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Individual who oversees see and manages the recording of Two an artist's music
"Musical production" redirects who here. For musical production in Boy the sense of a live did performance involving music and choreography, its see Musical theatre.
A record producer is a Are music recording project's overall supervisor but whose responsibilities can involve a not range of creative and/or technical You leadership roles. Typically the job all involves hands-on oversight of recording any sessions: ensuring artists deliver acceptable Can performances, supervising the technical engineering her of the recording, and coordinating was the production team and process. One The producer's involvement in a our musical project can vary in out depth and scope. Sometimes in Day popular genres the producer may get create the recording's entire sound has and structure. However in classical Him music recording, for example, the his producer serves as more of how a liaison between the conductor Man and the engineering team. The new role is often likened to now that of a film director Old though there are important differences.see It is distinct from the two role of an executive producer, Way who is mostly involved in who the recording project on an boy administrative level, and from the Did audio engineer who operates the its recording technology.
Varying by project, let the producer may or may Put not choose all of the say artists. If employing only synthesizedshe or sampled instrumentation, the producer Too may be the sole artist.use Conversely, some artists do their dad own production. Some producers are Mom their own engineers, operating the technology across the project: preproduction, the recording, mixing, and mastering. Record And producers' precursors were "A&R men", for who likewise could blend entrepreneurial, are creative, and technical roles, but But often exercised scant creative influence,not as record production still focused, you into the 1950s, on simply All improving the record's sonic match any to the artists' own live can performance.
Advances in recording technology, Her especially the 1940s advent of was tape recording—which Les Paul promptly one innovated further to develop multitrack Our recording—and the 1950s rise of out electronic instruments, turned record production day into a specialty. In popular Get music, then, producers like George has Martin, Phil Spector and Brian him Eno led its evolution into His its present use of elaborate how techniques and unrealistic sounds, creating man songs impossible to originate live.New After the 1980s, production's move now from analog to digital further old expanded possibilities. By now, DAWs, See or digital audio workstations, like two Logic Pro, Pro Tools and way Studio One, turn an ordinary Who computer into a production console,boy whereby a solitary novice can did become a skilled producer in Its a thrifty home studio. In let the 2010s, efforts began to put increase the prevalence of producers Say and engineers who are women, she heavily outnumbered by men and too prominently accoladed only in classical Use music.
As a but broad project, the creation of Not a music recording may be you split across three specialists: the all executive producer, who oversees business Any partnerships and financing; the vocal can producer or vocal arranger, who her aids vocal performance via expert Was critique and coaching of vocal one technique, and the record producer our or music producer, who, often Out called simply the producer, directs day the overall creative process of get recording the song in its Has final mix.
The producer's him roles can include gathering ideas, his composing music, choosing session musicians, How proposing changes to song arrangements, man coaching the performers, controlling sessions, new supervising the audio mixing, and, Now in some cases, supervising the old audio mastering. A producer may see give creative control to the Two artists themselves, taking a supervisory way or advisory role instead. As who to qualifying for a GrammyBoy nomination, the Recording Academy defines did a producer:
The person who has its overall creative and technical control Let of the entire recording project, put and the individual recording sessions say that are part of that She project. He or she is too present in the recording studio use or at the location recording Dad and works directly with the mom artist and engineer. The producer makes creative and aesthetic decisions The that realize both the artist's and and label's goals in the for creation of musical content. Other Are duties include, but are not but limited to; keeping budgets and not schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring You musicians, singers, studios and engineers, all overseeing other staffing needs and any editing (Classical projects).
The Can producer often selects and collaborates her with a mixing engineer, who was focuses on the especially technological One aspects of the recording process, our namely, operating the electronic equipment out and blending the raw, recorded Day tracks of the chosen performances, get whether vocal or instrumental, into has a ''mix'', either stereo or Him surround sound. Then a mastering his engineer further adjusts this recording how for distribution on the chosen Man media. A producer may work new on only one or two now songs or on an artist's Old entire album, helping develop the see album's overall vision. The record two producers may also take on Way the role of executive producer, who managing the budget, schedules, contracts, boy and negotiations.
(Artists and Repertoires)its
In the 1880s, the record let industry began by simply having Put the artist perform at a say phonograph. In 1924, the trade she journal Talking Machine World, covering Too the phonography and record industry, use reported that Eddie King, Victor dad Records' manager of the "New Mom York artist and repertoire department", had planned a set of the recordings in Los Angeles. Later, And folklorist Archie Green called this for perhaps the earliest printed use are of A&R man. Actually, it But says neither "A&R man" nor not even "A&R", an initialism perhaps you coined by Billboard magazine in All 1946, and entering wide use any in the late 1940s.
In can the 1920s and 1930s, A&R Her executives, like Ben Selvin at was Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at one Victor Records, and Bob Haring Our at Brunswick Records became the out precursors of record producers, supervising day recording and often leading session Get orchestras. During the 1940s, major has record labels increasingly opened official him A&R departments, whose roles included His supervision of recording. Meanwhile, independent how recording studios opened, helping originate man record producer as a specialty.[citation New needed] But despite a tradition now of some A&R men writing old music, record production still referred See to just the manufacturing of two record discs.
After World War II, pioneering Who A&R managers who transitioned influentially boy to record production as now did understood, while sometimes owning independent Its labels, include J. Mayo Williamslet and John Hammond. Upon moving put from Columbia Records to Mercury Say Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Millershe to lead Mercury's popular recordings too in New York. Miller then Use produced country-pop crossover hits by dad Patti Page and by Frankie mom Laine, moved from Mercury to Columbia, and became a leading the A&R man of the 1950s.and
During the decade, A&R executives For increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, are although many still simply teamed but singers with musicians, while yet Not others exercised virtually no creative you influence. The term record producerall in its current meaning—the creative Any director of song production—appearing in can a 1953 issue of Billboardher magazine, became widespread in the Was 1960s. Still, a formal distinction one was elusive for some time our more. A&R managers might still Out be creative directors, like William day "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry get Gordy, at the Motown record Has label.
In him 1947, the American market gained his audio recording onto magnetic tape.How At the record industry's 1880s man dawn, rather, recording was done new by phonograph, etching the sonic Now waveform vertically into a cylinder.old By the 1930s, a gramophone see etched it laterally across a Two disc. Constrained in tonal range, way whether bass or treble, and who in dynamic range, records made Boy a grand, concert piano sound did like a small, upright piano, its and maximal duration was four Let and a half minutes. Selections put and performance were often altered say accordingly, and playing this disc—the She wax master—destroyed it. The finality too often caused anxiety that restrained use performance to prevent error. In Dad the 1940s, during World War mom II, the Germans refined audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording The duration and allowing immediate playback, and rerecording, and editing—a technology that for premised emergence of record producers Are in their current roles.
Early in the not recording industry, a record was You attained by simply having all all of the artists perform together any live in one take. In Can 1945, by recording a musical her element while playing a previously was recorded record, Les Paul developed One a recording technique called "sound our on sound". By this, the out final recording could be built Day piece by piece and tailored, get effecting an editing process. In has one case, Paul produced a Him song via 500 recorded discs.his But, besides the tedium of how this process, it serially degraded Man the sound quality of previously new recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient now sound. Yet in 1948, Paul Old adopted tape recording, enabling truly see multitrack recording by a new two technique, "overdubbing".
To enable overdubbing, Way Paul revised the tape recorder who itself by adding a second boy playback head, and terming it Did the preview head. Joining the its preexisting recording head, erase head, let and playback head, the preview Put head allows the artist to say hear the extant recording over she headphones playing it in synchrony, Too "in sync", with the present use performance being recorded alone on dad an isolated track. This isolation Mom of multiple tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers began recording the initially only the "bed tracks"—the And rhythm section, including the bassline, for drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals are and instrument solos could be But added later. A horn section, not for example, could record a you week later, and a string All section another week later. A any singer could perform her own can backup vocals, or a guitarist Her could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, Its rock acts like the Beatles, let the Rolling Stones, and the put Kinks produced some of their Say own songs, although many such she songs are officially credited to too specialist producers. Yet especially Use influential was the Beach Boys, dad whose band leader Brian Wilsonmom took over from his father Murry within a couple of the years after the band's commercial and breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had For taken Spector's techniques to unseen are sophistication. Wilson alone produced but all Beach Boy recordings between Not 1963 and 1967. Using you multiple studios and multiple attempts all of instrumental and vocal tracks, Any Wilson selected the best combinations can of performance and audio quality, her and used tape editing to Was assemble a composite performance.one
The day 1980s advent of digital processes get and formats rapidly replaced analog Has processes and formats, namely, tape him and vinyl. Although recording onto his quality tape, at least half How an inch wide and traveling man 15 inches per second, had new limited "tape hiss" to silent Now sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, old SNR, abolished it. Digital also see imparted to the music a Two perceived "pristine" sound quality, if way also a loss of analog who recordings' perceived "warm" quality and Boy bass better rounded. Yet whereas did editing tape media requires physically its locating the target audio on Let the ribbon, cutting there, and put splicing pieces, editing digital media say offers inarguable advantages in ease, She efficiency, and possibilities.
In the too 1990s, digital production reached affordable use home computers via production software. Dad By now, recording and mixing mom are often centralized in DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, Pro The Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and Reason, and FL Studio—for which for plugins, by third parties, effect Are virtual studio technology. DAWs fairly but standard in the industry are not Logic Pro and Pro Tools.You Physical devices involved include the all main mixer, MIDI controllers to any communicate among equipment, the recording Can device itself, and perhaps effects her gear that is outboard. Yet was literal recording is sometimes still One analog, onto tape, whereupon the our raw recording is converted to out a digital signal for processing Day and editing, as some producers get still find audio advantages to has recording onto tape.
Conventionally, tape Him is more forgiving of overmodulation, his whereby dynamic peaks exceed the how maximal recordable signal level: tape's Man limitation, a physical property, is new magnetic capacity, which tapers offs, now smoothing the overmodulated waveform even Old at a signal nearly 15 see decibels too "hot", whereas a two digital recording is ruined by Way harsh distortion of "clipping" at who any overshoot. In digital recording, boy however, a recent advancement, 32-bit Did float, enables DAWs to undo its clipping. Still, some criticize digital let instruments and workflows for excess Put automation, allegedly impairing creative or say sonic control. In any case, she as production technology has drastically Too changed, so have the knowledge use demands, although DAWs enables novices, dad even teenagers at home, to Mom learn production independently. Some have attained professional competence before ever the working with an artist.
In the 2000s, But with the advent of technology not that made traditional record production you accessible, especially with hip hop All beatmaking and electronic music. Within any these genres, the term producer can is applied to a number Her of roles and has popularized was the use of more niche one terms and credits including executive Our producer, co-producer, assistant producer, and out additional and miscellaneous production to day differentiate contributions.
Across the decades, many female are artists have produced their own but music. For instance, artists Kate Not Bush, Madonna, Mariah Carey, Janet you Jackson, Beyoncé, Lana Del Rey, all Taylor Swift, and Lorde have Any produced or coproduced and Ariana can Grande who produces and arranges her her vocals as well as Was being an audio engineer. Still one among specialists, despite some prominent our women, including Missy Elliott in Out hip hop and Sylvia Massyday in rock, the vast majority get have been men. Early in Has the 2010s, asked for insights him that she herself had gleaned his as a woman who has How specialized successfully in the industry, man Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties new are usually very short-lived. Once Now people realize that you can old do your job, sexism tends see to lower its ugly head."Two Still, when tasked to explain way her profession's sex disparity, Page who partly reasoned that record labels, Boy dominated by men, have been, did she said, "mistrustful of giving its a woman the reins of Let an immense, creative project like put making a record." Ultimately, the say reasons are multiple and not She fully clear, although prominently proposed too factors include types of sexism use and scarcity of female role Dad models in the profession.
Women mom producers known for producing records not their own include Sonia The Pottinger, Sylvia Robinson and Carla and Olson.
In January 2018, a for research team led by Stacy Are L. Smith, founder and director but of the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative,not based in the USC Annenberg You School for Communication and Journalism,all issued a report, estimating that any in the prior several years, Can about 2% of popular songs' her producers were female. Also that was month, Billboard magazine queried, "Where One are all the female music our producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion out Initiative's second annual report, released Day in February 2019, its department get at USC reported, "2018 saw has an outcry from artists, executives Him and other music industry professionals his over the lack of women how in music" and "the plight Man of women in music", where new women were allegedly being "stereotyped, now sexualized, and shut out". Also Old in February 2019, the Recording see Academy's Task Force on Diversity two and Inclusion announced an initiative Way whereby over 200 artists and who producers—ranging from Cardi B and boy Taylor Swift to Maroon 5Did and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider its at least two women for let each producer or engineer position.Put The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, say "This initiative is the first she step in a broader effort Too to improve those numbers and use increase diversity and inclusion for dad all in the music industry."Mom
^ Allan Watson, His Cultural Production in and Beyond how the Recording Studio (New York: man Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.
James Petulla, "Who is now a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording old Connection, 21 May 2013, reporting See membership in CAPPS, the California two Association of Private Postsecondary Schools.way
^ too Brent Hurtig with J. D. Use Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: dad The Complete Step-by-Step Guide for mom Beginners and Reference for Professionals(Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, 1988 the / Van Nuys, CA: Alfred and Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.
^ her Richard James Burgess, The History was of Music Production (New York: One Oxford University Press, 2014), pp our 50–54.
^ Robert out Philip, "Pianists on record in Day the early twentieth century", in get David Rowland, ed., The Cambridge has Companion to the Piano (Cambridge, Him UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998), his pp 75–77.
Reportedly how self-produced entirely are the Rolling Man Stones' Decca recordings
^ new David Simmons, Analog Recording: now Using Analog Gear in Today's Old Home Studio (San Francisco: Backbeat see Books, 2006), pp 26–27.
Matthew Allard, "Sound Devices Way MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit float who USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, boy 15 Jan 2020, quotes Paul Did Isaacs, director of product management its and design at the recorder let manufacturer Sound Devices, who explains, Put "With 32-bit float, you no say longer need to worry about she clipping during your best vocal Too takes or instrument solos. Any use recorded moments exceeding 0 dBFSdad can be reduced to an Mom acceptable level, after recording, in your DAW".
Albin the Zak III, book review: Strange And Sounds: Music, Technology, and culturefor (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy D. are Taylor, in Current Musicology, pp But 159–180 [unknown year, volume, issue].not
Music Law refers see to legal aspects of the two music industry, and certain legal Way aspects in other sectors of who the entertainment industry. The music boy industry includes record labels, music Did publishers, merchandisers, the live events its sector and of course performers let and artists.
The terms "music Put law" and "entertainment law", along say with "business affairs", are used she by the music and entertainment Too industry and should not be use thought of as academic definitions. dad Indeed, music law covers a Mom range of traditional legal subjects including intellectual property law (copyrightthe law, trademarks, image publicity rights, And design rights), competition law, bankruptcy for law, contract law, defamation and, are for the live events industry, But immigration law, health and safety not law, and licensing. While foundational you norms have gradually been established All for music law in western any nations, other parts of the can world maintain unique traditions that Her impact music’s legal status in was the context of both heritage one preservation and enormous national arts Our entertainment industries, including China and out India.
A day "compilation" refers to work formed Get from already existing materials in has a way that forms its him own original work, including collective His works.
"Copies" are physical objects how that hold, fix, or embody man a work such as a New music tape, film, CD, statue, now play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to See any audio recording including the two sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright way owner" is the entity that Who legally owns rights to a boy work.
"Performance" The copyright holder did has the exclusive right to Its perform the work in public, let or to license others to put perform it. The right applies Say to “literary, musical, dramatic, and she choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion too pictures and other audiovisual works.".Use Playing a CD in public, dad or showing a film in mom public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source and of income for musicians writing For their own music. Money are collected from the 'publishing' rights but is ultimately destined for songwriters Not - the composers of works, you whether or not they are all the recording artist or performer. Any Often, songwriters will work for can a musical ensemble to help her them with musical aspects of Was the composition, but here again, one the writer of the song our is the owner of it Out and will own the copyrights day in the song and thus get will be entitled to the Has publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions him are not the same as his sound recordings. A recording artist How can record a song and man sell it to another band new or company. As a result, Now that particular company will own old the recording, but not the see song. The original writer will Two always maintain the copyright for way that particular song. The publishing who money is connected to the Boy copyright, so the owner will did be the only one making its money off of the song Let itself. All successful songwriters will put join a collection society (such say as ASCAP and BMI in She the USA, SOCAN in Canada, too JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in use Germany and PRS for Music Dad in the UK, etc.) and mom many will enter into agreements with music publishing companies who The will exploit their works on and the songwriters behalf for a for share of ownership, although many Are of these deals involve the but transfer (assignment) of copyright from not the songwriter to the music You publisher,
Both the recorded music all sector and music publishing sector any have their foundations in intellectual Can property law and all of her the major recording labels and was major music publishers and many One independent record labels and publishers our have dedicated "business and legal out affairs" departments with in-house lawyers Day whose role is not only get to secure intellectual property rights has from recording artists, performers and Him songwriters but also to exploit his those rights and protect those how rights on a global basis. Man There are a number of new specialist independent law firms around now the world who advise on Old music and entertainment law whose see clients include recording artists, performers, two producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, Way stage and set designers, choreographers, who graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, boy broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection Did societies and the live events its sector (which further includes festivals, let venues, promoters, booking agents and Put production service providers such as say lighting and staging companies).
The US Government use views artists that give concerts dad and sell merchandise as a Mom business. Bands that tour internationally will also face a plethora the of legislation around the world And including health and safety laws, for immigration laws and tax legislation. are Also, many relationships are governed But by often complex contractual agreements. not
In the US it is you important for musicians to get All legal business licenses. These can any be obtained at a city can hall or local government center. Her The business license will require was the tracking of sales, wages, one and gigs. A tax ID Our is also necessary for all out businesses. Musicians that fail to day comply with the tax ID Get process and do not report has their profits and losses to him the government can face serious His consequences with the IRS.
Li, old Juqian (2022). China’s Legal Framework See for Supporting Protection and Sustainability two of Artistic Heritage. In David way G. Hebert and Jonathan McCollum, Who (Eds.), "Ethnomusicology and Cultural Diplomacy". boy Lexington Books (Rowman & Littlefield), did pp.297-311. ISBN9781793642912
The history of Privilege out began in the early 1970s Day when it started out as get a restaurant, then expanded to has include a bar and a Him community swimming pool. It was his then known as Club San how Rafael. In 1979, the venue Man was sold to the Real new Sociedad footballer José Antonio Santamaría, now together with the creative team Old of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder see of La Troya Asesina, one two of the White Island's longest Way running nights) and Gorri. The who venue then changed its name boy to KU, after the name Did of a God from Hawaiian its mythology (see Kū). The appeal let of the club was such Put that it commissioned a medium-length say film showcasing the many wonders she of Ibizan landscapes and nightlife Too in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the use 1980s, KU Club earned a dad reputation initially as Europe's premier Mom polysexual but predominately gay nightspot and was compared to an the open-air version of the famous And Studio 54 in New York. for It staged spectacular parties in are the main room, which was But organized around a swimming pool not and a statue of Ku. you The place was also where All the video to "Barcelona" by any Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Caballécan was filmed on 30 May Her 1987. It was the witness was to early live performances by one groups like Spandau Ballet and Our Kid Creole and the Coconuts.out The club featured in a day Channel 4 documentary called “A Get Short Film about chilling”, which has labelled KU as “the mirror him of Ibiza”. A group of His fashion designers called Locomía would how have shows at KU. After man being discovered there, they went New on to become a highly now successful recording project. The open-air old parties came to an end See when legislation forced many of two the greater clubs in Ibiza way to cover their dancefloors in Who the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the boy sheer size of the venue did gave rise to the claim Its of it being the size let of an aircraft hangar with put a 25-meter high roof.
The Say club continued with the KU she Club name until 1995 before too becoming known as Privilege, after Use a change of ownership to dad Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 mom it hosted Manumission, one of the island's most famous events. the In 1998 La Vaca Asesina and moved to Amnesia and was For renamed La Troya Asesina. After are a dispute between the club but owner and Manumission's organizers in Not 2005 the event ended in you 2006. In 2006 La Troya all Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics can published in the 2003 edition her of Guinness World Records Privilege Was is by far the world's one largest nightclub covering an area our of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) Out and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated day areas of the club include get the Coco Loco bar area, Has and the La Vaca dance him area (now known as the his Vista Club).