Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockies (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the early you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record who producer or music producer oversees Boy and manages the sound recordingdid and production of a band its or performer's music, which may Let range from recording one songput to recording a lengthy concept say album. A producer has many, She varying roles during the recording too process. They may gather musical use ideas for the project, collaborate Dad with the artists to select mom cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with The artists and help them to and improve their songs, lyrics or for arrangements.
Coachall the singers and musicians in any the studio
The producer typically Can supervises the entire process from her preproduction, through to the sound was recording and mixing stages, and, One in some cases, all the our way to the audio masteringout stage. The producer may perform Day these roles themselves, or help get select the engineer, and provide has suggestions to the engineer. The Him producer may also pay session his musicians and engineers and ensure how that the entire project is Man completed within the record label's new budget.
A record producer or music Put producer has a very broad say role in overseeing and managing she the recording and production of Too a band or performer's music. use A producer has many roles dad that may include, but are Mom not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the the music for the project, selecting And songs or session musicians, proposing for changes to the song arrangements, are coaching the artist and musicians But in the studio, controlling the not recording sessions, and supervising the you entire process through audio mixingAll and, in some cases, to any the audio mastering stage. Producers can also often take on a Her wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility was for the budget, schedules, contracts, one and negotiations.
The day person who has overall creative Get and technical control of the has entire recording project, and the him individual recording sessions that are His part of that project. He how or she is present in man the recording studio or at New the location recording and works now directly with the artist and old engineer. The producer makes creative See and aesthetic decisions that realize two both the artist's and label's way goals in the creation of Who musical content. Other duties include, boy but are not limited to; did keeping budgets and schedules, adhering Its to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, let studios and engineers, overseeing other put staffing needs and editing (Classical Say projects).
In the 2010s, she the producer role is sometimes too divided among up to three Use different individuals: executive producer, vocal dad producer and music producer. An mom executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producer (also known the as a vocal arranger) oversees and the vocal production, and a For music producer directs and oversees are the creative process of the but production and recording of a Not song to its final mixing you stage.
The music producer often all wears many hats as a Any competent arranger, composer, programmer, musician can or songwriter who can bring her fresh ideas to a project. Was As well as making any one songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the our producer often selects and/or collaborates Out with the mixing engineer, who day takes the raw recorded tracks get and edits and modifies them Has with hardware and software tools him to create a stereo or his surround sound "mix" of all How the individual voices sounds and man instruments, which is in turn new given further adjustment by a Now mastering engineer for the various old distribution media. The producer also see oversees the recording engineer who Two concentrates on the technical aspects way of recording.
Noted producer Phil who Ek described his role as Boy "the person who creatively guides did or directs the process of its making a record", like a Let director would a movie. Indeed, put in Bollywood music, the designation say is actually music director. The She music producer's job is to too create, shape, and mold a use piece of music. The scope Dad of responsibility may be one mom or two songs or an artist's entire album – in The which case the producer will and typically develop an overall vision for for the album and how Are the various songs may interrelate. but
At the beginning not of the record industry, the You producer role was technically limited all to record, in one shot, any artists performing live. The immediate Can predecessors to record producers were her the artists and repertoire executives was of the late 1920s and One 1930s who oversaw the "pop" our product and often led session out orchestras. That was the case Day of Ben Selvin at Columbia get Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor has Records and Bob Haring at Him Brunswick Records. By the end his of the 1930s, the first how professional recording studios not owned Man by the major companies were new established, essentially separating the roles now of artists and repertoire (A&R) Old man and producer, although it see wouldn't be until the late two 1940s when the term "producer" Way became widely used in the who industry.
The role of producers boy changed progressively over the 1950s Did and 1960s due to technology. its The development of multitrack recordinglet caused a major change in Put the recording process. Before multitracking, say all the elements of a she song (lead vocals, backup vocals, Too rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos use and orchestral parts) had to dad be performed simultaneously. All of Mom these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a the large studio where the performance And was recorded. With multitrack recording, for the "bed tracks" (rhythm section are accompaniment parts such as the But bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar not could be recorded first, and you then the vocals and solos All could be added later, using any as many "takes" (or attempts) can as necessary. It was no Her longer necessary to get all was the players in the studio one at the same time. A Our pop band could record their out backing tracks one week, and day then a horn section could Get be brought in a week has later to add horn shots him and punches, and then a His string section could be brought how in a week after that. man
Multitrack recording had another profound New effect on music production: it now enabled producers and audio engineers old to create new sounds that See would be impossible in a two live performance style ordering. Examples way include the psychedelic rock sound Who effects of the 1960s, e.g. boy playing back the sound of did recorded instruments backward changing the Its tape to produce unique sound let effects. During the same period, put the instruments of popular music Say began to shift from the she acoustic instruments of traditional musictoo (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, Use strings, brass and wind instruments) dad to electric piano, electronic organ, mom synthesizer, electric bass and electric guitar. These new instruments were the electric or electronic, and thus and they used instrument amplifiers and For speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to are create sound.
Electric and electronic but instruments and amplifiers enabled performers Not and producers to change the you tone and sound of instruments all to produce unique electric sounds Any that would be impossible to can achieve with acoustic instruments and her live performers, such as having Was a singer do her own one backup vocals or having a our guitarist play 15 layers of Out backing parts to her own day solo.
New technologies like multitracking get changed the goal of recording: Has A producer could blend together him multiple takes and edit together his different sections to create the How desired sound. For example, in man jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' new album Bitches Brew, the producer Now cut and edited sections together old from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like way Phil Spector and George Martinwho were soon creating recordings that Boy were, in practical terms, almost did impossible to realize in live its performance. Producers became creative figures Let in the studio. Other examples put includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, say Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in Dad the 1960s was the emergence mom of the performer-producer. As pop acts like The Beatles, The The Rolling Stones, The Beach Boysand and The Kinks gained expertise for in studio recording techniques, many Are of these groups eventually took but over as (frequently uncredited) producers not of their own work. Many You recordings by acts such as all The Rolling Stones, The Kinks any and The Who are officially Can credited to their various producers her at the time, but a was number of these performers have One since asserted that many of our their recordings in this period out were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. Day The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) get or collaborations between the group has and their recording engineer (e.g. Him The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, his which were made with Olympic how Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The Man Beach Boys are probably the new best example of the trend now of artists becoming producers – Old within two years of the see band's commercial breakthrough, group leader two Brian Wilson had taken over Way from his father Murry, and who he was the sole producer boy of all their recordings between Did 1963 and 1967. Alongside The its Beatles and Martin, Wilson also let pioneered many production innovations – Put by 1964 he had developed say Spector's techniques to a new she level of sophistication, using multiple Too studios and multiple "takes" of use instrumental and vocal components to dad capture the best possible combinations Mom of sound and performance, and then using tape editing extensively the to assemble a perfect composite And performance from these elements.
At for the end of the 20th are century, digital recording and producing But tools and widespread availability of not relatively affordable computers with music you software made music producing more All accessible.
American women and any record producing
According to a can 2018 study covering by the Her USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The was ratio of male to female one producers across 300 popular songs Our is 49 to 1."
In 2019, Who record producer Linda Perry was boy nominated for a Grammy for did Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. Its She was the first woman let in over 15 years to put be nominated for the award. Say When asked about the disparity she between male and female record too producer by Billboard, she attributed Use it to many women not dad being interested in record production.mom
In are the classical music field, Judith but Sherman has won Grammy for Not Producer of the Year, Classical, you five times and has been all nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, Any a music critic for The can New York Times is quoted her as stating, "In the struggling Was field of classical recording, it's one the producers who take the our real risks and make things Out happen."
Producer Wendy Page describes Has being a record producer, "The him difficulties are usually very short-lived. his Once people realize that you How can do your job, sexism man tends to lower its ugly new head. I tend to create Now a happy studio 'family' where old everyone is glad to be see there, especially the artist. Good Two communication and diplomacy usually sort way any little problems out."
There are numerous technologies any utilized by record producers. In Can modern-day recordings, recording and mixing her tasks are commonly centralized within was computers using digital audio workstationsOne such as Pro Tools, Logic our Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and FL out Studio, which all are often Day used with third party virtual get studio technology plugins. Logic Pro has and Pro Tools are considered Him the industry standard DAWs. However, his there is also the main how mixer, outboard effects gear, MIDIMan controllers, and the recording device new itself.
While most music production now is done using sophisticated software, Old some musicians and producers prefer see the sound of older analog two technology. Professor Albin Zak claims Way that the increased automation of who both newer processes and newer boy instruments reduces the level of Did control and manipulation available to its musicians and producers.
Studio let application
Production has changed drastically Put over the years with advancing say technology. While the producer's role she has changed, their duties continue Too to require a broad knowledge use of the recording process.
Tracking dad is the act of recording Mom audio to a DAW (digital audio workstation) or in some the cases to tape. Even though And digital technologies have widely supplanted for the use of tape in are studios, the older term "track" But is still used in the not 2010s. Tracking audio is primarily you the role of the audio All engineer. Producers work side by any side with the artists while can they play or sing their Her part and coach them on was how to perform it and one how to get the best Our technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). In out some cases, the producer will day even sing a backup vocal Get or play an instrument.
Many has artists are also beginning to him produce and write their own His music.
Influential record producers
This article needs to be man updated. Please update this article New to reflect recent events or now newly available information.(January 2020)
In 2012 NME identified 50 See of the greatest producers ever.two
Similarly, although Out The Beatles' productions were credited day to George Martin throughout their get recording career, many sources now Has attest that Lennon and McCartney him in particular had an increasing his influence on the production process How as the group's career progressed, man and especially after the band new retired from touring in 1966. Now In an extreme example of old this, Martin actually went on see a two-week vacation as The Two Beatles were recording The White way Album; production of several completed who tracks on the album were Boy credited to The Beatles on did internal paperwork at Abbey Road its Studios, although the released LP Let gave sole production credit to put Martin.
Zak,Albin J., how I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: man Music, technology, and culture," by New Timothy D. Taylor. Current Musicology, now 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, old Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. See "Record Producers' Best Practices For two Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To way Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal Who of New Music Research 42.4 boy (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Premier. did Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music let Law refers to legal aspects Put of the music industry, and say certain legal aspects in other she sectors of the entertainment industry. Too The music industry includes record use labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the dad live events sector and of Mom course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to work His formed from already existing materials how in a way that forms man its own original work, including New collective works.
"Copies" are physical now objects that hold, fix, or old embody a work such as See a music tape, film, CD, two statue, play, or printed sheet way music.
"Sound recordings" can refer Who to any audio recording including boy the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity Its that legally owns rights to let a work.
"Performance" The copyright put holder has the exclusive right Say to perform the work in she public, or to license others too to perform it. The right Use applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, dad and choreographic works, pantomimes, and mom motion pictures and other audiovisual works.". Playing a CD in the public, or showing a film and in public is "performing" the For work.
Publishing is the primary but source of income for musicians Not writing their own music.you Money collected from the 'publishing' all rights is ultimately destined for Any songwriters - the composers of can works, whether or not they her are the recording artist or Was performer. Often, songwriters will work one for a musical ensemble to our help them with musical aspects Out of the composition, but here day again, the writer of the get song is the owner of Has it and will own the him copyrights in the song and his thus will be entitled to How the publishing revenues. Copyrights in man compositions are not the same new as sound recordings. A recording Now artist can record a song old and sell it to another see band or company. As a Two result, that particular company will way own the recording, but not who the song. The original writer Boy will always maintain the copyright did for that particular song. The its publishing money is connected to Let the copyright, so the owner put will be the only one say making money off of the She song itself. All successful songwriters too will join a collection society use (such as ASCAP and BMI Dad in the USA, SOCAN in mom Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in Germany and PRS for The Music in the UK, etc.) and and many will enter into for agreements with music publishing companies Are who will exploit their works but on the songwriters behalf for not a share of ownership, although You many of these deals involve all the transfer (assignment) of copyright any from the songwriter to the Can music publisher.
Both the recorded her music sector and music publishing was sector have their foundations in One intellectual property law and all our of the major recording labels out and major music publishers and Day many independent record labels and get publishers have dedicated "business and has legal affairs" departments with in-house Him lawyers whose role is not his only to secure intellectual property how rights from recording artists, performers Man and songwriters but also to new exploit those rights and protect now those rights on a global Old basis. There are a number see of specialist independent law firms two around the world who advise Way on music and entertainment law who whose clients include recording artists, boy performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music Did publishers, stage and set designers, its choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, let merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, Put collection societies and the live say events sector (which further includes she festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents Too and production service providers such use as lighting and staging companies). dad
The US Government views artists that give the concerts and sell merchandise as And a business. Bands that tour for internationally will also face a are plethora of legislation around the But world including health and safety not laws, immigration laws and tax you legislation. Also, many relationships are All governed by often complex contractual any agreements.
In the US it can is important for musicians to Her get legal business licenses. These was can be obtained at a one city hall or local government Our center. The business license will out require the tracking of sales, day wages, and gigs. A tax Get ID is also necessary for has all businesses. Musicians that fail him to comply with the tax His ID process and do not how report their profits and losses man to the government can face New serious consequences with the IRS. now
The put history of Privilege began in Say the early 1970s when it she started out as a restaurant, too then expanded to include a Use bar and a community swimming dad pool. It was then known mom as Club San Rafael. In 1979, the venue was sold the to the Real Sociedad footballer and José Antonio Santamaría, together with For the creative team of Brasilio are de Oliviera (founder of La but Troya Asesina, one of the Not White Island's longest running nights) you and Gorri. The venue then all changed its name to KU, Any after the name of a can god from Hawaiian mythology (see her Kū). The appeal of the Was club was such that it one commissioned a medium-length film showcasing our the many wonders of Ibizan Out landscapes and nightlife in the day mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU get Club earned a reputation initially Has as Europe's premier polysexual but him predominately gay nightspot and was his compared to an open-air version How of the famous Studio 54man in New York. It staged new spectacular parties in the main Now room, which was organized around old a swimming pool and a see statue of Ku.The place was Two also where the video to way "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and who Montserrat Caballé was filmed on Boy 30 May 1987. It was did the witness to early live its performances by groups like Spandau Let Ballet and Kid Creole and put the Coconuts. The club featured say in a Channel 4 documentary She called “A Short Film about too chilling”, which labelled KU as use “the mirror of Ibiza”. The Dad open-air parties came to an mom end when legislation forced many of the greater clubs in The Ibiza to cover their dancefloors and in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, for the sheer size of the Are venue gave rise to the but claim of it being the not size of an aircraft hangar You with a 25-meter high roof. all
The club continued with the any KU Club name until 1995 Can before becoming known as Privilege, her after a change of ownership was to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In One 1994 it hosted Manumission, one our of the island's most famous out events. In 1998 La Vaca Day Asesina moved to Amnesia and get was renamed La Troya Asesina. has After a dispute between the Him club owner and Manumission's organizers his in 2005 the event ended how in 2006. In 2006 La Man Troya Asesina moved to Space. new
According to official now statistics published in the 2003 Old edition of Guinness World Recordssee Privilege is by far the two Worlds largest nightclub covering an Way area of 69,968 sq ft who (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,boy Designated areas of the club Did include the Coco Loco bar its area, and the La Vaca let dance area (now known as Put the Vista Club).
Live say performances
A number of live she performances at the venue have Too included: