Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A record producer or who music producer oversees and manages Boy the sound recording and production did of a band or performer's its music, which may range from Let recording one song to recording put a lengthy concept album. A say producer has many, varying roles She during the recording process. They too may gather musical ideas for use the project, collaborate with the Dad artists to select cover tunesmom or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and The help them to improve their and songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the Can entire process from preproduction, through her to the sound recording and was mixing stages, and, in some One cases, all the way to our the audio mastering stage. The out producer may perform these roles Day themselves, or help select the get engineer, and provide suggestions to has the engineer. The producer may Him also pay session musicians and his engineers and ensure that the how entire project is completed within Man the record label's budget.
A its record producer or music producerlet has a very broad role Put in overseeing and managing the say recording and production of a she band or performer's music. A Too producer has many roles that use may include, but are not dad limited to, gathering ideas for Mom the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs the or session musicians, proposing changes And to the song arrangements, coaching for the artist and musicians in are the studio, controlling the recording But sessions, and supervising the entire not process through audio mixing and, you in some cases, to the All audio mastering stage. Producers also any often take on a wider can entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for Her the budget, schedules, contracts, and was negotiations.
The person out who has overall creative and day technical control of the entire Get recording project, and the individual has recording sessions that are part him of that project. He or His she is present in the how recording studio or at the man location recording and works directly New with the artist and engineer. now The producer makes creative and old aesthetic decisions that realize both See the artist's and label's goals two in the creation of musical way content. Other duties include, but Who are not limited to; keeping boy budgets and schedules, adhering to did deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios Its and engineers, overseeing other staffing let needs and editing (Classical projects). put
The producer role was Say occasionally divided among up to she three different individuals in the too 2010s: executive producer, vocal producer Use and music producer. An executive dad producer oversees project finances, a mom vocal producer (also known as a vocal arranger) oversees the the vocal production, and a music and producer directs and oversees the For creative process of the production are and recording of a song but to its final mixing stage. Not
The music producer often wears you many hats as a competent all arranger, composer, programmer, musician or Any songwriter who can bring fresh can ideas to a project. As her well as making any songwriting Was and arrangement adjustments, the producer one often selects and/or collaborates with our the mixing engineer, who takes Out the raw recorded tracks and day edits and modifies them with get hardware and software tools to Has create a stereo or surround him sound "mix" of all the his individual voices sounds and instruments, How which is in turn given man further adjustment by a mastering new engineer for the various distribution Now media. The producer also oversees old the recording engineer who concentrates see on the technical aspects of Two recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekway described his role as "the who person who creatively guides or Boy directs the process of making did a record", like a director its would a movie. Indeed, in Let Bollywood music, the designation is put actually music director. The music say producer's job is to create, She shape, and mold a piece too of music. The scope of use responsibility may be one or Dad two songs or an artist's mom entire album – in which case the producer will typically The develop an overall vision for and the album and how the for various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of but the record industry, the producer not role was technically limited to You record, in one shot, artists all performing live. The immediate predecessors any to record producers were the Can artists and repertoire executives of her the late 1920s and 1930s was who oversaw the "pop" product One and often led session orchestras. our That was the case of out Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Day Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordsget and Bob Haring at Brunswick has Records. By the end of Him the 1930s, the first professional his recording studios not owned by how the major companies were established, Man essentially separating the roles of new artists and repertoire (A&R) man now and producer, although it wouldn't Old be until the late 1940s see when the term "producer" became two widely used in the industry. Way
The role of producers changed who progressively over the 1950s and boy 1960s due to technology. The Did development of multitrack recording caused its a major change in the let recording process. Before multitracking, all Put the elements of a song say (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm she section instrument accompaniment, solos and Too orchestral parts) had to be use performed simultaneously. All of these dad singers and musicians had to Mom be assembled in a large studio where the performance was the recorded. With multitrack recording, the And "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment for parts such as the bassline, are drums, and rhythm guitar could But be recorded first, and then not the vocals and solos could you be added later, using as All many "takes" (or attempts) as any necessary. It was no longer can necessary to get all the Her players in the studio at was the same time. A pop one band could record their backing Our tracks one week, and then out a horn section could be day brought in a week later Get to add horn shots and has punches, and then a string him section could be brought in His a week after that.
Multitrack how recording had another profound effect man on music production: it enabled New producers and audio engineers to now create new sounds that would old be impossible in a live See performance style ordering. Examples include two the psychedelic rock sound effects way of the 1960s, e.g. playing Who back the sound of recorded boy instruments backward changing the tape did to produce unique sound effects. Its During the same period, the let instruments of popular music began put to shift from the acoustic Say instruments of traditional music (piano, she upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, too brass and wind instruments) to Use electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, dad electric bass and electric guitar. mom These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they the used instrument amplifiers and speaker and enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create For sound.
Electric and electronic instruments are and amplifiers enabled performers and but producers to change the tone Not and sound of instruments to you produce unique electric sounds that all would be impossible to achieve Any with acoustic instruments and live can performers, such as having a her singer do her own backup Was vocals or having a guitarist one play 15 layers of backing our parts to her own solo.Out
New technologies like multitracking changed day the goal of recording: A get producer could blend together multiple Has takes and edit together different him sections to create the desired his sound. For example, in jazz How fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album man Bitches Brew, the producer cut new and edited sections together from Now extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the use 1960s was the emergence of Dad the performer-producer. As pop acts mom like The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Beach Boys and The The Kinks gained expertise in and studio recording techniques, many of for these groups eventually took over Are as (frequently uncredited) producers of but their own work. Many recordings not by acts such as The You Rolling Stones, The Kinks and all The Who are officially credited any to their various producers at Can the time, but a number her of these performers have since was asserted that many of their One recordings in this period were, our either wholly self-produced (e.g. The out Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or Day collaborations between the group and get their recording engineer (e.g. The has Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which Him were made with Olympic Studioshis engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach how Boys are probably the best Man example of the trend of new artists becoming producers – within now two years of the band's Old commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian see Wilson had taken over from two his father Murry, and he Way was the sole producer of who all their recordings between 1963 boy and 1967. Alongside The Beatles Did and Martin, Wilson also pioneered its many production innovations – by let 1964 he had developed Spector's Put techniques to a new level say of sophistication, using multiple studios she and multiple "takes" of instrumental Too and vocal components to capture use the best possible combinations of dad sound and performance, and then Mom using tape editing extensively to assemble a perfect composite performance the from these elements.
At the And end of the 20th century, for digital recording and producing tools are and widespread availability of relatively But affordable computers with music software not made music producing more accessible. you
American women and record All producing
According to a 2018 any study covering by the USC can Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio Her of male to female producers was across 300 popular songs is one 49 to 1."
In 2019, record way producer Linda Perry was nominated Who for a Grammy for Producer boy of the Year, Non-Classical. She did was the first woman in Its over 15 years to be let nominated for the award. When put asked about the disparity between Say male and female record producer she by Billboard, she attributed it too to many women not being Use interested in record production.
In the For classical music field, Judith Shermanare has won Grammy for Producer but of the Year, Classical, five Not times and has been nominated you twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a all music critic for The New Any York Times is quoted as can stating, "In the struggling field her of classical recording, it's the Was producers who take the real one risks and make things happen."our
Producer Wendy Page describes being get a record producer, "The difficulties Has are usually very short-lived. Once him people realize that you can his do your job, sexism tends How to lower its ugly head. man I tend to create a new happy studio 'family' where everyone Now is glad to be there, old especially the artist. Good communication see and diplomacy usually sort any Two little problems out."
There are numerous technologies any utilized by record producers. In Can modern-day recordings, recording and mixing her tasks are commonly centralized within was computers using digital audio workstationsOne such as Pro Tools, Logic our Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason and out FL Studio, which all are Day often used with third party get virtual studio technology plugins. Logic has Pro and Pro Tools are Him considered the industry standard DAWs.his However, there is also the how main mixer, outboard effects gear, Man MIDI controllers, and the recording new device itself.
While most music now production is done using sophisticated Old software, some musicians and producers see prefer the sound of older two analog technology. Professor Albin Zak Way claims that the increased automation who of both newer processes and boy newer instruments reduces the level Did of control and manipulation available its to musicians and producers.
Production has changed Put drastically over the years with say advancing technology. While the producer's she role has changed, their duties Too continue to require a broad use knowledge of the recording process.dad
Tracking is the act of Mom recording audio to a DAW (digital audio workstation) or in the some cases to tape. Even And though digital technologies have widely for supplanted the use of tape are in studios, the older term But "track" is still used in not the 2010s. Tracking audio is you primarily the role of the All audio engineer. Producers work side any by side with the artists can while they play or sing Her their part and coach them was on how to perform it one and how to get the Our best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). out In some cases, the producer day will even sing a backup Get vocal or play an instrument. has
Many artists are also beginning him to produce and write their His own music.
Who Similarly, although The Beatles' productions boy were credited to George Martin did throughout their recording career, many Its sources now attest that Lennon let and McCartney in particular had put an increasing influence on the Say production process as the group's she career progressed, and especially after too the band retired from touring Use in 1966. In an extreme dad example of this, Martin actually mom went on a two-week vacation as The Beatles were recording the The White Album; production of and several completed tracks on the For album were credited to The are Beatles on internal paperwork at but Abbey Road Studios, although the Not released LP gave sole production you credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin she J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange Too sounds: Music, technology, and culture," use by Timothy D. Taylor. Current dad Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Mom Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices the For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching And To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." for Journal of New Music Research are 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search But Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.not
Music Law refers to Day legal aspects of the music get industry, and certain legal aspects has in other sectors of the Him entertainment industry. The music industry his includes record labels, music publishers, how merchandisers, the live events sector Man and of course performers and new artists.
A "compilation" refers And to work formed from already for existing materials in a way are that forms its own original But work, including collective works.
"Copies" not are physical objects that hold, you fix, or embody a work All such as a music tape, any film, CD, statue, play, or can printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" Her can refer to any audio was recording including the sound accompanying one motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is Our the entity that legally owns out rights to a work.
"Performance" day The copyright holder has the Get exclusive right to perform the has work in public, or to him license others to perform it. His The right applies to “literary, how musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, man pantomimes, and motion pictures and New other audiovisual works.". Playing a now CD in public, or showing old a film in public is See "performing" the work.
Publishing is way the primary source of income Who for musicians writing their own boy music. Money collected from did the 'publishing' rights is ultimately Its destined for songwriters - the let composers of works, whether or put not they are the recording Say artist or performer. Often, songwritersshe will work for a musical too ensemble to help them with Use musical aspects of the composition, dad but here again, the writer mom of the song is the owner of it and will the own the copyrights in the and song and thus will be For entitled to the publishing revenues. are Copyrights in compositions are not but the same as sound recordings. Not A recording artist can record you a song and sell it all to another band or company. Any As a result, that particular can company will own the recording, her but not the song. The Was original writer will always maintain one the copyright for that particular our song. The publishing money is Out connected to the copyright, so day the owner will be the get only one making money off Has of the song itself. All him successful songwriters will join a his collection society (such as ASCAP How and BMI in the USA, man SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in new Japan, GEMA in Germany and Now PRS for Music in the old UK, etc.) and many will see enter into agreements with music Two publishing companies who will exploit way their works on the songwriters who behalf for a share of Boy ownership, although many of these did deals involve the transfer (assignment) its of copyright from the songwriter Let to the music publisher.
Both put the recorded music sector and say music publishing sector have their She foundations in intellectual property law too and all of the major use recording labels and major music Dad publishers and many independent record mom labels and publishers have dedicated "business and legal affairs" departments The with in-house lawyers whose role and is not only to secure for intellectual property rights from recording Are artists, performers and songwriters but but also to exploit those rights not and protect those rights on You a global basis. There are all a number of specialist independent any law firms around the world Can who advise on music and her entertainment law whose clients include was recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, One labels, music publishers, stage and our set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, out games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist Day managers, distributors, collection societies and get the live events sector (which has further includes festivals, venues, promoters, Him booking agents and production service his providers such as lighting and how staging companies).
The US Government views artists now that give concerts and sell Old merchandise as a business. Bands see that tour internationally will also two face a plethora of legislation Way around the world including health who and safety laws, immigration laws boy and tax legislation. Also, many Did relationships are governed by often its complex contractual agreements.
In the let US it is important for Put musicians to get legal business say licenses. These can be obtained she at a city hall or Too local government center. The business use license will require the tracking dad of sales, wages, and gigs. Mom A tax ID is also necessary for all businesses. Musicians the that fail to comply with And the tax ID process and for do not report their profits are and losses to the government But can face serious consequences with not the IRS.
The history Get of Privilege began in the has early 1970s when it started him out as a restaurant, then His expanded to include a bar how and a community swimming pool. man It was then known as New Club San Rafael. In 1979, now the venue was sold to old the Real Sociedad footballer José See Antonio Santamaría, together with the two creative team of Brasilio de way Oliviera (founder of La Troya Who Asesina, one of the White boy Island's longest running nights) and did Gorri. The venue then changed Its its name to KU, after let the name of a god put from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). Say The appeal of the club she was such that it commissioned too a medium-length film showcasing the Use many wonders of Ibizan landscapes dad and nightlife in the mid-eighties.mom
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club earned a reputation initially as the Europe's premier polysexual but predominately and gay nightspot and was compared For to an open-air version of are the famous Studio 54 in but New York. It staged spectacular Not parties in the main room, you which was organized around a all swimming pool and a statue Any of Ku.The place was also can where the video to "Barcelona" her by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Was Caballé was filmed on 30 one May 1987. It was the our witness to early live performances Out by groups like Spandau Balletday and Kid Creole and the get Coconuts. The club featured in Has a Channel 4 documentary called him “A Short Film about chilling”, his which labelled KU as “the How mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air man parties came to an end new when legislation forced many of Now the greater clubs in Ibiza old to cover their dancefloors in see the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the Two sheer size of the venue way gave rise to the claim who of it being the size Boy of an aircraft hangar with did a 25-meter high roof.
The its club continued with the KU Let Club name until 1995 before put becoming known as Privilege, after say a change of ownership to She Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 too it hosted Manumission, one of use the island's most famous events. Dad In 1998 La Vaca Asesina mom moved to Amnesia and was renamed La Troya Asesina. After The a dispute between the club and owner and Manumission's organizers in for 2005 the event ended in Are 2006. In 2006 La Troya but Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics You published in the 2003 edition all of Guinness World Records Privilege any is by far the world's Can largest nightclub covering an area her of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) was and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated One areas of the club include our the Coco Loco bar area, out and the La Vaca dance Day area (now known as the get Vista Club).
A number of live performances Him at the venue have included:his