From a the page move: This is a and redirect from a page that For has been moved (renamed). This are page was kept as a but redirect to avoid breaking links, Not both internal and external, that you may have been made to all the old page name.
Individual Any who oversees and manages the can recording of an artist's music
"Musical Was production" redirects here. For musical one production in the sense of our a live performance involving musicOut and choreography, see Musical theatre.
A record producerway is a music recording project's who overall supervisor whose responsibilities can Boy involve a range of creative did and/or technical leadership roles. Typically its the job involves hands-on oversight Let of recording sessions: ensuring artists put deliver acceptable performances, supervising the say technical engineering of the recording, She and coordinating the production team too and process. The producer's involvement use in a musical project can Dad vary in depth and scope. mom Sometimes in popular genres the producer may create the recording's The entire sound and structure. However and in classical music recording, for for example, the producer serves as Are more of a liaison between but the conductor and the engineering not team. The role is often You likened to that of a all film director though there are any important differences. It is distinct Can from the role of an her executive producer, who is mostly was involved in the recording project One on an administrative level, and our from the audio engineer who out operates the recording technology.
Varying Day by project, the producer may get or may not choose all has of the artists. If employing Him only synthesized or sampled instrumentation, his the producer may be the how sole artist. Conversely, some artists Man do their own production. Some new producers are their own engineers,now operating the technology across the Old project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and see mastering. Record producers' precursors were two "A&R men", who likewise could Way blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical who roles, but often exercised scant boy creative influence, as record production Did still focused, into the 1950s, its on simply improving the record's let sonic match to the artists' Put own live performance.
Advances in say recording technology, especially the 1940s she advent of tape recording—which Les Too Paul promptly innovated further to use develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s dad rise of electronic instruments, turned Mom record production into a specialty.In popular music, then, producers the like George Martin, Phil SpectorAnd and Brian Eno led its for evolution into its present use are of elaborate techniques and unrealistic But sounds, creating songs impossible to not originate live. After the 1980s, you production's move from analog to All digital further expanded possibilities. By any now, DAWs, or digital audio can workstations, like Logic Pro, Pro Her Tools and Studio One, turn was an ordinary computer into a one production console, whereby a solitary Our novice can become a skilled out producer in a thrifty home day studio. In the 2010s, efforts Get began to increase the prevalence has of producers and engineers who him are women, heavily outnumbered by His men and prominently accoladed only how in classical music.
As a broad project, the boy creation of a music recording did may be split across three Its specialists: the executive producer, who let oversees business partnerships and financing; put the vocal producer or vocal Say arranger, who aids vocal performance she via expert critique and coaching too of vocal technique, and the Use record producer or music producer, dad who, often called simply the mom producer, directs the overall creative process of recording the song the in its final mix.
and The producer's roles can include For gathering ideas, composing music, choosing are session musicians, proposing changes to but song arrangements, coaching the performers, Not controlling sessions, supervising the audio you mixing, and, in some cases, all supervising the audio mastering. A Any producer may give creative control can to the artists themselves, taking her a supervisory or advisory role Was instead. As to qualifying for one a Grammy nomination, the Recording our Academy defines a producer:
The person Out who has overall creative and day technical control of the entire get recording project, and the individual Has recording sessions that are part him of that project. He or his she is present in the How recording studio or at the man location recording and works directly new with the artist and engineer. Now The producer makes creative and old aesthetic decisions that realize both see the artist's and label's goals Two in the creation of musical way content. Other duties include, but who are not limited to; keeping Boy budgets and schedules, adhering to did deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios its and engineers, overseeing other staffing Let needs and editing (Classical projects). put
The producer often selects say and collaborates with a mixing She engineer, who focuses on the too especially technological aspects of the use recording process, namely, operating the Dad electronic equipment and blending the mom raw, recorded tracks of the chosen performances, whether vocal or The instrumental, into a ''mix'', either and stereo or surround sound. Then for a mastering engineer further adjusts Are this recording for distribution on but the chosen media. A producer not may work on only one You or two songs or on all an artist's entire album, helping any develop the album's overall vision. Can The record producers may also her take on the role of was executive producer, managing the budget, One schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
(Artists out and Repertoires)
In the 1880s, Day the record industry began by get simply having the artist perform has at a phonograph. In 1924, Him the trade journal Talking Machine his World, covering the phonography and how record industry, reported that Eddie Man King, Victor Records' manager of new the "New York artist and now repertoire department", had planned a Old set of recordings in Los see Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Greentwo called this perhaps the earliest Way printed use of A&R man.who Actually, it says neither "A&R boy man" nor even "A&R", an Did initialism perhaps coined by Billboardits magazine in 1946, and entering let wide use in the late Put 1940s.
In the 1920s and say 1930s, A&R executives, like Ben she Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Too Shilkret at Victor Records, and use Bob Haring at Brunswick Recordsdad became the precursors of record Mom producers, supervising recording and often leading session orchestras. During the the 1940s, major record labels increasingly And opened official A&R departments, whose for roles included supervision of recording.are Meanwhile, independent recording studios opened, But helping originate record producer as not a specialty. But despite you a tradition of some A&R All men writing music, record productionany still referred to just the can manufacturing of record discs.
After World War was II, pioneering A&R managers who one transitioned influentially to record production Our as now understood, while sometimes out owning independent labels, include J. day Mayo Williams and John Hammond.Get Upon moving from Columbia Records has to Mercury Records, Hammond appointed him Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's His popular recordings in New York.how Miller then produced country-pop crossover man hits by Patti Page and New by Frankie Laine, moved from now Mercury to Columbia, and became old a leading A&R man of See the 1950s.
During the decade, two A&R executives increasingly directed songs' way sonic signatures, although many still Who simply teamed singers with musicians, boy while yet others exercised virtually did no creative influence. The term Its record producer in its current let meaning—the creative director of song put production—appearing in a 1953 issue Say of Billboard magazine, became widespread she in the 1960s. Still, a too formal distinction was elusive for Use some time more. A&R managers dad might still be creative directors, mom like William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry Gordy, at the the Motown record label.
Tape and recording
In 1947, the American For market gained audio recording onto are magnetic tape. At the record but industry's 1880s dawn, rather, recording Not was done by phonograph, etching you the sonic waveform vertically intoall a cylinder. By the 1930s, Any a gramophone etched it laterally can across a disc. Constrained in her tonal range, whether bass or Was treble, and in dynamic range, one records made a grand, concert our piano sound like a small, Out upright piano, and maximal duration day was four and a half get minutes. Selections and performance were Has often altered accordingly, and playing him this disc—the wax master—destroyed it.his The finality often caused anxiety How that restrained performance to prevent man error. In the 1940s, during new World War II, the Germans Now refined audio recording onto magnetic old tape—uncapping recording duration and allowing see immediate playback, rerecording, and editing—a Two technology that premised emergence of way record producers in their current who roles.
Early Boy in the recording industry, a did record was attained by simply its having all of the artists Let perform together live in one put take. In 1945, by recording say a musical element while playing She a previously recorded record, Les too Paul developed a recording technique use called "sound on sound". By Dad this, the final recording could mom be built piece by piece and tailored, effecting an editing The process. In one case, Paul and produced a song via 500 for recorded discs. But, besides the Are tedium of this process, it but serially degraded the sound quality not of previously recorded elements, rerecorded You as ambient sound. Yet in all 1948, Paul adopted tape recording, any enabling truly multitrack recording by Can a new technique, "overdubbing".
To her enable overdubbing, Paul revised the was tape recorder itself by adding One a second playback head, and our terming it the preview head.out Joining the preexisting recording head, Day erase head, and playback head, get the preview head allows the has artist to hear the extant Him recording over headphones playing it his in synchrony, "in sync", with how the present performance being recorded Man alone on an isolated track.new This isolation of multiple tracks now enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers Old began recording initially only the see "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, including two the bassline, drums, and rhythm Way guitar—whereas vocals and instrument solos who could be added later. A boy horn section, for example, could Did record a week later, and its a string section another week let later. A singer could perform Put her own backup vocals, or say a guitarist could play 15 she layers.
In out the 1960s, rock acts like day the Beatles, the Rolling Stones,Get and the Kinks produced some has of their own songs, although him many such songs are officially His credited to specialist producers.how Yet especially influential was the man Beach Boys, whose band leader New Brian Wilson took over from now his father Murry within a old couple of years after the See band's commercial breakthrough. By 1964, two Wilson had taken Spector's techniques way to unseen sophistication. Wilson Who alone produced all Beach Boy boy recordings between 1963 and 1967.[citation did needed] Using multiple studios and Its multiple attempts of instrumental and let vocal tracks, Wilson selected the put best combinations of performance and Say audio quality, and used tape she editing to assemble a composite too performance.
The 1980s advent of digital processes and formats rapidly the replaced analog processes and formats, and namely, tape and vinyl. Although For recording onto quality tape, at are least half an inch wide but and traveling 15 inches per Not second, had limited "tape hiss" you to silent sections, digital's higher all signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, abolished it.Any Digital also imparted to the can music a perceived "pristine" sound her quality, if also a loss Was of analog recordings' perceived "warm" one quality and bass better rounded.our Yet whereas editing tape media Out requires physically locating the target day audio on the ribbon, cutting get there, and splicing pieces, editing Has digital media offers inarguable advantages him in ease, efficiency, and possibilities. his
In the 1990s, digital production How reached affordable home computers via man production software. By now, recording new and mixing are often centralized Now in DAWs, digital audio workstations—for old example, Pro Tools, Logic Pro, see Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and FL Two Studio—for which plugins, by third way parties, effect virtual studio technology.who DAWs fairly standard in the Boy industry are Logic Pro and did Pro Tools. Physical devices involved its include the main mixer, MIDILet controllers to communicate among equipment, put the recording device itself, and say perhaps effects gear that is She outboard. Yet literal recording is too sometimes still analog, onto tape, use whereupon the raw recording is Dad converted to a digital signalmom for processing and editing, as some producers still find audio The advantages to recording onto tape.and
Conventionally, tape is more forgiving for of overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks Are exceed the maximal recordable signal but level: tape's limitation, a physical not property, is magnetic capacity, which You tapers offs, smoothing the overmodulated all waveform even at a signal any nearly 15 decibels too "hot", Can whereas a digital recording is her ruined by harsh distortion of was "clipping" at any overshoot. In One digital recording, however, a recent our advancement, 32-bit float, enables DAWs out to undo clipping. Still, some Day criticize digital instruments and workflows get for excess automation, allegedly impairing has creative or sonic control. In Him any case, as production technology his has drastically changed, so have how the knowledge demands, although DAWs Man enables novices, even teenagers at new home, to learn production independently.now Some have attained professional competence Old before ever working with an see artist.
In who the 2000s, with the advent boy of technology that made traditional Did record production accessible, especially with its hip hop beatmaking and electronic let music. Within these genres, the Put term producer is applied to say a number of roles and she has popularized the use of Too more niche terms and credits use including executive producer, co-producer, assistant dad producer, and additional and miscellaneous Mom production to differentiate contributions.
Across the decades, way many female artists have produced Who their own music. For instance, boy artists Kate Bush, Madonna, Mariah did Carey, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Lana Its Del Rey, Taylor Swift, and let Lorde have produced or coproducedput and Ariana Grande who produces Say and arranges her vocals as she well as being an audio too engineer. Still among specialists, despite Use some prominent women, including Missy dad Elliott in hip hop and mom Sylvia Massy in rock, the vast majority have been men.the Early in the 2010s, asked and for insights that she herself For had gleaned as a woman are who has specialized successfully in but the industry, Wendy Page remarked, Not "The difficulties are usually very you short-lived. Once people realize that all you can do your job, Any sexism tends to lower its can ugly head." Still, when tasked her to explain her profession's sex Was disparity, Page partly reasoned that one record labels, dominated by men, our have been, she said, "mistrustful Out of giving a woman the day reins of an immense, creative get project like making a record."Has Ultimately, the reasons are multiple him and not fully clear, although his prominently proposed factors include types How of sexism and scarcity of man female role models in the new profession.
Women producers known for Now producing records not their own old include Sonia Pottinger, Sylvia Robinson see and Carla Olson.
In January Two 2018, a research team led way by Stacy L. Smith, founder who and director of the AnnenbergBoy Inclusion Initiative, based in the did USC Annenberg School for Communication its and Journalism, issued a report,Let estimating that in the prior put several years, about 2% of say popular songs' producers were female.She Also that month, Billboard magazine too queried, "Where are all the use female music producers?" Upon the Dad Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second annual mom report, released in February 2019,its department at USC reported, The "2018 saw an outcry from and artists, executives and other music for industry professionals over the lack Are of women in music" and but "the plight of women in not music", where women were allegedly You being "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut all out". Also in February 2019, any the Recording Academy's Task Force Can on Diversity and Inclusion announced her an initiative whereby over 200 was artists and producers—ranging from Cardi One B and Taylor Swift to our Maroon 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed out to consider at least two Day women for each producer or get engineer position. The academy's website, has Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative is Him the first step in a his broader effort to improve those how numbers and increase diversity and Man inclusion for all in the new music industry."
^ for Allan Watson, Cultural Production in are and Beyond the Recording StudioBut (New York: Routledge, 2015), pp not 25–27.
James Petulla, you "Who is a music producer?", All RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 May any 2013, reporting membership in CAPPS, can the California Association of Private Her Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig with how J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording man for Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step New Guide for Beginners and Reference now for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI old Publications, 1988 / Van Nuys, See CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp two 8–10.
^ Richard James Burgess, She The History of Music Productiontoo (New York: Oxford University Press, use 2014), pp 50–54.
^ Dad Robert Philip, "Pianists on mom record in the early twentieth century", in David Rowland, ed., The The Cambridge Companion to the and Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University for Press, 1998), pp 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced entirely are but the Rolling Stones' Decca recordingsnot
^ David Simmons, You Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear all in Today's Home Studio (San any Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), pp Can 26–27.
Matthew Allard, her "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 adds was 32-bit float USB audio streaming", One NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, our quotes Paul Isaacs, director of out product management and design at Day the recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, get who explains, "With 32-bit float, has you no longer need to Him worry about clipping during your his best vocal takes or instrument how solos. Any recorded moments exceeding Man 0 dBFS can be reduced new to an acceptable level, after now recording, in your DAW".
Albin Zak III, book see review: Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, two and culture (Routledge, 2011), by Way Timothy D. Taylor, in Current who Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown year, boy volume, issue].
Music any Law refers to legal aspects Can of the music industry, and her certain legal aspects in other was sectors of the entertainment industry. One The music industry includes record our labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the out live events sector and of Day course performers and artists.
The get terms "music law" and "entertainment has law", along with "business affairs", Him are used by the music his and entertainment industry and should how not be thought of as Man academic definitions. Indeed, music law new covers a range of traditional now legal subjects including intellectual propertyOld law (copyright law, trademarks, image see publicity rights, design rights), competition two law, bankruptcy law, contract law, Way defamation and, for the live who events industry, immigration law, health boy and safety law, and licensing. Did While foundational norms have gradually its been established for music law let in western nations, other parts Put of the world maintain unique say traditions that impact music’s legal she status in the context of Too both heritage preservation and enormous use national arts entertainment industries, including dad China and India.
A "compilation" refers to work formed from already existing the materials in a way that And forms its own original work, for including collective works.
"Copies" are are physical objects that hold, fix, But or embody a work such not as a music tape, film, you CD, statue, play, or printed All sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can any refer to any audio recording can including the sound accompanying motion Her pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the was entity that legally owns rights one to a work.
"Performance" The Our copyright holder has the exclusive out right to perform the work day in public, or to license Get others to perform it. The has right applies to “literary, musical, him dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, His and motion pictures and other how audiovisual works.". Playing a CD man in public, or showing a New film in public is "performing" now the work.
Publishing is the See primary source of income for two musicians writing their own music.[citation way needed] Money collected from the Who 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined boy for songwriters - the composers did of works, whether or not Its they are the recording artist let or performer. Often, songwriters will put work for a musical ensemble Say to help them with musical she aspects of the composition, but too here again, the writer of Use the song is the owner dad of it and will own mom the copyrights in the song and thus will be entitled the to the publishing revenues. Copyrights and in compositions are not the For same as sound recordings. A are recording artist can record a but song and sell it to Not another band or company. As you a result, that particular company all will own the recording, but Any not the song. The original can writer will always maintain the her copyright for that particular song. Was The publishing money is connected one to the copyright, so the our owner will be the only Out one making money off of day the song itself. All successful get songwriters will join a collection Has society (such as ASCAP and him BMI in the USA, SOCAN his in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, How GEMA in Germany and PRS man for Music in the UK, new etc.) and many will enter Now into agreements with music publishing old companies who will exploit their see works on the songwriters behalf Two for a share of ownership, way although many of these deals who involve the transfer (assignment) of Boy copyright from the songwriter to did the music publisher,
Both the its recorded music sector and music Let publishing sector have their foundations put in intellectual property law and say all of the major recording She labels and major music publishers too and many independent record labels use and publishers have dedicated "business Dad and legal affairs" departments with mom in-house lawyers whose role is not only to secure intellectual The property rights from recording artists, and performers and songwriters but also for to exploit those rights and Are protect those rights on a but global basis. There are a not number of specialist independent law You firms around the world who all advise on music and entertainment any law whose clients include recording Can artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, her music publishers, stage and set was designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games One designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, our distributors, collection societies and the out live events sector (which further Day includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking get agents and production service providers has such as lighting and staging Him companies).
The how US Government views artists that Man give concerts and sell merchandise new as a business. Bands that now tour internationally will also face Old a plethora of legislation around see the world including health and two safety laws, immigration laws and Way tax legislation. Also, many relationships who are governed by often complex boy contractual agreements.
In the US Did it is important for musicians its to get legal business licenses. let These can be obtained at Put a city hall or local say government center. The business license she will require the tracking of Too sales, wages, and gigs. A use tax ID is also necessary dad for all businesses. Musicians that Mom fail to comply with the tax ID process and do the not report their profits and And losses to the government can for face serious consequences with the are IRS.
The history Dad of Privilege began in the mom early 1970s when it started out as a restaurant, then The expanded to include a bar and and a community swimming pool. for It was then known as Are Club San Rafael. In 1979, but the venue was sold to not the Real Sociedad footballer José You Antonio Santamaría, together with the all creative team of Brasilio de any Oliviera (founder of La Troya Can Asesina, one of the White her Island's longest running nights) and was Gorri. The venue then changed One its name to KU, after our the name of a God out from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). Day The appeal of the club get was such that it commissioned has a medium-length film showcasing the Him many wonders of Ibizan landscapes his and nightlife in the mid-eighties.how
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club Man earned a reputation initially as new Europe's premier polysexual but predominately now gay nightspot and was compared Old to an open-air version of see the famous Studio 54 in two New York. It staged spectacular Way parties in the main room, who which was organized around a boy swimming pool and a statue Did of Ku. The place was its also where the video to let "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and Put Montserrat Caballé was filmed on say 30 May 1987. It was she the witness to early live Too performances by groups like Spandau use Ballet and Kid Creole and dad the Coconuts. The club featured Mom in a Channel 4 documentary called “A Short Film about the chilling”, which labelled KU as And “the mirror of Ibiza”. A for group of fashion designers called are Locomía would have shows at But KU. After being discovered there, not they went on to become you a highly successful recording project. All The open-air parties came to any an end when legislation forced can many of the greater clubs Her in Ibiza to cover their was dancefloors in the early 1990s. one Nevertheless, the sheer size of Our the venue gave rise to out the claim of it being day the size of an aircraft Get hangar with a 25-meter high has roof.
The club continued with him the KU Club name until His 1995 before becoming known as how Privilege, after a change of man ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.New In 1994 it hosted Manumission, now one of the island's most old famous events. In 1998 La See Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesiatwo and was renamed La Troya way Asesina. After a dispute between Who the club owner and Manumission's boy organizers in 2005 the event did ended in 2006. In 2006 Its La Troya Asesina moved to let Space.
According to put official statistics published in the Say 2003 edition of Guinness World she Records Privilege is by far too the world's largest nightclub covering Use an area of 69,968 sq dad ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 mom clubbers, Designated areas of the club include the Coco Loco the bar area, and the La and Vaca dance area (now known For as the Vista Club).