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Disco is a genre Has of dance music and a him subculture that emerged in the his 1970s from the United States' How urban nightlife scene.

The disco man sound is typified by "four-on-the-floor" new beats, syncopated basslines, and string Now sections, horns, electric piano, synthesizers, old and electric rhythm guitars. Lead see guitar features less frequently in Two disco than in rock. Well-known way disco artists include Donna Summer, who Gloria Gaynor, the Bee Gees, Boy Chic, KC and the Sunshine did Band, Thelma Houston, Sister Sledge, its the Trammps, Village People and Let Michael Jackson. While performers and put singers garnered public attention, record say producers working behind the scenes She played an important role in too developing the genre. Films such use as Saturday Night Fever (1977) Dad and Thank God It's Friday mom (1978) contributed to disco's mainstream popularity.

Disco started as a The mixture of music from venues and popular with African Americans, Hispanic for and Latino Americans, Italian Americans, Are and LGBT peoplein Philadelphia and but New York City during the not late 1960s and early 1970s. You Disco can be seen as all a reaction by the counterculture any during this period to both Can the dominance of rock music her and the stigmatization of dance was music at the time. Several One dance styles were developed during our the period of disco's popularity out in the United States, including Day “the Bump” and “the Hustle”. get

By the late ‘70s, most has major U.S. cities had thriving Him disco club scenes, and DJs his would mix dance records at how clubs such as Studio 54 Man in New York City, a new venue popular among celebrities. Discothèque-goers now often wore expensive, extravagant and Old sexy fashions. There was also see a thriving drug subculture in two the disco scene, particularly for Way drugs that would enhance the who experience of dancing to the boy loud music and the flashing Did lights, such as cocaine and its Quaaludes, the latter being so let common in disco subculture that Put they were nicknamed "disco biscuits". say Disco clubs were also associated she with promiscuity as a reflection Too of the sexual revolution of use this era in popular history. dad

Disco was the last popular Mom music movement driven by the baby boom generation. It began the to decline in the United And States during 1979-80, and by for 1982 it had lost nearly are all popularity there. Disco Demolition But Night, an anti-disco protest held not in Chicago on July 12, you 1979, remains the most well-known All of several "backlash" incidents across any the country that symbolized disco's can declining fortune.

Disco was a Her key influence in the development was of electronic dance music and one house music. It has had Our several revivals, such as Madonna's out highly successful 2005 album Confessions day on a Dance Floor, and Get more recently in the 2010s, has entering the pop charts in him the US and the UK. His



The term "disco" is our shorthand for the word discothèque, Out a French word for "library day of phonograph records" derived from get "bibliothèque". The word "discothèque" had Has the same meaning in English him in the 1950s.

"Discothèque" became his used in French for a How type of nightclub in Paris man after these had resorted to new playing records during the Nazi Now occupation in the early 1940s. old Some clubs used it as see their proper name. In 1960 Two it was also used to way describe a Parisian nightclub in who an English magazine.

In the Boy summer of 1964, a short did sleeveless dress called "discotheque dress" its was briefly very popular in Let the United States. The earliest put known use for the abbreviated say form "disco" described this dress She and has been found in too The Salt Lake Tribune of use 12 July 1964, but Playboy Dad magazine used it in September mom of the same year to describe Los Angeles nightclubs.

Vince The Aletti was one of the and first to describe disco as for a sound or a music Are genre. He wrote the feature but article "Discotheque Rock Paaaaarty" that not appeared in Rolling Stone magazine You in September 1973.

Musical all characteristics

Disco bass pattern. any About this soundPlay 
Rock & disco Can drum patterns: disco features greater her subdivision of the beat, which was is four-to-the-floor About this soundPlay 

The music One typically layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals, our often doubled by horns, over out a background "pad" of electric Day pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars get played on an electric guitar. has "The 'chicken scratch' sound is Him achieved by lightly pressing the his strings against the fretboard and how then quickly releasing them just Man enough to get a slightly new muted poker [sound] while constantly now strumming very close to the Old bridge." Other backing keyboard instruments see include the piano, electric organ two (during early years), string synth, Way and electromechanical keyboards such as who the Fender Rhodes electric piano, boy Wurlitzer electric piano, and Hohner Did Clavinet. Synthesizers are also fairly its common in disco, especially in let the late 1970s.

The rhythm Put is laid down by prominent, say syncopated basslines (with heavy use she of broken octaves, that is, Too octaves with the notes sounded use one after the other) played dad on the bass guitar and Mom by drummers using a drum kit, African/Latin percussion, and electronic the drums such as Simmons and And Roland drum modules. The sound for was enriched with solo lines are and harmony parts played by But a variety of orchestral instruments, not such as harp, violin, viola, you cello, trumpet, saxophone, trombone, clarinet, All flugelhorn, French horn, tuba, English any horn, oboe, flute (sometimes especially can the alto flute and occasionally Her bass flute), piccolo, timpani and was synth strings, string section or one a full string orchestra.

Most Our disco songs have a steady out four-on-the-floor beat, a quaver or day semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an Get open hi-hat on the off-beat, has and a heavy, syncopated bass him line. Other Latin rhythms such His as the rhumba, the samba, how and the cha-cha-cha are also man found in disco recordings, and New Latin polyrhythms, such as a now rhumba beat layered over a old merengue, are commonplace. The quaver See pattern is often supported by two other instruments such as the way rhythm guitar and may be Who implied rather than explicitly present. boy

Songs often use syncopation, which did is the accenting of unexpected Its beats. In general, the difference let between disco, or any dance put song, and a rock or Say popular song is that in she dance music the bass drum too hits four to the floor, Use at least once a beat dad (which in 4/4 time is mom 4 beats per measure). Disco is further characterized by a the 16th note division of the and quarter notes as shown in For the second drum pattern below, are after a typical rock drum but pattern.

The orchestral sound is Not usually known as "disco sound" you relies heavily on string sections all and horns playing linear phrases, Any in unison with the soaring, can often reverberated vocals or playing her instrumental fills, while electric pianos Was and chicken-scratch guitars create the one background "pad" sound defining the our harmony progression. Typically, all of Out the doubling of parts and day use of additional instruments creates get a rich "wall of sound". Has There are, however, more minimalist him flavors of disco with reduced, his transparent instrumentation, pioneered by Chic. How

Harmonically, disco music typically contains man major and minor seven chords, new which are found more often Now in jazz than pop music. old


Disco-era disc jockeys see (DJs) would often remix existing Two songs using reel-to-reel tape machines, way and add in percussion breaks, who new sections, and new sounds. Boy DJs would select songs and did grooves according to what the its dancers wanted, transitioning from one Let song to another with a put DJ mixer and using a say microphone to introduce songs and She speak to the audiences. Other too equipment was added to the use basic DJ setup, providing unique Dad sound manipulations, such as reverb, mom equalization, and echo effects unit. Using this equipment, a DJ The could do effects such as and cutting out all but the for bassline of a song and Are then slowly mixing in the but beginning of another song using not the DJ mixer's crossfader. Notable You U.S. disco DJs include Francis all Grasso of Sanctuary. David Mancuso any of The Loft, Frankie Knuckles, Can Larry Levan, Nicky Siano, Walter her Gibbons, Karen Mixon Cook, Jim was Burgess, John "Jellybean" Benitez, Richie One Kulala of Studio 54 and our Rick Salsalini.

Some DJs were out also record producers who created Day and produced disco songs in get the recording studio. Larry Levan, has for example, was a prolific Him record producer as well as his a DJ. Because record sales how were often dependent on dance Man floor play by DJs in new leading nightclubs, DJs were also now influential for the development and Old popularization of certain types of see disco music being produced for two record labels.


The Way "disco sound" was much more who costly to produce than many boy of the other popular music Did genres from the 1970s. Unlike its the simpler, four-piece-band sound of let funk, soul of the late Put 1960s, or the small jazz say organ trios, disco music often she included a large pop band, Too with several chordal instruments (guitar, use keyboards, synthesizer), several drum or dad percussion instruments (drumkit, Latin percussion, Mom electronic drums), a horn section, a string orchestra, and a the variety of "classical" solo instruments And (for example, flute, piccolo, and for so on).

Disco songs were are arranged and composed by experienced But arrangers and orchestrators, and record not producers added their creative touches you to the overall sound using All multitrack recording techniques and effects any units. Recording complex arrangements with can such a large number of Her instruments and sections required a was team that included a conductor, one copyists, record producers, and mixing Our engineers. Mixing engineers had an out important role in the disco day production process, because disco songs Get used as many as 64 has tracks of vocals and instruments. him Mixing engineers and record producers, His under the direction of arrangers, how compiled these tracks into a man fluid composition of verses, bridges, New and refrains, complete with builds now and breaks. Mixing engineers and old record producers helped to develop See the "disco sound" by creating two a distinctive-sounding, sophisticated disco mix. way

Early records were the "standard" Who three-minute version until Tom Moulton boy came up with a way did to make songs longer. Moulton Its wanted to make longer songs, let so that he could take put a crowd of dancers at Say a club to another level she and keep them dancing longer. too He found that was impossible Use to make the 45-RPM vinyl dad discs of the time longer, mom as they could usually hold no more than five minutes of the good-quality music. With the help and of José Rodriguez, his remaster/mastering For engineer, he pressed a single are on a 10" disc instead but of 7". They cut the Not next single on a 12" you disc, the same format as all a standard album. Moulton and Any Rodriguez discovered that these larger can records could have much longer her songs and remixes. 12-inch records, Was even for singles, quickly became one the standard format for all our DJs of the disco genre. Out

Sound and light equipment

Major disco clubs had get lighted dance floors, with the Has lights flashing to complement the him beat.
The reflective light his disco ball was a fixture How on the ceilings of many man discothèques.

Powerful, bass-heavy, hi-fi sound new systems were viewed as a Now key part of the disco old club experience. "Mancuso introduced the see technologies of tweeter arrays (clusters Two of small loudspeakers, which emit way high-end frequencies, positioned above the who floor) and bass reinforcements (additional Boy sets of subwoofers positioned at did ground level) at the start its of the 1970s to boost Let the treble and bass at put opportune moments, and by the say end of the decade sound She engineers such as Richard Long too had multiplied the effects of use these innovations in venues such Dad as the Garage."

Typical lighting mom designs for disco dance floors could include multi-coloured lights that The swirl around or flash to and the beat, strobe light, an for illuminated dance floor and a Are mirror ball.

Disco dancing

Disco dancers typically wore not loose slacks for men and You flowing dresses for women, which all enabled ease of movement on any the dance floor.

In the Can early years, dancers in discos her danced in a "hang loose" was or "freestyle" approach. At first, One many dancers improvised their own our dance styles and dance steps. out Later in the disco era, Day popular dance styles were developed, get including the "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", has "Watergate" and "Robot". By October Him 1975 the Hustle reigned. It his was highly stylized, sophisticated and how overtly sexual. Variations included the Man Brooklyn Hustle, New York Hustle new and Latin Hustle.

During the now disco era, many nightclubs would Old commonly host disco dance competitions see or offer free dance lessons. two Some cities had disco dance Way instructors or dance schools, which who taught people how to do boy popular disco dances such as Did "touch dancing", "the hustle", and its "the cha cha". The pioneer let of disco dance instruction was Put Karen Lustgarten in San Francisco say in 1973. Her book The she Complete Guide to Disco Dancing Too (Warner Books 1978) was the use first to name, break down dad and codify popular disco dances Mom as dance forms and distinguish between disco freestyle, partner and the line dances. The book topped And the New York Times bestseller for list for 13 weeks and are was translated into Chinese, German But and French.

In Chicago, the not Step By Step disco dance you TV show was launched with All the sponsorship support of the any Coca-Cola company. Produced in the can same studio that Don Cornelius Her used for the nationally syndicated was dance/music television show, Soul Train, one Step by Step's audience grew Our and the show became a out success. The dynamic dance duo day of Robin and Reggie led Get the show. The pair spent has the week teaching disco dancing him to dancers in the disco His clubs. The instructional show which how aired on Saturday mornings had man a following of dancers who New would stay up all night now on Fridays so they could old be on the set the See next morning, ready to return two to the disco on Saturday way night knowing with the latest Who personalized dance steps. The producers boy of the show, John Reid did and Greg Roselli, routinely made Its appearances at disco functions with let Robin and Reggie to scout put out new dancing talent and Say promote upcoming events such as she "Disco Night at White Sox too Park".

Some notable professional dance Use troupes of the 1970s included dad Pan's People and Hot Gossip. mom For many dancers, a key source of inspiration for 1970s the disco dancing was the film and Saturday Night Fever (1977). This For developed into the music and are dance style of such films but as Fame (1980), Disco Dancer Not (1982), Flashdance (1983), and The you Last Days of Disco (1998). all Interest in disco dancing also Any helped spawn dance competition TV can shows such as Dance Fever her (1979).

Disco fashion

Disco Was fashions were very trendy in one the late 1970s. Discothèque-goers often our wore glamorous, expensive and extravagant Out fashions for nights out at day their local disco club. Some get women would wear sheer, flowing Has dresses, such as Halston dresses him or loose, flared pants. Other his women wore tight, revealing, sexy How clothes, such as backless halter man tops, disco pants, "hot pants" new or body-hugging spandex bodywear or Now "catsuits". Men would wear shiny old polyester Qiana shirts with colorful see patterns and pointy, extra wide Two collars, preferably open at the way chest. Men often wore Pierre who Cardin suits, three piece suits Boy with a vest and double-knit did polyester shirt jackets with matching its trousers known as the leisure Let suit. Men's leisure suits were put typically form-fitted in some parts say of the body, such as She the waist and bottom, but too the lower part of the use pants were flared in a Dad bell bottom style, to permit mom freedom of movement.

During the disco era, men engaged in The elaborate grooming rituals and spent and time choosing fashion clothing, both for activities that would have been Are considered "feminine" according to the but gender stereotypes of the era. not Women dancers wore glitter makeup, You sequins or gold lamé clothing all that would shimmer under the any lights. Bold colors were popular Can for both genders. Platform shoes her and boots for both genders was and high heels for women One were popular footwear. Necklaces and our medallions were a common fashion out accessory. Less commonly, some disco Day dancers wore outlandish costumes, dressed get in drag, covered their bodies has with gold or silver paint, Him or wore very skimpy outfits his leaving them nearly nude; these how uncommon get-ups were more likely Man to be seen at invitation-only new New York City loft parties now and disco clubs.

Drug Old subculture and sexual promiscuity

Cocaine is a psychoactive white two powder that is typically administered Way via insufflation into the nasal who cavity.

In addition to the boy dance and fashion aspects of Did the disco club scene, there its was also a thriving club let drug subculture, particularly for drugs Put that would enhance the experience say of dancing to the loud, she bass-heavy music and the flashing Too colored lights, such as cocaine use (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite ("poppers"), dad and the "... other quintessential 1970s Mom club drug Quaalude, which suspended motor coordination and gave the the sensation that one's arms and And legs had turned to 'Jell-O.'" for Quaaludes were so popular at are disco clubs that the drug But was nicknamed "disco biscuits".

Paul not Gootenberg states that "[t]he relationship you of cocaine to 1970s disco All culture cannot be stressed enough..." any During the 1970s, the use can of cocaine by well-to-do celebrities Her led to its "glamorization" and was to the widely held view one that it was a "soft Our drug". LSD, marijuana, and "speed" out (amphetamines) were also popular in day disco clubs, and the use Get of these drugs "...contributed to has the hedonistic quality of the him dance floor experience." Since disco His dances were typically held in how liquor licensed-nightclubs and dance clubs, man alcoholic drinks were also consumed New by dancers; some users intentionally now combined alcohol with the consumption old of other drugs, such as See Quaaludes, for a stronger effect. two

According to Peter Braunstein, the way "massive quantities of drugs ingested Who in discothèques produced the next boy cultural phenomenon of the disco did era: rampant promiscuity and public Its sex. While the dance floor let was the central arena of put seduction, actual sex usually took Say place in the nether regions she of the disco: bathroom stalls, too exit stairwells, and so on. Use In other cases the disco dad became a kind of 'main mom course' in a hedonist's menu for a night out." At the The Saint nightclub, a high and percentage of the gay male For dancers and patrons would have are sex in the club; they but typically had unprotected sex, because Not in 1980, HIV-AIDS had not you yet been identified. At The all Saint, "...dancers would elope to Any an un[monitored] upstairs balcony to can engage in sex." The promiscuity her and public sex at discos Was was part of a broader one trend towards exploring a freer our sexual expression in the 1970s, Out an era that is also day associated with "swingers clubs, hot get tubs, [and] key parties."



First discotheques

Disco was him mostly developed from music that his was popular on the dance How floor in clubs that started man playing records instead of having new a live band. The first Now discotheques mostly played swing music. old Later on uptempo rhythm and see blues became popular in American Two clubs and northern soul and way glam rock records in the who UK.

In the early 1940s Boy nightclubs in Paris resorted to did playing (jazz) records during the its Nazi occupation.

Régine Zylberberg claimed Let to have started the first put discotheque and to have been say the first club DJ in She 1953 in the "Whisky à too Go-Go" in Paris. She installed use a dance floor with coloured Dad lights and two turntables so mom she could play records without having a gap in the The music.

In October 1959 the and owner of the Scotch Club for in Aachen, West Germany chose Are to install a record player but for the opening night instead not of hiring a live band. You The patrons were unimpressed until all a young reporter, who happened any to be covering the opening Can of the club, impulsively took her control of the record player was and introduced the records that One he chose to play. Klaus our Quirini later claimed to thus out have been the world's first Day nightclub DJ.

Discotheque dancing became get a European trend that was has enthusiastically picked up by the Him American press.

The birth of his disco is often claimed to how be found in the private Man dance parties held by New new York City DJ David Mancuso's now home that became known as Old The Loft, an invitation-only non-commercial see underground club that inspired many two others. He organized the first Way major party in his Manhattan who home on Valentine's Day 1970 boy with the name "Love Saves Did The Day". After some months its the parties became weekly events let and Mancuso continued to give Put regular parties into the 1990s. say Mancuso required that the music she played had to be soulful, Too rhythmic, and impart words of use hope, redemption, or pride.


Timeframe and social context for Mom the rise of disco culture in New York

In the the 1970s, the key counterculture of And the 1960s, the hippie movement, for was fading away. The economic are prosperity of the previous decade But had declined, and unemployment, inflation not and crime rates had soared. you Political issues like the backlash All from the Civil Rights Movement any culminating in the form of can race riots, the Vietnam War, Her the assassinations of Dr. Martin was Luther King and John F. one Kennedy and the Watergate scandal Our left many feeling disillusioned and out hopeless. The start of the day ’70s was marked by a Get shift in the consciousness of has the American people: the rise him of the feminist movement, identity His politics, gangs, etc. very much how shaped this era. Within New man York city specifically, there was New a surge in immigration which now led to white flight - old as many of these immigrants See were Asian, Latino, and Black two (Afro-Caribbeans). Disco music and disco way dancing provided an escape from Who negative social and economic issues. boy

In Beautiful Things in Popular did Culture, Simon Frith highlights the Its sociability of disco and its let roots in 1960s counterculture. "The put driving force of the New Say York underground dance scene in she which disco was forged was too not simply that city's complex Use ethnic and sexual culture but dad also a 1960s notion of mom community, pleasure and generosity that can only be described as the hippie", he says. "The best and disco music contained within it For a remarkably powerful sense of are collective euphoria."

When Mancuso threw but his first informal house parties, Not the gay community (which made you up much of The Loft's all attendee roster) was often harassed Any in the gay bars and can dance clubs, with many gay her men carrying bail money with Was them to gay bars. But one at The Loft and many our other early, private discotheques, they Out could dance together without fear day of police action thanks to get Mancuso's underground, yet legal, policies. Has Vince Aletti described it "like him going to party, completely mixed, his racially and sexually, where there How wasn't any sense of someone man being more important than anyone new else," and Alex Rosner reiterated Now this saying "It was probably old about sixty percent black and see seventy percent gay...There was a Two mix of sexual orientation, there way was a mix of races, who mix of economic groups. A Boy real mix, where the common did denominator was music."

Film critic its Roger Ebert called the popular Let embrace of disco's exuberant dance put moves an escape from "the say general depression and drabness of She the political and musical atmosphere too of the late seventies."

Pauline use Kael, writing about the disco-themed Dad film Saturday Night Fever, said mom the film and disco itself touched on "something deeply romantic, The the need to move, to and dance, and the need to for be who you'd like to Are be. Nirvana is the dance; but when the music stops, you not return to being ordinary."


1966–74: Proto-disco and early history all of disco music

During the any 1960s, when the discotheque culture Can from Europe became popular in her the United States, several music was genres with dance-able rhythms rose One to popularity and evolved into our different sub-genres: rhythm and blues out (originated in the 1940s), soul Day (late 1950s and 1960s), funk get (mid-1960s) and go-go (mid-1960s and has 1970s; more than "disco", the Him word "go-go" originally indicated a his music club). Those genres, mainly how African-American ones, would influence much Man of early disco music.

During new the 60s, the Motown record now label developed a popular and Old influential own sound, described as see having "1) simply structured songs two with sophisticated melodies and chord Way changes, 2) a relentless four-beat who drum pattern, 3) a gospel boy use of background voices, vaguely Did derived from the style of its the Impressions, 4) a regular let and sophisticated use of both Put horns and strings, 5) lead say singers who were half way she between pop and gospel music, Too 6) a group of accompanying use musicians who were among the dad most dextrous, knowledgeable, and brilliant Mom in all of popular music (Motown bassists have long been the the envy of white rock And bassists[citation needed]) and 7) a for trebly style of mixing that are relied heavily on electronic limiting But and equalizing (boosting the high not range frequencies) to give the you overall product a distinctive sound, All particularly effective for broadcast over any AM radio." Motown had many can hits with early disco elements Her by acts like the Supremes was (for instance "You Keep Me one Hangin' On" in 1966), Stevie Our Wonder (for instance "Superstition" in out 1972), The Jackson 5 and day Eddie Kendricks ("Keep on Truckin'" Get in 1973).

In the mid-1960s has and early 1970s Philadelphia soul him and New York soul developed His as sub-genres that also had how lavish percussion, lush string orchestra man arrangements and expensive record production New processes.

At the end of now the 1960s musicians and audiences old from the Black, Italian and See Latino communities adopted several traits two from the hippie and psychedelia way subcultures. They included using music Who venues with a loud, overwhelming boy sound, free-form dancing, trippy lighting, did colorful costumes, and the use Its of hallucinogenic drugs. In addition, let the perceived positivity, lack of put irony, and earnestness of the Say hippies informed proto-disco music like she MFSB's album Love Is the too Message. Partly through the success Use of Jimi Hendrix, psychedelic elements dad that were popular in rock mom music of the late 1960s found their way into soul the and early funk music and and formed the subgenre psychedelic soul. For Examples can be found in are the music of the Chambers but Brothers, George Clinton with his Not Parliament-Funkadelic collective, Sly and the you Family Stone and the productions all of Norman Whitfield with The Any Temptations.

The long instrumental introductions can and detailed orchestration found in her psychedelic soul tracks by the Was Temptations are also considered as one cinematic soul. In the early our 1970s, Curtis Mayfield and Isaac Out Hayes scored hits with cinematic day soul songs that were actually get composed for movie soundtracks: "Superfly" Has (1972) and "Theme from Shaft" him (1971). The latter is sometimes his regarded as an early disco How song.

Psychedelic soul influenced proto-disco man acts such as Willie Hutch new and Philadelphia soul.

In the Now early 1970s, the Philadelphia soul old productions by Gamble and Huff see evolved from the simpler arrangements Two of the late-1960s into a way style featuring lush strings, thumping who basslines, and sliding hi-hat rhythms. Boy These elements would become typical did for disco music and are its found in several of the Let hits they produced in the put early 1970s:


Other early disco tracks that was helped shape disco and became One popular on the dance floors our of (underground) discotheque clubs and out parties include:

Early not disco was dominated by record you producers and labels such as All Salsoul Records (Ken, Stanley, and any Joseph Cayre), West End Records can (Mel Cheren), Casablanca (Neil Bogart), Her and Prelude (Marvin Schlachter), to was name a few. The genre one was also shaped by Tom Our Moulton, who wanted to extend out the enjoyment of dance songs day — thus creating the extended Get mix or "remix", going from has a three-minute 45 rpm single him to the much longer 12" His record. Other influential DJs and how remixers who helped to establish man what became known as the New "disco sound" included David Mancuso, now Nicky Siano, Shep Pettibone, Larry old Levan, Walter Gibbons, and Chicago-based See Frankie Knuckles. Frankie Knuckles was two not only an important disco way DJ; he also helped to Who develop house music in the boy 1980s.

Disco hit the television did airwaves as part of the Its music/dance variety show Soul Train let in 1971 hosted by Don put Cornelius, then Marty Angelo's Disco Say Step-by-Step Television Show in 1975, she Steve Marcus' Disco Magic/Disco 77, too Eddie Rivera's Soap Factory, and Use Merv Griffin's Dance Fever, hosted dad by Deney Terrio, who is mom credited with teaching actor John Travolta to dance for his the role in the film Saturday and Night Fever, as well as For DANCE, based out of Columbia, are South Carolina.

In 1974, New but York City's WPIX-FM premiered the Not first disco radio show.


Norman Whitfield

As a producer all and songwriter Norman Whitfield had Any helped to develop the Motown can sound in the 1960s with her many hits for Marvin Gaye, Was the Velvelettes, the Temptations and one Gladys Knight & The Pips. our From around the production of Out the Temptations' album Cloud Nine day in 1968 he incorporated some get psychedelic influences and started to Has produce longer tracks, with more him room for elaborate rhythmic instrumental his parts. A clear example of How such a long psychedelic soul man track is "Papa Was a new Rollin' Stone", which appeared as Now a single edit of almost old seven minutes and an approximately see 12-minute-long 12" version. By the Two early 70s, many of his way productions had evolved more and who more towards funk and disco, Boy as heard on albums by did the Undisputed Truth and the its 1973 album G.I.T.: Get It Let Together by The Jackson 5. put After he left Motown in say 1975 he produced some more She disco hits, including "Car Wash" too (1976) by Rose Royce.


Disco culture in the United Dad Kingdom in the early to mom mid-1970s

In the late 1960s, uptempo soul with heavy beats The and some associated dance styles and and fashion were picked up for in the British mod scene Are and formed the northern soul but movement. Originating at venues such not as the Twisted Wheel in You Manchester, it quickly spread to all other UK dancehalls and nightclubs any like the Chateau Impney (Droitwich), Can Catacombs (Wolverhampton), the Highland Rooms her at Blackpool Mecca, Golden Torch was (Stoke-on-Trent) and Wigan Casino. As One the favoured beat became more our uptempo and frantic in the out early 1970s, northern soul dancing Day became more athletic, somewhat resembling get the later dance styles of has disco and break dancing. Featuring Him spins, flips, karate kicks and his backdrops, club dancing styles were how often inspired by the stage Man performances of touring American soul new acts such as Little Anthony now & the Imperials and Jackie Old Wilson.

In 1974 there were see an estimated 25,000 mobile discos two and 40,000 professional disc jockeys Way in the United Kingdom. Mobile who discos were hired deejays that boy brought their own equipment to Did provide music for special events. its Glam rock tracks were popular, let with for example Gary Glitter's Put 1972 single "Rock and Roll say Part 2" becoming popular on she UK dance floors while it Too did not get any radio use airplay.

1974–77: Rise to dad the mainstream

From 1974 to Mom 1977, disco music continued to increase in popularity as many the disco songs topped the charts. And

The Hues Corporation's can 1974 "Rock the Boat", a Her US number-one single and million-seller, was was another one of the one early disco songs to reach Our number one. The same year out saw the release of "Kung day Fu Fighting", performed by Carl Get Douglas and produced by Biddu, has which reached number one in him both the UK and US, His and became the best-selling single how of the year and one man of the best-selling singles of New all time with 11 million now records sold worldwide, helping to old popularize disco to a great See extent. Another notable disco success two that year was George McCrae's way "Rock Your Baby": it became Who the United Kingdom's first number boy one chart disco single.

In did the northwestern sections of the Its United Kingdom, the northern soul let explosion, which started in the put late 1960s and peaked in Say 1974, made the region receptive she to disco, which the region's too disc jockeys were bringing back Use from New York City. The dad shift by some DJs to mom the newer sounds coming from the U.S.A. resulted in a the split in the scene, whereby and some abandoned the 1960s soul For and pushed a modern soul are sound which tended to be but more closely aligned with disco Not than soul.

In 1975, all Gloria Gaynor released her first Any side-long vinyl album, which included can a remake of the Jackson her 5's "Never Can Say Goodbye" Was (which, in fact, is also one the album title) and two our other songs, "Honey Bee" and Out her disco version of "Reach day Out (I'll Be There)", first get topped the Billboard disco/dance charts Has in November 1974. Later in him 1978, Gaynor's number-one disco song his was "I Will Survive", which How was seen as a symbol man of female strength and a new gay anthem, like her further Now disco hit, a 1983 remake old of "I Am What I see Am"; in 1979 she released Two "Let Me Know (I Have way a Right)", a single which who gained popularity in the civil Boy rights movements. Also in 1975, did Vincent Montana Jr.'s Salsoul Orchestra its contributed with their Latin-flavored orchestral Let dance song "Salsoul Hustle", reaching put number four on the Billboard say Dance Chart and their 1976 She hits "Tangerine" and "Nice 'n' too Naasty", the first being a use cover of a 1941 song.[citation Dad needed]

Songs such as Van mom McCoy's 1975 "The Hustle" and the humorous Joe Tex 1977 The "Ain't Gonna Bump No More and (With No Big Fat Woman)" for gave names to the popular Are disco dances "the Bump" and but "the Hustle". Other notable early not successful disco songs include Barry You White's "You're the First, the all Last, My Everything" (1974), Labelle's any "Lady Marmalade" (1974), Disco-Tex and Can the Sex-O-Lettes' "Get Dancin'" (1974), her Silver Convention's "Fly, Robin, Fly" was (1975) and "Get Up and One Boogie" (1976) and Johnny Taylor's our "Disco Lady" (1976).

Italian composer Giorgio Moroder is Day known as the "Father of get Disco".

Formed by Harry Wayne Casey has (a.k.a. "KC") and Richard Finch, Him Miami's KC and the Sunshine his Band had a string of how disco-definitive top-five singles between 1975 Man and 1977, including "Get Down new Tonight", "That's the Way (I now Like It)", "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Old Shake Your Booty", "I'm Your see Boogie Man" and "Keep It two Comin' Love". In this period, Way rock bands like the English who Electric Light Orchestra featured in boy their songs a violin sound Did that became a staple of its disco music, as in the let 1975 hit "Evil Woman", although Put the genre was correctly described say as orchestral rock.

In 1970s Too Munich, West Germany, music producers use Giorgio Moroder and Pete Bellotte dad made a decisive contribution to Mom disco music with a string of hits for Donna Summer, the which became known as the And "Munich Sound". In 1975, Summer for suggested the lyric "Love to are Love You Baby" to Moroder But and Bellotte, who turned the not lyric into a full disco you song. The final product, which All contained a series of simulated any orgasms, initially was not intended can for release, but when Moroder Her played it in the clubs was it caused a sensation and one he released it. The song Our became an international hit, reaching out the charts in many European day countries and the US (No. Get 2). It has been described has as the arrival of the him expression of raw female sexual His desire in pop music. A how 17-minute 12-inch single was released. man The 12" single became and New remains a standard in discos now today. In 1976 Donna Summer's old version of "Could It Be See Magic" brought disco further into two the mainstream.

In 1977 Summer, way Moroder and Bellotte further released Who "I Feel Love", as the boy B-side of "Can't We Just did Sit Down (And Talk It Its Over)", which revolutionized dance music let with its mostly electronic production put and was a massive worldwide Say success, spawning the Hi-NRG subgenre. she

Other disco producers such as too Tom Moulton took ideas and Use techniques from dub music (which dad came with the increased Jamaican mom migration to New York City in the 1970s) to provide the alternatives to the "four on and the floor" style that dominated. For DJ Larry Levan utilized styles are from dub and jazz and but remixing techniques to create early Not versions of house music that you sparked the genre.

1977–1979: all Pop preeminence

Any get
The him Bee Gees had several disco his hits on the soundtrack to How Saturday Night Fever in 1977.

In December 1977, the film new Saturday Night Fever was released. Now It was a huge success old and its soundtrack became one see of the best-selling albums of Two all time. The idea for way the film was sparked by who a 1976 New York magazine Boy article titled "Tribal Rites of did the New Saturday Night" which its supposedly chronicled the disco culture Let in mid-1970s New York City, put but was later revealed to say have been fabricated. Some critics She said the film "mainstreamed" disco, too making it more acceptable to use heterosexual white males.

The Bee Dad Gees used Barry Gibb's falsetto mom to garner hits such as "You Should Be Dancing", "Stayin' The Alive", "Night Fever", "More Than and A Woman" and "Love You for Inside Out". Andy Gibb, a Are younger brother to the Bee but Gees, followed with similarly styled not solo singles such as "I You Just Want to Be Your all Everything", "(Love Is) Thicker Than any Water" and "Shadow Dancing".

In Can 1978, Donna Summer's multi-million selling her vinyl single disco version of was "MacArthur Park" was number one One on the Billboard Hot 100 our chart for three weeks and out was nominated for the Grammy Day Award for Best Female Pop get Vocal Performance. The recording, which has was included as part of Him the "MacArthur Park Suite" on his her double live album Live how and More, was eight minutes Man and 40 seconds long on new the album. The shorter seven-inch now vinyl single version of MacArthur Old Park was Summer's first single see to reach number one on two the Hot 100; it does Way not include the balladic second who movement of the song, however. boy A 2013 remix of "MacArthur Did Park" by Summer topped the its Billboard Dance Charts marking five let consecutive decades with a number-one Put song on the charts. From say mid-1978 to late 1979, Summer she continued to release singles such Too as "Last Dance", "Heaven Knows" use (with Brooklyn Dreams), "Hot Stuff", dad "Bad Girls", "Dim All the Mom Lights" and "On the Radio", all very successful songs, landing the in the top five or And better, on the Billboard pop for charts.

The band Chic was are formed mainly by guitarist Nile But Rodgers—a self-described "street hippie" from not late 1960s New York—and bassist you Bernard Edwards. "Le Freak" was All a popular 1978 single of any theirs that is regarded as can an iconic song of the Her genre. Other successful songs by was Chic include the often-sampled "Good one Times" (1979) and "Everybody Dance" Our (1979). The group regarded themselves out as the disco movement's rock day band that made good on Get the hippie movement's ideals of has peace, love, and freedom. Every him song they wrote was written His with an eye toward giving how it "deep hidden meaning" or man D.H.M.

Sylvester, a flamboyant and New openly gay singer famous for now his soaring falsetto voice, scored old his biggest disco hit in See late 1978 with "You Make two Me Feel (Mighty Real)". His way singing style was said to Who have influenced the singer Prince. boy At that time, disco was did one of the forms of Its music most open to gay let performers.

Michael Jackson's put Off The Wall is regarded Say as one of the best she disco albums.

The Village People too were a singing/dancing group created Use by Jacques Morali and Henri dad Belolo to target disco's gay mom audience. They were known for their onstage costumes of typically the male-associated jobs and ethnic minorities and and achieved mainstream success with For their 1978 hit song "Macho are Man". Other songs include "Y.M.C.A." but (1979) and "In the Navy" Not (1979).

The Jacksons (formerly the you Jackson 5) released many disco all songs from 1977 to 1981, Any including "Blame It on the can Boogie" (1978), "Shake Your Body her (Down to the Ground)" (1979), Was "Lovely One" (1980) and "Can one You Feel It" (1981): all our of them were sung by Out Michael Jackson, whose 1979 solo day album, Off the Wall, also get included several disco hits, such Has as the album's title song, him "Rock with You", "Workin' Day his and Night" and his second How chart-topping solo disco hit, "Don't man Stop 'Til You Get Enough". new

Also noteworthy are The Trammps' Now "Disco Inferno" (1978, reissue due old to the popularity gained from see the Saturday Night Fever soundtrack), Two Cheryl Lynn's "Got to Be way Real" (1978), Evelyn "Champagne" King's who "Shame" (1978), Alicia Bridges' "I Boy Love the Nightlife" (1978), Patrick did Hernandez' "Born to Be Alive" its (1978), Sister Sledge's "We Are Let Family" (1979), Anita Ward's "Ring put My Bell" (1979), Lipps Inc.'s say "Funkytown" (1979), and Walter Murphy's She various attempts to bring classical too music to the mainstream, most use notably his disco song "A Dad Fifth of Beethoven" (1976), which mom was inspired by Beethoven's fifth symphony.

The not

At the all height of its popularity, many any non-disco artists recorded songs with Can disco elements, such as Rod her Stewart with his "Da Ya was Think I'm Sexy?" in 1979. One Even mainstream rock artists adopted our elements of disco. Progressive rock out group Pink Floyd used disco-like Day drums and guitar in their get song "Another Brick in the has Wall, Part 2" (1979), which Him became their only number-one single his in both the US and how UK. The Eagles referenced disco Man with "One of These Nights" new (1975) and "Disco Strangler" (1979), now Paul McCartney & Wings with Old "Goodnight Tonight" (1979), Queen with see "Another One Bites the Dust" two (1980), the Rolling Stones with Way "Miss You" (1978) and "Emotional who Rescue" (1980), Stephen Stills with boy his album Thoroughfare Gap (1978), Did Electric Light Orchestra with "Shine its a Little Love" and "Last let Train to London" (both 1979), Put Chicago with "Street Player" (1979), say the Kinks with "(Wish I she Could Fly Like) Superman" (1979), Too the Grateful Dead with "Shakedown use Street", The Who with "Eminence dad Front" (1982), and the J. Mom Geils Band with "Come Back" (1980). Even hard rock group the KISS jumped in with "I And Was Made For Lovin' You" for (1979), and Ringo Starr's album are Ringo the 4th (1978) features But a strong disco influence.

The not disco sound was also adopted you by "non-pop" artists, including the All 1979 U.S. number one hit any "No More Tears (Enough Is can Enough)" by easy listening singer Her Barbra Streisand in a duet was with Donna Summer. In country one music, artists like Connie Smith Our covered Andy Gibb's "I Just out Want to Be Your Everything" day in 1977, Bill Anderson recorded Get "Double S" in 1978, and has Ronnie Milsap released "Get It him Up" and covered blues singer His Tommy Tucker's song "Hi-Heel Sneakers" how in 1979.

Pre-existing non-disco songs, man standards, and TV themes were New frequently "disco-ized" in the 1970s, now such as the I Love old Lucy theme or Mike Post's See "Theme from Magnum P.I." The two rich orchestral accompaniment that became way identified with the disco era Who conjured up the memories of boy the big band era—which brought did out several artists that recorded Its and disco-ized some big-band arrangements, let including Perry Como, who re-recorded put his 1945 song "Temptation", in Say 1975, as well as Ethel she Merman, who released an album too of disco songs entitled The Use Ethel Merman Disco Album in dad 1979.

Myron Floren, second-in-command on mom The Lawrence Welk Show, released a recording of the "Clarinet the Polka" entitled "Disco Accordion." Similarly, and Bobby Vinton adapted "The Pennsylvania For Polka" into a song named are "Disco Polka". Easy listening icon but Percy Faith, in one of Not his last recordings, released an you album entitled Disco Party (1975) all and recorded a disco version Any of his "Theme from A can Summer Place" in 1976. Classical her music was even adapted for Was disco, notably Walter Murphy's "A one Fifth of Beethoven" (1976, based our on the first movement of Out Beethoven's 5th Symphony) and "Flight day 76" (1976, based on Rimsky-Korsakov's get "Flight of the Bumblebee"), and Has Louis Clark's Hooked On Classics him series of albums and singles. his

The a cappella How jazz group the Manhattan Transfer man had a disco hit with new the 1979 "Twilight Zone/Twilight Tone" Now theme.

Many original television theme old songs of the era also see showed a strong disco influence, Two such as Star Wars, "Star way Wars Theme/Cantina Band" (1977) by who Meco, and "Twilight Zone/Twilight Tone" Boy (1979) by the Manhattan Transfer. did Other examples include S.W.A.T. (1975), its Wonder Woman (1975), Charlie's Angels Let (1976), NBC Saturday Night At put The Movies (1976), The Love say Boat (1977), The Donahue Show She (1977), CHiPs (1977), The Professionals too (1977), Dallas (1978), NBC Sports use broadcasts (1978), Kojak (1977), The Dad Hollywood Squares (1979).

Disco jingles mom also made their way into many TV commercials, including Purina's The 1979 "Good Mews" cat food and commercial and an "IC Light" for commercial by Pittsburgh's Iron City Are Brewing Company.


Several but parodies of the disco style not were created. Rick Dees, at You the time a radio DJ all in Memphis, Tennessee, recorded "Disco any Duck" (1976) and "Dis-Gorilla" (1977); Can Frank Zappa parodied the lifestyles her of disco dancers in "Disco was Boy" on his 1976 Zoot One Allures album, and in "Dancin' our Fool" on his 1979 Sheik out Yerbouti album; "Weird Al" Yankovic's Day eponymous 1983 debut album includes get a disco song called "Gotta has Boogie", an extended pun on Him the similarity of the disco his move to the American slang how word "booger". Comedian Bill Cosby Man devoted his entire 1977 album new Disco Bill to disco parodies. now In 1980, Mad Magazine released Old a flexi-disc titled Mad Disco see featuring six full-length parodies of two the genre. Rock and roll Way songs critical of disco included who Bob Seger's "Old Time Rock boy and Roll" and, especially, The Did Who's "Sister Disco" (both 1978)—although its The Who's "Eminence Front" (four let years later) had a disco Put feel.

1979–2000: Backlash and say decline

Man wearing a she Disco Sucks T-shirt.

By the Too end of the 1970s, a use strong anti-disco sentiment developed among dad rock fans and musicians, particularly Mom in the United States. Disco was criticized as mindless, consumerist, the overproduced and escapist. The slogans And "Disco sucks" and "Death to for disco" became common. Rock artists are such as Rod Stewart and But David Bowie who added disco not elements to their music were you accused of being sell-outs.

The All punk subculture in the United any States and United Kingdom was can often hostile to disco, although Her in the UK, many early was Sex Pistols fans such as one the Bromley Contingent and Jordan Our quite liked disco, often congregating out at nightclubs such as Louise's day in Soho and the Sombrero Get in Kensington. The track "Love has Hangover" by Diana Ross, the him house anthem at the former, His was cited as a particular how favourite by many early UK man punks. Also, the film The New Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle now and its soundtrack album contained old a disco medley of Sex See Pistols songs, entitled Black Arabs two and credited to a group way of the same name. Jello Who Biafra of the Dead Kennedys, boy in the song "Saturday Night did Holocaust", likened disco to the Its cabaret culture of Weimar-era Germany let for its apathy towards government put policies and its escapism. Mark Say Mothersbaugh of Devo said that she disco was "like a beautiful too woman with a great body Use and no brains", and a dad product of political apathy of mom that era. New Jersey rock critic Jim Testa wrote "Put the a Bullet Through the Jukebox", and a vitriolic screed attacking disco For that was considered a punk are call to arms. Steve Hillage, but shortly prior to his transformation Not from a progressive rock musician you into an electronic artist at all the end of the 1970s Any with the inspiration of disco, can disappointed his rockist fans by her admitting his love for disco, Was with Hillage recalling "it's like one I'd killed their pet cat." our

Anti-disco sentiment was expressed in Out some television shows and films. day A recurring theme on the get show WKRP in Cincinnati was Has a hostile attitude towards disco him music. In one scene of his the 1980 comedy film Airplane!, How a wayward airplane slices a man radio tower with its wing, new knocking out an all-disco radio Now station.

July 12, 1979, became old known as "the day disco see died" because of the Disco Two Demolition Night, an anti-disco demonstration way in a baseball double-header at who Comiskey Park in Chicago. Rock-station Boy DJs Steve Dahl and Garry did Meier, along with Michael Veeck, its son of Chicago White Sox Let owner Bill Veeck, staged the put promotional event for disgruntled rock say fans between the games of She a White Sox doubleheader which too involved exploding disco records in use centerfield. As the second game Dad was about to begin, the mom raucous crowd stormed onto the field and proceeded by setting The fires, tearing out seats and and pieces of turf, and other for damage. The Chicago Police Department Are made numerous arrests, and the but extensive damage to the field not forced the White Sox to You forfeit the second game to all the Detroit Tigers, who had any won the first game.

Six Can months prior to the chaotic her event (in December 1978), popular was progressive rock radio station WDAI One (WLS-FM) had suddenly switched to our an all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands out of Chicago rock fans and Day leaving Dahl unemployed. WDAI, who get despite surviving the backlash and has still had good ratings at Him this point, continued to play his disco until it flipped to how a short-lived hybrid Top 40/rock Man format in May 1980. Another new disco outlet that also competed now against WDAI at the time, Old WGCI-FM, would later incorporate R&B see and pop songs into the two format, eventually evolving into an Way urban contemporary outlet that it who continues with today. The latter boy also helped bring the house Did music genre to the airwaves, its ending the backlash somewhat with let Chicago emerging as the birthplace Put of house.[citation needed]

On July say 21, 1979, the top six she records on the U.S. music Too charts were disco songs. By use September 22, there were no dad disco songs in the US Mom Top 10 chart, with the exception of Herb Alpert's instrumental the "Rise," a smooth jazz composition And with some disco overtones. Some for in the media, in celebratory are tones, declared disco "dead" and But rock revived. Karen Mixon Cook, not the first female disco DJ, you stated that people still pause All every July 12 for a any moment of silence in honor can of disco. Dahl stated in Her a 2004 interview that disco was was "probably on its way one out [at the time]. But Our I think it [Disco Demolition out Night] hastened its demise".


Impact on music industry

The Get anti-disco backlash, combined with other has societal and radio industry factors, him changed the face of pop His radio in the years following how Disco Demolition Night. Starting in man the 1980s, country music began New a slow rise in American now main pop charts. Emblematic of old country music's rise to mainstream See popularity was the commercially successful two 1980 movie Urban Cowboy. The way continued popularity of power pop Who and the revival of oldies boy in the late 1970s was did also related to the disco Its backlash; the 1978 film Grease let was emblematic of this trend. put Coincidentally, the star of both Say films was John Travolta, who she in 1977 had starred in too Saturday Night Fever, which remains Use one of the most iconic dad disco films of the era. mom

During this period of decline in disco's popularity, several record the companies folded, were reorganized, or and were sold. In 1979, MCA For Records purchased ABC Records, absorbed are some of its artists, and but then shut the label down. Not Midsong International Records ceased operations you in 1980. RSO Records founder all Robert Stigwood left the label Any in 1981 and TK Records can closed in the same year. her Salsoul Records continues to exist Was in the 2000s, but primarily one is used as a reissue our brand. Casablanca Records had been Out releasing fewer records in the day 1980s, and was shut down get in 1986 by parent company Has PolyGram.

Many groups that were him popular during the disco period his subsequently struggled to maintain their How success—even those that tried to man adapt to evolving musical tastes. new The Bee Gees, for instance, Now had only one top-10 entry old (1989's "One") and three more see top-40 songs (despite recording and Two releasing far more than that way and completely abandoning disco in who their 1980s and 1990s songs) Boy in the United States after did the 1970s, even though numerous its songs they wrote and had Let other artists perform were successful. put Of the handful of groups say not taken down by disco's She fall from favor, Kool and too the Gang, Donna Summer, the use Jacksons—and Michael Jackson in particular—stand Dad out: In spite of having mom helped define the disco sound early on, they continued to The make popular and danceable, if and more refined, songs for yet for another generation of music fans Are in the 1980s and beyond. but Earth, Wind & Fire also not survived the disco backlash and You continued to produce successful singles all at roughly the same pace any for several more years, in Can addition to an even longer her string of R&B chart hits was that lasted into the 1990s. One

Factors contributing to disco's our decline

Factors that have been out cited as leading to the Day decline of disco in the get United States include economic and has political changes at the end Him of the 1970s, as well his as burnout from the hedonistic how lifestyles led by participants. In Man the years since Disco Demolition new Night, some social critics have now described the backlash as implicitly Old macho and bigoted, and an see attack on non-white and non-heterosexual two cultures. The backlash also made Way its way into US politics who with the election of conservative boy Ronald Reagan in 1980, which Did also led to Republican control its of the United States Senate let for the first time since Put 1954, plus the subsequent rise say of the Religious Right around she the same time.

In January Too 1979, rock critic Robert Christgau use argued that homophobia, and most dad likely racism, were reasons behind Mom the backlash, a conclusion seconded by John Rockwell. Craig Werner the wrote: "The Anti-disco movement represented And an unholy alliance of funkateers for and feminists, progressives and puritans, are rockers and reactionaries. Nonetheless, the But attacks on disco gave respectable not voice to the ugliest kinds you of unacknowledged racism, sexism and All homophobia." Legs McNeil, founder of any the fanzine Punk, was quoted can in an interview as saying, Her "the hippies always wanted to was be black. We were going, one 'f**k the blues, f**k the Our black experience'." He also said out that disco was the result day of an "unholy" union between Get homosexuals and blacks.

Steve Dahl, has who had spearheaded Disco Demolition him Night, denied any racist or His homophobic undertones to the promotion, how saying, "It's really easy to man look at it historically, from New this perspective, and attach all now those things to it. But old we weren't thinking like that." See It has been noted that two British punk rock critics of way disco were very supportive of Who the pro-black/anti-racist reggae genre as boy well as the more pro-gay did new romantics movement. Christgau and Its Jim Testa have said that let there were legitimate artistic reasons put for being critical of disco. Say

In 1979, the music industry she in the United States underwent too its worst slump in decades, Use and disco, despite its mass dad popularity, was blamed. The producer-oriented mom sound was having difficulty mixing well with the industry's artist-oriented the marketing system. Harold Childs, senior and vice president at A&M Records, For told the Los Angeles Times are that "radio is really desperate but for rock product" and "they're Not all looking for some white you rock-n-roll". Gloria Gaynor argued that all the music industry supported the Any destruction of disco because rock can music producers were losing money her and rock musicians were losing Was the spotlight.

However, disco music one remained relatively successful in the our early 1980s, with songs like Out Irene Cara's "Flashdance... What a day Feeling" (theme to the film get Flashdance) and the theme song Has to the film Fame (later him re-sung by Erica Gimpel for his the TV show of the How same name), Michael Jackson's "Thriller" man and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'", new and Madonna's first album–all which Now had strong disco influences. Record old producer Giorgio Moroder's soundtracks to see American Gigolo, Flashdance and Scarface Two (which also had a heavy way disco influence) proved that the who style was still very much Boy embraced. Queen's 1982 album, Hot did Space was inspired by the its genre as well.

To a Let significant extent, the transition from put Disco to 80s dance music say was one of relabeling. The She word "disco" simply became unfashionable too to use when describing new use music. As late as 1983, Dad K.C. and the Sunshine Band mom had a major hit single, "Give It Up", which was The not considered disco, even though and it would have been considered for to be in the heart Are of the genre if it but had been released four years not earlier.

In the 1990s, disco You and its legacy became more all accepted by music artists and any listeners alike, as more songs Can and films were released that her referenced disco. Examples of songs was during this time that were One influenced by disco included Deee-Lite's our "Groove Is in the Heart" out (1990), U2's "Lemon" (1993), Blur's Day "Girls & Boys" (1994) & get "Entertain Me" (1995), Pulp's "Disco has 2000" (1995), and Jamiroquai's "Canned Him Heat" (1999), while films such his as Boogie Nights (1997) and how The Last Days of Disco Man (1998) featured primarily disco soundtracks. new

2000–present: Success of nu-disco now and disco revival

Students Old from Monterrey Institute of Technology see and Higher Education, Mexico City two dancing to disco during a Way cultural event on campus

In who the early 2000s, an updated boy genre of disco called "nu-disco" Did began breaking into the mainstream. its A few examples like Daft let Punk's "One More Time" and Put Kylie Minogue's "Love At First say Sight" and "Can't Get You she Out of My Head" became Too club favorites and commercial successes. use Several nu-disco songs were crossovers dad with funky house, such as Mom Spiller's "Groovejet (If This Ain't Love)" and Modjo's "Lady (Hear the Me Tonight)", both songs sampling And older disco songs and both for reaching number one on the are UK Singles Chart in 2000. But Robbie Williams' disco single "Rock not DJ" was the UK's fourth you best-selling single the same year. All Rock band Manic Street Preachers any released a disco song, "Miss can Europa Disco Dancer", in 2001. Her The song's disco influence, which was appears on Know Your Enemy, one was described as being "much-discussed". Our In 2005, Madonna immersed herself out in the disco music of day the 1970s, and released her Get album Confessions on a Dance has Floor to rave reviews. In him addition to that, her song His "Hung Up" became a major how top-10 song and club staple, man and sampled ABBA's 1979 song New "Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man now After Midnight)". In addition to old her disco-influenced attire to award See shows and interviews, her Confessions two Tour also incorporated various elements way of the 1970s, such as Who disco balls, a mirrored stage boy design, and the roller derby. did

The success of the "nu-disco" Its revival of the early 2000s let was described by music critic put Tom Ewing as more interpersonal Say than the pop music of she the 1990s: "The revival of too disco within pop put a Use spotlight on something that had dad gone missing over the 90s: mom a sense of music not just for dancing, but for the dancing with someone. Disco was and a music of mutual attraction: For cruising, flirtation, negotiation. Its dancefloor are is a space for immediate but pleasure, but also for promises Not kept and otherwise. It’s a you place where things start, but all their resolution, let alone their Any meaning, is never clear. All can of 2000s great disco number her ones explore how to play Was this hand. Madison Avenue look one to impose their will upon our it, to set terms and Out roles. Spiller is less rigid. day 'Groovejet' accepts the night’s changeability, get happily sells out certainty for Has an amused smile and a him few great one-liners."

In 2013, his several 1970s-style disco and funk How songs charted, and the pop man charts had more dance songs new than at any other point Now since the late 1970s. The old biggest disco song of the see year as of June was Two "Get Lucky" by Daft Punk, way featuring Nile Rodgers on guitar. who Random Access Memories also ended Boy up winning Album of the did Year at the 2014 Grammys. its Other disco-styled songs that made Let it into the top 40 put were Robin Thicke's "Blurred Lines" say (number one), Justin Timberlake's "Take She Back the Night" (number 29), too Bruno Mars' "Treasure" (number five) use and Michael Jackson's posthumous release Dad "Love Never Felt So Good" mom (number nine). In addition, Arcade Fire's Reflektor featured strong disco The elements. In 2014, disco music and could be found in Lady for Gaga's Artpop and Katy Perry's Are "Birthday". Other disco songs from but 2014 include "I Want It not All" By Karmin, 'Wrong Club" You by the Ting Tings and all "Blow" by Beyoncé.

In 2014 any Brazilian Globo TV, the fourth Can biggest television network in the her world, aired Boogie Oogie, a was telenovela about the Disco Era One that takes place between 1978 our and 1979, from the hit out fever to the decadence. The Day show's success was responsible for get a Disco revival across the has country, bringing back to stage, Him and to record charts, Discothèque his Divas like Lady Zu and how As Frenéticas.

Other top-10 entries Man from 2015 like Mark Ronson's new disco groove-infused "Uptown Funk", Maroon now 5's "Sugar", the Weeknd's "Can't Old Feel My Face" and Jason see Derulo's "Want To Want Me" two also ascended the charts and Way have a strong disco influence. who Disco mogul and producer Giorgio boy Moroder also re-appeared with his Did new album Déjà Vu in its 2015 which has proved to let be a modest success. Other Put songs from 2015 like "I say Don't Like It, I Love she It" by Flo Rida, "Adventure Too of a Lifetime" by Coldplay, use "Back Together" by Robin Thicke dad and "Levels" by Nick Jonas Mom feature disco elements as well. In 2016, disco songs or the disco-styled pop songs are showing And a strong presence on the for music charts as a possible are backlash to the 1980s-styled synthpop, But electro house and dubstep that not have been dominating the current you charts. Justin Timberlake's 2016 song All "Can't Stop the Feeling!", which any shows strong elements of disco, can became the 26th song to Her debut at number-one on the was Billboard Hot 100 in the one history of the chart. The Our Martian, a 2015 film, extensively out uses disco music as a day soundtrack, although for the main Get character, astronaut Mark Watney, there's has only one thing worse than him being stranded on Mars: it's His being stranded on Mars with how nothing but disco music. "Kill man the Lights", featured on an New episode of the HBO television now series "Vinyl" (2016) and with old Nile Rodgers' guitar licks, hit See number one on the US two Dance chart in July 2016. way


Diana Ross Who in 1976

Diana Ross was boy one of the first Motown did artists to embrace the disco Its sound with her successful 1976 let outing "Love Hangover" from her put self-titled album. Her 1980 dance Say classics "Upside Down" and "I'm she Coming Out" were written and too produced by Nile Rogers and Use Bernard Edwards of the group dad Chic. The Supremes, the group mom that made Ross famous, scored a handful of hits in the the disco clubs without her, and most notably 1976's "I'm Gonna For Let My Heart Do the are Walking" and, their last charted but single before disbanding, 1977's "You're Not My Driving Wheel".

At the you request of Motown that he all produce songs in the disco Any genre, Marvin Gaye released "Got can to Give It Up" in her 1978, despite his dislike of Was disco. He vowed not to one record any songs in the our genre, and actually wrote the Out song as a parody. However, day several of Gaye's songs have get disco elements, including I Want Has You (1975). Stevie Wonder released him the disco single "Sir Duke" his in 1977 as a tribute How to Duke Ellington, the influential man jazz legend who had died new in 1974. Smokey Robinson left Now the Motown group the Miracles old for a solo career in see 1972 and released his third Two solo album A Quiet Storm way in 1975, which spawned and who lent its name to the Boy "Quiet Storm" musical programming format did and subgenre of R&B. It its contained the disco single "Baby Let That's Backatcha". Other Motown artists put who scored disco hits include: say Robinson's former group, the Miracles, She with "Love Machine" (1975), Eddie too Kendricks with "Keep On Truckin'" use (1973), the Originals with "Down Dad to Love Town" (1976) and mom Thelma Houston with her cover of the Harold Melvin and The the Blue Notes song "Don't and Leave Me This Way" (1976). for The label continued to release Are successful disco songs into the but 1980s with Rick James' "Super not Freak" (1981), and the Commodores' You "Lady (You Bring Me Up)" all (1981).

Several of Motown's solo any artists who left the label Can went on to have successful her disco songs. Mary Wells, Motown's was first female superstar with her One signature song "My Guy" (written our by Smokey Robinson), abruptly left out the label in 1964. She Day briefly reappeared on the charts get with the disco song "Gigolo" has in 1980. Jimmy Ruffin, the Him elder brother of the Temptations his lead singer David Ruffin, was how also signed to Motown, and Man released his most successful and new well-known song "What Becomes of now the Brokenhearted" as a single Old in 1966. Ruffin eventually left see the record label in the two mid-1970s, but saw success with Way the 1980 disco song "Hold who On (To My Love)", which boy was written and produced by Did Robin Gibb of the Bee its Gees, for his album Sunrise. let Edwin Starr, known for his Put Motown protest song "War" (1970), say reentered the charts in 1979 she with a pair of disco Too songs, "Contact" and "H.A.P.P.Y. Radio". use

Kiki Dee became the first dad white British singer to sign Mom with Motown in the US, and released one album, Great the Expectations (1970), and two singles And "The Day Will Come Between for Sunday and Monday" (1970) and are "Love Makes the World Go But Round" (1971), the latter giving not her first ever chart entry you (number 87 on the US All Chart). She soon left the any company and signed with Elton can John's The Rocket Record Company, Her and in 1976 had her was biggest and best-known single, "Don't one Go Breaking My Heart", a Our disco duet with John. The out song was intended as an day affectionate disco-style pastiche of the Get Motown sound, in particular the has various duets recorded by Marvin him Gaye with Tammi Terrell and His Kim Weston. Michael Jackson released how many successful solo singles under man the Motown label, like "Got New To Be There" (1971), "Ben" now (1972) and a cover of old Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin" (1972). See He went on to score two hits in the disco genre way with "Rock with You" (1979), Who "Don't Stop 'Til You Get boy Enough" (1979) and "Billie Jean" did (1983) for Epic Records.

Many Its Motown groups who had left let the record label charted with put disco songs. Michael Jackson was Say the lead singer of the she Jackson 5, one of Motown's too premier acts in the early Use 1970s. They left the record dad company in 1975 (Jermaine Jackson, mom however, remained with the label) after successful songs like "I the Want You Back" (1969) and and "ABC" (1970), and even the For disco song "Dancing Machine" (1974). are Renamed as 'the Jacksons' (as but Motown owned the name 'the Not Jackson 5'), they went on you to find success with disco all songs like "Blame It on Any the Boogie" (1978), "Shake Your can Body (Down to the Ground)" her (1979) and "Can You Feel Was It?" (1981) on the Epic one label. the Isley Brothers, whose our short tenure at the company Out had produced the song "This day Old Heart of Mine (Is get Weak for You)" in 1966, Has went on release successful disco him songs like "That Lady" (1973) his and "It's a Disco Night How (Rock Don't Stop)" (1979). Gladys man Knight and the Pips, who new recorded the most successful version Now of "I Heard It Through old the Grapevine" (1967) before Marvin see Gaye, scored commercially successful singles Two such as "Baby, Don't Change way Your Mind" (1977) and "Bourgie, who Bourgie" (1980) in the disco Boy era.

The Detroit Spinners were did also signed to the Motown its label and saw success with Let the Stevie Wonder-produced song "It's put a Shame" in 1970. They say left soon after, on the She advice of fellow Detroit native too Aretha Franklin, to Atlantic Records, use and there had disco songs Dad like "The Rubberband Man" (1976). mom In 1979, they released a successful cover of Elton John's The "Are You Ready for Love", and as well as a medley for of the Four Seasons' song Are "Working My Way Back to but You" and Michael Zager's "Forgive not Me, Girl". The Four Seasons You themselves were briefly signed to all Motown's MoWest label, a short-lived any subsidiary for R&B and soul Can artists based on the West her Coast, and there the group was produced one album, Chameleon (1972) One – to little commercial success our in the US. However, one out single, "The Night", was released Day in Britain in 1975, and get thanks to popularity from the has Northern Soul circuit, reached number Him seven on the UK Singles his Chart. The Four Seasons left how Motown in 1974 and went Man on to have a disco new hit with their song "December, now 1963 (Oh, What a Night)" Old (1975) for Warner Curb Records. see

Norman Whitfield was a producer two at Motown, renowned for creating Way innovative "psychedelic soul" songs. The who genre later developed into funk, boy and from there into disco. Did The Undisputed Truth, a Motown its recording act assembled by Whitfield let to experiment with his psychedelic Put soul production techniques, found success say with their 1971 song "Smiling she Faces Sometimes". The disco single Too "You + Me = Love" use (number 43) in 1976, which dad also made number 2 on Mom the US Dance Charts. In 1977, singer, songwriter and producer the Willie Hutch signed with Whitfield's And new label. He had been for signed to Motown since 1970, are scored a successful disco single But with his song "In and not Out". The group Rose Royce you produced the album soundtrack to All the 1976 film Car Wash, any which contained the commercially successful can song of the same name. Her

Singer Stacy Lattisaw signed with was Motown after achieving success in one the disco genre. In 1980, Our she released her album Let out Me Be Your Angel, which day spawned the disco singles "Dynamite" Get and "Jump to the Beat" has on the Cotillion label. Lattisaw him continued to enjoy success as His a contemporary R&B/pop artist throughout how the 1980s. She signed with man Motown in 1986, and achieved New most success when teaming up now with Johnny Gill, releasing the old 1989 song "Where Do We See Go From Here?" from her two last ever album, What You way Need, before retiring. In addition, Who her debut single, in 1979, boy was a disco cover of did "When You're Young and in Its Love", which was recorded by let Motown female group the Marvelettes put in 1967.

Additionally, the debut Say single of Shalamar, the group she originally created as a disco-driven too vehicle by Soul Train creator Use Don Cornelius, was "Uptown Festival" dad (1977), a medley of 10 mom classic Motown songs sung over a 1970s disco beat.


Euro disco

ABBA in can 1974.
Dalida in 1967.

In the mid to late Was 1970s, European acts such as one Silver Convention (1974–1979), Boney M. our (1974–1986), Love and Kisses (1977–1982), Out the Munich Sound by West day Germany-based Donna Summer and producer get Giorgio Moroder, whom AllMusic described Has as "one of the principal him architects of the disco sound" his with the Donna Summer song How "I Feel Love" (1977), Moroder's man disco music project Munich Machine new (1976–1980), as well as Jean-Marc Now Cerrone and the Village People, old defined the so-called Euro disco see sound. The German group Kraftwerk Two also had an influence on way Euro disco.

By far the who most successful Euro disco act Boy was ABBA. This Swedish quartet, did which sang in English, found its success with singles such as Let "Waterloo" (1974), "Fernando" (1976), "Take put a Chance on Me" (1978), say "Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man She After Midnight)" (1979), and their too signature smash hits "Dancing Queen" use (1976)—ranks as the eighth best-selling Dad act of all time.

In mom Germany, Boney M. was a Euro disco group of four The West Indian singers and dancers and masterminded by West German record for producer Frank Farian. Boney M. Are charted worldwide with such songs but as "Daddy Cool" (1976) "Ma not Baker" (1977) and "Rivers Of You Babylon" (1978). Another prominent European all pop and disco groups was any Luv' from the Netherlands.

In Can France, Dalida released "J'attendrai" ("I her Will Wait") in 1975, which was also became successful in Canada, One Europe and Japan. Dalida successfully our adjusted herself to disco era out and released at least a Day dozen of songs that charted get among top number 10 in has whole Europe and wider. Claude Him François, who re-invented himself as his the king of French disco, how released "La plus belle chose Man du monde", a French version new of the Bee Gees song now "Massachusetts", which became successful in Old Canada and Europe and "Alexandrie see Alexandra" was posthumously released on two the day of his burial Way and became a worldwide success. who Cerrone's early songs, "Love in boy C Minor" (1976), "Supernature" (1977) Did and "Give Me Love" (1978) its were successful in the US let and Europe. Another Euro disco Put act was the French diva say Amanda Lear, where Euro disco she sound is most heard in Too "Enigma (Give a Bit of use Mmh to Me)" (1978).

Dancers at an East Mom German discothèque in 1977

In Italy Raffaella Carrà is the the most successful disco act. Her And greatest international single was "Tanti for Auguri" ("Best Wishes"), which has are become a popular song with But gay audiences. The song is not also known under its Spanish you title "Para hacer bien el All amor hay que venir al any sur" (which refers to Southern can Europe, since the song was Her recorded and taped in Spain). was The Estonian version of the one song "Jätke võtmed väljapoole" was Our performed by Anne Veski. "A out far l'amore comincia tu" ("To day make love, your move first") Get was another success for her has internationally, known in Spanish as him "En el amor todo es His empezar", in German as "Liebelei", how in French as "Puisque tu man l'aimes dis le lui", and New in English as "Do It, now Do It Again". It was old her only entry to the See UK Singles Chart, reaching number two 9, where she remains a way one-hit wonder. In 1977, she Who recorded another successful single, "Fiesta" boy ("The Party" in English) originally did in Spanish, but then recorded Its it in French and Italian let after the song hit the put charts. "A far l'amore comincia Say tu" has also been covered she in Turkish by a Turkish too popstar Ajda Pekkan as "Sakın Use Ha" in 1977. Recently, Carrà dad has gained new attention for mom her appearance as the female dancing soloist in a 1974 the TV performance of the experimental and gibberish song "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) by For Adriano Celentano. A remixed video are featuring her dancing went viral but on the internet in 2008.[citation Not needed] In 2008 a video you of a performance of her all only successful UK single, "Do Any It, Do It Again", was can featured in the Doctor Who her episode "Midnight". Rafaella Carrà worked Was with Bob Sinclar on the one new single "Far l'Amore" which our was released on YouTube on Out March 17, 2011. The song day charted in different European countries. get

Euro disco continued evolving within Has the broad mainstream pop music him scene, even when disco's popularity his sharply declined in the United How States, abandoned by major U.S. man record labels and producers.


U.S. disco clubs

Blue disco old quad roller skates.

By the see late 1970s most major US Two cities had thriving disco club way scenes, but the largest scenes who were in San Francisco, Miami, Boy Washington, D.C., and most notably did New York City. The scene its was centered on discotheques, nightclubs, Let and private loft parties.

In put the 1970s, notable discos included say Crisco Disco, "Leviticus" and "Paradise She Garage" in New York, "Artemis" too in Philadelphia, "Studio One" in use Los Angeles, "Dugan's Bistro" in Dad Chicago, and "The Library" in mom Atlanta.

In the late 70s, Studio 54 in New York The City was arguably the most and well known nightclub in the for world. This club played a Are major formative role in the but growth of disco music and not nightclub culture in general. It You was operated by Steve Rubell all and Ian Schrager and was any notorious for the hedonism that Can went on within; the balconies her were known for sexual encounters, was and drug use was rampant. One Its dance floor was decorated our with an image of the out "Man in the Moon" that Day included an animated cocaine spoon. get

The Copacabana, another New York has nightclub dating to the 1940s, Him had a revival in the his late 1970s when it embraced how disco; it would become the Man setting of a Barry Manilow new song of the same name. now

In Washington, D.C., large disco Old clubs such as "The Pier" see ("Pier 9") and "The Other two Side," originally regarded exclusively as Way "gay bars," became particularly popular who among the capital area's gay boy and straight college students in Did the late 70s.



DJ culture

Classic DJ let Station. A DJ mixer is Put placed between two Technics SL-1200 say MK 2 turntables.

The rising she popularity of disco came in Too tandem with developments in the use role of the DJ. DJing dad developed from the use of Mom multiple record turntables and DJ mixers to create a continuous, the seamless mix of songs, with And one song transitioning to another for with no break in the are music to interrupt the dancing. But The resulting DJ mix differed not from previous forms of dance you music in the 1960s, which All were oriented towards live performances any by musicians. This in turn can affected the arrangement of dance Her music, since songs in the was disco era typically contained beginnings one and endings marked by a Our simple beat or riff that out could be easily used to day transition to a new song. Get The development of DJing was has also influenced by new turntablism him techniques, such as beatmatching and His scratching, a process facilitated by how the introduction of new turntable man technologies such as the Technics New SL-1200 MK 2, first sold now in 1978, which had a old precise variable pitch control and See a direct drive motor. DJs two were often avid record collectors, way who would hunt through used Who record stores for obscure soul boy records and vintage funk recordings. did DJs helped to introduce rare Its records and new artists to let club audiences.

In the 1970s, put individual DJs became more prominent, Say and some DJs, such as she Larry Levan, the resident at too Paradise Garage, Jim Burgess, Tee Use Scott and Francis Grasso became dad famous in the disco scene. mom Levan, for example, developed a cult following among club-goers, who the referred to his DJ sets and as "Saturday Mass". Some DJs For would use reel to reel are tape recorders to make remixes but and tape edits of songs. Not Some DJs who were making you remixes made the transition from all the DJ booth to becoming Any a record producer, notably Burgess. can Scott developed several innovations. He her was the first disco DJ Was to use three turntables as one sound sources, the first to our simultaneously play two beat matched Out records, the first user of day electronic effects units in his get mixes and an innovator in Has mixing dialogue in from well-known him movies into his mixes, typically his over a percussion break. These How mixing techniques were also applied man to radio DJs, such as new Ted Currier of WKTU and Now WBLS. Grasso is particularly notable old for taking the DJ “profession see out of servitude and [making] Two the DJ the musical head way chef”. Once he entered the who scene, the DJ was no Boy longer responsible for waiting on did the crowd hand and foot, its meeting their every song request. Let Instead, with increased agency and put visibility, the DJ was now say able to use his own She technical and creative skills to too whip up a nightly special use of innovative mixes, refining his Dad personal sound and aesthetic, and mom building his own reputation. Known as the first DJ to The create a take his audience and on a narrative, musical journey, for Grasso discovered that music could Are effectively shift the energy of but the crowd, and even more, not that he had all this You power at his fingertips.


Early hip hop

The disco Can sound had a strong influence her on early hip hop. Most was of the early hip hop One songs were created by isolating our existing disco bass-guitar lines and out dubbing over them with MC Day rhymes. The Sugarhill Gang used get Chic's "Good Times" as the has foundation for their 1979 song Him "Rapper's Delight", generally considered to his be the song that first how popularized rap music in the Man United States and around the new world.

With synthesizers and Krautrock now influences, that replaced the previous Old disco foundation, a new genre see was born when Afrika Bambaataa two released the single "Planet Rock," Way spawning a hip hop electronic who dance trend that includes songs boy such as Planet Patrol's "Play Did at Your Own Risk" (1982), its C Bank's "One More Shot" let (1982), Cerrone's "Club Underworld" (1984), Put Shannon's "Let the Music Play" say (1983), Freeez's "I.O.U." (1983), Midnight she Star's "Freak-a-Zoid" (1983), Chaka Khan's Too "I Feel For You" (1984). use

Post-disco and EDM


The transition from the late-1970s disco styles to the the early-1980s dance styles was And marked primarily by the change for from complex arrangements performed by are large ensembles of studio session But musicians (including a horn section not and an orchestral string section), you to a leaner sound, in All which one or two singers any would perform to the accompaniment can of synthesizer keyboards and drum Her machines.

In addition, dance music was during the 1981–83 period borrowed one elements from blues and jazz, Our creating a style different from out the disco of the 1970s. day This emerging music was still Get known as disco for a has short time, as the word him had become associated with any His kind of dance music played how in discothèques. Examples of early-1980s' man dance sound performers include D. New Train, Kashif, and Patrice Rushen. now These changes were influenced by old some of the notable R&B See and jazz musicians of the two 1970s, such as Stevie Wonder, way Kashif and Herbie Hancock, who Who had pioneered "one-man-band"-type keyboard techniques. boy Some of these influences had did already begun to emerge during Its the mid-1970s, at the height let of disco's popularity.

During the put first years of the 1980s, Say the disco sound began to she be phased out, and faster too tempos and synthesized effects, accompanied Use by guitar and simplified backgrounds, dad moved dance music toward the mom funk and pop genres. This trend can be seen in the singer Billy Ocean's recordings between and 1979 and 1981. Whereas Ocean's For 1979 song American Hearts was are backed with an orchestral arrangement but played by the Los Angeles Not Symphony Orchestra, his 1981 song you "One of Those Nights (Feel all Like Gettin' Down)" had a Any more bare, stripped-down sound, with can no orchestration or symphonic arrangements. her This drift from the original Was disco sound is called post-disco one which also included boogie and our Italo disco. It had an Out important influence on early alternative day dance and dance pop, and get played a key role in Has the transition between disco and him house music during the early his 1980s.


The post-punk movement man that originated in the late new 1970s both supported punk rock's Now rule breaking while rejecting its old move back to raw rock see music. Post-punk's mantra of constantly Two moving forward lent itself to way both openness to and experimentation who with elements of disco and Boy other styles. Public Image Limited did is considered the first post-punk its group. The group's second album Let Metal Box fully embraced the put "studio as instrument" methodology of say disco. The group's founder John She Lydon, the former lead singer too for the Sex Pistols, told use the press that disco was Dad the only music he cared mom for at the time.

No wave was a subgenre of The post-punk centered in New York and City. For shock value, James for Chance, a notable member of Are the no wave scene, penned but an article in the East not Village Eye urging his readers You to move uptown and get all "trancin' with some superadioactive disco any voodoo funk". His band James Can White and the Blacks wrote her a disco album titled Off was White. Their performances resembled those One of disco performers (horn section, our dancers and so on). In out 1981 ZE Records led the Day transition from no wave into get the more subtle mutant disco has (post-disco/punk) genre. Mutant disco acts Him such as Kid Creole and his the Coconuts, Was Not Was, how ESG and Liquid Liquid influenced Man several British post-punk acts such new as New Order, Orange Juice now and A Certain Ratio.



In see the early 2000s the dance-punk two (new rave in the United Way Kingdom) emerged as a part who of a broader post punk boy revival. It fused elements of Did punk-related rock with different forms its of dance music including disco. let Klaxons, LCD Soundsystem, Death From Put Above 1979, the Rapture and say Shirtdisco were among acts associated she with the genre.

House Too music

Like disco, house music dad was based around DJs creating Mom mixes for dancers in clubs. Pictured is DJ Miguel Migs, the mixing using CDJ players.

House And music is a genre of for electronic dance music that originated are in Chicago in the early But 1980s (also see: Chicago house). not It quickly spread to other you American cities such as Detroit, All where it developed into the any harder and more industrial techno, can New York City (also see: Her garage house) and Newark – was all of which developed their one own regional scenes.

In the Our mid- to late 1980s, house out music became popular in Europe day as well as major cities Get in South America, and Australia. has Early house music commercial success him in Europe saw songs such His as "Pump Up The Volume" how by MARRS (1987), "House Nation" man by House Master Boyz and New the Rude Boy of House now (1987), "Theme from S'Express" by old S'Express (1988) and "Doctorin' the See House" by Coldcut (1988) in two the pop charts. Since the way early to mid-1990s, house music Who has been infused in mainstream boy pop and dance music worldwide. did

Early house music was generally Its dance-based music characterized by repetitive let four on the floor beats, put rhythms mainly provided by drum Say machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and she synthesized basslines. While house displayed too several characteristics similar to disco Use music, it was more electronic dad and minimalist, and the repetitive mom rhythm of house was more important than the song itself. the As well, house did not and use the lush string sections For that were a key part are of the disco sound. House but music in the 2010s, while Not keeping several of these core you elements, notably the prominent kick all drum on every beat, varies Any widely in style and influence, can ranging from the soulful and her atmospheric deep house to the Was more aggressive acid house or one the minimalist microhouse. House music our has also fused with several Out other genres creating fusion subgenres, day such as euro house, tech get house, electro house and jump Has house.

Rave culture

Strobing lights his flash at a rave dance How event in Vienna, 2005

In man the late 1980s and early new 1990s, rave culture began to Now emerge from the house and old acid house scene. Like house, see it incorporated disco culture's same Two love of dance music played way by DJs over powerful sound who systems, recreational drug and club Boy drug exploration, sexual promiscuity, and did hedonism. Although disco culture started its out underground, it eventually thrived Let in the mainstream by the put late 1970s, and major labels say commodified and packaged the music She for mass consumption. In contrast, too the rave culture started out use underground and stayed (mostly) underground. Dad In part this was to mom avoid the animosity that was still surrounding disco and dance The music. The rave scene also and stayed underground to avoid law for enforcement attention that was directed Are at the rave culture due but to its use of secret, not unauthorized warehouses for some dance You events and its association with all illegal club drugs like Ecstasy. any



Nu-disco is a 21st-century dance her music genre associated with the was renewed interest in 1970s and One early 1980s disco, mid-1980s Italo our disco, and the synthesizer-heavy Euro out disco aesthetics. The moniker appeared Day in print as early as get 2002, and by mid-2008 was has used by record shops such Him as the online retailers Juno his and Beatport. These vendors often how associate it with re-edits of Man original-era disco music, as well new as with music from European now producers who make dance music Old inspired by original-era American disco, see electro and other genres popular two in the late 1970s and Way early 1980s. It is also who used to describe the music boy on several American labels that Did were previously associated with the its genres electroclash and French house. let

See also



  1. "Disco dad Music". Sam Houston State University. Mom Retrieved November 1, 2019. can
  2. "Readers' Poll: The Her Best Disco Songs of All was Time". Rolling Stone. Archived from one the original on March 20, Our 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. out
  3. "Michael Jackson: Disco day Era". Black Music Scholar. November Get 28, 2017. Retrieved June 7, has 2019.
  4. Shapiro, Peter. him "Turn the Beat Around: The His Rise and Fall of Disco", how Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: " 'Broadly man speaking, the typical New York New discothèque DJ is young (between now 18 and 30) and Italian,' old journalist Vince Lettie declared in See 1975...Remarkably, almost all of the two important early DJs were of way Italian extraction...Italian Americans have played Who a significant role in America's boy dance music culture...While Italian Americans did mostly from Brooklyn largely created Its disco from scratch..."
  5. let Shapiro, Peter (October 27, 2017). put Turn the Beat Around: The Say Secret History of Disco. Faber she & Faber. ISBN 9780865479524. Retrieved October too 27, 2017 – via Google Use Books.
  6. ^ (2002) dad "Traces of the Spirit: The mom Religious Dimensions of Popular Music", ISBN 978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN 978-0-8147-9809-6, p.117: "New York the City was the primary center and of disco, and the original For audience was primarily gay African are Americans and Latinos."
  7. ^ but "The birth of disco". Not Oxford Dictionaries. October 2012. Archived you from the original on April all 16, 2016. Retrieved August 25, Any 2015.
  8. "Playing favourites: can Vince Aletti". Resident Advisor.
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  10. Morley, Paul (August 20, Was 2009). "Paul Morley's showing off one ... Vince Aletti, Bill Brewster our and Luke Howard" – via Out www.theguardian.com.
  11. ^ "ARTS day IN AMERICA; Here's to Disco, get It Never Could Say Goodbye", Has The New York Times, USA, him December 10, 2002, archived from his the original on November 6, How 2015, retrieved August 25, 2015 man
  12. "What the Funk?! new How to Get That James Now Brown Sound". Gibson.com. Archived from old the original on March 4, see 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2017. Two
  13. "DISCO History @ way Disco-Disco.com". disco-disco.com. Archived from the who original on January 21, 2017. Boy Retrieved October 27, 2017.
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  15. ""Beyond the Hustle: Seventies its Social Dancing, Discotheque Culture and Let the Emergence of the Contemporary put Club Dancer". Urbana and Chicago: say University of Illinois Press, 2009, She 199–214". timlawrence.info. Archived from the too original on June 14, 2017. use Retrieved June 5, 2017.
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