Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A record producer or music our producer oversees and manages the Out sound recording and production of day a band or performer's music, get which may range from recording Has one song to recording a him lengthy concept album. A producer his has many, varying roles during How the recording process. They may man gather musical ideas for the new project, collaborate with the artists Now to select cover tunes or old original songs by the artist/group, see work with artists and help Two them to improve their songs, way lyrics or arrangements.
The say producer typically supervises the entire She process from preproduction, through to too the sound recording and mixinguse stages, and, in some cases, Dad all the way to the mom audio mastering stage. The producer may perform these roles themselves, The or help select the engineer, and and provide suggestions to the for engineer. The producer may also Are pay session musicians and engineers but and ensure that the entire not project is completed within the You record label's budget.
A record producer or has music producer has a very Him broad role in overseeing and his managing the recording and production how of a band or performer's Man music. A producer has many new roles that may include, but now are not limited to, gathering Old ideas for the project, composing see the music for the project, two selecting songs or session musicians, Way proposing changes to the song who arrangements, coaching the artist and boy musicians in the studio, controlling Did the recording sessions, and supervising its the entire process through audio let mixing (recorded music) and, in Put some cases, to the audio say mastering stage. Producers also often she take on a wider entrepreneurialToo role, with responsibility for the use budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. dad
Writer Chris Deville explains it, Mom "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone the who helps a band achieve And a certain aesthetic, or who for comes up with the perfect are violin part to complement the But vocal melody, or who insists not that a chorus should actually you be a bridge. Other times All a producer will build a any complete piece of music from can the ground up and present Her the finished product to a was vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying one Future with readymade beats or Our Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift out add lyrics and melody to day an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Get Woods.”
The artist of an has album may not be a him record producer or music producer His for his/her album. While both how contribute creatively, the official credit man of "record producer" may depend New on the record contract. Christina now Aguilera, for example, did not old receive record producer credits until See many albums into her career.two
In the 2010s, the producer way role is sometimes divided among Who up to three different individuals: boy executive producer, vocal producer and did music producer. An executive producer Its oversees project finances, a vocal let producers (also known as a put vocal arranger) oversees the vocal Say production, and a music producer she oversees the creative process of too recording and mixings.
The music Use producer is also often a dad competent arranger, composer, musician or mom songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As the well as making any songwriting and and arrangement adjustments, the producer For often selects and/or collaborates with are the mixing engineer, who takes but the raw recorded tracks and Not edits and modifies them with you hardware and software tools to all create a stereo or surround Any sound "mix" of all the can individual voices sounds and instruments, her which is in turn given Was further adjustment by a mastering one engineer for the various distribution our media. The producer also oversees Out the recording engineer who concentrates day on the technical aspects of get recording.
Noted producer Phil EkHas described his role as "the him person who creatively guides or his directs the process of making How a record", like a director man would a movie. Indeed, in new Bollywood music, the designation is Now actually music director. The music old producer's job is to create, see shape, and mold a piece Two of music. The scope of way responsibility may be one or who two songs or an artist's Boy entire album – in which did case the producer will typically its develop an overall vision for Let the album and how the put various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of She record industry, the producer role too was technically limited to record, use in one shot, artists performing Dad live. The immediate predecessors to mom record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the The late 1920s and 1930s who and oversaw the "pop" product and for often led session orchestras. That Are was the case of Ben but Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel not Shilkret at Victor Records and You Bob Haring at Brunswick Records. all By the end of the any 1930s, the first professional recording Can studios not owned by the her major companies were established, essentially was separating the roles of A&R One man and producer, although it our wouldn't be until the late out 1940s when the term "producer" Day became widely used in the get industry.
The role of producers has changed progressively over the 1950s Him and 1960s due to technology. his The development of multitrack recordinghow caused a major change in Man the recording process. Before multitracking, new all the elements of a now song (lead vocals, backup vocals, Old rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos see and orchestral parts) had to two be performed simultaneously. All of Way these singers and musicians had who to be assembled in a boy large studio where the performance Did was recorded. With multitrack recording, its the "bed tracks" (rhythm section let accompaniment parts such as the Put bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar say could be recorded first, and she then the vocals and solos Too could be added later, using use as many "takes" (or attempts) dad as necessary. It was no Mom longer necessary to get all the players in the studio the at the same time. A And pop band could record their for backing tracks one week, and are then a horn section could But be brought in a week not later to add horn shots you and punches, and then a All string section could be brought any in a week after that. can
Multitrack recording had another profound Her effect on music production: it was enabled producers and audio engineers one to create new sounds that Our would be impossible in a out live performance style ordering. Examples day include the psychedelic rock sound Get effects of the 1960s, e.g. has playing back the sound of him recorded instruments backward changing the His tape to produce unique sound how effects. During the same period, man the instruments of popular music New began to shift from the now acoustic instruments of traditional musicold (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, See strings, brass and wind instruments) two to electric piano, electronic organ, way synthesizer, electric bass and electric Who guitar. These new instruments were boy electric or electronic, and thus did they used instrument amplifiers and Its speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to let create sound.
Electric and electronic put instruments and amplifiers enabled performers Say and producers to change the she tone and sound of instruments too to produce unique electric sounds Use that would be impossible to dad achieve with acoustic instruments and mom live performers, such as having a singer do her own the backup vocals or having a and guitarist play 15 layers of For backing parts to her own are solo.
New technologies like multitracking but changed the goal of recording: Not A producer could blend together you multiple takes and edit together all different sections to create the Any desired sound. For example, in can jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' her album Bitches Brew, the producer Was cut and edited sections together one from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like day Phil Spector and George Martinget were soon creating recordings that Has were, in practical terms, almost him impossible to realize in live his performance. Producers became creative figures How in the studio. Other examples man includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, new Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in Two the 1960s was the emergence way of the performer-producer. As pop who acts like The Beatles, The Boy Rolling Stones, The Beach Boysdid and The Kinks gained expertise its in studio recording techniques, many Let of these groups eventually took put over as (frequently uncredited) producers say of their own work. Many She recordings by acts such as too The Rolling Stones, The Kinks use and The Who are officially Dad credited to their various producers mom at the time, but a number of these performers have The since asserted that many of and their recordings in this period for were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. Are The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) but or collaborations between the group not and their recording engineer (e.g. You The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, all which were made with Olympic any Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The Can Beach Boys are probably the her best example of the trend was of artists becoming producers – One within two years of the our band's commercial breakthrough, group leader out Brian Wilson had taken over Day from his father Murry, and get he was the sole producer has of all their recordings between Him 1963 and 1967. Alongside The his Beatles and Martin, Wilson also how pioneered many production innovations – Man by 1964 he had developed new Spector's techniques to a new now level of sophistication, using multiple Old studios and multiple "takes" of see instrumental and vocal components to two capture the best possible combinations Way of sound and performance, and who then using tape editing extensively boy to assemble a perfect composite Did performance from these elements.
At its the end of the 20th let century, digital recording and producing Put tools and widespread availability of say relatively affordable computers with music she software made music producing more Too accessible.
According to a 2018 not study by the USC Annenbergyou Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio of All male to female producers across any 300 popular songs is 49 can to 1."
They also discovered Her only 2 percent of music was producers are women. In 2019, one The Recording Academy's Task Force Our on Diversity and Inclusion announced out the "Producer & Engineer Inclusion day Initiative." This initiative asks musicians, Get record labels, studios and others has to consider at least two him women for each producer or His engineer position. Major artists, producers how and organizations have signed on man including Taylor Swift, Lady Gaga, New Quincy Jones, Pearl Jam, John now Legend, Pharrell Williams, Pink, Cardi old B, Maroon 5 and over See 200 others.
In 2019, record two producer Linda Perry was nominated way for a Grammy for Producer Who of the Year, Non-Classical. She boy was the first woman in did over 15 years to be Its nominated for the award. Previous let nominees include Lauren Christy (2004), put Sheryl Crowe, Lauryn Hill and Say Janet Jackson. None have won she the award.
In the classical too music field, Judith Sherman has Use won Grammy for Producer of dad the Year, Classical, three times mom and been nominated twelve times. Wilma Cozart Fine produced hundreds the of recordings for Mercury Records. and
Producer Wendy Page describes being For a record producer, "The difficulties are are usually very short-lived. Once but people realize that you can Not do your job, sexism tends you to lower its ugly head. all I tend to create a Any happy studio 'family' where everyone can is glad to be there, her especially the artist. Good communication Was and diplomacy usually sort any one little problems out."
There are put numerous technologies utilized by record say producers. In modern-day recordings, recording She and mixing tasks are commonly too centralized within computers using digital use audio workstations such as Pro Dad Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, mom and FL Studio, which all are often used with third The party virtual studio technology plugins.and Logic Pro and Pro Tools for are considered the industry standard Are DAWs. However, there is also but the main mixer, outboard effects not gear, MIDI controllers, and the You recording device itself.
While most all music production is done using any sophisticated software, some musicians and Can producers prefer the sound of her older analog technology. Professor Albin was Zak claims that the increased One automation of both newer processes our and newer instruments reduces the out level of control and manipulation Day available to musicians and producers.get
Production has has changed drastically over the years Him with advancing technology. While the his producer's role has changed, their how duties continue to require a Man broad knowledge of the recording new process.
Tracking is the act now of recording audio to a Old DAW (digital audio workstation) or see in some cases to tape. two Even though digital technologies have Way widely supplanted the use of who tape in studios, the older boy term "track" is still used Did in the 2010s. Tracking audio its is primarily the role of let the audio engineer. Producers work Put side by side with the say artists while they play or she sing their part and coach Too them on how to perform use it and how to get dad the best technical accuracy (e.g., Mom intonation). In some cases, the producer will even sing a the backup vocal or play an And instrument.
Many artists are also for beginning to produce and write are their own music.
Influential But record producers
In 2012 NMEnot identified 50 of the greatest you producers ever.
let Similarly, although The Beatles' productions put were credited to George Martin Say throughout their recording career, many she sources now attest that Lennon too and McCartney in particular had Use an increasing influence on the dad production process as the group's mom career progressed, and especially after the band retired from touring the in 1966. In an extreme and example of this, Martin actually For went on a two-week vacation are as The Beatles were recording but The White Album; production of Not several completed tracks on the you album were credited to The all Beatles on internal paperwork at Any Abbey Road Studios, although the can released LP gave sole production her credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin let J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange Put sounds: Music, technology, and culture," say by Timothy D. Taylor. Current she Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Too Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine use Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices dad For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching Mom To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal of New Music Research the 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search And Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.for
Music Lawmom refers to legal aspects of the music industry, and certain The legal aspects in other sectors and of the entertainment industry. The for music industry includes record labels, Are music publishers, merchandisers, the live but events sector and of course not performers and artists.
A see "compilation" refers to work formed two from already existing materials in Way a way that forms its who own original work, including collective boy works.
"Copies" are physical objects Did that hold, fix, or embody its a work such as a let music tape, film, CD, statue, Put play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to she any audio recording including the Too sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright use owner" is the entity that dad legally owns rights to a Mom work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has the exclusive right to the perform the work in public, And or to license others to for perform it. The right applies are to “literary, musical, dramatic, and But choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion not pictures and other audiovisual works.".you Playing a CD in public, All or showing a film in any public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source was of income for musicians writing one their own music. Money Our collected from the 'publishing' rights out is ultimately destined for songwriters day - the composers of works, Get whether or not they are has the recording artist or performer. him Often, songwriters will work for His a musical ensemble to help how them with musical aspects of man the composition, but here again, New the writer of the song now is the owner of it old and will own the copyrights See in the song and thus two will be entitled to the way publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions Who are not the same as boy sound recordings. A recording artist did can record a song and Its sell it to another band let or company. As a result, put that particular company will own Say the recording, but not the she song. The original writer will too always maintain the copyright for Use that particular song. The publishing dad money is connected to the mom copyright, so the owner will be the only one making the money off of the song and itself. All successful songwriters will For join a collection society (such are as ASCAP and BMI in but the USA, SOCAN in Canada, Not JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in you Germany and PRS for Music all in the UK, etc.) and Any many will enter into agreements can with music publishing companies who her will exploit their works on Was the songwriters behalf for a one share of ownership, although many our of these deals involve the Out transfer (assignment) of copyright from day the songwriter to the music get publisher.
Both the recorded music Has sector and music publishing sector him have their foundations in intellectual his property law and all of How the major recording labels and man major music publishers and many new independent record labels and publishers Now have dedicated "business and legal old affairs" departments with in-house lawyers see whose role is not only Two to secure intellectual property rights way from recording artists, performers and who songwriters but also to exploit Boy those rights and protect those did rights on a global basis. its There are a number of Let specialist independent law firms around put the world who advise on say music and entertainment law whose She clients include recording artists, performers, too producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, use stage and set designers, choreographers, Dad graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, mom broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection societies and the live events The sector (which further includes festivals, and venues, promoters, booking agents and for production service providers such as Are lighting and staging companies).
The US Government You views artists that give concerts all and sell merchandise as a any business. Bands that tour internationally Can will also face a plethora her of legislation around the world was including health and safety laws, One immigration laws and tax legislation. our Also, many relationships are governed out by often complex contractual agreements. Day
In the US it is get important for musicians to get has legal business licenses. These can Him be obtained at a city his hall or local government center. how The business license will require Man the tracking of sales, wages, new and gigs. A tax ID now is also necessary for all Old businesses. Musicians that fail to see comply with the tax ID two process and do not report Way their profits and losses to who the government can face serious boy consequences with the IRS.
The Too history of Privilege began in use the early 1970s when it dad started out as a restaurant, Mom then expanded to include a bar and a community swimming the pool. It was then known And as Club San Rafael. In for 1979, the venue was sold are to the Real Sociedad footballer But José Antonio Santamaría, together with not the creative team of Brasilio you de Oliviera (founder of La All Troya Asesina, one of the any White Island's longest running nights) can and Gorri. The venue then Her changed its name to KU, was after the name of a one god from Hawaiian mythology (see Our Kū). The appeal of the out club was such that it day commissioned a medium-length film showcasing Get the many wonders of Ibizan has landscapes and nightlife in the him mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU His Club earned a reputation initially how as Europe's premier polysexual but man predominately gay nightspot and was New compared to an open-air version now of the famous Studio 54old in New York. It staged See spectacular parties in the main two room, which was organized around way a swimming pool and a Who statue of Ku.The place was boy also where the video to did "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and Its Montserrat Caballé was filmed on let 30 May 1987. It was put the witness to early live Say performances by groups like Spandau she Ballet and Kid Creole and too the Coconuts. The club featured Use in a Channel 4 documentary dad called “A Short Film about mom chilling”, which labelled KU as “the mirror of Ibiza”. The the open-air parties came to an and end when legislation forced many For of the greater clubs in are Ibiza to cover their dancefloors but in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, Not the sheer size of the you venue gave rise to the all claim of it being the Any size of an aircraft hangar can with a 25-meter high roof. her
The club continued with the Was KU Club name until 1995 one before becoming known as Privilege, our after a change of ownership Out to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In day 1994 it hosted Manumission, one get of the island's most famous Has events. In 1998 La Vaca him Asesina moved to Amnesia and his was renamed La Troya Asesina. How After a dispute between the man club owner and Manumission's organizers new in 2005 the event ended Now in 2006. In 2006 La old Troya Aseina moved to Space. see
According to official Two statistics published in the 2003 way edition of Guinness World Recordswho Privilege is by far the Boy Worlds largest nightclub covering an did area of 69,968 sq ft its (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,Let Designated areas of the club put include the Coco Loco bar say area, and the La Vaca She dance area (now known as too the Vista Club).