Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockies (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the early you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record producer or music way producer oversees and manages the who sound recording and production of Boy a band or performer's music, did which may range from recording its one song to recording a Let lengthy concept album. A producer put has many, varying roles during say the recording process. They may She gather musical ideas for the too project, collaborate with the artists use to select cover tunes or Dad original songs by the artist/group, mom work with artists and help them to improve their songs, The lyrics or arrangements.
The all producer typically supervises the entire any process from preproduction, through to Can the sound recording and mixingher stages, and, in some cases, was all the way to the One audio mastering stage. The producer our may perform these roles themselves, out or help select the engineer, Day and provide suggestions to the get engineer. The producer may also has pay session musicians and engineers Him and ensure that the entire his project is completed within the how record label's budget.
A record producerits or music producer has a let very broad role in overseeing Put and managing the recording and say production of a band or she performer's music. A producer has Too many roles that may include, use but are not limited to, dad gathering ideas for the project, Mom composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session the musicians, proposing changes to the And song arrangements, coaching the artist for and musicians in the studio, are controlling the recording sessions, and But supervising the entire process through not audio mixing (recorded music) and, you in some cases, to the All audio mastering stage. Producers also any often take on a wider can entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for Her the budget, schedules, contracts, and was negotiations.
The person out who has overall creative and day technical control of the entire Get recording project, and the individual has recording sessions that are part him of that project. He or His she is present in the how recording studio or at the man location recording and works directly New with the artist and engineer. now The producer makes creative and old aesthetic decisions that realize both See the artist's and label's goals two in the creation of musical way content. Other duties include, but Who are not limited to; keeping boy budgets and schedules, adhering to did deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios Its and engineers, overseeing other staffing let needs and editing (Classical projects). put
In the 2010s, the Say producer role is sometimes divided she among up to three different too individuals: executive producer, vocal producer Use and music producer. An executive dad producer oversees project finances, a mom vocal producer (also known as a vocal arranger) oversees the the vocal production, and a music and producer directs and oversees the For creative process of the production are and recording of a song but to its final mixing stage. Not
The music producer also often you wears many hat's as a all competent arranger, composer, programmer, musician Any or songwriter who can bring can fresh ideas to a project. her As well as making any Was songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the one producer often selects and/or collaborates our with the mixing engineer, who Out takes the raw recorded tracks day and edits and modifies them get with hardware and software tools Has to create a stereo or him surround sound "mix" of all his the individual voices sounds and How instruments, which is in turn man given further adjustment by a new mastering engineer for the various Now distribution media. The producer also old oversees the recording engineer who see concentrates on the technical aspects Two of recording.
Noted producer Phil way Ek described his role as who "the person who creatively guides Boy or directs the process of did making a record", like a its director would a movie. Indeed, Let in Bollywood music, the designation put is actually music director. The say music producer's job is to She create, shape, and mold a too piece of music. The scope use of responsibility may be one Dad or two songs or an mom artist's entire album – in which case the producer will The typically develop an overall vision and for the album and how for the various songs may interrelate. Are
At the beginning but of the record industry, the not producer role was technically limited You to record, in one shot, all artists performing live. The immediate any predecessors to record producers were Can the artists and repertoire executives her of the late 1920s and was 1930s who oversaw the "pop" One product and often led session our orchestras. That was the case out of Ben Selvin at Columbia Day Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor get Records and Bob Haring at has Brunswick Records. By the end Him of the 1930s, the first his professional recording studios not owned how by the major companies were Man established, essentially separating the roles new of artists and repertoire (A&R) now man and producer, although it Old wouldn't be until the late see 1940s when the term "producer" two became widely used in the Way industry.
The role of producers who changed progressively over the 1950s boy and 1960s due to technology. Did The development of multitrack recordingits caused a major change in let the recording process. Before multitracking, Put all the elements of a say song (lead vocals, backup vocals, she rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos Too and orchestral parts) had to use be performed simultaneously. All of dad these singers and musicians had Mom to be assembled in a large studio where the performance the was recorded. With multitrack recording, And the "bed tracks" (rhythm section for accompaniment parts such as the are bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar But could be recorded first, and not then the vocals and solos you could be added later, using All as many "takes" (or attempts) any as necessary. It was no can longer necessary to get all Her the players in the studio was at the same time. A one pop band could record their Our backing tracks one week, and out then a horn section could day be brought in a week Get later to add horn shots has and punches, and then a him string section could be brought His in a week after that. how
Multitrack recording had another profound man effect on music production: it New enabled producers and audio engineers now to create new sounds that old would be impossible in a See live performance style ordering. Examples two include the psychedelic rock sound way effects of the 1960s, e.g. Who playing back the sound of boy recorded instruments backward changing the did tape to produce unique sound Its effects. During the same period, let the instruments of popular music put began to shift from the Say acoustic instruments of traditional musicshe (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, too strings, brass and wind instruments) Use to electric piano, electronic organ, dad synthesizer, electric bass and electric mom guitar. These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus the they used instrument amplifiers and and speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to For create sound.
Electric and electronic are instruments and amplifiers enabled performers but and producers to change the Not tone and sound of instruments you to produce unique electric sounds all that would be impossible to Any achieve with acoustic instruments and can live performers, such as having her a singer do her own Was backup vocals or having a one guitarist play 15 layers of our backing parts to her own Out solo.
New technologies like multitracking day changed the goal of recording: get A producer could blend together Has multiple takes and edit together him different sections to create the his desired sound. For example, in How jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' man album Bitches Brew, the producer new cut and edited sections together Now from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like Two Phil Spector and George Martinway were soon creating recordings that who were, in practical terms, almost Boy impossible to realize in live did performance. Producers became creative figures its in the studio. Other examples Let includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, put Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in use the 1960s was the emergence Dad of the performer-producer. As pop mom acts like The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Beach BoysThe and The Kinks gained expertise and in studio recording techniques, many for of these groups eventually took Are over as (frequently uncredited) producers but of their own work. Many not recordings by acts such as You The Rolling Stones, The Kinks all and The Who are officially any credited to their various producers Can at the time, but a her number of these performers have was since asserted that many of One their recordings in this period our were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. out The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) Day or collaborations between the group get and their recording engineer (e.g. has The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, Him which were made with Olympic his Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The how Beach Boys are probably the Man best example of the trend new of artists becoming producers – now within two years of the Old band's commercial breakthrough, group leader see Brian Wilson had taken over two from his father Murry, and Way he was the sole producer who of all their recordings between boy 1963 and 1967. Alongside The Did Beatles and Martin, Wilson also its pioneered many production innovations – let by 1964 he had developed Put Spector's techniques to a new say level of sophistication, using multiple she studios and multiple "takes" of Too instrumental and vocal components to use capture the best possible combinations dad of sound and performance, and Mom then using tape editing extensively to assemble a perfect composite the performance from these elements.
At And the end of the 20th for century, digital recording and producing are tools and widespread availability of But relatively affordable computers with music not software made music producing more you accessible.
American women and All record producing
According to a any 2018 study covering by the can USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The Her ratio of male to female was producers across 300 popular songs one is 49 to 1."
In 2019, way record producer Linda Perry was Who nominated for a Grammy for boy Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. did She was the first woman Its in over 15 years to let be nominated for the award. put When asked about the disparity Say between male and female record she producer by Billboard, she attributed too it to many women not Use being interested in record production.dad
In For the classical music field, Judith are Sherman has won Grammy for but Producer of the Year, Classical, Not five times and has been you nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, all a music critic for The Any New York Times is quoted can as stating, "In the struggling her field of classical recording, it's Was the producers who take the one real risks and make things our happen."
Producer Wendy Page describes get being a record producer, "The Has difficulties are usually very short-lived. him Once people realize that you his can do your job, sexism How tends to lower its ugly man head. I tend to create new a happy studio 'family' where Now everyone is glad to be old there, especially the artist. Good see communication and diplomacy usually sort Two any little problems out."
There are You numerous technologies utilized by record all producers. In modern-day recordings, recording any and mixing tasks are commonly Can centralized within computers using digital her audio workstations such as Pro was Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, One and FL Studio, which all our are often used with third out party virtual studio technology plugins.Day Logic Pro and Pro Tools get are considered the industry standard has DAWs. However, there is also Him the main mixer, outboard effects his gear, MIDI controllers, and the how recording device itself.
While most Man music production is done using new sophisticated software, some musicians and now producers prefer the sound of Old older analog technology. Professor Albin see Zak claims that the increased two automation of both newer processes Way and newer instruments reduces the who level of control and manipulation boy available to musicians and producers.Did
Production has its changed drastically over the years let with advancing technology. While the Put producer's role has changed, their say duties continue to require a she broad knowledge of the recording Too process.
Tracking is the act use of recording audio to a dad DAW (digital audio workstation) or Mom in some cases to tape. Even though digital technologies have the widely supplanted the use of And tape in studios, the older for term "track" is still used are in the 2010s. Tracking audio But is primarily the role of not the audio engineer. Producers work you side by side with the All artists while they play or any sing their part and coach can them on how to perform Her it and how to get was the best technical accuracy (e.g., one intonation). In some cases, the Our producer will even sing a out backup vocal or play an day instrument.
Many artists are also Get beginning to produce and write has their own music.
Influential him record producers
In 2012 NMEHis identified 50 of the greatest how producers ever.
Similarly, although The Not Beatles' productions were credited to you George Martin throughout their recording all career, many sources now attest Any that Lennon and McCartney in can particular had an increasing influence her on the production process as Was the group's career progressed, and one especially after the band retired our from touring in 1966. In Out an extreme example of this, day Martin actually went on a get two-week vacation as The Beatles Has were recording The White Album; him production of several completed tracks his on the album were credited How to The Beatles on internal man paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, new although the released LP gave Now sole production credit to Martin.old
Zak,Albin can J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange Her sounds: Music, technology, and culture," was by Timothy D. Taylor. Current one Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Our Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine out Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices day For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching Get To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." has Journal of New Music Research him 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search His Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.how
Music Law refers Man to legal aspects of the new music industry, and certain legal now aspects in other sectors of Old the entertainment industry. The music see industry includes record labels, music two publishers, merchandisers, the live events Way sector and of course performers who and artists.
A "compilation" All refers to work formed from any already existing materials in a can way that forms its own Her original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that one hold, fix, or embody a Our work such as a music out tape, film, CD, statue, play, day or printed sheet music.
"Sound Get recordings" can refer to any has audio recording including the sound him accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" His is the entity that legally how owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has New the exclusive right to perform now the work in public, or old to license others to perform See it. The right applies to two “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic way works, pantomimes, and motion pictures Who and other audiovisual works.". Playing boy a CD in public, or did showing a film in public Its is "performing" the work.
Publishing put is the primary source of Say income for musicians writing their she own music. Money collected too from the 'publishing' rights is Use ultimately destined for songwriters - dad the composers of works, whether mom or not they are the recording artist or performer. Often, the songwriters will work for a and musical ensemble to help them For with musical aspects of the are composition, but here again, the but writer of the song is Not the owner of it and you will own the copyrights in all the song and thus will Any be entitled to the publishing can revenues. Copyrights in compositions are her not the same as sound Was recordings. A recording artist can one record a song and sell our it to another band or Out company. As a result, that day particular company will own the get recording, but not the song. Has The original writer will always him maintain the copyright for that his particular song. The publishing money How is connected to the copyright, man so the owner will be new the only one making money Now off of the song itself. old All successful songwriters will join see a collection society (such as Two ASCAP and BMI in the way USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC who in Japan, GEMA in Germany Boy and PRS for Music in did the UK, etc.) and many its will enter into agreements with Let music publishing companies who will put exploit their works on the say songwriters behalf for a share She of ownership, although many of too these deals involve the transfer use (assignment) of copyright from the Dad songwriter to the music publisher. mom
Both the recorded music sector and music publishing sector have The their foundations in intellectual propertyand law and all of the for major recording labels and major Are music publishers and many independent but record labels and publishers have not dedicated "business and legal affairs" You departments with in-house lawyers whose all role is not only to any secure intellectual property rights from Can recording artists, performers and songwriters her but also to exploit those was rights and protect those rights One on a global basis. There our are a number of specialist out independent law firms around the Day world who advise on music get and entertainment law whose clients has include recording artists, performers, producers, Him songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage his and set designers, choreographers, graphic how artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, Man artist managers, distributors, collection societies new and the live events sector now (which further includes festivals, venues, Old promoters, booking agents and production see service providers such as lighting two and staging companies).
The US Government views boy artists that give concerts and Did sell merchandise as a business. its Bands that tour internationally will let also face a plethora of Put legislation around the world including say health and safety laws, immigration she laws and tax legislation. Also, Too many relationships are governed by use often complex contractual agreements.
In dad the US it is important Mom for musicians to get legal business licenses. These can be the obtained at a city hall And or local government center. The for business license will require the are tracking of sales, wages, and But gigs. A tax ID is not also necessary for all businesses. you Musicians that fail to comply All with the tax ID process any and do not report their can profits and losses to the Her government can face serious consequences was with the IRS.
The history man of Privilege began in the New early 1970s when it started now out as a restaurant, then old expanded to include a bar See and a community swimming pool. two It was then known as way Club San Rafael. In 1979, Who the venue was sold to boy the Real Sociedad footballer José did Antonio Santamaría, together with the Its creative team of Brasilio de let Oliviera (founder of La Troya put Asesina, one of the White Say Island's longest running nights) and she Gorri. The venue then changed too its name to KU, after Use the name of a god dad from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). mom The appeal of the club was such that it commissioned the a medium-length film showcasing the and many wonders of Ibizan landscapes For and nightlife in the mid-eighties.are
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club but earned a reputation initially as Not Europe's premier polysexual but predominately you gay nightspot and was compared all to an open-air version of Any the famous Studio 54 in can New York. It staged spectacular her parties in the main room, Was which was organized around a one swimming pool and a statue our of Ku.The place was also Out where the video to "Barcelona" day by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat get Caballé was filmed on 30 Has May 1987. It was the him witness to early live performances his by groups like Spandau BalletHow and Kid Creole and the man Coconuts. The club featured in new a Channel 4 documentary called Now “A Short Film about chilling”, old which labelled KU as “the see mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air Two parties came to an end way when legislation forced many of who the greater clubs in Ibiza Boy to cover their dancefloors in did the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the its sheer size of the venue Let gave rise to the claim put of it being the size say of an aircraft hangar with She a 25-meter high roof.
The too club continued with the KU use Club name until 1995 before Dad becoming known as Privilege, after mom a change of ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 The it hosted Manumission, one of and the island's most famous events. for In 1998 La Vaca Asesina Are moved to Amnesia and was but renamed La Troya Asesina. After not a dispute between the club You owner and Manumission's organizers in all 2005 the event ended in any 2006. In 2006 La Troya Can Aseina moved to Space.
According to official statistics was published in the 2003 edition One of Guinness World Records Privilege our is by far the Worlds out largest nightclub covering an area Day of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) get and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated has areas of the club include Him the Coco Loco bar area, his and the La Vaca dance how area (now known as the Man Vista Club).
A number of live performances now at the venue have included:Old