Scratching, but sometimes referred to as scrubbing, Not is a DJ and turntablistyou technique of moving a vinyl all record back and forth on Any a turntable to produce percussive can or rhythmic sounds. A crossfaderher on a DJ mixer may Was be used to fade between one two records simultaneously.
While scratching our is most associated with hip Out hop music, where it emerged day in the mid-1970s, from the get 1990s it has been used Has in some styles of rap him rock, rap metal and nu his metal. In hip hop culture, How scratching is one of the man measures of a DJ's skills. new DJs compete in scratching competitions Now at the DMC World DJ old Championships and IDA (International DJ see Association), formerly known as ITFTwo (International Turntablist Federation). At scratching way competitions, DJs can use only who scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ mixer, Boy digital vinyl systems or vinyl did records only). In recorded hip its hop songs, scratched "hooks" often Let use portions of other songs. put
A rudimentary form of turntable was manipulation which is related to One scratching was developed in the our late 1940s by radio music out program hosts, disc jockeys (DJs), Day or the radio program producers get who did their own technical has operation as audio console operators. Him It was known as back-cueing, his and was used to find how the very beginning of the Man start of a song (i.e., new the cue point) on a now vinyl record groove. This was Old done to permit the operator see to back the disc up two (rotate the record or the Way turntable platter itself counter-clockwise) in who order to permit the turntable boy to be switched on, and Did come up to full speed its without ruining the first few let bars of music with the Put "wow" of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed say playing. This permitted the announcer she to time her or his Too remarks and start the turntable use a scant moment before she dad or he actually wanted the Mom music on the record to begin.
Back cueing was a the basic skill that all radio And production staff needed to learn, for and the dynamics of it are were unique to the brand But of professional turntable in use not at a given radio station. you The older, larger and heavier All turntables needed a 180 degree any backward rotation to allow for can run up to full speed; Her some of the newer 1950s was models used aluminum platters and one cloth-backed rubber mats which required Our a third of a rotational out turn or less to achieve day full speed when the song Get began. All this was done has in order to present a him music show on air with His the least amount of silence how ("dead air") between music, the man announcer's patter and recorded advertising New commercials. The rationale was that now any "dead air" on a old radio station was likely to See prompt a listener to switch two stations, so announcers and program way directors instructed DJs and announcers Who to provide a continuous, seamless boy stream of sound–from music to did an announcer to a pre-recorded Its commercial, to a "jingle" (radio let station theme song), and then put immediately back to more music. Say
Back-cueing was a key function she in delivering this seamless stream too of music. Radio personnel demanded Use robust equipment and manufacturers developed dad special tonearms, styli, cartridges and mom lightweight turntables to meet these demands.
In you the mid 1970s in the all South Bronx, a young teen Any DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" can (right) invented the "DJ scratch" her technique. Other DJs, like Grandmaster Was Flash, took the technique to one higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques our were made possible by the Out invention of direct-drive turntables, which day led to the emergence of get turntablism. Early belt-drive turntables were Has unsuitable for scratching, since they him had a slow start-up time, his and they were prone to How wear-and-tear and breakage, as the man belt would break from backspinning new or scratching. The first direct-drive Now turntable was invented by Shuichi old Obata, an engineer at Matsushitasee (now Panasonic), based in Osaka, Two Japan. It eliminated belts, and way instead employed a motor to who directly drive a platter on Boy which a vinyl record rests.did In 1969, Matsushita released it its as the SP-10, the first Let direct-drive turntable on the market,put and the first in their say influential Technics series of turntables.She
In the 1970s, hip hop too musicians and club DJs began use to use this specialized turntable Dad equipment to move the record mom back and forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their The dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s and radio DJs had used back-cueing for while listening to the sounds Are through their headphones, without the but audience hearing, with scratching, the not DJ intentionally lets the audience You hear the sounds that are all being created by manipulating the any record on the turntable, by Can directing the output from the her turntable to a sound reinforcement was system so that the audience One can hear the sounds. Scratching our was developed by early hip out hop DJs from New York Day City such as Grand Wizzard get Theodore, who described scratching as, has "nothing but the back-cueing that Him you hear in your ear his before you push it [the how recorded sound] out to the Man crowd." He developed the technique new when experimenting with the Technics now SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable released Old by Matsushita in 1972, when see he found that the motor two would continue to spin at Way the correct RPM even if who the DJ wiggled the record boy back and forth on the Did platter. Afrika Bambaataa made a its similar discovery with the SL-1200 let in the 1970s. The Technics Put SL-1200 went on to become say the most widely used turntable she for the next several decades.Too
Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, who use immigrated to New York City, dad influenced the early development of Mom scratching. Kool Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of the funk songs—being the most danceable And part, often featuring percussion—were isolated for and repeated for the purpose are of all-night dance parties. He But was influenced by Jamaican dub not music, and developed his turntable you techniques using the Technics SL-1100, All released in 1971, due to any its strong motor, durability, and can fidelity.
Although previous artists such Her as writer and poet William was S. Burroughs had experimented with one the idea of manipulating a Our reel-to-reel tape manually to make out sounds, as with his 1950s day recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl scratching Get as an element of hip has hop pioneered the idea of him making the sound an integral His and rhythmic part of music how instead of an uncontrolled noise. man Scratching is related to "scrubbing" New (in terms of audio editing now and production) when the reels old of an open reel-to-reel tape See deck (typically 1/4 inch magnetic two audio tape) are gently rotated way back and forth while the Who playback head is live and boy amplified, in order to isolate did a specific spot on the Its tape where an editing "cut" let is to be made. In put the 2010s, both scratching and Say scrubbing can be done on she digital audio workstations (DAWs) which too are equipped for these techniques. Use
Most Can scratches are produced by rotating her a vinyl record on a was direct drive turntable rapidly back One and forth with the hand our with the stylus ("needle") in out the record's groove. This produces Day the distinctive sound that has get come to be one of has the most recognizable features of Him hip hop music. Over time his with excessive scratching, the stylus how will cause what is referred Man to as "record burn" to new a vinyl record.
The basic equipment setup boy for scratching includes two turntables Did and a DJ mixer, which its is a small mixer that let has a crossfader and cue Put buttons to allow the DJ say to cue up new music she in his/her headphones without the Too audience hearing. When scratching, use this crossfader is utilized in dad conjunction with the scratching hand Mom that is manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the the crossfader is used to cut And in and out of the for record's sound.
Digital are vinyl systems
Using a digital But vinyl system (DVS) consists of not playing vinyl discs on turntables you whose contents is a timecode All signal instead of a real any music record.
The audio one interface digitizes the timecode signal Our from the turntables and transfers out it to the computer's DJ day software.
The DJ software uses Get this data (e.g., about how has fast the platter is spinning) him to determine the playback status, His speed, scratch sound of the how hardware turntables, etc., and it man duplicates these effects on the New digital audio files or computer now tracks the DJ is using.
By manipulating the turntables' platters, See speed controls, and other elements, two the DJ thus controls how way the computer plays back digitized Who audio and can therefore produce boy "scratching" and other turntablism effects did on songs which exist as Its digital audio files or computer let tracks.
There is not a put single standard of DVS, so Say that each form of DJ she software has its own settings. too Some DJ software such as Use Traktor Scratch Pro or Serato dad Scratch Live support only the mom audio interface sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for the one computer to run multiple and programs.
While some turntablists consider the all only true scratching media to Any be the vinyl disc, there can are other ways to scratch, her as:
Specialized DJ-CD playersWas with jog wheels, allowing the one DJ to manipulate a CD our as if it were a Out vinyl record, have become widely day available in the 2000s.
Vinyl get emulation software allows a DJ Has to manipulate the playback of him digital music files on a his computer via a DJ control How surface (generally MIDI or a man HID controller). DJs can scratch, new beatmatch, and perform other turntablistNow operations that cannot be done old with a conventional keyboard and see mouse. DJ software performing computer Two scratch operations include Traktor Pro, way Mixxx, Serato Scratch Live & who Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audio Torq, Boy DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs have did also used magnetic tape, such its as cassette or reel to Let reel to both mix and put scratch. Tape DJing is rare, say but Ruthless Ramsey in the She US, Tj Scratchavite in Italy too and Mr Tape in Latvia use use exclusively tape formats to Dad perform.
