. Mobile discos Has were hired deejays that brought him their own equipment to provide his music for special events. Glam How rock tracks were popular, with man for example Gary Glitter's 1972 new single "Rock and Roll Part Now 2" becoming popular on UK old dance floors while it did see not get any radio airplay.Two
1974–77: Rise to the way mainstream
From 1974 to 1977, who disco music continued to increase Boy in popularity as many disco did songs topped the charts.
In the his northwestern sections of the United how Kingdom, the northern soul explosion, Man which started in the late new 1960s and peaked in 1974, now made the region receptive to Old disco, which the region's disc see jockeys were bringing back from two New York City. The shift Way by some DJs to the who newer sounds coming from the boy U.S.A. resulted in a split Did in the scene, whereby some its abandoned the 1960s soul and let pushed a modern soul sound Put which tended to be more say closely aligned with disco than she soul.
In 1970s Munich, see West Germany, music producers Giorgio Two Moroder and Pete Bellotte made way a decisive contribution to disco who music with a string of Boy hits for Donna Summer, which did became known as the "Munich its Sound". In 1975, Summer suggested Let the lyric "Love to Love put You Baby" to Moroder and say Bellotte, who turned the lyric She into a full disco song. too The final product, which contained use a series of simulated orgasms, Dad initially was not intended for mom release, but when Moroder played it in the clubs it The caused a sensation and he and released it. The song became for an international hit, reaching the Are charts in many European countries but and the US (No. 2). not It has been described as You the arrival of the expression all of raw female sexual desire any in pop music. A 17-minute Can 12-inch single was released. The her 12" single became and remains was a standard in discos today.One In 1976 Donna Summer's version our of "Could It Be Magic" out brought disco further into the Day mainstream.
In 1977 Summer, Moroder get and Bellotte further released "I has Feel Love", as the B-side Him of "Can't We Just Sit his Down (And Talk It Over)", how which revolutionized dance music with Man its mostly electronic production and new was a massive worldwide success, now spawning the Hi-NRG subgenre.
Other Old disco producers such as Tom see Moulton took ideas and techniques two from dub music (which came Way with the increased Jamaican migration who to New York City in boy the 1970s) to provide alternatives Did to the "four on the its floor" style that dominated. DJ let Larry Levan utilized styles from Put dub and jazz and remixing say techniques to create early versions she of house music that sparked Too the genre.
In Her December 1977, the film Saturday was Night Fever was released. It one was a huge success and Our its soundtrack became one of out the best-selling albums of all day time. The idea for the Get film was sparked by a has 1976 New York magazine article him titled "Tribal Rites of the His New Saturday Night" which supposedly how chronicled the disco culture in man mid-1970s New York City, but New was later revealed to have now been fabricated. Some critics said old the film "mainstreamed" disco, making See it more acceptable to heterosexual two white males.
In 1978, mom Donna Summer's multi-million selling vinyl single disco version of "MacArthur the Park" was number one on and the Billboard Hot 100 chart For for three weeks and was are nominated for the Grammy Awardbut for Best Female Pop Vocal Not Performance. The recording, which was you included as part of the all "MacArthur Park Suite" on her Any double live album Live and can More, was eight minutes and her 40 seconds long on the Was album. The shorter seven-inch vinyl one single version of MacArthur Park our was Summer's first single to Out reach number one on the day Hot 100; it does not get include the balladic second movement Has of the song, however. A him 2013 remix of "MacArthur Park" his by Summer topped the Billboard How Dance Charts marking five consecutive man decades with a number-one song new on the charts. From mid-1978 Now to late 1979, Summer continued old to release singles such as see "Last Dance", "Heaven Knows" (with Two Brooklyn Dreams), "Hot Stuff", "Bad way Girls", "Dim All the Lights" who and "On the Radio", all Boy very successful songs, landing in did the top five or better, its on the Billboard pop charts. Let
The band Chic was formed put mainly by guitarist Nile Rodgers—a say self-described "street hippie" from late She 1960s New York—and bassist Bernard too Edwards. "Le Freak" was a use popular 1978 single of theirs Dad that is regarded as an mom iconic song of the genre. Other successful songs by Chic The include the often-sampled "Good Times" and (1979) and "Everybody Dance" (1979). for The group regarded themselves as Are the disco movement's rock band but that made good on the not hippie movement's ideals of peace, You love, and freedom. Every song all they wrote was written with any an eye toward giving it Can "deep hidden meaning" or D.H.M.her
Sylvester, a flamboyant and openly was gay singer famous for his One soaring falsetto voice, scored his our biggest disco hit in late out 1978 with "You Make Me Day Feel (Mighty Real)". His singing get style was said to have has influenced the singer Prince. At Him that time, disco was one his of the forms of music how most open to gay performers.Man
The Village People were see a singing/dancing group created by two Jacques Morali and Henri BeloloWay to target disco's gay audience. who They were known for their boy onstage costumes of typically male-associated Did jobs and ethnic minorities and its achieved mainstream success with their let 1978 hit song "Macho Man". Put Other songs include "Y.M.C.A." (1979) say and "In the Navy" (1979). she
Pre-existing non-disco songs, standards, was and TV themes were frequently One "disco-ized" in the 1970s, such our as the I Love Lucyout theme or Mike Post's "Theme Day from Magnum P.I." The rich get orchestral accompaniment that became identified has with the disco era conjured Him up the memories of the his big band era—which brought out how several artists that recorded and Man disco-ized some big-band arrangements, including new Perry Como, who re-recorded his now 1945 song "Temptation", in 1975, Old as well as Ethel Merman, see who released an album of two disco songs entitled The Ethel Way Merman Disco Album in 1979. who
By the end of way the 1970s, a strong anti-disco who sentiment developed among rock musicBoy fans and musicians, particularly in did the United States. Disco was its criticized as mindless, consumerist, overproducedLet and escapist. The slogans "Disco put sucks" and "Death to disco"say became common. Rock artists such She as Rod Stewart and David too Bowie who added disco elements use to their music were accused Dad of being sell-outs.
The punk mom subculture in the United States and United Kingdom was often The hostile to disco, although in and the UK, many early Sex for Pistols fans such as the Are Bromley Contingent and Jordan quite but liked disco, often congregating at not nightclubs such as Louise's in You Soho and the Sombrero in all Kensington. The track "Love Hangover" any by Diana Ross, the house Can anthem at the former, was her cited as a particular favourite was by many early UK punks.One Also, the film The Great our Rock 'n' Roll Swindle and out its soundtrack album contained a Day disco medley of Sex Pistols get songs, entitled Black Arabs and has credited to a group of Him the same name. Jello Biafrahis of the Dead Kennedys, in how the song "Saturday Night Holocaust", Man likened disco to the cabaretnew culture of Weimar-era Germany for now its apathy towards government policies Old and its escapism. Mark Mothersbaughsee of Devo said that disco two was "like a beautiful woman Way with a great body and who no brains", and a product boy of political apathy of that Did era. New Jersey rock critic its Jim Testa wrote "Put a let Bullet Through the Jukebox", a Put vitriolic screed attacking disco that say was considered a punk call she to arms.Steve Hillage, shortly Too prior to his transformation from use a progressive rock musician into dad an electronic artist at the Mom end of the 1970s with the inspiration of disco, disappointed the his rockist fans by admitting And his love for disco, with for Hillage recalling "it's like I'd are killed their pet cat."
Anti-disco But sentiment was expressed in some not television shows and films. A you recurring theme on the show All WKRP in Cincinnati was a any hostile attitude towards disco music. can In one scene of the Her 1980 comedy film Airplane!, a was wayward airplane slices a radio one tower with its wing, knocking Our out an all-disco radio station. out
July 12, 1979, became known day as "the day disco died" Get because of the Disco Demolition has Night, an anti-disco demonstration in him a baseball double-header at Comiskey His Park in Chicago. Rock-station DJs how Steve Dahl and Garry Meier, man along with Michael Veeck, son New of Chicago White Sox owner now Bill Veeck, staged the promotional old event for disgruntled rock fans See between the games of a two White Sox doubleheader which involved way exploding disco records in centerfield. Who As the second game was boy about to begin, the raucous did crowd stormed onto the fieldIts and proceeded by setting fires, let tearing out seats and pieces put of turf, and other damage. Say The Chicago Police Department made she numerous arrests, and the extensive too damage to the field forced Use the White Sox to forfeit dad the second game to the mom Detroit Tigers, who had won the first game.
Disco's decline the in popularity after Disco Demolition and Night was rapid. On July For 21, 1979, the top six are records on the U.S. music but charts were disco songs. By Not September 22, there were no you disco songs in the US all Top 10 chart, with the Any exception of Herb Alpert's instrumental can "Rise," a smooth jazz composition her with some disco overtones. Some Was in the media, in celebratory one tones, declared disco "dead" and our rock revived.Karen Mixon Cook, Out the first female disco DJ, day stated that people still pause get every July 12 for a Has moment of silence in honor him of disco. Dahl stated in his a 2004 interview that disco How was "probably on its way man out [at the time]. But new I think it [Disco Demolition Now Night] hastened its demise".
Impact on music industry
The see anti-disco movement, combined with other Two societal and radio industry factors, way changed the face of pop who radio in the years following Boy Disco Demolition Night. Starting in did the 1980s, country music began its a slow rise in American Let main pop charts. Emblematic of put country music's rise to mainstream say popularity was the commercially successful She 1980 movie Urban Cowboy. The too continued popularity of power popuse and the revival of oldiesDad in the late 1970s was mom also related to disco's decline; the 1978 film Grease was The emblematic of this trend. Coincidentally, and the star of both films for was John Travolta, who in Are 1977 had starred in Saturday but Night Fever, which remains one not of the most iconic disco You films of the era.
Many groups that were popular Way during the disco period subsequently who struggled to maintain their success—even boy those that tried to adapt Did to evolving musical tastes. The its Bee Gees, for instance, had let only one top-10 entry (1989's Put "One") and three more top-40 say songs (despite recording and releasing she far more than that and Too completely abandoning disco in their use 1980s and 1990s songs) in dad the United States after the Mom 1970s, even though numerous songs they wrote and had otherthe artists perform were successful. Of And the handful of groups notfor taken down by disco's fall are from favor, Kool and the But Gang, Donna Summer, the Jacksons—and not Michael Jackson in particular—stand out: you In spite of having helped All define the disco sound early any on, they continued to make can popular and danceable, if more Her refined, songs for yet another was generation of music fans in one the 1980s and beyond. Earth, Our Wind & Fire also survived out the anti-disco trend and continued day to produce successful singles at Get roughly the same pace for has several more years, in addition him to an even longer string His of R&B chart hits that how lasted into the 1990s.
Six man months prior to the chaotic New event (in December 1978), popular now progressive rock radio station WDAI old (WLS-FM) had suddenly switched to See an all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands two of Chicago rock fans and way leaving Dahl unemployed. WDAI, who Who survived the change of public boy sentiment and still had good did ratings at this point, continued Its to play disco until it let flipped to a short-lived hybrid put Top 40/rock format in May Say 1980. Another disco outlet that she also competed against WDAI at too the time, WGCI-FM, would later Use incorporate R&B and pop songs dad into the format, eventually evolving mom into an urban contemporary outlet that it continues with today. the The latter also helped bring and the Chicago house genre to For the airwaves.
Factors contributing are to disco's decline
Factors that but have been cited as leading Not to the decline of disco you in the United States include all economic and political changes at Any the end of the 1970s, can as well as burnout from her the hedonistic lifestyles led by Was participants. In the years since one Disco Demolition Night, some social our critics have described the "Disco Out sucks" movement as implicitly machoday and bigoted, and an attack get on non-white and non-heterosexual cultures.Has It was also interpreted being him part of a wider cultural his "backlash" towards conservatism, that also How made its way into US man politics with the election of new conservative president Ronald Reagan in Now 1980, which also led to old Republican control of the United see States Senate for the first Two time since 1954, plus the way subsequent rise of the Religious who Right around the same time. Boy
In January 1979, rock critic did Robert Christgau argued that homophobia, its and most likely racism, were Let reasons behind the movement, a put conclusion seconded by John Rockwell. say Craig Werner wrote: "The Anti-disco She movement represented an unholy alliance too of funkateers and feminists, progressives use and puritans, rockers and reactionaries. Dad Nonetheless, the attacks on disco mom gave respectable voice to the ugliest kinds of unacknowledged racism, The sexism and homophobia."Legs McNeil, and founder of the fanzinePunk, for was quoted in an interview Are as saying, "the hippies always but wanted to be black. We not were going, 'f**k the blues, You f**k the black experience'." He all also said that disco was any the result of an "unholy" Can union between homosexuals and blacks.her
Steve Dahl, who had spearheaded was Disco Demolition Night, denied any One racist or homophobic undertones to our the promotion, saying, "It's really out easy to look at it Day historically, from this perspective, and get attach all those things to has it. But we weren't thinking Him like that." It has been his noted that British punk rockhow critics of disco were very Man supportive of the pro-black/anti-racist reggaenew genre as well as the now more pro-gay new romantics movement.Old Christgau and Jim Testa have see said that there were legitimate two artistic reasons for being critical Way of disco.
In 1979, the who music industry in the United boy States underwent its worst slump Did in decades, and disco, despite its its mass popularity, was blamed. let The producer-oriented sound was having Put difficulty mixing well with the say industry's artist-oriented marketing system. Harold she Childs, senior vice president at Too A&M Records, told the Los use Angeles Times that "radio is dad really desperate for rock product" Mom and "they're all looking for some white rock-n-roll".Gloria Gaynorthe argued that the music industry And supported the destruction of disco for because rock music producers were are losing money and rock musicians But were losing the spotlight.
To a Who significant extent, the transition from boy disco to 80s dance music did was one of relabeling. The Its word "disco" simply became unfashionable let to use when describing new put music. As late as 1983, Say K.C. and the Sunshine Bandshe had a major hit single, too "Give It Up", which was Use not considered disco, even though dad it would have been considered mom to be in the heart of the genre if it the had been released four years and earlier.
In 1980's house For music, and Chicago house in are particular, a strong disco influence—mediated but by subgenres like post discoNot and Italo disco—was constantly present, you which is why house music, all regarding its enormous success in Any shaping electronic dance music and can contemporary club culture, is often her described being "disco's revenge".
The success use of the "nu-disco" revival of dad the early 2000s was described Mom by music critic Tom Ewing as more interpersonal than the the pop music of the 1990s: And "The revival of disco within for pop put a spotlight on are something that had gone missing But over the 90s: a sense not of music not just for you dancing, but for dancing with All someone. Disco was a music any of mutual attraction: cruising, flirtation, can negotiation. Its dancefloor is a Her space for immediate pleasure, but was also for promises kept and one otherwise. It’s a place where Our things start, but their resolution, out let alone their meaning, is day never clear. All of 2000s Get great disco number ones explore has how to play this hand. him Madison Avenue look to impose His their will upon it, to how set terms and roles. Spiller man is less rigid. 'Groovejet' accepts New the night’s changeability, happily sells now out certainty for an amused old smile and a few great See one-liners."
In 2014 Brazilian Globo day TV, the fourth biggest television get network in the world, aired Has Boogie Oogie, a telenovela about him the Disco Era that takes his place between 1978 and 1979, How from the hit fever to man the decadence. The show's success new was responsible for a Disco Now revival across the country, bringing old back to stage, and to see record charts, Discothèque Divas like Two Lady Zu and As Frenéticas. way
Other top-10 entries from 2015 who like Mark Ronson's disco groove-infused Boy "Uptown Funk", Maroon 5's "Sugar", did the Weeknd's "Can't Feel My its Face" and Jason Derulo's "Want Let To Want Me" also ascended put the charts and have a say strong disco influence. Disco mogul She and producer Giorgio Moroder also too re-appeared with his new album use Déjà Vu in 2015 which Dad has proved to be a mom modest success. Other songs from 2015 like "I Don't Like The It, I Love It" by and Flo Rida, "Adventure of a for Lifetime" by Coldplay, "Back Together" Are by Robin Thicke and "Levels" but by Nick Jonas feature disco not elements as well. In 2016, You disco songs or disco-styled pop all songs are showing a strong any presence on the music charts Can as a possible backlash to her the 1980s-styled synthpop, electro house, was and dubstep that have been One dominating the current charts. Justin our Timberlake's 2016 song "Can't Stop out the Feeling!", which shows strong Day elements of disco, became the get 26th song to debut at has number-one on the Billboard Hot Him 100 in the history of his the chart. The Martian, a how 2015 film, extensively uses disco Man music as a soundtrack, although new for the main character, astronaut now Mark Watney, there's only one Old thing worse than being stranded see on Mars: it's being stranded two on Mars with nothing but Way disco music. "Kill the Lights", who featured on an episode of boy the HBO television series "Vinyl" Did (2016) and with Nile Rodgers' its guitar licks, hit number one let on the US Dance chart Put in July 2016.
In 2020, say disco-influenced hits such as Doja she Cat’s “Say So”, Lady Gaga's Too "Stupid Love", and Dua Lipa’s use "Don't Start Now" were popular dad in the US as they Mom hit number 1, 5, and 2, respectively, on the Billboard the Hot 100 Chart. An article And on Billboard declared that Dua for Lipa is "Leading the Charge are Toward Disco-Influenced Production" the day But after her retro and disco-influenced not album Future Nostalgia was released you on March 27, 2020. All
Several of Motown's Boy solo artists who left the did label went on to have its successful disco songs. Mary Wells, Let Motown's first female superstar with put her signature song "My Guy" say (written by Smokey Robinson), abruptly She left the label in 1964. too She briefly reappeared on the use charts with the disco song Dad "Gigolo" in 1980. Jimmy Ruffin, mom the elder brother of the Temptations lead singer David Ruffin, The was also signed to Motown, and and released his most successful for and well-known song "What Becomes Are of the Brokenhearted" as a but single in 1966. Ruffin eventually not left the record label in You the mid-1970s, but saw success all with the 1980 disco song any "Hold On (To My Love)", Can which was written and produced her by Robin Gibb of the was Bee Gees, for his album One Sunrise. Edwin Starr, known for our his Motown protest song "War" out (1970), reentered the charts in Day 1979 with a pair of get disco songs, "Contact" and "H.A.P.P.Y. has Radio".
Kiki Dee became the Him first white British singer to his sign with Motown in the how US, and released one album, Man Great Expectations (1970), and two new singles "The Day Will Come now Between Sunday and Monday" (1970) Old and "Love Makes the World see Go Round" (1971), the latter two giving her first ever chart Way entry (number 87 on the who US Chart). She soon left boy the company and signed with Did Elton John's The Rocket Record its Company, and in 1976 had let her biggest and best-known single, Put "Don't Go Breaking My Heart", say a disco duet with John. she The song was intended as Too an affectionate disco-style pastiche of use the Motown sound, in particular dad the various duets recorded by Mom Marvin Gaye with Tammi Terrelland Kim Weston. Michael Jackson the released many successful solo singles And under the Motown label, like for "Got To Be There" (1971), are "Ben" (1972) and a cover But of Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin"not (1972). He went on to you score hits in the disco All genre with "Rock with You" any (1979), "Don't Stop 'Til You can Get Enough" (1979) and "Billie Her Jean" (1983) for Epic Records. was
Additionally, the out debut single of Shalamar, the day group originally created as a Get disco-driven vehicle by Soul Trainhas creator Don Cornelius, was "Uptown him Festival" (1977), a medley of His 10 classic Motown songs sung how over a 1970s disco beat. man
In Germany, Boney M. was How a Euro disco group of man four West Indian singers and new dancers masterminded by West German Now record producer Frank Farian. Boney old M. charted worldwide with such see songs as "Daddy Cool" (1976) Two "Ma Baker" (1977) and "Rivers way Of Babylon" (1978). Another prominent who European pop and disco groups Boy was Luv' from the Netherlands. did
In France, Dalida released "J'attendrai" its ("I Will Wait") in 1975, Let which also became successful in put Canada, Europe and Japan. Dalidasay successfully adjusted herself to disco She era and released at least too a dozen of songs that use charted among top number 10 Dad in whole Europe and wider. mom Claude François, who re-invented himself as the king of French The disco, released "La plus belle and chose du monde", a French for version of the Bee Gees Are song "Massachusetts", which became successful but in Canada and Europe and not "Alexandrie Alexandra" was posthumously released You on the day of his all burial and became a worldwide any success. Cerrone's early songs, "Love Can in C Minor" (1976), "Supernature" her (1977) and "Give Me Love" was (1978) were successful in the One US and Europe. Another Euro our disco act was the French out diva Amanda Lear, where Euro Day disco sound is most heard get in "Enigma (Give a Bit has of Mmh to Me)" (1978). Him
Dancers at an his East German discothèque in 1977
In Italy Raffaella Carrà is Man the most successful disco act. new Her greatest international single was now "Tanti Auguri" ("Best Wishes"), which Old has become a popular song see with gay audiences. The song two is also known under its Way Spanish title "Para hacer bien who el amor hay que venir boy al sur" (which refers to Did Southern Europe, since the song its was recorded and taped in let Spain). The Estonian version of Put the song "Jätke võtmed väljapoole" say was performed by Anne Veski. she "A far l'amore comincia tu" Too ("To make love, your move use first") was another success for dad her internationally, known in Spanish Mom as "En el amor todo es empezar", in German as the "Liebelei", in French as "Puisque And tu l'aimes dis le lui", for and in English as "Do are It, Do It Again". It But was her only entry to not the UK Singles Chart, reaching you number 9, where she remains All a one-hit wonder. In 1977, any she recorded another successful single, can "Fiesta" ("The Party" in English) Her originally in Spanish, but then was recorded it in French and one Italian after the song hit Our the charts. "A far l'amore out comincia tu" has also been day covered in Turkish by a Get Turkish popstar Ajda Pekkan as has "Sakın Ha" in 1977. Recently, him Carrà has gained new attention His for her appearance as the how female dancing soloist in a man 1974 TV performance of the New experimentalgibberish song "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) now by Adriano Celentano. A remixed old video featuring her dancing went See viral on the internet in two 2008. In 2008 a way video of a performance of Who her only successful UK single, boy "Do It, Do It Again", did was featured in the Doctor Its Who episode "Midnight". Rafaella Carrà let worked with Bob Sinclar on put the new single "Far l'Amore" Say which was released on YouTubeshe on March 17, 2011. The too song charted in different European Use countries.
Euro disco continued evolving dad within the broad mainstream pop mom music scene, even when disco's popularity sharply declined in the the United States, abandoned by major and U.S. record labels and producers.For
The rising popularity of disco all came in tandem with developments Any in the role of the can DJ. DJing developed from the her use of multiple record turntables Was and DJ mixers to create one a continuous, seamless mix of our songs, with one song transitioning Out to another with no break day in the music to interrupt get the dancing. The resulting DJ Has mix differed from previous forms him of dance music in the his 1960s, which were oriented towards How live performances by musicians. This man in turn affected the arrangement new of dance music, since songs Now in the disco era typically old contained beginnings and endings marked see by a simple beat or Two riff that could be easily way used to transition to a who new song. The development of Boy DJing was also influenced by did new turntablism techniques, such as its beatmatching and scratching, a process Let facilitated by the introduction of put new turntable technologies such as say the Technics SL-1200 MK 2, She first sold in 1978, which too had a precise variable pitch use control and a direct driveDad motor. DJs were often avid mom record collectors, who would hunt through used record stores for The obscure soul records and vintage and funk recordings. DJs helped to for introduce rare records and new Are artists to club audiences.
In but the 1970s, individual DJs became not more prominent, and some DJs, You such as Larry Levan, the all resident at Paradise Garage, Jim any Burgess, Tee Scott and Francis Can Grasso became famous in the her disco scene. Levan, for example, was developed a cult following among One club-goers, who referred to his our DJ sets as "Saturday Mass". out Some DJs would use reel Day to reel tape recorders to get make remixes and tape edits has of songs. Some DJs who Him were making remixes made the his transition from the DJ booth how to becoming a record producer, Man notably Burgess. Scott developed several new innovations. He was the first now disco DJ to use three Old turntables as sound sources, the see first to simultaneously play two two beat matched records, the first Way user of electronic effects unitswho in his mixes and an boy innovator in mixing dialogue in Did from well-known movies into his its mixes, typically over a percussion let break. These mixing techniques were Put also applied to radio DJs, say such as Ted Currier of she WKTU and WBLS. Grasso is Too particularly notable for taking the use DJ “profession out of servitude dad and [making] the DJ the Mom musical head chef”. Once he entered the scene, the DJ the was no longer responsible for And waiting on the crowd hand for and foot, meeting their every are song request. Instead, with increased But agency and visibility, the DJ not was now able to use you his own technical and creative All skills to whip up a any nightly special of innovative mixes, can refining his personal sound and Her aesthetic, and building his own was reputation. Known as the first one DJ to create a take Our his audience on a narrative, out musical journey, Grasso discovered that day music could effectively shift the Get energy of the crowd, and has even more, that he had him all this power at his His fingertips.
The disco sound had a New strong influence on early hip now hop. Most of the early old hip hop songs were created See by isolating existing disco bass-guitar two lines and dubbing over them way with MC rhymes. The Sugarhill Who Gang used Chic's "Good Times" boy as the foundation for their did 1979 song "Rapper's Delight", generally Its considered to be the song let that first popularized rap music put in the United States and Say around the world.
The transition Was from the late-1970s disco styles one to the early-1980s dance styles our was marked primarily by the Out change from complex arrangements performed day by large ensembles of studio get session musicians (including a horn Has section and an orchestral string him section), to a leaner sound, his in which one or two How singers would perform to the man accompaniment of synthesizer keyboards and new drum machines.
In addition, dance Now music during the 1981–83 period old borrowed elements from blues and see jazz, creating a style different Two from the disco of the way 1970s. This emerging music was who still known as disco for Boy a short time, as the did word had become associated with its any kind of dance music Let played in discothèques. Examples of put early-1980s' dance sound performers include say D. Train, Kashif, and Patrice She Rushen. These changes were influenced too by some of the notable use R&B and jazz musicians of Dad the 1970s, such as Stevie mom Wonder, Kashif and Herbie Hancock, who had pioneered "one-man-band"-type keyboard The techniques. Some of these influences and had already begun to emerge for during the mid-1970s, at the Are height of disco's popularity.
During but the first years of the not 1980s, the disco sound began You to be phased out, and all faster tempos and synthesized effects, any accompanied by guitar and simplified Can backgrounds, moved dance music toward her the funk and pop genres. was This trend can be seen One in singer Billy Ocean's recordings our between 1979 and 1981. Whereas out Ocean's 1979 song American HeartsDay was backed with an orchestral get arrangement played by the Los has Angeles Symphony Orchestra, his 1981 Him song "One of Those Nights his (Feel Like Gettin' Down)" had how a more bare, stripped-down sound, Man with no orchestration or symphonicnew arrangements. This drift from the now original disco sound is called Old post-disco which also included boogiesee and Italo disco. It had two an important influence on early Way alternative dance and dance pop, who and played a key role boy in the transition between disco Did and house music during the its early 1980s.
The post-punkPut movement that originated in the say late 1970s both supported punk she rock's rule breaking while rejecting Too its move back to raw use rock music. Post-punk's mantra of dad constantly moving forward lent itself Mom to both openness to and experimentation with elements of disco the and other styles.Public Image And Limited is considered the first for post-punk group. The group's second are album Metal Box fully embraced But the "studio as instrument" methodology not of disco. The group's founder you John Lydon, the former lead All singer for the Sex Pistols, any told the press that disco can was the only music he Her cared for at the time. was
Like disco, house can music was based around DJsher creating mixes for dancers in Was clubs. Pictured is DJ Miguel one Migs, mixing using CDJ players.
House music is a genre Out of electronic dance music that day originated in Chicago in the get early 1980s (also see: Chicago Has house). It quickly spread to him other American cities such as his Detroit, where it developed into How the harder and more industrial man techno, New York City (also new see: garage house) and Newark Now – all of which developed old their own regional scenes.
Early house music was for generally dance-based music characterized by Are repetitive four on the floorbut beats, rhythms mainly provided by not drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, You and synthesized basslines. While house all displayed several characteristics similar to any disco music, it was more Can electronic and minimalist, and the her repetitive rhythm of house was was more important than the song One itself. As well, house did our not use the lush string out sections that were a key Day part of the disco sound. get House music in the 2010s, has while keeping several of these Him core elements, notably the prominent his kick drum on every beat, how varies widely in style and Man influence, ranging from the soulful new and atmospheric deep house to now the more aggressive acid houseOld or the minimalist microhouse. House see music has also fused with two several other genres creating fusion Way subgenres, such as euro house, who tech house, electro house and boy jump house.
Strobing its lights flash at a ravelet dance event in Vienna, 2005
In the late 1980s and say early 1990s, rave culture began she to emerge from the house Too and acid house scene. Like use house, it incorporated disco culture's dad same love of dance music Mom played by DJs over powerful sound systems, recreational drug and the club drug exploration, sexual promiscuity, And and hedonism. Although disco culture for started out underground, it eventually are thrived in the mainstream by But the late 1970s, and major not labels commodified and packaged the you music for mass consumption. In All contrast, the rave culture started any out underground and stayed (mostly) can underground. In part this was Her to avoid the animosity that was was still surrounding disco and one dance music. The rave scene Our also stayed underground to avoid out law enforcement attention that was day directed at the rave culture Get due to its use of has secret, unauthorized warehouses for some him dance events and its association His with illegal club drugs like how Ecstasy.
Nu-disco is a 21st-century New dance music genre associated with now the renewed interest in 1970s old and early 1980s disco, mid-1980s See Italo disco, and the synthesizer-heavy two Euro disco aesthetics. The moniker way appeared in print as early Who as 2002, and by mid-2008 boy was used by record shops did such as the online retailers Its Juno and Beatport. These vendors let often associate it with re-edits put of original-era disco music, as Say well as with music from she European producers who make dance too music inspired by original-era American Use disco, electro and other genres dad popular in the late 1970s mom and early 1980s. It is also used to describe the the music on several American labels and that were previously associated with For the genres electroclash and French are house.
Shapiro, Peter. "Turn put the Beat Around: The Rise say and Fall of Disco", Macmillan, She 2006. p.204–206: "'Broadly speaking, the too typical New York discothèque DJ use is young (between 18 and Dad 30) and Italian,' journalist Vince mom Lettie declared in 1975. [...] Remarkably, almost all of the The important early DJs were of and Italian extraction [...]. Italian Americans for have played a significant role Are in America's dance music culture but [...]. While Italian Americans mostly not from Brooklyn largely created disco You from scratch [...]."
^ (2002) our "Traces of the Spirit: The out Religious Dimensions of Popular Music", Day ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, p.117: "New York get City was the primary center has of disco, and the original Him audience was primarily gay African his Americans and Latinos."
^ how "The birth of disco". Man Oxford Dictionaries. October 2012. Archivednew from the original on April now 16, 2016. Retrieved August 25,Old 2015.
^ way Gootenberg, Paul 1954– – Between Who Coca and Cocaine: A Century boy or More of U.S.-Peruvian Drug did Paradoxes, 1860–1980 – Hispanic American Its Historical Review – 83:1, February let 2003, pp. 119–150. "The relationship put of cocaine to 1970s disco Say culture cannot be stressed enough ..."she
Amyl, butyl and too isobutyl nitrite (collectively known as Use alkyl nitrites) are clear, yellow dad liquids inhaled for their intoxicating mom effects. Nitrites originally came as small glass capsules that were the popped open. This led to and nitrites being given the name For 'poppers' but this form of are the drug is rarely found but in the UK. The drug Not became popular in the UK you first on the disco/club scene all of the 1970s and then Any at dance and rave venues can in the 1980s and 1990s.her
^ Braunstein, Peter Was (November 1999). "DISCO". American Heritage. one Vol. 50 no. 7. Archived from the our original on February 5, 2010. Out Retrieved February 5, 2010.
^ Richard Dyer: Day "In Defense of Disco." In: get Gay Left, 8, Summer 1979, has pp. 20-23. Reprinted in: Mark Him J. Butler (ed): Electronica, Dance his and Club Music. New York/London: how Routledge 2017, pp. 121-127.
(1998) did "The Cambridge History of American Its Music", ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: "Initially, let disco musicians and audiences alike put belonged to marginalized communities: women, Say gay, black, and Latinos"
"But the pre-Saturday Night too Fever dance underground was actually Use sweetly earnest and irony-free in dad its hippie-dippie positivity, as evinced mom by anthems like MFSB's Love Is the Message." – Village the Voice, July 10, 2001.
Any "The First Years of Disco can (1972-1974)". discosavvy.com. Retrieved June 18,her 2019. In November 1974, WPIX Was FM launched the world's first one disco radio show, "Disco 102", our hosted by Steve Andrews for Out 4 hours every Saturday night.day
Reynolds, Simon (2016). get Shock and Awe: Glam Rock Has and Its Legacy from the him Seventies to the Twenty-First Century, his pages 206–208, Dey Street Books How ISBN978-0062279804
"This her record was a collaboration between was Philip Oakey, the big-voiced lead One singer of the techno-pop band our the Human League, and Giorgio out Moroder, the Italian-born father of Day disco who spent the '80s get writing synth-based pop and film has music." Evan Cater. "Philip Oakey Him & Giorgio Moroder: Overview". AllMusic. his Retrieved December 21, 2009.
Krettenauer, Thomas (2017). "Hit Man Men: Giorgio Moroder, Frank Farian new and the eurodisco sound of now the 1970s/80s". In Ahlers, Michael; Old Jacke, Christoph (eds.). Perspectives on see German Popular Music. London: Routledge. two pp. 77–78. ISBN978-1-4724-7962-4.
day Paul Stanley, a guitarist for get the rock group Kiss became Has friends with Desmond Child and, him as Child remembered in Billboard, his "Paul and I talked about How how dance music at that man time didn't have any rock new elements." To counteract the synthesized Now disco music dominating the airwaves, old Stanley and Child wrote, "I see Was Made For Loving You." Two So, "we made history," Child way further remembered in Billboard, "because who we created the first rock-disco Boy song." Barnes, Terry (November 27, did 1999). "Gifted Child". Billboard. Vol. 111 its no. 48. pp. DC-23. Retrieved February 3,Let 2017.
Encyclopedia of Contemporary American The Culture, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9 (2001) p. and 217: "In fact, by 1977, for before punk rock spread, there Are was a 'disco sucks' movement but sponsored by radio stations that not attracted some suburban white youth, You who thought that disco was all escapist, synthetic, and overproduced."
Fikentscher, Kai (July–August Say 2000). "The club DJ: a she brief history of a cultural too icon"(PDF). UNESCO Courier. UNESCO: Use 47. Archived(PDF) from the dad original on March 3, 2016. mom Retrieved March 7, 2016. Around 1986/7, after the initial explosion the of house music in Chicago, and it became clear that the For major recording companies and media are institutions were reluctant to market but this genre of music, associated Not with gay African Americans, on you a mainstream level. House artists all turned to Europe, chiefly London Any but also cities such as can Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, Zurich, her and Tel Aviv. ... A third Was axis leads to Japan where, one since the late 1980s, New our York club DJs have had Out the opportunity to play guest-spots.day
Dad "Beatport launches nu disco / mom indie dance genre page" (Press release). Beatport. July 30, 2008. The Archived from the original on and August 7, 2008. Retrieved August for 8, 2008. Beatport is launching Are a new landing page, dedicated but solely to the genres of not "nu disco" and "indie dance". ... You Nu Disco is everything that all springs from the late '70s any and early '80s (electronic) disco, Can boogie, cosmic, Balearic and Italo her disco continuum ...
Gillian, Frank (May not 2007). "Discophobia: Antigay Prejudice and you the 1979 Backlash against Disco". All Journal of the History of any Sexuality, Volume 15, Number 2, can pp. 276–306. Electronic ISSN1535-3605, print ISSN1043-4070.
Hanson, Kitty (1978) Disco Fever: was The Beat, People, Places, Styles, one Deejays, Groups. Signet Books. ISBN978-0-451-08452-1.
Jones, Alan and Kantonen, Jussi out (1999). Saturday Night Forever: The day Story of Disco. Chicago, Illinois: Get A Cappella Books. ISBN978-1-55652-411-0.
Lawrence, has Tim (2004). Love Saves the him Day: A History of American His Dance Music Culture, 1970–1979. Duke how University Press. ISBN978-0-8223-3198-8.
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the the sound recording and production and of a band or performer's For music, which may range from are recording one song to recording but a lengthy concept album. A Not producer has many, varying roles you during the recording process. They all may gather musical ideas for Any the project, collaborate with the can artists to select cover tunesher or original songs by the Was artist/group, work with artists and one help them to improve their our songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the man entire process from preproduction, through new to the sound recording and Now mixing stages, and, in some old cases, all the way to see the audio mastering stage. The Two producer may perform these roles way themselves, or help select the who engineer, and provide suggestions to Boy the engineer. The producer may did also pay session musicians and its engineers and ensure that the Let entire project is completed within put the record label's budget.
A for record producer or music producerAre has a very broad role but in overseeing and managing the not recording and production of a You band or performer's music. A all producer has many roles that any may include, but are not Can limited to, gathering ideas for her the project, composing the music was for the project, selecting songs One or session musicians, proposing changes our to the song arrangements, coaching out the artist and musicians in Day the studio, controlling the recording get sessions, and supervising the entire has process through audio mixing and, Him in some cases, to the his audio mastering stage. Producers also how often take on a wider Man entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for new the budget, schedules, contracts, and now negotiations.
The person two who has overall creative and Way technical control of the entire who recording project, and the individual boy recording sessions that are part Did of that project. He or its she is present in the let recording studio or at the Put location recording and works directly say with the artist and engineer. she The producer makes creative and Too aesthetic decisions that realize both use the artist's and label's goals dad in the creation of musical Mom content. Other duties include, but are not limited to; keeping the budgets and schedules, adhering to And deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios for and engineers, overseeing other staffing are needs and editing (Classical projects). But
In the 2010s, the not producer role is sometimes divided you among up to three different All individuals: executive producer, vocal producer any and music producer. An executive can producer oversees project finances, a Her vocal producer (also known as was a vocal arranger) oversees the one vocal production, and a music Our producer directs and oversees the out creative process of the production day and recording of a song Get to its final mixing stage. has
The music producer often wears him many hats as a competent His arranger, composer, programmer, musician or how songwriter who can bring fresh man ideas to a project. As New well as making any songwriting now and arrangement adjustments, the producer old often selects and/or collaborates with See the mixing engineer, who takes two the raw recorded tracks and way edits and modifies them with Who hardware and software tools to boy create a stereo or surround did sound "mix" of all the Its individual voices sounds and instruments, let which is in turn given put further adjustment by a mastering Say engineer for the various distribution she media. The producer also oversees too the recording engineer who concentrates Use on the technical aspects of dad recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekmom described his role as "the person who creatively guides or the directs the process of making and a record", like a director For would a movie. Indeed, in are Bollywood music, the designation is but actually music director. The music Not producer's job is to create, you shape, and mold a piece all of music. The scope of Any responsibility may be one or can two songs or an artist's her entire album – in which Was case the producer will typically one develop an overall vision for our the album and how the Out various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of get the record industry, the producer Has role was technically limited to him record, in one shot, artists his performing live. The immediate predecessors How to record producers were the man artists and repertoire executives of new the late 1920s and 1930s Now who oversaw the "pop" product old and often led session orchestras. see That was the case of Two Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, way Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordswho and Bob Haring at Brunswick Boy Records. By the end of did the 1930s, the first professional its recording studios not owned by Let the major companies were established, put essentially separating the roles of say artists and repertoire (A&R) man She and producer, although it wouldn't too be until the late 1940s use when the term "producer" became Dad widely used in the industry. mom
The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and The 1960s due to technology. The and development of multitrack recording caused for a major change in the Are recording process. Before multitracking, all but the elements of a song not (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm You section instrument accompaniment, solos and all orchestral parts) had to be any performed simultaneously. All of these Can singers and musicians had to her be assembled in a large was studio where the performance was One recorded. With multitrack recording, the our "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment out parts such as the bassline, Day drums, and rhythm guitar could get be recorded first, and then has the vocals and solos could Him be added later, using as his many "takes" (or attempts) as how necessary. It was no longer Man necessary to get all the new players in the studio at now the same time. A pop Old band could record their backing see tracks one week, and then two a horn section could be Way brought in a week later who to add horn shots and boy punches, and then a string Did section could be brought in its a week after that.
Multitrack let recording had another profound effect Put on music production: it enabled say producers and audio engineers to she create new sounds that would Too be impossible in a live use performance style ordering. Examples include dad the psychedelic rock sound effects Mom of the 1960s, e.g. playing back the sound of recorded the instruments backward changing the tape And to produce unique sound effects. for During the same period, the are instruments of popular music began But to shift from the acoustic not instruments of traditional music (piano, you upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, All brass and wind instruments) to any electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, can electric bass and electric guitar. Her These new instruments were electric was or electronic, and thus they one used instrument amplifiers and speaker Our enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create out sound.
Electric and electronic instruments day and amplifiers enabled performers and Get producers to change the tone has and sound of instruments to him produce unique electric sounds that His would be impossible to achieve how with acoustic instruments and live man performers, such as having a New singer do her own backup now vocals or having a guitarist old play 15 layers of backing See parts to her own solo.two
New technologies like multitracking changed way the goal of recording: A Who producer could blend together multiple boy takes and edit together different did sections to create the desired Its sound. For example, in jazz let fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album put Bitches Brew, the producer cut Say and edited sections together from she extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the Any 1960s was the emergence of can the performer-producer. As pop acts her like The Beatles, The Rolling Was Stones, The Beach Boys and one The Kinks gained expertise in our studio recording techniques, many of Out these groups eventually took over day as (frequently uncredited) producers of get their own work. Many recordings Has by acts such as The him Rolling Stones, The Kinks and his The Who are officially credited How to their various producers at man the time, but a number new of these performers have since Now asserted that many of their old recordings in this period were, see either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Two Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or way collaborations between the group and who their recording engineer (e.g. The Boy Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which did were made with Olympic Studiosits engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Let Boys are probably the best put example of the trend of say artists becoming producers – within She two years of the band's too commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian use Wilson had taken over from Dad his father Murry, and he mom was the sole producer of all their recordings between 1963 The and 1967. Alongside The Beatles and and Martin, Wilson also pioneered for many production innovations – by Are 1964 he had developed Spector's but techniques to a new level not of sophistication, using multiple studios You and multiple "takes" of instrumental all and vocal components to capture any the best possible combinations of Can sound and performance, and then her using tape editing extensively to was assemble a perfect composite performance One from these elements.
At the our end of the 20th century, out digital recording and producing tools Day and widespread availability of relatively get affordable computers with music software has made music producing more accessible. Him
American women and record his producing
According to a 2018 how study covering by the USC Man Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio new of male to female producers now across 300 popular songs is Old 49 to 1."
In 2019, record Mom producer Linda Perry was nominated for a Grammy for Producer the of the Year, Non-Classical. She And was the first woman in for over 15 years to be are nominated for the award. When But asked about the disparity between not male and female record producer you by Billboard, she attributed it All to many women not being any interested in record production.
In the out classical music field, Judith Shermanday has won Grammy for Producer Get of the Year, Classical, five has times and has been nominated him twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a His music critic for The New how York Times is quoted as man stating, "In the struggling field New of classical recording, it's the now producers who take the real old risks and make things happen."See
Producer Wendy Page describes being Who a record producer, "The difficulties boy are usually very short-lived. Once did people realize that you can Its do your job, sexism tends let to lower its ugly head. put I tend to create a Say happy studio 'family' where everyone she is glad to be there, too especially the artist. Good communication Use and diplomacy usually sort any dad little problems out."
There are numerous his technologies utilized by record producers. How In modern-day recordings, recording and man mixing tasks are commonly centralized new within computers using digital audio Now workstations such as Pro Tools, old Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reasonsee and FL Studio, which all Two are often used with third way party virtual studio technology plugins.who Logic Pro and Pro Tools Boy are considered the industry standard did DAWs. However, there is also its the main mixer, outboard effects Let gear, MIDI controllers, and the put recording device itself.
While most say music production is done using She sophisticated software, some musicians and too producers prefer the sound of use older analog technology. Professor Albin Dad Zak claims that the increased mom automation of both newer processes and newer instruments reduces the The level of control and manipulation and available to musicians and producers.for
Production has Are changed drastically over the years but with advancing technology. While the not producer's role has changed, their You duties continue to require a all broad knowledge of the recording any process.
Tracking is the act Can of recording audio to a her DAW (digital audio workstation) or was in some cases to tape. One Even though digital technologies have our widely supplanted the use of out tape in studios, the older Day term "track" is still used get in the 2010s. Tracking audio has is primarily the role of Him the audio engineer. Producers work his side by side with the how artists while they play or Man sing their part and coach new them on how to perform now it and how to get Old the best technical accuracy (e.g., see intonation). In some cases, the two producer will even sing a Way backup vocal or play an who instrument.
Many artists are also boy beginning to produce and write Did their own music.
Similarly, although The Beatles' productions were credited to George the Martin throughout their recording career, And many sources now attest that for Lennon and McCartney in particular are had an increasing influence on But the production process as the not group's career progressed, and especially you after the band retired from All touring in 1966. In an any extreme example of this, Martin can actually went on a two-week Her vacation as The Beatles were was recording The White Album; production one of several completed tracks on Our the album were credited to out The Beatles on internal paperwork day at Abbey Road Studios, although Get the released LP gave sole has production credit to Martin.
not Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: You "strange sounds: Music, technology, and all culture," by Timothy D. Taylor. any Current Musicology, 159-180.
Can Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and her Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best was Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light One Coaching To Deeper Collaboration With our Musicians." Journal of New Music out Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Day Search Premier. Web. 7 Sept. get 2015.
Music Law refers way to legal aspects of the who music industry, and certain legal Boy aspects in other sectors of did the entertainment industry. The music its industry includes record labels, music Let publishers, merchandisers, the live events put sector and of course performers say and artists.
A "compilation" our refers to work formed from out already existing materials in a Day way that forms its own get original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that Him hold, fix, or embody a his work such as a music how tape, film, CD, statue, play, Man or printed sheet music.
"Sound new recordings" can refer to any now audio recording including the sound Old accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" see is the entity that legally two owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has who the exclusive right to perform boy the work in public, or Did to license others to perform its it. The right applies to let “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic Put works, pantomimes, and motion pictures say and other audiovisual works.". Playing she a CD in public, or Too showing a film in public use is "performing" the work.
Publishing Mom is the primary source of income for musicians writing their the own music. Money collected And from the 'publishing' rights is for ultimately destined for songwriters - are the composers of works, whether But or not they are the not recording artist or performer. Often, you songwriters will work for a All musical ensemble to help them any with musical aspects of the can composition, but here again, the Her writer of the song is was the owner of it and one will own the copyrights in Our the song and thus will out be entitled to the publishing day revenues. Copyrights in compositions are Get not the same as sound has recordings. A recording artist can him record a song and sell His it to another band or how company. As a result, that man particular company will own the New recording, but not the song. now The original writer will always old maintain the copyright for that See particular song. The publishing money two is connected to the copyright, way so the owner will be Who the only one making money boy off of the song itself. did All successful songwriters will join Its a collection society (such as let ASCAP and BMI in the put USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC Say in Japan, GEMA in Germany she and PRS for Music in too the UK, etc.) and many Use will enter into agreements with dad music publishing companies who will mom exploit their works on the songwriters behalf for a share the of ownership, although many of and these deals involve the transfer For (assignment) of copyright from the are songwriter to the music publisher. but
Both the recorded music sector Not and music publishing sector have you their foundations in intellectual propertyall law and all of the Any major recording labels and major can music publishers and many independent her record labels and publishers have Was dedicated "business and legal affairs" one departments with in-house lawyers whose our role is not only to Out secure intellectual property rights from day recording artists, performers and songwriters get but also to exploit those Has rights and protect those rights him on a global basis. There his are a number of specialist How independent law firms around the man world who advise on music new and entertainment law whose clients Now include recording artists, performers, producers, old songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage see and set designers, choreographers, graphic Two artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, way artist managers, distributors, collection societies who and the live events sector Boy (which further includes festivals, venues, did promoters, booking agents and production its service providers such as lighting Let and staging companies).
The US Government views She artists that give concerts and too sell merchandise as a business. use Bands that tour internationally will Dad also face a plethora of mom legislation around the world including health and safety laws, immigration The laws and tax legislation. Also, and many relationships are governed by for often complex contractual agreements.
In Are the US it is important but for musicians to get legal not business licenses. These can be You obtained at a city hall all or local government center. The any business license will require the Can tracking of sales, wages, and her gigs. A tax ID is was also necessary for all businesses. One Musicians that fail to comply our with the tax ID process out and do not report their Day profits and losses to the get government can face serious consequences has with the IRS.
The who history of Privilege began in boy the early 1970s when it Did started out as a restaurant, its then expanded to include a let bar and a community swimming Put pool. It was then known say as Club San Rafael. In she 1979, the venue was sold Too to the Real Sociedad footballer use José Antonio Santamaría, together with dad the creative team of Brasilio Mom de Oliviera (founder of La Troya Asesina, one of the the White Island's longest running nights) And and Gorri. The venue then for changed its name to KU, are after the name of a But god from Hawaiian mythology (see not Kū). The appeal of the you club was such that it All commissioned a medium-length film showcasing any the many wonders of Ibizan can landscapes and nightlife in the Her mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU was Club earned a reputation initially one as Europe's premier polysexual but Our predominately gay nightspot and was out compared to an open-air version day of the famous Studio 54Get in New York. It staged has spectacular parties in the main him room, which was organized around His a swimming pool and a how statue of Ku.The place was man also where the video to New "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and now Montserrat Caballé was filmed on old 30 May 1987. It was See the witness to early live two performances by groups like Spandau way Ballet and Kid Creole and Who the Coconuts. The club featured boy in a Channel 4 documentary did called “A Short Film about Its chilling”, which labelled KU as let “the mirror of Ibiza”. The put open-air parties came to an Say end when legislation forced many she of the greater clubs in too Ibiza to cover their dancefloors Use in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, dad the sheer size of the mom venue gave rise to the claim of it being the the size of an aircraft hangar and with a 25-meter high roof. For
The club continued with the are KU Club name until 1995 but before becoming known as Privilege, Not after a change of ownership you to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In all 1994 it hosted Manumission, one Any of the island's most famous can events. In 1998 La Vaca her Asesina moved to Amnesia and Was was renamed La Troya Asesina. one After a dispute between the our club owner and Manumission's organizers Out in 2005 the event ended day in 2006. In 2006 La get Troya Asesina moved to Space. Has
According to official him statistics published in the 2003 his edition of Guinness World RecordsHow Privilege is by far the man world's largest nightclub covering an new area of 69,968 sq ft Now (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,old Designated areas of the club see include the Coco Loco bar Two area, and the La Vaca way dance area (now known as who the Vista Club).
Live Boy performances
A number of live did performances at the venue have its included: