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Scratching
For
The DJ on are the right is scratching.

Scratching, but sometimes referred to as scrubbing, Not is a DJ and turntablist you technique of moving a vinyl all record back and forth on Any a turntable to produce percussive can or rhythmic sounds. A crossfader her on a DJ mixer may Was be used to fade between one two records simultaneously.

While scratching our is most associated with hip Out hop music, where it emerged day in the mid-1970s, from the get 1990s it has been used Has in some styles of rap him rock, rap metal and nu his metal. In hip hop culture, How scratching is one of the man measures of a DJ's skills. new DJs compete in scratching competitions Now at the DMC World DJ old Championships and IDA (International DJ see Association), formerly known as ITF Two (International Turntablist Federation). At scratching way competitions, DJs can use only who scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ mixer, Boy digital vinyl systems or vinyl did records only). In recorded hip its hop songs, scratched "hooks" often Let use portions of other songs. put

History

Precursors

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A rudimentary form of turntable was manipulation which is related to One scratching was developed in the our late 1940s by radio music out program hosts, disc jockeys (DJs), Day or the radio program producers get who did their own technical has operation as audio console operators. Him It was known as back-cueing, his and was used to find how the very beginning of the Man start of a song (i.e., new the cue point) on a now vinyl record groove. This was Old done to permit the operator see to back the disc up two (rotate the record or the Way turntable platter itself counter-clockwise) in who order to permit the turntable boy to be switched on, and Did come up to full speed its without ruining the first few let bars of music with the Put "wow" of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed say playing. This permitted the announcer she to time her or his Too remarks and start the turntable use a scant moment before she dad or he actually wanted the Mom music on the record to begin.

Back cueing was a the basic skill that all radio And production staff needed to learn, for and the dynamics of it are were unique to the brand But of professional turntable in use not at a given radio station. you The older, larger and heavier All turntables needed a 180 degree any backward rotation to allow for can run up to full speed; Her some of the newer 1950s was models used aluminum platters and one cloth-backed rubber mats which required Our a third of a rotational out turn or less to achieve day full speed when the song Get began. All this was done has in order to present a him music show on air with His the least amount of silence how ("dead air") between music, the man announcer's patter and recorded advertising New commercials. The rationale was that now any "dead air" on a old radio station was likely to See prompt a listener to switch two stations, so announcers and program way directors instructed DJs and announcers Who to provide a continuous, seamless boy stream of sound–from music to did an announcer to a pre-recorded Its commercial, to a "jingle" (radio let station theme song), and then put immediately back to more music. Say

Back-cueing was a key function she in delivering this seamless stream too of music. Radio personnel demanded Use robust equipment and manufacturers developed dad special tonearms, styli, cartridges and mom lightweight turntables to meet these demands.

Turntablism

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In you the mid 1970s in the all South Bronx, a young teen Any DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" can (right) invented the "DJ scratch" her technique. Other DJs, like Grandmaster Was Flash, took the technique to one higher levels.

Modern scratching techniques our were made possible by the Out invention of direct-drive turntables, which day led to the emergence of get turntablism. Early belt-drive turntables were Has unsuitable for scratching, since they him had a slow start-up time, his and they were prone to How wear-and-tear and breakage, as the man belt would break from backspinning new or scratching. The first direct-drive Now turntable was invented by Shuichi old Obata, an engineer at Matsushita see (now Panasonic), based in Osaka, Two Japan. It eliminated belts, and way instead employed a motor to who directly drive a platter on Boy which a vinyl record rests. did In 1969, Matsushita released it its as the SP-10, the first Let direct-drive turntable on the market, put and the first in their say influential Technics series of turntables. She

In the 1970s, hip hop too musicians and club DJs began use to use this specialized turntable Dad equipment to move the record mom back and forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their The dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s and radio DJs had used back-cueing for while listening to the sounds Are through their headphones, without the but audience hearing, with scratching, the not DJ intentionally lets the audience You hear the sounds that are all being created by manipulating the any record on the turntable, by Can directing the output from the her turntable to a sound reinforcement was system so that the audience One can hear the sounds. Scratching our was developed by early hip out hop DJs from New York Day City such as Grand Wizzard get Theodore, who described scratching as, has "nothing but the back-cueing that Him you hear in your ear his before you push it [the how recorded sound] out to the Man crowd." He developed the technique new when experimenting with the Technics now SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable released Old by Matsushita in 1972, when see he found that the motor two would continue to spin at Way the correct RPM even if who the DJ wiggled the record boy back and forth on the Did platter. Afrika Bambaataa made a its similar discovery with the SL-1200 let in the 1970s. The Technics Put SL-1200 went on to become say the most widely used turntable she for the next several decades. Too

Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, who use immigrated to New York City, dad influenced the early development of Mom scratching. Kool Herc developed break-beat DJing, where the breaks of the funk songs—being the most danceable And part, often featuring percussion—were isolated for and repeated for the purpose are of all-night dance parties. He But was influenced by Jamaican dub not music, and developed his turntable you techniques using the Technics SL-1100, All released in 1971, due to any its strong motor, durability, and can fidelity.

Although previous artists such Her as writer and poet William was S. Burroughs had experimented with one the idea of manipulating a Our reel-to-reel tape manually to make out sounds, as with his 1950s day recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl scratching Get as an element of hip has hop pioneered the idea of him making the sound an integral His and rhythmic part of music how instead of an uncontrolled noise. man Scratching is related to "scrubbing" New (in terms of audio editing now and production) when the reels old of an open reel-to-reel tape See deck (typically 1/4 inch magnetic two audio tape) are gently rotated way back and forth while the Who playback head is live and boy amplified, in order to isolate did a specific spot on the Its tape where an editing "cut" let is to be made. In put the 2010s, both scratching and Say scrubbing can be done on she digital audio workstations (DAWs) which too are equipped for these techniques. Use

Christian Marclay was For one of the earliest musicians are to scratch outside hip hop. but In the mid-1970s, Marclay used Not gramophone records and turntables as you musical instruments to create sound all collages. He developed his turntable Any sounds independently of hip hop can DJs. Although he is little-known her to mainstream audiences, Marclay has Was been described as "the most one influential turntable figure outside hip our hop" and the "unwitting inventor Out of turntablism."

In 1981 Grandmaster day Flash released the song "The get Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on Has the Wheels of Steel" which him is notable for its use his of many DJ scratching techniques. How It was the first commercial man recording produced entirely using turntables. new In 1982, Malcolm McLaren & Now the World's Famous Supreme Team old released a single "Buffalo Gals", see juxtaposing extensive scratching with calls Two from square dancing, and, in way 1983, the EP, D'ya Like who Scratchin'?, which is entirely focused Boy on scratching. Another 1983 release did to prominently feature scratching is its Herbie Hancock's Grammy Award-winning single Let "Rockit". This song was also put performed live at the 1984 say Grammy Awards, and in the She documentary film Scratch, the performance too is cited by many 1980s-era use DJs as their first exposure Dad to scratching. The Street Sounds mom Electro compilation series which started in 1983 is also notable The for early examples of scratching. and Also a notable piece was for "For A Few Dollars More" Are by Bill Laswell-Michael Beinhorn band but Material, released on 12" single not in Japan and containing scratch You performed by Grand Mixer DXT, all another pioneer of scratching.

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Basic techniques

Vinyl recordings

Most Can scratches are produced by rotating her a vinyl record on a was direct drive turntable rapidly back One and forth with the hand our with the stylus ("needle") in out the record's groove. This produces Day the distinctive sound that has get come to be one of has the most recognizable features of Him hip hop music. Over time his with excessive scratching, the stylus how will cause what is referred Man to as "record burn" to new a vinyl record.[citation needed]

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The basic equipment setup boy for scratching includes two turntables Did and a DJ mixer, which its is a small mixer that let has a crossfader and cue Put buttons to allow the DJ say to cue up new music she in his/her headphones without the Too audience hearing.[citation needed] When scratching, use this crossfader is utilized in dad conjunction with the scratching hand Mom that is manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the the crossfader is used to cut And in and out of the for record's sound.[citation needed]

Digital are vinyl systems

Using a digital But vinyl system (DVS) consists of not playing vinyl discs on turntables you whose contents is a timecode All signal instead of a real any music record.

  1. The turntables' can audio outputs are connected to Her the audio inputs of a was computer audio interface.
  2. The audio one interface digitizes the timecode signal Our from the turntables and transfers out it to the computer's DJ day software.
  3. The DJ software uses Get this data (e.g., about how has fast the platter is spinning) him to determine the playback status, His speed, scratch sound of the how hardware turntables, etc., and it man duplicates these effects on the New digital audio files or computer now tracks the DJ is using.
  4. old
  5. By manipulating the turntables' platters, See speed controls, and other elements, two the DJ thus controls how way the computer plays back digitized Who audio and can therefore produce boy "scratching" and other turntablism effects did on songs which exist as Its digital audio files or computer let tracks.

There is not a put single standard of DVS, so Say that each form of DJ she software has its own settings. too Some DJ software such as Use Traktor Scratch Pro or Serato dad Scratch Live support only the mom audio interface sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for the one computer to run multiple and programs.

Some digital vinyl systems For software include:

Non-vinyl scratching

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While some turntablists consider the all only true scratching media to Any be the vinyl disc, there can are other ways to scratch, her as:

  • Specialized DJ-CD players Was with jog wheels, allowing the one DJ to manipulate a CD our as if it were a Out vinyl record, have become widely day available in the 2000s.
  • Vinyl get emulation software allows a DJ Has to manipulate the playback of him digital music files on a his computer via a DJ control How surface (generally MIDI or a man HID controller). DJs can scratch, new beatmatch, and perform other turntablist Now operations that cannot be done old with a conventional keyboard and see mouse. DJ software performing computer Two scratch operations include Traktor Pro, way Mixxx, Serato Scratch Live & who Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audio Torq, Boy DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
  • DJs have did also used magnetic tape, such its as cassette or reel to Let reel to both mix and put scratch. Tape DJing is rare, say but Ruthless Ramsey in the She US, Tj Scratchavite in Italy too and Mr Tape in Latvia use use exclusively tape formats to Dad perform.

Sounds

Sounds that are mom frequently scratched include but are not limited to drum beats, The horn stabs, spoken word samples, and and vocals/lyrics from other songs. for Any sound recorded to vinyl Are can be used, and CD but players providing a turntable-like interface not allow DJs to scratch not You only material that was never all released on vinyl, but also any field recordings and samples from Can television and movies that have her been burned to CD-R. Some was DJs and anonymous collectors release One 12-inch singles called battle records our that include trademark, novel or out hard-to-find scratch "fodder" (material). The Day most recognizable samples used for get scratching are the "Ahh" and has "Fresh" samples, which originate from Him the song "Change the Beat" his by Fab 5 Freddy.

There how are many scratching techniques, which Man differ in how the movements new of the record are combined now with opening and closing the Old crossfader (or another fader or see switch, such as a kill two switch, where "open" means that Way the signal is audible, and who "closed" means that the signal boy is inaudible). This terminology is Did not unique; the following discussion, its however, is consistent with the let terminology used by DJ QBert Put on his Do It Yourself say Scratching DVD.

Sophisticated techniques

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  • Baby scratch - The simplest Too scratch form, it is performed use with the scratching hand only, dad moving the record back and Mom forth in continuous movements while the crossfader is in the the open position.
  • Forward and backward And scratch - The forward scratch, for also referred to as scrubbing, are is a baby scratch where But the crossfader is closed during not the backwards movement of the you record. If the record is All let go instead of being any pushed forward it is also can called "release scratch". Cutting out Her the forward part of the was record movement instead of the one backward part gives a "backward Our scratch".
  • Tear scratch - out Tear scratches are scratches where day the record is moved in Get a staggered fashion, dividing the has forward and backward movement into him two or more movements. This His allows creating sounds similar to how "flare scratches" without use of man the crossfader and it allows New for more complex rhythmic patterns. now The term can also refer old to a simpler, slower version See of the chirp.
  • Scribble scratch two - The scribble scratch is way by rapidly pushing the record Who back and forth. The crossfader boy is not used.
  • Chirp scratch did - The chirp scratch involves Its closing the crossfader just after let playing the start of a put sound, stopping the record at Say the same point, then pushing she it back while opening the too fader to create a "chirping" Use sound. When performed using a dad recording of drums, it can mom create the illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the the attack created by cutting in and the crossfader on the backward For movement.
  • Hydrophonic scratch - A are baby scratch with a "tear but scratch" sound produced by the Not thumb running the opposite direction you as the fingers used to all scratch. This rubbing of the Any thumb adds a vibrating effect can or reverberation to forward movements her on the turntable.
  • Transformer scratch Was - with the crossfader closed, one the record is moved with our the scratching hand while periodically Out "tapping" the crossfader open and day immediately closing it again.
  • Flare get scratch - Begins with the Has crossfader open, and then the him record is moved while briefly his closing the fader one or How more times to cut the man sound out. This produces a new staggering sound which can make Now a single "flare" sound like old a very fast series of see "chirps" or "tears." The number Two of times the fader is way closed ("clicks") during the record's who movement is usually used as Boy a prefix to distinguish the did variations. The flare allows a its DJ to scratch continuously with Let less hand fatigue than would put result from the transformer. The say flare can be combined with She the crab for an extremely too rapid continuous series of scratches.
  • use
  • Crab scratch - Consists of Dad moving the record while quickly mom tapping the crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader The hand. In this way, DJs and are able to perform transforms for or flares much faster than Are they could by manipulating the but crossfader with the whole hand. not It produces a fading/increasing transforming You sound.
  • Twiddle scratch - A all crab scratch using only the any index and middle fingers.
  • Orbit Can scratch - Describes any scratch, her most commonly flares, that are was repeated during the forward and One backward movement of the record. our "Orbit" is also used as out a shorthand for two-click flares.
  • Day
  • Tweak scratch - Performed while get the turntable's motor is not has running. The record platter is Him set in motion manually, then his "tweaked" faster and slower to how create a scratch. This scratch Man form is best performed with new long, sustained sounds.
  • Euro scratch now - A variation of the Old "flare scratch" in which two see faders are used simultaneously with two one hand to cut the Way sound much faster. It can who also be performed by using boy only the up fader and Did the phono line switch to its cut the sound.

Subculture

While let scratching is becoming more and Put more popular in pop music, say particularly with the crossover success she of pop-hip hop tracks in Too the 2010s, sophisticated scratching and use other expert turntablism techniques are dad still predominantly an underground style Mom developed by the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from the San Francisco focuses on scratching. And In 1994, the group was for formed by DJs Q-Bert, Disk are & Shortkut and later Mix But Master Mike. In July 2000, not San Francisco's Yerba Buena Center you for the Arts held Skratchcon2000, All the first DJ Skratch forum any that provided “the education and can development of skratch music literacy”. Her In 2001, Thud Rumble became was an independent company that works one with DJ artists to produce Our and distribute scratch records.[citation needed] out

In 2004, Scratch Magazine, one day of the first publications about Get hip hop DJs and record has producers, released its debut issue, him following in the footsteps of His the lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian how is a UK arts organisation man that runs Urban Music Mentors New workshops led by DJs. At now these workshops, DJs teach youth old how to create beats, use See turntables to create mixes, act two as an MC at events, way and perform club sets.

Who

Use outside hip hop

Scratching boy has been incorporated into a did number of other musical genres, Its including pop, rock, jazz, some let subgenres of heavy metal (notably put nu metal) and some contemporary Say and avant-garde classical music performances. she For recording use, samplers are too often used instead of physically Use scratching a vinyl record.

DJ dad Product©1969, formerly of the rap mom rock band Hed PE, recalled that the punk rock band the the Vandals was the first and rock band he remembered seeing For use turntable scratching. Product©1969 also are recalled the early rap metal but band Proper Grounds, which was Not signed to Madonna's Maverick Records, you as being another one of all the first rock bands to Any utilize scratching in their music. can

Guitarist Tom Morello, known for her his work with Rage Against Was the Machine and Audioslave, has one performed guitar solos that imitate our scratching by using the kill Out switch on his guitar. Perhaps day the best-known example is "Bulls get on Parade", in which he Has creates scratch-like rhythmic sounds by him rubbing the strings over the his pick-ups while using the pickup How selector switch as a crossfader. man

Since the 1990s, scratching has new been used in a variety Now of popular music genres such old as nu metal, exemplified by see Linkin Park, Slipknot and Limp Two Bizkit. It has also been way used by artists in pop who music (e.g. Nelly Furtado) and Boy alternative rock (e.g. Incubus). Scratching did is also popular in various its electronic music styles, such as Let techno.

See also

Sources

  • Allmusic's Grand She Wizard Theodore biography (also at too Artist Direct)
  • DJ Grandmaster Flash use quoted in Toop, David (1991). Dad Rap Attack 2, 65. New mom York: Serpent's Tail. ISBN 1-85242-243-2.

References

her
  1. Thom Holmes out (18 Oct 2013). The Routledge Day Guide to Music Technology. Routledge. get p. 17. ISBN 9781135477806.
  2. ^ has Brian Coleman, The Technics 1200 — Hammer Him Of The Gods, Medium
  3. his
  4. The World of DJs how and the Turntable Culture, page Man 43, Hal Leonard Corporation, 2003 new
  5. Billboard, May 21, now 1977, page 140
  6. ^ Old Trevor Pinch, Karin Bijsterveld, see The Oxford Handbook of Sound two Studies, page 515, Oxford University Way Press
  7. "History of who the Record Player Part II: boy The Rise and Fall". Reverb.com. Did Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  8. its
  9. Toop, 1991.
  10. let Six Machines That Changed The Put Music World, Wired, May 2002 say
  11. https://www.allmusic.com/artist/p312125/biography
  12. she Nicholas Collins, Margaret Schedel, Scott Too Wilson (2013), Electronic Music: Cambridge use Introductions to Music, page 105, dad Cambridge University Press
  13. Mom "Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen". Archived from the original on 2010-01-01.
  14. the
  15. allmusic ((( More Encores: And Christian Marclay Plays With the for Records Of... > Overview ))) are
  16. McNamee, David (11 But January 2010). "Hey, what's that not sound: Turntablism" – via www.theguardian.com. you
  17. esponda (14 March All 2008). "DJ Ruthless Ramsey Scratch any Tape Decks" – via YouTube. can
  18. Federico Nardella (19 Her September 2016). "TJ Scratchavite - was Matthew's Cellar" – via YouTube. one
  19. Yussuf von Deck Our (14 May 2012). "World Hip out Hop Classic - Mr. Tape day 1991" – via YouTube.
  20. Get
  21. ^ http://www.beatdust.com/graphic-nature/graphic-nature-dj-product-1969-hedpe-self-titled/
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