Sounds that are mom frequently scratched include but are not limited to drum beats, The horn stabs, spoken word samples, and and vocals/lyrics from other songs. for Any sound recorded to vinyl Are can be used, and CDbut players providing a turntable-like interface not allow DJs to scratch not You only material that was never all released on vinyl, but also any field recordings and samples from Can television and movies that have her been burned to CD-R. Some was DJs and anonymous collectors release One 12-inch singles called battle recordsour that include trademark, novel or out hard-to-find scratch "fodder" (material). The Day most recognizable samples used for get scratching are the "Ahh" and has "Fresh" samples, which originate from Him the song "Change the Beat" his by Fab 5 Freddy.
There how are many scratching techniques, which Man differ in how the movements new of the record are combined now with opening and closing the Old crossfader (or another fader or see switch, such as a kill two switch, where "open" means that Way the signal is audible, and who "closed" means that the signal boy is inaudible). This terminology is Did not unique; the following discussion, its however, is consistent with the let terminology used by DJ QBertPut on his Do It Yourself say Scratching DVD.
Baby scratch - The simplest Too scratch form, it is performed use with the scratching hand only, dad moving the record back and Mom forth in continuous movements while the crossfader is in the the open position.
Forward and backward And scratch - The forward scratch, for also referred to as scrubbing, are is a baby scratch where But the crossfader is closed during not the backwards movement of the you record. If the record is All let go instead of being any pushed forward it is also can called "release scratch". Cutting out Her the forward part of the was record movement instead of the one backward part gives a "backward Our scratch".
Tear scratch - out Tear scratches are scratches where day the record is moved in Get a staggered fashion, dividing the has forward and backward movement into him two or more movements. This His allows creating sounds similar to how "flare scratches" without use of man the crossfader and it allows New for more complex rhythmic patterns. now The term can also refer old to a simpler, slower version See of the chirp.
Scribble scratchtwo - The scribble scratch is way by rapidly pushing the record Who back and forth. The crossfader boy is not used.
Chirp scratchdid - The chirp scratch involves Its closing the crossfader just after let playing the start of a put sound, stopping the record at Say the same point, then pushing she it back while opening the too fader to create a "chirping" Use sound. When performed using a dad recording of drums, it can mom create the illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the the attack created by cutting in and the crossfader on the backward For movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A are baby scratch with a "tear but scratch" sound produced by the Not thumb running the opposite direction you as the fingers used to all scratch. This rubbing of the Any thumb adds a vibrating effect can or reverberation to forward movements her on the turntable.
Transformer scratchWas - with the crossfader closed, one the record is moved with our the scratching hand while periodically Out "tapping" the crossfader open and day immediately closing it again.
Flare get scratch - Begins with the Has crossfader open, and then the him record is moved while briefly his closing the fader one or How more times to cut the man sound out. This produces a new staggering sound which can make Now a single "flare" sound like old a very fast series of see "chirps" or "tears." The number Two of times the fader is way closed ("clicks") during the record's who movement is usually used as Boy a prefix to distinguish the did variations. The flare allows a its DJ to scratch continuously with Let less hand fatigue than would put result from the transformer. The say flare can be combined with She the crab for an extremely too rapid continuous series of scratches.
Crab scratch - Consists of Dad moving the record while quickly mom tapping the crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader The hand. In this way, DJs and are able to perform transforms for or flares much faster than Are they could by manipulating the but crossfader with the whole hand. not It produces a fading/increasing transforming You sound.
Twiddle scratch - A all crab scratch using only the any index and middle fingers.
Orbit Can scratch - Describes any scratch, her most commonly flares, that are was repeated during the forward and One backward movement of the record. our "Orbit" is also used as out a shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak scratch - Performed while get the turntable's motor is not has running. The record platter is Him set in motion manually, then his "tweaked" faster and slower to how create a scratch. This scratch Man form is best performed with new long, sustained sounds.
Euro scratchnow - A variation of the Old "flare scratch" in which two see faders are used simultaneously with two one hand to cut the Way sound much faster. It can who also be performed by using boy only the up fader and Did the phono line switch to its cut the sound.
While let scratching is becoming more and Put more popular in pop music, say particularly with the crossover success she of pop-hip hop tracks in Too the 2010s, sophisticated scratching and use other expert turntablism techniques are dad still predominantly an underground style Mom developed by the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from the San Francisco focuses on scratching. And In 1994, the group was for formed by DJs Q-Bert, Diskare & Shortkut and later Mix But Master Mike. In July 2000, not San Francisco's Yerba Buena Center you for the Arts held Skratchcon2000, All the first DJ Skratch forum any that provided “the education and can development of skratch music literacy”. Her In 2001, Thud Rumble became was an independent company that works one with DJ artists to produce Our and distribute scratch records.out
In 2004, Scratch Magazine, one day of the first publications about Get hip hop DJs and record has producers, released its debut issue, him following in the footsteps of His the lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian how is a UK arts organisation man that runs Urban Music Mentors New workshops led by DJs. At now these workshops, DJs teach youth old how to create beats, use See turntables to create mixes, act two as an MC at events, way and perform club sets.
Use outside hip hop
Scratching boy has been incorporated into a did number of other musical genres, Its including pop, rock, jazz, some let subgenres of heavy metal (notably put nu metal) and some contemporary Say and avant-garde classical music performances. she For recording use, samplers are too often used instead of physically Use scratching a vinyl record.
A music producer or record get producer is a recording project's Has creative and technical leader, commanding him studio time and coaching artists, his and in popular genres typically How creates the song's very sound man and structure. The music producer, new or simply the producer, is Now likened to a film director.old The executive producer, on the see other hand, enables the recording Two project through entrepreneurship, and an way audio engineer operates the technology. who
Varying by project, the producer Boy may also choose all of did the artists, or openly perform its vocals with them. If employing Let only synthesized or sampled instrumentation, put the producer may be the say sole artist. Conversely, some artists She do their own production. Some too producers are their own engineers,use operating the technology across the Dad project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and mom mastering. Record producers' precursors were "A&R men," who likewise could The blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical and roles, but often exercised scant for creative influence, as record production Are still focused, into the 1950s, but on simply improving the record's not sonic match to the artists' You own live performance.
Advances in all recording technology, especially the 1940s any advent of tape recording—which Les Can Paul promptly innovated further to her develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s was rise of electronic instruments, turned One record production into a specialty.our In popular music, then, producers out like George Martin, Phil SpectorDay and Brian Eno led its get evolution into its present use has of elaborate techniques and unrealistic Him sounds, creating songs impossible to his originate live. After the 1980s, how production's move from analog to Man digital further expanded possibilities. By new now, DAWs, or digital audio now workstations, like Logic Pro and Old Pro Tools, turn an ordinary see computer into a production console,two whereby a solitary novice can Way become a skilled producer in who a thrifty home studio. In boy the 2010s, efforts began to Did increase the prevalence of producers its and engineers who are women, let heavily outnumbered by men and Put prominently accoladed only in classical say music.
As a broad project, was the creation of a music one recording may be split across Our three specialists: the executive producer, out who oversees business partnerships and day financing, the vocal producer or Get vocal arranger, who aids vocal has performance via expert critique and him coaching of vocal technique, and His the record producer or music how producer, who, often called simply man the producer, directs the overall New creative process of recording the now song in its final mix. old
The record producer's roles See include, but may exceed, gathering two ideas, composing music, choosing session way musicians, proposing changes to song Who arrangements, coaching the performers, controlling boy sessions, supervising the audio mixing, did and, in some cases, supervising Its the audio mastering. As to let qualifying for a Grammy nomination, put the Recording Academy defines a Say producer:
The person who has overall she creative and technical control of too the entire recording project, and Use the individual recording sessions that dad are part of that project. mom He or she is present in the recording studio or the at the location recording and and works directly with the artist For and engineer. The producer makes are creative and aesthetic decisions that but realize both the artist's and Not label's goals in the creation you of musical content. Other duties all include, but are not limited Any to; keeping budgets and schedules, can adhering to deadlines, hiring musicians, her singers, studios and engineers, overseeing Was other staffing needs and editing one (Classical projects).
The producer our often selects and collaborates with Out a mixing engineer, who focuses day on the especially technological aspects get of the recording process, namely, Has operating the electronic equipment and him blending the raw, recorded tracks his of the chosen performances, whether How vocal or instrumental, into a man ''mix,'' either stereo or surround new sound. Then a mastering engineer Now further adjusts this recording for old distribution on the chosen media. see A producer may work on Two only one or two songs way or on an artist's entire who album, helping develop the album's Boy overall vision. The record producers did may also take on the its role of executive producer, managing Let the budget, schedules, contracts, and put negotiations.
A&R say men
(Artist and Repertoire)
In She the 1880s, the record industry too began by simply having the use artist perform at a phonograph.Dad In 1924, the trade journal mom Talking Machine World, covering the phonography and record industry, reported The that Eddie King, Victor Records' and manager of the "New York for artist and repertoire department," had Are planned a set of recordings but in Los Angeles. Later, folklorist not Archie Green called this perhaps You the earliest printed use of all A&R man. Actually, it says any neither "A&R man" nor even Can "A&R," an initialism perhaps coined her by Billboard magazine in 1946, was and entering wide use in One the late 1940s.
In the our 1920s and 1930s, A&R executives, out like Ben Selvin at Columbia Day Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor get Records, and Bob Haring at has Brunswick Records, supervising recording and Him often leading session orchestras, became his the precursors of record producers.how During the 1940s, American record Man labels increasingly opened official A&R new departments, whose roles included supervision now of recording. Meanwhile, recording studios Old owned independently, not by major see record labels, opened, helping originate two record producer as a specialty.[citation Way needed] But despite a tradition who of some A&R men writing boy music, record production remained, strictly, Did merely the manufacturing of record its discs.
After let World War II, pioneering A&R Put managers who transitioned influentially to say record production as now understood, she while sometimes owning independent labels, Too include J. Mayo Williams and use John Hammond. Upon moving from dad Columbia Records to Mercury Records, Mom Hammond appointed Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's popular recordings in the New York. Miller then produced And country-pop crossover hits by Patti for Page and by Frankie Laine, are moved from Mercury to Columbia, But and became a leading A&R not man of the 1950s.
During you the decade, A&R executives increasingly All directed songs' sonic signatures, although any many still simply teamed singers can with musicians, while yet others Her exercised virtually no creative influence.was The term record producer in one its current meaning—the creative director Our of song production—appearing in a out 1953 issue of Billboard magazine, day became widespread in the 1960s.Get Still, a formal distinction was has elusive for some time more.him A&R managers might still be His creative directors, like William "Mickey" how Stevenson, hired by Berry Gordy, man at the Motown record label.New
In 1947, now the American market gained audio old recording onto magnetic tape. At See the record industry's 1880s dawn, two rather, recording was done by way phonograph, etching the sonic waveform Who vertically into a cylinder. By boy the 1930s, a gramophone etched did it laterally across a disc.Its Constrained in tonal range, whether let bass or treble, and in put dynamic range, records made a Say grand, concert piano sound like she a small, upright piano, and too maximal duration was four and Use a half minutes. Selections and dad performance were often altered accordingly.mom And playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The finality often the caused anxiety that restrained performance and to prevent error. In the For 1940s, during World War II, are the Germans refined audio recording but onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording duration Not and allowing immediate playback, rerecording, you and editing—a technology that premised all emergence of record producers in Any their current roles.
Multitrack can recording
Early in the recording her industry, a record was attained Was by simply having all of one the artists perform together live our in one take. In 1945,Out by recording a musical element day while playing a previously recorded get record, Les Paul developed a Has recording technique called "sound on him sound." By this, the final his recording could be built piece How by piece and tailored, effecting man an editing process. In one new case, Paul produced a song Now via 500 recorded discs. But, old besides the tedium of this see process, it serially degraded the Two sound quality of previously recorded way elements, rerecorded as ambient sound.who Yet in 1948, Paul adopted Boy tape recording, enabling truly multitrack did recording by a new technique, its "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, Paul Let revised the tape recorder itself put by adding a second playback say head, and terming it the She preview head. Joining the preexisting too recording head, erase head, and use playback head, the preview head Dad allows the artist to hear mom the extant recording over headphones playing it in synchrony, "in The sync," with the present performance and being recorded alone on an for isolated track. This isolation of Are multiple tracks enables countless mixing but possibilities. Producers began recording initially not only the "bed tracks"—the rhythm You section, including the bassline, drums, all and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals and any instrument solos could be added Can later. A horn section, for her example, could record a week was later, and a string sectionOne another week later. A singer our could perform her own backup out vocals, or a guitarist could Day play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, rock Too acts like the Beatles, the use Rolling Stones, and the Kinksdad produced some of their own Mom songs, although many such songs are officially credited to specialist the producers. Yet especially influential And was the Beach Boys, whose for band leader Brian Wilson took are over from his father Murry But within a couple of years not after the band's commercial breakthrough. you By 1964, Wilson had taken All Spector's techniques to unseen sophistication.[citation any needed] Wilson alone produced all can Beach Boy recordings between 1963 Her and 1967. Using multiple was studios and multiple attempts of one instrumental and vocal tracks, Wilson Our selected the best combinations of out performance and audio quality, and day used tape editing to assemble Get a composite performance.
The 1980s how advent of digital processes and man formats rapidly replaced analog processes New and formats, namely, tape and now vinyl. Although recording onto quality old tape, at least half an See inch wide and traveling 15 two inches per second, had limited way "tape hiss" to silent sections, Who digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, boy abolished it. Digital also imparted did to the music a perceived Its "pristine" sound quality, if also let a loss of analog recordings' put perceived "warm" quality and bass Say better rounded. Yet whereas editing she tape media requires physically locating too the target audio on the Use ribbon, cutting there, and splicing dad pieces, editing digital media offers mom inarguable advantages in ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In the 1990s, the digital production reached affordable home and computers via production software. By For now, recording and mixing are are often centralized in DAWs, digital but audio workstations—for example, Pro Tools, Not Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, you and FL Studio—for which plugins, all by third parties, effect virtual Any studio technology. DAWs fairly standard can in the industry are Logic her Pro and Pro Tools. Physical Was devices involved include the main one mixer, MIDI controllers to communicate our among equipment, the recording device Out itself, and perhaps effects gear day that is outboard. Yet literal get recording is sometimes still analog, Has onto tape, whereupon the raw him recording is converted to a his digital signal for processing and How editing, as some producers still man find audio advantages to recording new onto tape.
Conventionally, tape is Now more forgiving of overmodulation, whereby old dynamic peaks exceed the maximal see recordable signal level: tape's limitation, Two a physical property, is magnetic way capacity, which tapers offs, smoothing who the overmodulated waveform even at Boy a signal nearly 15 decibels did too "hot," whereas a digital its recording is ruined by harsh Let distortion of "clipping" at any put overshoot. In digital recording, however, say a recent advancement, 32-bit float, She enables DAWs to undo clipping.too Still, some criticize digital instruments use and workflows for excess automation, Dad allegedly impairing creative or sonic mom control. In any case, as production technology has drastically changed, The so have the knowledge demands,and although DAWs enables novices, even for teenagers at home, to learn Are production independently. Some have attained but professional competence before ever working not with an artist.
In the 2000s, with her the advent of technology that was made traditional record production accessible, One the role of the producer our has evolved, especially with hip out hop beatmaking and electronic music. Day Within these genres, the term get producer is applied to a has number of roles and has Him popularized the use of more his niche terms and credits including how executive producer, co-producer, assistant producer, Man and additional and miscellaneous production new to differentiate contributions.
Across the All decades, many female artists have any produced their own music. For can instance, artists Kate Bush, Madonna, Her Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, was and Lorde have produced or one coproduced. and Ariana Grande who Our produces and arranges her vocals out as well as being an day audio engineer. Still among specialists, Get despite some prominent women, including has Missy Elliott in hip hop him and Sylvia Massy in rock, His the vast majority have been how men. Early in the 2010s, man asked for insights that she New herself had gleaned as a now woman who has specialized successfully old in the industry, Wendy Page See remarked, "The difficulties are usually two very short-lived. Once people realize way that you can do your Who job, sexism tends to lower boy its ugly head." Still, when did tasked to explain her profession's Its sex disparity, Page partly reasoned let that record labels, dominated by put men, have been, she said, Say "mistrustful of giving a woman she the reins of an immense, too creative project like making a Use record." Ultimately, the reasons are dad multiple and not fully clear, mom although prominently proposed factors include types of sexism and scarcity the of female role models in and the profession.
In January 2018, For a research team led by are Stacy L. Smith, founder and but director of the Annenberg Inclusion Not Initiative, based in the USC you Annenberg School for Communication and all Journalism, issued a report, estimating Any that in the prior several can years, about 2% of popular her songs' producers were female. Also Was that month, Billboard magazine queried, one "Where are all the female our music producers?" Upon the Annenberg Out Inclusion Initiative's second annual report, day released in February 2019, its get department at USC reported, "2018 Has saw an outcry from artists, him executives and other music industry his professionals over the lack of How women in music" and "the man plight of women in music," new where women were allegedly being Now "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut out."old Also in February 2019, the see Recording Academy's Task Force on Two Diversity and Inclusion announced an way initiative whereby over 200 artists who and producers—ranging from Cardi BBoy and Taylor Swift to Maroon did 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed to its consider at least two women Let for each producer or engineer put position. The academy's website, Grammy.com, say announced, "This initiative is the She first step in a broader too effort to improve those numbers use and increase diversity and inclusion Dad for all in the music mom industry."
^ Allan Watson, his Cultural Production in and Beyond how the Recording Studio (New York: Man Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.
James Petulla, "Who is now a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Old Connection, 21 May 2013, reporting see membership in CAPPS, the California two Association of Private Postsecondary Schools.Way
^ Too Brent Hurtig with J. D. use Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: dad The Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Mom Beginners and Reference for Professionals(Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, 1988 the / Van Nuys, CA: Alfred And Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.
^ Richard James Burgess, can The History of Music Productionher (New York: Oxford University Press, Was 2014), pp 50–54.
^ one Robert Philip, "Pianists on our record in the early twentieth Out century", in David Rowland, ed., day The Cambridge Companion to the get Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Has Press, 1998), pp 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced entirely are his the Rolling Stones' Decca recordingsHow
^ David Simmons, man Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear new in Today's Home Studio (San Now Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), pp old 26–27.
Matthew Allard, see "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 adds Two 32-bit float USB audio streaming", way NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, who quotes Paul Isaacs, director of Boy product management and design at did the recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, its who explains, "With 32-bit float, Let you no longer need to put worry about clipping during your say best vocal takes or instrument She solos. Any recorded moments exceeding too 0 dBFS can be reduced use to an acceptable level, after Dad recording, in your DAW".
Albin Zak III, book review: Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, The and culture (Routledge, 2011), by and Timothy D. Taylor, in Current for Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown year, Are volume, issue].
Music Law refers to legal out aspects of the music industry, day and certain legal aspects in Get other sectors of the entertainment has industry. The music industry includes him record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, His the live events sector and how of course performers and artists. man
A "compilation" refers to the work formed from already existing and materials in a way that For forms its own original work, are including collective works.
"Copies" are but physical objects that hold, fix, Not or embody a work such you as a music tape, film, all CD, statue, play, or printed Any sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can can refer to any audio recording her including the sound accompanying motion Was pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the one entity that legally owns rights our to a work.
"Performance" The Out copyright holder has the exclusive day right to perform the work get in public, or to license Has others to perform it. The him right applies to “literary, musical, his dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, How and motion pictures and other man audiovisual works.". Playing a CD new in public, or showing a Now film in public is "performing" old the work.
Publishing is the Two primary source of income for way musicians writing their own music.[citation who needed] Money collected from the Boy 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined did for songwriters - the composers its of works, whether or not Let they are the recording artist put or performer. Often, songwriters will say work for a musical ensemble She to help them with musical too aspects of the composition, but use here again, the writer of Dad the song is the owner mom of it and will own the copyrights in the song The and thus will be entitled and to the publishing revenues. Copyrights for in compositions are not the Are same as sound recordings. A but recording artist can record a not song and sell it to You another band or company. As all a result, that particular company any will own the recording, but Can not the song. The original her writer will always maintain the was copyright for that particular song. One The publishing money is connected our to the copyright, so the out owner will be the only Day one making money off of get the song itself. All successful has songwriters will join a collection Him society (such as ASCAP and his BMI in the USA, SOCAN how in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, Man GEMA in Germany and PRS new for Music in the UK, now etc.) and many will enter Old into agreements with music publishing see companies who will exploit their two works on the songwriters behalf Way for a share of ownership, who although many of these deals boy involve the transfer (assignment) of Did copyright from the songwriter to its the music publisher.
Both the let recorded music sector and music Put publishing sector have their foundations say in intellectual property law and she all of the major recording Too labels and major music publishers use and many independent record labels dad and publishers have dedicated "business Mom and legal affairs" departments with in-house lawyers whose role is the not only to secure intellectual And property rights from recording artists, for performers and songwriters but also are to exploit those rights and But protect those rights on a not global basis. There are a you number of specialist independent law All firms around the world who any advise on music and entertainment can law whose clients include recording Her artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, was music publishers, stage and set one designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games Our designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, out distributors, collection societies and the day live events sector (which further Get includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking has agents and production service providers him such as lighting and staging His companies).
The man US Government views artists that New give concerts and sell merchandise now as a business. Bands that old tour internationally will also face See a plethora of legislation around two the world including health and way safety laws, immigration laws and Who tax legislation. Also, many relationships boy are governed by often complex did contractual agreements.
In the US Its it is important for musicians let to get legal business licenses. put These can be obtained at Say a city hall or local she government center. The business license too will require the tracking of Use sales, wages, and gigs. A dad tax ID is also necessary mom for all businesses. Musicians that fail to comply with the the tax ID process and do and not report their profits and For losses to the government can are face serious consequences with the but IRS.
The Two history of Privilege began in way the early 1970s when it who started out as a restaurant, Boy then expanded to include a did bar and a community swimming its pool. It was then known Let as Club San Rafael. In put 1979, the venue was sold say to the Real Sociedad footballer She José Antonio Santamaría, together with too the creative team of Brasilio use de Oliviera (founder of La Dad Troya Asesina, one of the mom White Island's longest running nights) and Gorri. The venue then The changed its name to KU, and after the name of a for god from Hawaiian mythology (see Are Kū). The appeal of the but club was such that it not commissioned a medium-length film showcasing You the many wonders of Ibizan all landscapes and nightlife in the any mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU Can Club earned a reputation initially her as Europe's premier polysexual but was predominately gay nightspot and was One compared to an open-air version our of the famous Studio 54out in New York. It staged Day spectacular parties in the main get room, which was organized around has a swimming pool and a Him statue of Ku.The place was his also where the video to how "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and Man Montserrat Caballé was filmed on new 30 May 1987. It was now the witness to early live Old performances by groups like Spandau see Ballet and Kid Creole and two the Coconuts. The club featured Way in a Channel 4 documentary who called “A Short Film about boy chilling”, which labelled KU as Did “the mirror of Ibiza”. The its open-air parties came to an let end when legislation forced many Put of the greater clubs in say Ibiza to cover their dancefloors she in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, Too the sheer size of the use venue gave rise to the dad claim of it being the Mom size of an aircraft hangar with a 25-meter high roof. the
The club continued with the And KU Club name until 1995 for before becoming known as Privilege, are after a change of ownership But to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In not 1994 it hosted Manumission, one you of the island's most famous All events. In 1998 La Vaca any Asesina moved to Amnesia and can was renamed La Troya Asesina. Her After a dispute between the was club owner and Manumission's organizers one in 2005 the event ended Our in 2006. In 2006 La out Troya Asesina moved to Space. day
According to official Get statistics published in the 2003 has edition of Guinness World Recordshim Privilege is by far the His world's largest nightclub covering an how area of 69,968 sq ft man (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,New Designated areas of the club now include the Coco Loco bar old area, and the La Vaca See dance area (now known as two the Vista Club).
Live way performances
A number of live Who performances at the venue have boy included: