Scratching, but sometimes referred to as scrubbing, Not is a DJ and turntablistyou technique of moving a vinyl all record back and forth on Any a turntable to produce percussive can or rhythmic sounds. A crossfaderher on a DJ mixer may Was be used to fade between one two records simultaneously.
While scratching our is most associated with hip Out hop music, where it emerged day in the mid-1970s, from the get 1990s it has been used Has in some styles of rap him rock, rap metal and nu his metal. In hip hop culture, How scratching is one of the man measures of a DJ's skills. new DJs compete in scratching competitions Now at the DMC World DJ old Championships and IDA (International DJ see Association), formerly known as ITFTwo (International Turntablist Federation). At scratching way competitions, DJs can use only who scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ mixer, Boy digital vinyl systems or vinyl did records only). In recorded hip its hop songs, scratched "hooks" often Let use portions of other songs. put
A rudimentary form of turntable was manipulation which is related to One scratching was developed in the our late 1940s by radio music out program hosts, disc jockeys (DJs), Day or the radio program producers get who did their own technical has operation as audio console operators. Him It was known as back-cueing, his and was used to find how the very beginning of the Man start of a song (i.e., new the cue point) on a now vinyl record groove. This was Old done to permit the operator see to back the disc up two (rotate the record or the Way turntable platter itself counter-clockwise) in who order to permit the turntable boy to be switched on, and Did come up to full speed its without ruining the first few let bars of music with the Put "wow" of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed say playing. This permitted the announcer she to time her or his Too remarks and start the turntable use a scant moment before she dad or he actually wanted the Mom music on the record to begin.
Back cueing was a the basic skill that all radio And production staff needed to learn, for and the dynamics of it are were unique to the brand But of professional turntable in use not at a given radio station. you The older, larger and heavier All turntables needed a 180 degree any backward rotation to allow for can run up to full speed; Her some of the newer 1950s was models used aluminum platters and one cloth-backed rubber mats which required Our a third of a rotational out turn or less to achieve day full speed when the song Get began. All this was done has in order to present a him music show on air with His the least amount of silence how ("dead air") between music, the man announcer's patter and recorded advertising New commercials. The rationale was that now any "dead air" on a old radio station was likely to See prompt a listener to switch two stations, so announcers and program way directors instructed DJs and announcers Who to provide a continuous, seamless boy stream of sound–from music to did an announcer to a pre-recorded Its commercial, to a "jingle" (radio let station theme song), and then put immediately back to more music. Say
Back-cueing was a key function she in delivering this seamless stream too of music. Radio personnel demanded Use robust equipment and manufacturers developed dad special tonearms, styli, cartridges and mom lightweight turntables to meet these demands.
In you the mid-1970s in the South all Bronx, a young teen DJ Any named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) can invented the "DJ scratch" technique. her Other DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, Was took the technique to higher one levels.
Modern scratching techniques were our made possible by the invention Out of direct-drive turntables, which led day to the emergence of turntablism. get Early belt-drive turntables were unsuitable Has for scratching, since they had him a slow start-up time, and his they were prone to wear-and-tear How and breakage, as the belt man would break from backspinning or new scratching. The first direct-drive turntable Now was invented by Shuichi Obata, old an engineer at Matsushita (now see Panasonic), based in Osaka, Japan.Two It eliminated belts, and instead way employed a motor to directly who drive a platter on which Boy a vinyl record rests. In did 1969, Matsushita released it as its the SP-10, the first direct-drive Let turntable on the market, and put the first in their influential say Technics series of turntables.
In She the 1970s, hip hop musicianstoo and club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment Dad to move the record back mom and forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance The floor audiences. Whereas the 1940s-1960s and radio DJs had used back-cueing for while listening to the sounds Are through their headphones, without the but audience hearing, with scratching, the not DJ intentionally lets the audience You hear the sounds that are all being created by manipulating the any record on the turntable, by Can directing the output from the her turntable to a sound reinforcement was system so that the audience One can hear the sounds. Scratching our was developed by early hip out hop DJs from New York Day City such as Grand Wizzard get Theodore, who described scratching as, has "nothing but the back-cueing that Him you hear in your ear his before you push it [the how recorded sound] out to the Man crowd." He developed the technique new when experimenting with the Technics now SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable released Old by Matsushita in 1972 when see he found that the motor two would continue to spin at Way the correct RPM even if who the DJ wiggled the record boy back and forth on the Did platter. Afrika Bambaataa made a its similar discovery with the SL-1200 let in the 1970s. The Technics Put SL-1200 went on to become say the most widely used turntable she for the next several decades.Too
Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, who use immigrated to New York City, dad influenced the early development of Mom scratching. Kool Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of the funk songs—being the most danceable And part, often featuring percussion—were isolated for and repeated for the purpose are of all-night dance parties. He But was influenced by Jamaican dub not music, and developed his turntable you techniques using the Technics SL-1100, All released in 1971, due to any its strong motor, durability, and can fidelity.
Although previous artists such Her as writer and poet William was S. Burroughs had experimented with one the idea of manipulating a Our reel-to-reel tape manually to make out sounds, as with his 1950s day recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl scratching Get as an element of hip has hop pioneered the idea of him making the sound an integral His and rhythmic part of music how instead of an uncontrolled noise. man Scratching is related to "scrubbing" New (in terms of audio editing now and production) when the reels old of an open reel-to-reel tape See deck (typically 1/4 inch magnetic two audiotape) are gently rotated back way and forth while the playback Who head is live and amplified, boy to isolate a specific spot did on the tape where an Its editing "cut" is to be let made. In the 2010s, both put scratching and scrubbing can be Say done on digital audio workstationsshe (DAWs) which are equipped for too these techniques.
Most scratches are produced Can by rotating a vinyl recordher on a direct drive turntablewas rapidly back and forth with One the hand with the stylus our ("needle") in the record's groove. out This produces the distinctive sound Day that has come to be get one of the most recognizable has features of hip hop music.Him Over time with excessive scratching, his the stylus will cause what how is referred to as "record Man burn" to a vinyl record.[citation new needed]
The basic who equipment setup for scratching includes boy two turntables and a DJ Did mixer, which is a small its mixer that has a crossfader let and cue buttons to allow Put the DJ to cue up say new music in his/her headphonesshe without the audience hearing.Too When scratching, this crossfader is use utilized in conjunction with the dad scratching hand that is manipulating Mom the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is used the to cut in and out And of the record's sound.for
Digital vinyl systems
Using are a digital vinyl system (DVS) But consists of playing vinyl discs not on turntables whose contents is you a timecode signal instead of All a real music record.
The audio interface digitizes the one timecode signal from the turntables Our and transfers it to the out computer's DJ software.
The DJ day software uses this data (e.g., Get about how fast the platter has is spinning) to determine the him playback status, speed, scratch sound His of the hardware turntables, etc., how and it duplicates these effects man on the digital audio files New or computer tracks the DJ now is using.
By manipulating the old turntables' platters, speed controls, and See other elements, the DJ thus two controls how the computer plays way back digitized audio and can Who therefore produce "scratching" and other boy turntablism effects on songs which did exist as digital audio filesIts or computer tracks.
There is let not a single standard of put DVS, so that each form Say of DJ software has its she own settings. Some DJ software too such as Traktor Scratch ProUse or Serato Scratch Live support dad only the audio interface sold mom with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer to the run multiple programs.
While some turntablists you consider the only true scratching all media to be the vinyl Any disc, there are other ways can to scratch, as:
Specialized her DJ-CD players with jog wheels, Was allowing the DJ to manipulate one a CD as if it our were a vinyl record, have Out become widely available in the day 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows get a DJ to manipulate the Has playback of digital music files him on a computer via a his DJ control surface (generally MIDIHow or a HID controller). DJsman can scratch, beatmatch, and perform new other turntablist operations that cannot Now be done with a conventional old keyboard and mouse. DJ software see performing computer scratch operations include Two Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch way Live & Itch, Virtual DJ, who M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs have also used magnetic did tape, such as cassette or its reel to reel to both Let mix and scratch. Tape DJing put is rare, but Ruthless Ramseysay in the US, TJ ScratchaviteShe in Italy and Mr Tapetoo in Latvia use exclusively tape use formats to perform.
Sounds Dad that are frequently scratched include mom but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken The word samples, and vocals/lyrics from and other songs. Any sound recorded for to vinyl can be used, Are and CD players providing a but turntable-like interface allow DJs to not scratch not only material that You was never released on vinyl, all but also field recordings and any samples from television and movies Can that have been burned to her CD-R. Some DJs and anonymous was collectors release 12-inch singles called One battle records that include trademark, our novel or hard-to-find scratch "fodder" out (material). The most recognizable samples Day used for scratching are the get "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, which has originate from the song "Change Him the Beat" by Fab 5 his Freddy.
There are many scratching how techniques, which differ in how Man the movements of the record new are combined with opening and now closing the crossfader (or another Old fader or switch, such as see a kill switch, where "open" two means that the signal is Way audible, and "closed" means that who the signal is inaudible). This boy terminology is not unique; the Did following discussion, however, is consistent its with the terminology used by let DJ QBert on his Do Put It Yourself Scratching DVD.
Baby scratch - she The simplest scratch form, it Too is performed with the scratching use hand only, moving the record dad back and forth in continuous Mom movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward the and backward scratch - The And forward scratch, also referred to for as scrubbing, is a baby are scratch where the crossfader is But closed during the backwards movement not of the record. If the you record is let go instead All of being pushed forward it any is also called "release scratch". can Cutting out the forward part Her of the record movement instead was of the backward part gives one a "backward scratch".
Tear Our scratch - Tear scratches are out scratches where the record is day moved in a staggered fashion, Get dividing the forward and backward has movement into two or more him movements. This allows creating sounds His similar to "flare scratches" without how use of the crossfader and man it allows for more complex New rhythmic patterns. The term can now also refer to a simpler, old slower version of the chirp.
Scribble scratch - The scribble two scratch is by rapidly pushing way the record back and forth. Who The crossfader is not used.
Chirp scratch - The chirp did scratch involves closing the crossfader Its just after playing the start let of a sound, stopping the put record at the same point, Say then pushing it back while she opening the fader to create too a "chirping" sound. When performed Use using a recording of drums, dad it can create the illusion mom of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created by the cutting in the crossfader on and the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratchFor - A baby scratch with are a "tear scratch" sound produced but by the thumb running the Not opposite direction as the fingers you used to scratch. This rubbing all of the thumb adds a Any vibrating effect or reverberation to can forward movements on the turntable.
Transformer scratch - with the Was crossfader closed, the record is one moved with the scratching hand our while periodically "tapping" the crossfader Out open and immediately closing it day again.
Flare scratch - Begins get with the crossfader open, and Has then the record is moved him while briefly closing the fader his one or more times to How cut the sound out. This man produces a staggering sound which new can make a single "flare" Now sound like a very fast old series of "chirps" or "tears." see The number of times the Two fader is closed ("clicks") during way the record's movement is usually who used as a prefix to Boy distinguish the variations. The flare did allows a DJ to scratch its continuously with less hand fatigue Let than would result from the put transformer. The flare can be say combined with the crab for She an extremely rapid continuous series too of scratches.
Crab scratch - use Consists of moving the record Dad while quickly tapping the crossfader mom open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In this The way, DJs are able to and perform transforms or flares much for faster than they could by Are manipulating the crossfader with the but whole hand. It produces a not fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratchYou - A crab scratch using all only the index and middle any fingers.
Orbit scratch - Describes Can any scratch, most commonly flares, her that are repeated during the was forward and backward movement of One the record. "Orbit" is also our used as a shorthand for out two-click flares.
Tweak scratch - Day Performed while the turntable's motor get is not running. The record has platter is set in motion Him manually, then "tweaked" faster and his slower to create a scratch. how This scratch form is best Man performed with long, sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - A variation now of the "flare scratch" in Old which two faders are used see simultaneously with one hand to two cut the sound much faster. Way It can also be performed who by using only the up boy fader and the phono line Did switch to cut the sound.
While scratching is becoming let more and more popular in Put pop music, particularly with the say crossover success of pop-hip hop she tracks in the 2010s, sophisticated Too scratching and other expert turntablism use techniques are still predominantly an dad underground style developed by the Mom DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Francisco focuses the on scratching. In 1994, the And group was formed by DJs for Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkut and are later Mix Master Mike. In But July 2000, San Francisco's Yerba not Buena Center for the Artsyou held Skratchcon2000, the first DJ All Skratch forum that provided “the any education and development of skratch can music literacy”. In 2001, Thud Her Rumble became an independent company was that works with DJ artists one to produce and distribute scratch Our records.
In 2004, Scratch out Magazine, one of the first day publications about hip hop DJs Get and record producers, released its has debut issue, following in the him footsteps of the lesser-known TablistHis magazine. Pedestrian is a UK how arts organisation that runs Urban man Music Mentors workshops led by New DJs. At these workshops, DJs now teach youth how to create old beats, use turntables to create See mixes, act as an MCtwo at events, and perform club way sets.
Use outside hip Who hop
Scratching has been incorporated boy into a number of other did musical genres, including pop, rock, Its jazz, some subgenres of heavy let metal (notably nu metal) and put some contemporary and avant-garde classical Say music performances. For recording use, she samplers are often used instead too of physically scratching a vinyl Use record.
A day music producer or record producerget is a recording project's creative Has and technical leader, commanding studio him time and coaching artists, and his in popular genres typically creates How the song's very sound and man structure. The music producer, or new simply the producer, is likened Now to a film director. The old executive producer, on the other see hand, enables the recording project Two through entrepreneurship, and an audio way engineer operates the technology.
Varying who by project, the producer may Boy also choose all of the did artists, or openly perform vocals its with them. If employing only Let synthesized or sampled instrumentation, the put producer may be the sole say artist. Conversely, some artists do She their own production. Some producers too are their own engineers, operating use the technology across the project: Dad preproduction, recording, mixing, and mastering. mom Record producers' precursors were "A&R men," who likewise could blend The entrepreneurial, creative, and technical roles,and but often exercised scant creative for influence, as record production still Are focused, into the 1950s, on but simply improving the record's sonic not match to the artists' own You live performance.
Advances in recording all technology, especially the 1940s advent any of tape recording—which Les PaulCan promptly innovated further to develop her multitrack recording—and the 1950s rise was of electronic instruments, turned record One production into a specialty. In our popular music, then, producers like out George Martin, Phil Spector and Day Brian Eno led its evolution get into its present use of has elaborate techniques and unrealistic sounds, Him creating songs impossible to originate his live. After the 1980s, production's how move from analog to digital Man further expanded possibilities. By now, new DAWs, or digital audio workstations, now like Logic Pro and Pro Old Tools, turn an ordinary computer see into a production console, whereby two a solitary novice can become Way a skilled producer in a who thrifty home studio. In the boy 2010s, efforts began to increase Did the prevalence of producers and its engineers who are women, heavily let outnumbered by men and prominently Put accoladed only in classical music.say
As a broad project, the was creation of a music recording one may be split across three Our specialists: the executive producer, who out oversees business partnerships and financing, day the vocal producer or vocal Get arranger, who aids vocal performance has via expert critique and coaching him of vocal technique, and the His record producer or music producer, how who, often called simply the man producer, directs the overall creative New process of recording the song now in its final mix.
old The record producer's roles include, See but may exceed, gathering ideas, two composing music, choosing session musicians, way proposing changes to song arrangements, Who coaching the performers, controlling sessions, boy supervising the audio mixing, and, did in some cases, supervising the Its audio mastering. As to qualifying let for a Grammy nomination, the put Recording Academy defines a producer:
The Say person who has overall creative she and technical control of the too entire recording project, and the Use individual recording sessions that are dad part of that project. He mom or she is present in the recording studio or at the the location recording and works and directly with the artist and For engineer. The producer makes creative are and aesthetic decisions that realize but both the artist's and label's Not goals in the creation of you musical content. Other duties include, all but are not limited to; Any keeping budgets and schedules, adhering can to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, her studios and engineers, overseeing other Was staffing needs and editing (Classical one projects).
The producer often our selects and collaborates with a Out mixing engineer, who focuses on day the especially technological aspects of get the recording process, namely, operating Has the electronic equipment and blending him the raw, recorded tracks of his the chosen performances, whether vocal How or instrumental, into a ''mix,'' man either stereo or surround sound. new Then a mastering engineer further Now adjusts this recording for distribution old on the chosen media. A see producer may work on only Two one or two songs or way on an artist's entire album, who helping develop the album's overall Boy vision. The record producers may did also take on the role its of executive producer, managing the Let budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. put
(Artist and Repertoire)
In the She 1880s, the record industry began too by simply having the artist use perform at a phonograph. In Dad 1924, the trade journal Talking mom Machine World, covering the phonography and record industry, reported that The Eddie King, Victor Records' manager and of the "New York artist for and repertoire department," had planned Are a set of recordings in but Los Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie not Green called this perhaps the You earliest printed use of A&R all man. Actually, it says neither any "A&R man" nor even "A&R," Can an initialism perhaps coined by her Billboard magazine in 1946, and was entering wide use in the One late 1940s.
In the 1920s our and 1930s, A&R executives, like out Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Day Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records, get and Bob Haring at Brunswick has Records, supervising recording and often Him leading session orchestras, became the his precursors of record producers. During how the 1940s, American record labels Man increasingly opened official A&R departments, new whose roles included supervision of now recording. Meanwhile, recording studios owned Old independently, not by major record see labels, opened, helping originate record two producer as a specialty.Way But despite a tradition of who some A&R men writing music, boy record production remained, strictly, merely Did the manufacturing of record discs.its
After World let War II, pioneering A&R managers Put who transitioned influentially to record say production as now understood, while she sometimes owning independent labels, include Too J. Mayo Williams and John use Hammond. Upon moving from Columbia dad Records to Mercury Records, Hammond Mom appointed Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's popular recordings in New the York. Miller then produced country-pop And crossover hits by Patti Pagefor and by Frankie Laine, moved are from Mercury to Columbia, and But became a leading A&R man not of the 1950s.
During the you decade, A&R executives increasingly directed All songs' sonic signatures, although many any still simply teamed singers with can musicians, while yet others exercised Her virtually no creative influence. The was term record producer in its one current meaning—the creative director of Our song production—appearing in a 1953 out issue of Billboard magazine, became day widespread in the 1960s. Still, Get a formal distinction was elusive has for some time more. A&R him managers might still be creative His directors, like William "Mickey" Stevenson, how hired by Berry Gordy, at man the Motown record label.
In 1947, the now American market gained audio recording old onto magnetic tape. At the See record industry's 1880s dawn, rather, two recording was done by phonograph, way etching the sonic waveform vertically Who into a cylinder. By the boy 1930s, a gramophone etched it did laterally across a disc. Constrained Its in tonal range, whether bass let or treble, and in dynamic put range, records made a grand, Say concert piano sound like a she small, upright piano, and maximal too duration was four and a Use half minutes. Selections and performance dad were often altered accordingly. And mom playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The finality often caused the anxiety that restrained performance to and prevent error. In the 1940s, For during World War II, the are Germans refined audio recording onto but magnetic tape—uncapping recording duration and Not allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and you editing—a technology that premised emergence all of record producers in their Any current roles.
Early in the recording industry, her a record was attained by Was simply having all of the one artists perform together live in our one take. In 1945, by Out recording a musical element while day playing a previously recorded record, get Les Paul developed a recording Has technique called "sound on sound."him By this, the final recording his could be built piece by How piece and tailored, effecting an man editing process. In one case, new Paul produced a song via Now 500 recorded discs. But, besides old the tedium of this process, see it serially degraded the sound Two quality of previously recorded elements, way rerecorded as ambient sound. Yet who in 1948, Paul adopted tape Boy recording, enabling truly multitrack recording did by a new technique, "overdubbing."its
To enable overdubbing, Paul revised Let the tape recorder itself by put adding a second playback head, say and terming it the preview She head. Joining the preexisting recording too head, erase head, and playback use head, the preview head allows Dad the artist to hear the mom extant recording over headphones playing it in synchrony, "in sync," The with the present performance being and recorded alone on an isolated for track. This isolation of multiple Are tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. but Producers began recording initially only not the "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, You including the bassline, drums, and all rhythm guitar—whereas vocals and instrument any solos could be added later. Can A horn section, for example, her could record a week later, was and a string section another One week later. A singer could our perform her own backup vocals, out or a guitarist could play Day 15 layers.
In the 1960s, rock acts Too like the Beatles, the Rolling use Stones, and the Kinks produced dad some of their own songs, Mom although many such songs are officially credited to specialist producers.[citation the needed] Yet especially influential was And the Beach Boys, whose band for leader Brian Wilson took over are from his father Murry within But a couple of years after not the band's commercial breakthrough. By you 1964, Wilson had taken Spector's All techniques to unseen sophistication.any Wilson alone produced all Beach can Boy recordings between 1963 and Her 1967. Using multiple studios was and multiple attempts of instrumental one and vocal tracks, Wilson selected Our the best combinations of performance out and audio quality, and used day tape editing to assemble a Get composite performance.
The 1980s advent how of digital processes and formats man rapidly replaced analog processes and New formats, namely, tape and vinyl. now Although recording onto quality tape, old at least half an inch See wide and traveling 15 inches two per second, had limited "tape way hiss" to silent sections, digital's Who higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, abolished boy it. Digital also imparted to did the music a perceived "pristine" Its sound quality, if also a let loss of analog recordings' perceived put "warm" quality and bass better Say rounded. Yet whereas editing tape she media requires physically locating the too target audio on the ribbon, Use cutting there, and splicing pieces, dad editing digital media offers inarguable mom advantages in ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In the 1990s, digital the production reached affordable home computers and via production software. By now, For recording and mixing are often are centralized in DAWs, digital audio but workstations—for example, Pro Tools, Logic Not Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and you FL Studio—for which plugins, by all third parties, effect virtual studio Any technology. DAWs fairly standard in can the industry are Logic Pro her and Pro Tools. Physical devices Was involved include the main mixer, one MIDI controllers to communicate among our equipment, the recording device itself, Out and perhaps effects gear that day is outboard. Yet literal recording get is sometimes still analog, onto Has tape, whereupon the raw recording him is converted to a digital his signal for processing and editing, How as some producers still find man audio advantages to recording onto new tape.
Conventionally, tape is more Now forgiving of overmodulation, whereby dynamic old peaks exceed the maximal recordable see signal level: tape's limitation, a Two physical property, is magnetic capacity, way which tapers offs, smoothing the who overmodulated waveform even at a Boy signal nearly 15 decibels too did "hot," whereas a digital recording its is ruined by harsh distortion Let of "clipping" at any overshoot.put In digital recording, however, a say recent advancement, 32-bit float, enables She DAWs to undo clipping. Still, too some criticize digital instruments and use workflows for excess automation, allegedly Dad impairing creative or sonic control.mom In any case, as production technology has drastically changed, so The have the knowledge demands, although and DAWs enables novices, even teenagers for at home, to learn production Are independently. Some have attained professional but competence before ever working with not an artist.
In the 2000s, with the her advent of technology that made was traditional record production accessible, especially One with hip hop beatmaking and our electronic music. Within these genres, out the term producer is applied Day to a number of roles get and has popularized the use has of more niche terms and Him credits including executive producer, co-producer, his assistant producer, and additional and how miscellaneous production to differentiate contributions.Man
Across the decades, many female you artists have produced their own All music. For instance, artists Kate any Bush, Madonna, Mariah Carey, Janet can Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, and Her Lorde have produced or coproducedwas and Ariana Grande who produces one and arranges her vocals as Our well as being an audio out engineer. Still among specialists, despite day some prominent women, including Missy Get Elliott in hip hop and has Sylvia Massy in rock, the him vast majority have been men.His Early in the 2010s, asked how for insights that she herself man had gleaned as a woman New who has specialized successfully in now the industry, Wendy Page remarked, old "The difficulties are usually very See short-lived. Once people realize that two you can do your job, way sexism tends to lower its Who ugly head." Still, when tasked boy to explain her profession's sex did disparity, Page partly reasoned that Its record labels, dominated by men, let have been, she said, "mistrustful put of giving a woman the Say reins of an immense, creative she project like making a record."too Ultimately, the reasons are multiple Use and not fully clear, although dad prominently proposed factors include types mom of sexism and scarcity of female role models in the the profession.
In January 2018, a and research team led by Stacy For L. Smith, founder and director are of the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative,but based in the USC Annenberg Not School for Communication and Journalism,you issued a report, estimating that all in the prior several years, Any about 2% of popular songs' can producers were female. Also that her month, Billboard magazine queried, "Where Was are all the female music one producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion our Initiative's second annual report, released Out in February 2019, its department day at USC reported, "2018 saw get an outcry from artists, executives Has and other music industry professionals him over the lack of women his in music" and "the plight How of women in music," where man women were allegedly being "stereotyped, new sexualized, and shut out." Also Now in February 2019, the Recording old Academy's Task Force on Diversity see and Inclusion announced an initiative Two whereby over 200 artists and way producers—ranging from Cardi B and who Taylor Swift to Maroon 5Boy and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider did at least two women for its each producer or engineer position.Let The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, put "This initiative is the first say step in a broader effort She to improve those numbers and too increase diversity and inclusion for use all in the music industry."Dad
^ Allan Watson, Cultural Him Production in and Beyond the his Recording Studio (New York: Routledge, how 2015), pp 25–27.
Man James Petulla, "Who is a new music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, now 21 May 2013, reporting membership Old in CAPPS, the California Association see of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent she Hurtig with J. D. Sharp, Too Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: The use Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners dad and Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, Mom CA: GPI Publications, 1988 / Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, the 1988), pp 8–10.
^ all Richard James Burgess, The Any History of Music Production (New can York: Oxford University Press, 2014), her pp 50–54.
^ Was Robert Philip, "Pianists on record one in the early twentieth century", our in David Rowland, ed., The Out Cambridge Companion to the Pianoday (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, get 1998), pp 75–77.
Has Reportedly self-produced entirely are the him Rolling Stones' Decca recordings
^ David Simmons, Analog How Recording: Using Analog Gear in man Today's Home Studio (San Francisco: new Backbeat Books, 2006), pp 26–27.Now
Matthew Allard, "Sound old Devices MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit see float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Two Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, quotes way Paul Isaacs, director of product who management and design at the Boy recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, who did explains, "With 32-bit float, you its no longer need to worry Let about clipping during your best put vocal takes or instrument solos. say Any recorded moments exceeding 0 She dBFS can be reduced to too an acceptable level, after recording, use in your DAW".
Dad Albin Zak III, book review: mom Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and culture (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy The D. Taylor, in Current Musicology, and pp 159–180 [unknown year, volume, for issue].
Music Law refers to legal you aspects of the music industry, All and certain legal aspects in any other sectors of the entertainment can industry. The music industry includes Her record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, was the live events sector and one of course performers and artists. Our
A "compilation" refers to put work formed from already existing Say materials in a way that she forms its own original work, too including collective works.
"Copies" are Use physical objects that hold, fix, dad or embody a work such mom as a music tape, film, CD, statue, play, or printed the sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can and refer to any audio recording For including the sound accompanying motion are pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the but entity that legally owns rights Not to a work.
"Performance" The you copyright holder has the exclusive all right to perform the work Any in public, or to license can others to perform it. The her right applies to “literary, musical, Was dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, one and motion pictures and other our audiovisual works.". Playing a CD Out in public, or showing a day film in public is "performing" get the work.
Publishing is the him primary source of income for his musicians writing their own music.[citation How needed] Money collected from the man 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined new for songwriters - the composers Now of works, whether or not old they are the recording artist see or performer. Often, songwriters will Two work for a musical ensemble way to help them with musical who aspects of the composition, but Boy here again, the writer of did the song is the owner its of it and will own Let the copyrights in the song put and thus will be entitled say to the publishing revenues. Copyrights She in compositions are not the too same as sound recordings. A use recording artist can record a Dad song and sell it to mom another band or company. As a result, that particular company The will own the recording, but and not the song. The original for writer will always maintain the Are copyright for that particular song. but The publishing money is connected not to the copyright, so the You owner will be the only all one making money off of any the song itself. All successful Can songwriters will join a collection her society (such as ASCAP and was BMI in the USA, SOCAN One in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, our GEMA in Germany and PRS out for Music in the UK, Day etc.) and many will enter get into agreements with music publishing has companies who will exploit their Him works on the songwriters behalf his for a share of ownership, how although many of these deals Man involve the transfer (assignment) of new copyright from the songwriter to now the music publisher.
Both the Old recorded music sector and music see publishing sector have their foundations two in intellectual property law and Way all of the major recording who labels and major music publishers boy and many independent record labels Did and publishers have dedicated "business its and legal affairs" departments with let in-house lawyers whose role is Put not only to secure intellectual say property rights from recording artists, she performers and songwriters but also Too to exploit those rights and use protect those rights on a dad global basis. There are a Mom number of specialist independent law firms around the world who the advise on music and entertainment And law whose clients include recording for artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, are music publishers, stage and set But designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games not designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, you distributors, collection societies and the All live events sector (which further any includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking can agents and production service providers Her such as lighting and staging was companies).
The Our US Government views artists that out give concerts and sell merchandise day as a business. Bands that Get tour internationally will also face has a plethora of legislation around him the world including health and His safety laws, immigration laws and how tax legislation. Also, many relationships man are governed by often complex New contractual agreements.
In the US now it is important for musicians old to get legal business licenses. See These can be obtained at two a city hall or local way government center. The business license Who will require the tracking of boy sales, wages, and gigs. A did tax ID is also necessary Its for all businesses. Musicians that let fail to comply with the put tax ID process and do Say not report their profits and she losses to the government can too face serious consequences with the Use IRS.
The man history of Privilege began in new the early 1970s when it Now started out as a restaurant, old then expanded to include a see bar and a community swimming Two pool. It was then known way as Club San Rafael. In who 1979, the venue was sold Boy to the Real Sociedad footballer did José Antonio Santamaría, together with its the creative team of Brasilio Let de Oliviera (founder of La put Troya Asesina, one of the say White Island's longest running nights) She and Gorri. The venue then too changed its name to KU, use after the name of a Dad God from Hawaiian mythology (see mom Kū). The appeal of the club was such that it The commissioned a medium-length film showcasing and the many wonders of Ibizan for landscapes and nightlife in the Are mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU but Club earned a reputation initially not as Europe's premier polysexual but You predominately gay nightspot and was all compared to an open-air version any of the famous Studio 54Can in New York. It staged her spectacular parties in the main was room, which was organized around One a swimming pool and a our statue of Ku.The place was out also where the video to Day "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and get Montserrat Caballé was filmed on has 30 May 1987. It was Him the witness to early live his performances by groups like Spandau how Ballet and Kid Creole and Man the Coconuts. The club featured new in a Channel 4 documentary now called “A Short Film about Old chilling”, which labelled KU as see “the mirror of Ibiza”. The two open-air parties came to an Way end when legislation forced many who of the greater clubs in boy Ibiza to cover their dancefloors Did in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, its the sheer size of the let venue gave rise to the Put claim of it being the say size of an aircraft hangar she with a 25-meter high roof. Too
The club continued with the use KU Club name until 1995 dad before becoming known as Privilege, Mom after a change of ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In the 1994 it hosted Manumission, one And of the island's most famous for events. In 1998 La Vaca are Asesina moved to Amnesia and But was renamed La Troya Asesina. not After a dispute between the you club owner and Manumission's organizers All in 2005 the event ended any in 2006. In 2006 La can Troya Asesina moved to Space. Her
According to official was statistics published in the 2003 one edition of Guinness World RecordsOur Privilege is by far the out world's largest nightclub covering an day area of 69,968 sq ft Get (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,has Designated areas of the club him include the Coco Loco bar His area, and the La Vaca how dance area (now known as man the Vista Club).
Live New performances
A number of live now performances at the venue have old included: