Scratching, are sometimes referred to as scrubbing, but is a DJ and turntablistNot technique of moving a vinyl you record back and forth on all a turntable to produce percussive Any or rhythmic sounds. A crossfadercan on a DJ mixer may her be used to fade between Was two records simultaneously.
While scratching one is most associated with hip our hop music, where it emerged Out in the mid-1970s, from the day 1990s it has been used get in some styles of rap Has rock, rap metal and nu him metal. In hip hop culture, his scratching is one of the How measures of a DJ's skills. man DJs compete in scratching competitions new at the DMC World DJ Now Championship and IDA (International DJ old Association), formerly known as ITFsee (International Turntablist Federation). At scratching Two competitions, DJs can use only way scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ mixer, who digital vinyl systems or vinyl Boy records only). In recorded hip did hop songs, scratched "hooks" often its use portions of other songs. Let
A rudimentary form of turntable her manipulation which is related to was scratching was developed in the One late 1940s by radio music our program hosts, disc jockeys (DJs), out or the radio program producers Day who did their own technical get operation as audio console operators. has It was known as back-cueing, Him and was used to find his the very beginning of the how start of a song (i.e., Man the cue point) on a new vinyl record groove. This was now done to permit the operator Old to back the disc up see (rotate the record or the two turntable platter itself counter-clockwise) in Way order to permit the turntable who to be switched on, and boy come up to full speed Did without ruining the first few its bars of music with the let "wow" of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed Put playing. This permitted the announcer say to time her or his she remarks and start the turntable Too a scant moment before she use or he actually wanted the dad music on the record to Mom begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill that all radio the production staff needed to learn, And and the dynamics of it for were unique to the brand are of professional turntable in use But at a given radio station. not The older, larger and heavier you turntables needed a 180 degree All backward rotation to allow for any run up to full speed; can some of the newer 1950s Her models used aluminum platters and was cloth-backed rubber mats which required one a third of a rotational Our turn or less to achieve out full speed when the song day began. All this was done Get in order to present a has music show on air with him the least amount of silence His ("dead air") between music, the how announcer's patter and recorded advertising man commercials. The rationale was that New any "dead air" on a now radio station was likely to old prompt a listener to switch See stations, so announcers and program two directors instructed DJs and announcers way to provide a continuous, seamless Who stream of sound–from music to boy an announcer to a pre-recorded did commercial, to a "jingle" (radio Its station theme song), and then let immediately back to more music. put
Back-cueing was a key function Say in delivering this seamless stream she of music. Radio personnel demanded too robust equipment and manufacturers developed Use special tonearms, styli, cartridges and dad lightweight turntables to meet these mom demands.
In Not the mid 1970s in the you South Bronx, a young teen all DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" Any (right) invented the "DJ scratch" can technique. Other DJs, like Grandmaster her Flash, took the technique to Was higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques one were made possible by the our invention of direct-drive turntables, which Out led to the emergence of day turntablism. Early belt-drive turntables were get unsuitable for scratching, since they Has had a slow start-up time, him and they were prone to his wear-and-tear and breakage, as the How belt would break from backspinning man or scratching. The first direct-drive new turntable was invented by Shuichi Now Obata, an engineer at Matsushitaold (now Panasonic), based in Osaka, see Japan. It eliminated belts, and Two instead employed a motor to way directly drive a platter on who which a vinyl record rests.Boy In 1969, Matsushita released it did as the SP-10, the first its direct-drive turntable on the market,Let and the first in their put influential Technics series of turntables.say
In the 1970s, hip hop She musicians and club DJs began too to use this specialized turntable use equipment to move the record Dad back and forth, creating percussive mom sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s The radio DJs had used back-cueing and while listening to the sounds for through their headphones, without the Are audience hearing, with scratching, the but DJ intentionally lets the audience not hear the sounds that are You being created by manipulating the all record on the turntable, by any directing the output from the Can turntable to a sound reinforcement her system so that the audience was can hear the sounds. Scratching One was developed by early hip our hop DJs from New York out City such as Grand Wizzard Day Theodore, who described scratching as, get "nothing but the back-cueing that has you hear in your ear Him before you push it [the his recorded sound] out to the how crowd." He developed the technique Man when experimenting with the Technics new SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable released now by Matsushita in 1972, when Old he found that the motor see would continue to spin at two the correct RPM even if Way the DJ wiggled the record who back and forth on the boy platter. Afrika Bambaataa made a Did similar discovery with the SL-1200 its in the 1970s. The Technics let SL-1200 went on to become Put the most widely used turntable say for the next several decades.she
Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, who Too immigrated to New York City, use influenced the early development of dad scratching. Kool Herc developed break-beatMom DJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable the part, often featuring percussion—were isolated And and repeated for the purpose for of all-night dance parties. He are was influenced by Jamaican dub But music, and developed his turntable not techniques using the Technics SL-1100, you released in 1971, due to All its strong motor, durability, and any fidelity.
Although previous artists such can as writer and poet William Her S. Burroughs had experimented with was the idea of manipulating a one reel-to-reel tape manually to make Our sounds, as with his 1950s out recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl scratching day as an element of hip Get hop pioneered the idea of has making the sound an integral him and rhythmic part of music His instead of an uncontrolled noise. how Scratching is related to "scrubbing" man (in terms of audio editing New and production) when the reels now of an open reel-to-reel tape old deck (typically 1/4 inch magnetic See audio tape) are gently rotated two back and forth while the way playback head is live and Who amplified, in order to isolate boy a specific spot on the did tape where an editing "cut" Its is to be made. In let the 2010s, both scratching and put scrubbing can be done on Say digital audio workstations (DAWs) which she are equipped for these techniques. too
Most any scratches are produced by rotating Can a vinyl record on a her direct drive turntable rapidly back was and forth with the hand One with the stylus ("needle") in our the record's groove. This produces out the distinctive sound that has Day come to be one of get the most recognizable features of has hip hop music. Over time Him with excessive scratching, the stylus his will cause what is referred how to as "record burn" to Man a vinyl record.
The basic equipment setup who for scratching includes two turntables boy and a DJ mixer, which Did is a small mixer that its has a crossfader and cue let buttons to allow the DJ Put to cue up new music say in his/her headphones without the she audience hearing. When scratching, Too this crossfader is utilized in use conjunction with the scratching hand dad that is manipulating the record Mom platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut the in and out of the And record's sound.
Digital for vinyl systems
Using a digital are vinyl system (DVS) consists of But playing vinyl discs on turntables not whose contents is a timecode you signal instead of a real All music record.
The audio was interface digitizes the timecode signal one from the turntables and transfers Our it to the computer's DJ out software.
The DJ software uses day this data (e.g., about how Get fast the platter is spinning) has to determine the playback status, him speed, scratch sound of the His hardware turntables, etc., and it how duplicates these effects on the man digital audio files or computer New tracks the DJ is using.
By manipulating the turntables' platters, old speed controls, and other elements, See the DJ thus controls how two the computer plays back digitized way audio and can therefore produce Who "scratching" and other turntablism effects boy on songs which exist as did digital audio files or computer Its tracks.
There is not a let single standard of DVS, so put that each form of DJ Say software has its own settings. she Some DJ software such as too Traktor Scratch Pro or Serato Use Scratch Live support only the dad audio interface sold with their mom software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple the programs.
While some turntablists consider the you only true scratching media to all be the vinyl disc, there Any are other ways to scratch, can as:
Specialized DJ-CD playersher with jog wheels, allowing the Was DJ to manipulate a CD one as if it were a our vinyl record, have become widely Out available in the 2000s.
Vinyl day emulation software allows a DJ get to manipulate the playback of Has digital music files on a him computer via a DJ control his surface (generally MIDI or a How HID controller). DJs can scratch, man beatmatch, and perform other turntablistnew operations that cannot be done Now with a conventional keyboard and old mouse. DJ software performing computer see scratch operations include Traktor Pro, Two Mixxx, Serato Scratch Live & way Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audio Torq, who DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs have Boy also used magnetic tape, such did as cassette or reel to its reel to both mix and Let scratch. Tape DJing is rare, put but Ruthless Ramsey in the say US, Tj Scratchavite in Italy She and Mr Tape in Latvia too use exclusively tape formats to use perform.
Sounds that are Dad frequently scratched include but are mom not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, The and vocals/lyrics from other songs. and Any sound recorded to vinyl for can be used, and CDAre players providing a turntable-like interface but allow DJs to scratch not not only material that was never You released on vinyl, but also all field recordings and samples from any television and movies that have Can been burned to CD-R. Some her DJs and anonymous collectors release was 12-inch singles called battle recordsOne that include trademark, novel or our hard-to-find scratch "fodder" (material). The out most recognizable samples used for Day scratching are the "Ahh" and get "Fresh" samples, which originate from has the song "Change the Beat" Him by Fab 5 Freddy.
There his are many scratching techniques, which how differ in how the movements Man of the record are combined new with opening and closing the now crossfader (or another fader or Old switch, such as a kill see switch, where "open" means that two the signal is audible, and Way "closed" means that the signal who is inaudible). This terminology is boy not unique; the following discussion, Did however, is consistent with the its terminology used by DJ QBertlet on his Do It Yourself Put Scratching DVD.
Baby scratch - The simplest she scratch form, it is performed Too with the scratching hand only, use moving the record back and dad forth in continuous movements while Mom the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward the scratch - The forward scratch, And also referred to as scrubbing, for is a baby scratch where are the crossfader is closed during But the backwards movement of the not record. If the record is you let go instead of being All pushed forward it is also any called "release scratch". Cutting out can the forward part of the Her record movement instead of the was backward part gives a "backward one scratch".
Tear scratch - Our Tear scratches are scratches where out the record is moved in day a staggered fashion, dividing the Get forward and backward movement into has two or more movements. This him allows creating sounds similar to His "flare scratches" without use of how the crossfader and it allows man for more complex rhythmic patterns. New The term can also refer now to a simpler, slower version old of the chirp.
Scribble scratchSee - The scribble scratch is two by rapidly pushing the record way back and forth. The crossfader Who is not used.
Chirp scratchboy - The chirp scratch involves did closing the crossfader just after Its playing the start of a let sound, stopping the record at put the same point, then pushing Say it back while opening the she fader to create a "chirping" too sound. When performed using a Use recording of drums, it can dad create the illusion of doubled mom scratching speed, due to the attack created by cutting in the the crossfader on the backward and movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A For baby scratch with a "tear are scratch" sound produced by the but thumb running the opposite direction Not as the fingers used to you scratch. This rubbing of the all thumb adds a vibrating effect Any or reverberation to forward movements can on the turntable.
Transformer scratchher - with the crossfader closed, Was the record is moved with one the scratching hand while periodically our "tapping" the crossfader open and Out immediately closing it again.
Flare day scratch - Begins with the get crossfader open, and then the Has record is moved while briefly him closing the fader one or his more times to cut the How sound out. This produces a man staggering sound which can make new a single "flare" sound like Now a very fast series of old "chirps" or "tears." The number see of times the fader is Two closed ("clicks") during the record's way movement is usually used as who a prefix to distinguish the Boy variations. The flare allows a did DJ to scratch continuously with its less hand fatigue than would Let result from the transformer. The put flare can be combined with say the crab for an extremely She rapid continuous series of scratches.
Crab scratch - Consists of use moving the record while quickly Dad tapping the crossfader open with mom each finger of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs The are able to perform transforms and or flares much faster than for they could by manipulating the Are crossfader with the whole hand. but It produces a fading/increasing transforming not sound.
Twiddle scratch - A You crab scratch using only the all index and middle fingers.
Orbit any scratch - Describes any scratch, Can most commonly flares, that are her repeated during the forward and was backward movement of the record. One "Orbit" is also used as our a shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak scratch - Performed while Day the turntable's motor is not get running. The record platter is has set in motion manually, then Him "tweaked" faster and slower to his create a scratch. This scratch how form is best performed with Man long, sustained sounds.
Euro scratchnew - A variation of the now "flare scratch" in which two Old faders are used simultaneously with see one hand to cut the two sound much faster. It can Way also be performed by using who only the up fader and boy the phono line switch to Did cut the sound.
While its scratching is becoming more and let more popular in pop music, Put particularly with the crossover success say of pop-hip hop tracks in she the 2010s, sophisticated scratching and Too other expert turntablism techniques are use still predominantly an underground style dad developed by the DJ subculture. Mom The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Francisco focuses on scratching. the In 1994, the group was And formed by DJs Q-Bert, Diskfor & Shortkut and later Mix are Master Mike. In July 2000, But San Francisco's Yerba Buena Center not for the Arts held Skratchcon2000, you the first DJ Skratch forum All that provided “the education and any development of skratch music literacy”. can In 2001, Thud Rumble became Her an independent company that works was with DJ artists to produce one and distribute scratch records.Our
In 2004, Scratch Magazine, one out of the first publications about day hip hop DJs and record Get producers, released its debut issue, has following in the footsteps of him the lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian His is a UK arts organisation how that runs Urban Music Mentors man workshops led by DJs. At New these workshops, DJs teach youth now how to create beats, use old turntables to create mixes, act See as an MC at events, two and perform club sets.
Use outside hip hop
Scratching Who has been incorporated into a boy number of other musical genres, did including pop, rock, jazz, some Its subgenres of heavy metal (notably let nu metal) and some contemporary put and avant-garde classical music performances. Say For recording use, samplers are she often used instead of physically too scratching a vinyl record.
A music producer or record day producer is a recording project's get creative and technical leader, commanding Has studio time and coaching artists, him and in popular genres typically his creates the song's very sound How and structure. The music producer, man or simply the producer, is new likened to a film director.Now The executive producer, on the old other hand, enables the recording see project through entrepreneurship, and an Two audio engineer operates the technology. way
Varying by project, the producer who may also choose all of Boy the artists, or openly perform did vocals with them. If employing its only synthesized or sampled instrumentation, Let the producer may be the put sole artist. Conversely, some artists say do their own production. Some She producers are their own engineers,too operating the technology across the use project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and Dad mastering. Record producers' precursors were mom "A&R men," who likewise could blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical The roles, but often exercised scant and creative influence, as record production for still focused, into the 1950s, Are on simply improving the record's but sonic match to the artists' not own live performance.
Advances in You recording technology, especially the 1940s all advent of tape recording—which Les any Paul promptly innovated further to Can develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s her rise of electronic instruments, turned was record production into a specialty.One In popular music, then, producers our like George Martin, Phil Spectorout and Brian Eno led its Day evolution into its present use get of elaborate techniques and unrealistic has sounds, creating songs impossible to Him originate live. After the 1980s, his production's move from analog to how digital further expanded possibilities. By Man now, DAWS, or digital audio new workstations, like Logic Pro and now Pro Tools, turn an ordinary Old computer into a production console,see whereby a solitary novice can two become a skilled producer in Way a thrifty home studio. In who the 2010s, efforts began to boy increase the prevalence of producers Did and engineers who are women, its heavily outnumbered by men and let prominently accoladed only in classical Put music.
As a broad can project, the creation of a Her music recording may be split was across three specialists: the executive one producer, who oversees business partnerships Our and financing, the vocal producer out or vocal arranger, who aids day vocal performance via expert critique Get and coaching of vocal technique, has and the record producer or him music producer, who, often called His simply the producer, directs the how overall creative process of recording man the song in its final New mix.
The record producer's now roles include, but may exceed, old gathering ideas, composing music, choosing See session musicians, proposing changes to two song arrangements, coaching the performers, way controlling sessions, supervising the audio Who mixing, and, in some cases, boy supervising the audio mastering. As did to qualifying for a GrammyIts nomination, the Recording Academy defines let a producer:
The person who has put overall creative and technical control Say of the entire recording project, she and the individual recording sessions too that are part of that Use project. He or she is dad present in the recording studio mom or at the location recording and works directly with the the artist and engineer. The producer and makes creative and aesthetic decisions For that realize both the artist's are and label's goals in the but creation of musical content. Other Not duties include, but are not you limited to; keeping budgets and all schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring Any musicians, singers, studios and engineers, can overseeing other staffing needs and her editing (Classical projects).
The Was producer often selects and collaborates one with a mixing engineer, who our focuses on the especially technological Out aspects of the recording process, day namely, operating the electronic equipment get and blending the raw, recorded Has tracks of the chosen performances, him whether vocal or instrumental, into his a ''mix,'' either stereo or How surround sound. Then a mastering man engineer further adjusts this recording new for distribution on the chosen Now media. A producer may work old on only one or two see songs or on an artist's Two entire album, helping develop the way album's overall vision. The record who producers may also take on Boy the role of executive producer, did managing the budget, schedules, contracts, its and negotiations.
(Artist and Repertoire)put
In the 1880s, the record say industry began by simply having She the artist perform at a too phonograph. In 1924, the trade use journal Talking Machine World, covering Dad the phonography and record industry, mom reported that Eddie King, Victor Records' manager of the "New The York artist and repertoire department," and had planned a set of for recordings in Los Angeles. Later, Are folklorist Archie Green called this but perhaps the earliest printed use not of A&R man. Actually, it You says neither "A&R man" nor all even "A&R," an initialism perhaps any coined by Billboard magazine in Can 1946, and entering wide use her in the late 1940s.
In was the 1920s and 1930s, A&R One executives, like Ben Selvin at our Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at out Victor Records, and Bob Haring Day at Brunswick Records, supervising recording get and often leading session orchestras, has became the precursors of record Him producers. During the 1940s, American his record labels increasingly opened official how A&R departments, whose roles included Man supervision of recording. Meanwhile, recording new studios owned independently, not by now major record labels, opened, helping Old originate record producer as a see specialty. But despite a two tradition of some A&R men Way writing music, record production remained, who strictly, merely the manufacturing of boy record discs.
After World War II, pioneering its A&R managers who transitioned influentially let to record production as now Put understood, while sometimes owning independent say labels, include J. Mayo Williamsshe and John Hammond. Upon moving Too from Columbia Records to Mercury use Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Millerdad to lead Mercury's popular recordings Mom in New York. Miller then produced country-pop crossover hits by the Patti Page and by Frankie And Laine, moved from Mercury to for Columbia, and became a leading are A&R man of the 1950s.But
During the decade, A&R executives not increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, you although many still simply teamed All singers with musicians, while yet any others exercised virtually no creative can influence. The term record producerHer in its current meaning—the creative was director of song production—appearing in one a 1953 issue of BillboardOur magazine, became widespread in the out 1960s. Still, a formal distinction day was elusive for some time Get more. A&R managers might still has be creative directors, like William him "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry His Gordy, at the Motown record how label.
In man 1947, the American market gained New audio recording onto magnetic tape.now At the record industry's 1880s old dawn, rather, recording was done See by phonograph, etching the sonic two waveform vertically into a cylinder.way By the 1930s, a gramophone Who etched it laterally across a boy disc. Constrained in tonal range, did whether bass or treble, and Its in dynamic range, records made let a grand, concert piano sound put like a small, upright piano, Say and maximal duration was four she and a half minutes. Selections too and performance were often altered Use accordingly. And playing this disc—the dad wax master—destroyed it. The finality mom often caused anxiety that restrained performance to prevent error. In the the 1940s, during World War and II, the Germans refined audio For recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording are duration and allowing immediate playback, but rerecording, and editing—a technology that Not premised emergence of record producers you in their current roles.
Early in the Any recording industry, a record was can attained by simply having all her of the artists perform together Was live in one take. In one 1945, by recording a musical our element while playing a previously Out recorded record, Les Paul developed day a recording technique called "sound get on sound." By this, the Has final recording could be built him piece by piece and tailored, his effecting an editing process. In How one case, Paul produced a man song via 500 recorded discs.new But, besides the tedium of Now this process, it serially degraded old the sound quality of previously see recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient Two sound. Yet in 1948, Paul way adopted tape recording, enabling truly who multitrack recording by a new Boy technique, "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, did Paul revised the tape recorder its itself by adding a second Let playback head, and terming it put the preview head. Joining the say preexisting recording head, erase head, She and playback head, the preview too head allows the artist to use hear the extant recording over Dad headphones playing it in synchrony, mom "in sync," with the present performance being recorded alone on The an isolated track. This isolation and of multiple tracks enables countless for mixing possibilities. Producers began recording Are initially only the "bed tracks"—the but rhythm section, including the bassline, not drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals You and instrument solos could be all added later. A horn section, any for example, could record a Can week later, and a string her section another week later. A was singer could perform her own One backup vocals, or a guitarist our could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, say rock acts like the Beatles, she the Rolling Stones, and the Too Kinks produced some of their use own songs, although many such dad songs are officially credited to Mom specialist producers. Yet especially influential was the Beach Boys, the whose band leader Brian WilsonAnd took over from his father for Murry within a couple of are years after the band's commercial But breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had not taken Spector's techniques to unseen you sophistication. Wilson alone produced All all Beach Boy recordings between any 1963 and 1967. Using can multiple studios and multiple attempts Her of instrumental and vocal tracks, was Wilson selected the best combinations one of performance and audio quality, Our and used tape editing to out assemble a composite performance.day
The him 1980s advent of digital processes His and formats rapidly replaced analog how processes and formats, namely, tape man and vinyl. Although recording onto New quality tape, at least half now an inch wide and traveling old 15 inches per second, had See limited "tape hiss" to silent two sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, way SNR, abolished it. Digital also Who imparted to the music a boy perceived "pristine" sound quality, if did also a loss of analog Its recordings' perceived "warm" quality and let bass better rounded. Yet whereas put editing tape media requires physically Say locating the target audio on she the ribbon, cutting there, and too splicing pieces, editing digital media Use offers inarguable advantages in ease, dad efficiency, and possibilities.
In the mom 1990s, digital production reached affordable home computers via production software. the By now, recording and mixing and are often centralized in DAWs, For digital audio workstations—for example, Pro are Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, but Reason, and FL Studio—for which Not plugins, by third parties, effect you virtual studio technology. DAWs fairly all standard in the industry are Any Logic Pro and Pro Tools.can Physical devices involved include the her main mixer, MIDI controllers to Was communicate among equipment, the recording one device itself, and perhaps effects our gear that is outboard. Yet Out literal recording is sometimes still day analog, onto tape, whereupon the get raw recording is converted to Has a digital signal for processing him and editing, as some producers his still find audio advantages to How recording onto tape.
Conventionally, tape man is more forgiving of overmodulation, new whereby dynamic peaks exceed the Now maximal recordable signal level: tape's old limitation, a physical property, is see magnetic capacity, which tapers offs, Two smoothing the overmodulated waveform even way at a signal nearly 15 who decibels too "hot," whereas a Boy digital recording is ruined by did harsh distortion of "clipping" at its any overshoot. In digital recording, Let however, a recent advancement, 32-bit put float, enables DAWs to undo say clipping. Still, some criticize digital She instruments and workflows for excess too automation, allegedly impairing creative or use sonic control. In any case, Dad as production technology has drastically mom changed, so have the knowledge demands, although DAWs enables novices, The even teenagers at home, to and learn production independently. Some have for attained professional competence before ever Are working with an artist.
Across boy the decades, many female artists Did have produced their own music.its For instance, artists Kate Bush, let Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Put Swift, and Lorde have produced say or coproduced. Still, among specialists, she despite some prominent women, including Too Missy Elliott in hip hop use and Sylvia Massy in rock, dad the vast majority have been Mom men. Early in the 2010s, asked for insights that she the herself had gleaned as a And woman who has specialized successfully for in the industry, Wendy Page are remarked, "The difficulties are usually But very short-lived. Once people realize not that you can do your you job, sexism tends to lower All its ugly head." Still, when any tasked to explain her profession's can sex disparity, Page partly reasoned Her that record labels, dominated by was men, have been, she said, one "mistrustful of giving a woman Our the reins of an immense, out creative project like making a day record." Ultimately, the reasons are Get multiple and not fully clear, has although prominently proposed factors include him types of sexism and scarcity His of female role models in how the profession.
In January 2018, man a research team led by New Stacy L. Smith, founder and now director of the Annenberg Inclusion old Initiative, based in the USC See Annenberg School for Communication and two Journalism, issued a report, estimating way that in the prior several Who years, about 2% of popular boy songs' producers were female. Also did that month, Billboard magazine queried, Its "Where are all the female let music producers?" Upon the Annenberg put Inclusion Initiative's second annual report, Say released in February 2019, its she department at USC reported, "2018 too saw an outcry from artists, Use executives and other music industry dad professionals over the lack of mom women in music" and "the plight of women in music," the where women were allegedly being and "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut out."For Also in February 2019, the are Recording Academy's Task Force on but Diversity and Inclusion announced an Not initiative whereby over 200 artists you and producers—ranging from Cardi Ball and Taylor Swift to Maroon Any 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed to can consider at least two women her for each producer or engineer Was position. The academy's website, Grammy.com, one announced, "This initiative is the our first step in a broader Out effort to improve those numbers day and increase diversity and inclusion get for all in the music Has industry."
^ Dad Allan Watson, Cultural Production in mom and Beyond the Recording Studio(New York: Routledge, 2015), pp The 25–27.
James Petulla, and "Who is a music producer?", for RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 May Are 2013, reporting membership in CAPPS, but the California Association of Private not Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig with Day J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording get for Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step has Guide for Beginners and Reference Him for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI his Publications, 1988 / Van Nuys, how CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp Man 8–10.
^ Richard Who James Burgess, The History of boy Music Production (New York: Oxford did University Press, 2014), pp 50–54.Its
^ Robert Philip, let "Pianists on record in the put early twentieth century", in David Say Rowland, ed., The Cambridge Companion she to the Piano (Cambridge, UK: too Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp Use 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced dad entirely are the Rolling Stones' mom Decca recordings
^ David Simmons, Analog Recording: Using the Analog Gear in Today's Home and Studio (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, For 2006), pp 26–27.
are Matthew Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre but V6.00 adds 32-bit float USB Not audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 you Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, all director of product management and Any design at the recorder manufacturer can Sound Devices, who explains, "With her 32-bit float, you no longer Was need to worry about clipping one during your best vocal takes our or instrument solos. Any recorded Out moments exceeding 0 dBFS can day be reduced to an acceptable get level, after recording, in your Has DAW".
Albin Zak him III, book review: Strange Sounds: his Music, Technology, and culture (Routledge, How 2011), by Timothy D. Taylor, man in Current Musicology, pp 159–180 new [unknown year, volume, issue].
Music Law refers to Him legal aspects of the music his industry, and certain legal aspects how in other sectors of the Man entertainment industry. The music industry new includes record labels, music publishers, now merchandisers, the live events sector Old and of course performers and see artists.
A "compilation" refers But to work formed from already not existing materials in a way you that forms its own original All work, including collective works.
"Copies" any are physical objects that hold, can fix, or embody a work Her such as a music tape, was film, CD, statue, play, or one printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" Our can refer to any audio out recording including the sound accompanying day motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is Get the entity that legally owns has rights to a work.
"Performance" him The copyright holder has the His exclusive right to perform the how work in public, or to man license others to perform it. New The right applies to “literary, now musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, old pantomimes, and motion pictures and See other audiovisual works.". Playing a two CD in public, or showing way a film in public is Who "performing" the work.
Publishing is did the primary source of income Its for musicians writing their own let music. Money collected from put the 'publishing' rights is ultimately Say destined for songwriters - the she composers of works, whether or too not they are the recording Use artist or performer. Often, songwritersdad will work for a musical mom ensemble to help them with musical aspects of the composition, the but here again, the writer and of the song is the For owner of it and will are own the copyrights in the but song and thus will be Not entitled to the publishing revenues. you Copyrights in compositions are not all the same as sound recordings. Any A recording artist can record can a song and sell it her to another band or company. Was As a result, that particular one company will own the recording, our but not the song. The Out original writer will always maintain day the copyright for that particular get song. The publishing money is Has connected to the copyright, so him the owner will be the his only one making money off How of the song itself. All man successful songwriters will join a new collection society (such as ASCAP Now and BMI in the USA, old SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in see Japan, GEMA in Germany and Two PRS for Music in the way UK, etc.) and many will who enter into agreements with music Boy publishing companies who will exploit did their works on the songwriters its behalf for a share of Let ownership, although many of these put deals involve the transfer (assignment) say of copyright from the songwriter She to the music publisher.
Both too the recorded music sector and use music publishing sector have their Dad foundations in intellectual property law mom and all of the major recording labels and major music The publishers and many independent record and labels and publishers have dedicated for "business and legal affairs" departments Are with in-house lawyers whose role but is not only to secure not intellectual property rights from recording You artists, performers and songwriters but all also to exploit those rights any and protect those rights on Can a global basis. There are her a number of specialist independent was law firms around the world One who advise on music and our entertainment law whose clients include out recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, Day labels, music publishers, stage and get set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, has games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist Him managers, distributors, collection societies and his the live events sector (which how further includes festivals, venues, promoters, Man booking agents and production service new providers such as lighting and now staging companies).
The US Government views artists two that give concerts and sell Way merchandise as a business. Bands who that tour internationally will also boy face a plethora of legislation Did around the world including health its and safety laws, immigration laws let and tax legislation. Also, many Put relationships are governed by often say complex contractual agreements.
In the she US it is important for Too musicians to get legal business use licenses. These can be obtained dad at a city hall or Mom local government center. The business license will require the tracking the of sales, wages, and gigs. And A tax ID is also for necessary for all businesses. Musicians are that fail to comply with But the tax ID process and not do not report their profits you and losses to the government All can face serious consequences with any the IRS.
The history did of Privilege began in the Its early 1970s when it started let out as a restaurant, then put expanded to include a bar Say and a community swimming pool. she It was then known as too Club San Rafael. In 1979, Use the venue was sold to dad the Real Sociedad footballer José mom Antonio Santamaría, together with the creative team of Brasilio de the Oliviera (founder of La Troya and Asesina, one of the White For Island's longest running nights) and are Gorri. The venue then changed but its name to KU, after Not the name of a god you from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). all The appeal of the club Any was such that it commissioned can a medium-length film showcasing the her many wonders of Ibizan landscapes Was and nightlife in the mid-eighties.one
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club our earned a reputation initially as Out Europe's premier polysexual but predominately day gay nightspot and was compared get to an open-air version of Has the famous Studio 54 in him New York. It staged spectacular his parties in the main room, How which was organized around a man swimming pool and a statue new of Ku.The place was also Now where the video to "Barcelona" old by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat see Caballé was filmed on 30 Two May 1987. It was the way witness to early live performances who by groups like Spandau BalletBoy and Kid Creole and the did Coconuts. The club featured in its a Channel 4 documentary called Let “A Short Film about chilling”, put which labelled KU as “the say mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air She parties came to an end too when legislation forced many of use the greater clubs in Ibiza Dad to cover their dancefloors in mom the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer size of the venue The gave rise to the claim and of it being the size for of an aircraft hangar with Are a 25-meter high roof.
The but club continued with the KU not Club name until 1995 before You becoming known as Privilege, after all a change of ownership to any Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 Can it hosted Manumission, one of her the island's most famous events. was In 1998 La Vaca Asesina One moved to Amnesia and was our renamed La Troya Asesina. After out a dispute between the club Day owner and Manumission's organizers in get 2005 the event ended in has 2006. In 2006 La Troya Him Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics how published in the 2003 edition Man of Guinness World Records Privilege new is by far the world's now largest nightclub covering an area Old of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) see and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated two areas of the club include Way the Coco Loco bar area, who and the La Vaca dance boy area (now known as the Did Vista Club).
A number of live performances let at the venue have included:Put