Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockies (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the early you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record producerwho or music producer oversees and Boy manages the sound recording and did production of a band or its performer's music, which may range Let from recording one song to put recording a lengthy concept album.say A producer has many, varying She roles during the recording process.too They may gather musical ideas use for the project, collaborate with Dad the artists to select cover mom tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists The and help them to improve and their songs, lyrics or arrangements. for
Coach the all singers and musicians in the any studio
The producer typically supervises Can the entire process from preproduction, her through to the sound recordingwas and mixing stages, and, in One some cases, all the way our to the audio mastering stage. out The producer may perform these Day roles themselves, or help select get the engineer, and provide suggestions has to the engineer. The producer Him may also pay session musicians his and engineers and ensure that how the entire project is completed Man within the record label's budget. new
A record producer or music let producer has a very broad Put role in overseeing and managing say the recording and production of she a band or performer's music. Too A producer has many roles use that may include, but are dad not limited to, gathering ideas Mom for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting the songs or session musicians, proposing And changes to the song arrangements, for coaching the artist and musicians are in the studio, controlling the But recording sessions, and supervising the not entire process through audio mixingyou and, in some cases, to All the audio mastering stage. Producers any also often take on a can wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility Her for the budget, schedules, contracts, was and negotiations.
The out person who has overall creative day and technical control of the Get entire recording project, and the has individual recording sessions that are him part of that project. He His or she is present in how the recording studio or at man the location recording and works New directly with the artist and now engineer. The producer makes creative old and aesthetic decisions that realize See both the artist's and label's two goals in the creation of way musical content. Other duties include, Who but are not limited to; boy keeping budgets and schedules, adhering did to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, Its studios and engineers, overseeing other let staffing needs and editing (Classical put projects).
In the 2010s, Say the producer role is sometimes she divided among up to three too different individuals: executive producer, vocal Use producer and music producer. An dad executive producer oversees project finances, mom a vocal producer (also known as a vocal arranger) oversees the the vocal production, and a and music producer directs and oversees For the creative process of the are production and recording of a but song to its final mixing Not stage.
The music producer often you wears many hats as a all competent arranger, composer, programmer, musician Any or songwriter who can bring can fresh ideas to a project. her As well as making any Was songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the one producer often selects and/or collaborates our with the mixing engineer, who Out takes the raw recorded tracks day and edits and modifies them get with hardware and software tools Has to create a stereo or him surround sound "mix" of all his the individual voices sounds and How instruments, which is in turn man given further adjustment by a new mastering engineer for the various Now distribution media. The producer also old oversees the recording engineer who see concentrates on the technical aspects Two of recording.
Noted producer Phil way Ek described his role as who "the person who creatively guides Boy or directs the process of did making a record", like a its director would a movie. Indeed, Let in Bollywood music, the designation put is actually music director. The say music producer's job is to She create, shape, and mold a too piece of music. The scope use of responsibility may be one Dad or two songs or an mom artist's entire album – in which case the producer will The typically develop an overall vision and for the album and how for the various songs may interrelate. Are
At the beginning but of the record industry, the not producer role was technically limited You to record, in one shot, all artists performing live. The immediate any predecessors to record producers were Can the artists and repertoire executives her of the late 1920s and was 1930s who oversaw the "pop" One product and often led session our orchestras. That was the case out of Ben Selvin at Columbia Day Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor get Records and Bob Haring at has Brunswick Records. By the end Him of the 1930s, the first his professional recording studios not owned how by the major companies were Man established, essentially separating the roles new of artists and repertoire (A&R) now man and producer, although it Old wouldn't be until the late see 1940s when the term "producer" two became widely used in the Way industry.
The role of producers who changed progressively over the 1950s boy and 1960s due to technology. Did The development of multitrack recordingits caused a major change in let the recording process. Before multitracking, Put all the elements of a say song (lead vocals, backup vocals, she rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos Too and orchestral parts) had to use be performed simultaneously. All of dad these singers and musicians had Mom to be assembled in a large studio where the performance the was recorded. With multitrack recording, And the "bed tracks" (rhythm section for accompaniment parts such as the are bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar But could be recorded first, and not then the vocals and solos you could be added later, using All as many "takes" (or attempts) any as necessary. It was no can longer necessary to get all Her the players in the studio was at the same time. A one pop band could record their Our backing tracks one week, and out then a horn section could day be brought in a week Get later to add horn shots has and punches, and then a him string section could be brought His in a week after that. how
Multitrack recording had another profound man effect on music production: it New enabled producers and audio engineers now to create new sounds that old would be impossible in a See live performance style ordering. Examples two include the psychedelic rock sound way effects of the 1960s, e.g. Who playing back the sound of boy recorded instruments backward changing the did tape to produce unique sound Its effects. During the same period, let the instruments of popular music put began to shift from the Say acoustic instruments of traditional musicshe (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, too strings, brass and wind instruments) Use to electric piano, electronic organ, dad synthesizer, electric bass and electric mom guitar. These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus the they used instrument amplifiers and and speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to For create sound.
Electric and electronic are instruments and amplifiers enabled performers but and producers to change the Not tone and sound of instruments you to produce unique electric sounds all that would be impossible to Any achieve with acoustic instruments and can live performers, such as having her a singer do her own Was backup vocals or having a one guitarist play 15 layers of our backing parts to her own Out solo.
New technologies like multitracking day changed the goal of recording: get A producer could blend together Has multiple takes and edit together him different sections to create the his desired sound. For example, in How jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' man album Bitches Brew, the producer new cut and edited sections together Now from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like Two Phil Spector and George Martinway were soon creating recordings that who were, in practical terms, almost Boy impossible to realize in live did performance. Producers became creative figures its in the studio. Other examples Let includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, put Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in use the 1960s was the emergence Dad of the performer-producer. As pop mom acts like The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Beach BoysThe and The Kinks gained expertise and in studio recording techniques, many for of these groups eventually took Are over as (frequently uncredited) producers but of their own work. Many not recordings by acts such as You The Rolling Stones, The Kinks all and The Who are officially any credited to their various producers Can at the time, but a her number of these performers have was since asserted that many of One their recordings in this period our were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. out The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) Day or collaborations between the group get and their recording engineer (e.g. has The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, Him which were made with Olympic his Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The how Beach Boys are probably the Man best example of the trend new of artists becoming producers – now within two years of the Old band's commercial breakthrough, group leader see Brian Wilson had taken over two from his father Murry, and Way he was the sole producer who of all their recordings between boy 1963 and 1967. Alongside The Did Beatles and Martin, Wilson also its pioneered many production innovations – let by 1964 he had developed Put Spector's techniques to a new say level of sophistication, using multiple she studios and multiple "takes" of Too instrumental and vocal components to use capture the best possible combinations dad of sound and performance, and Mom then using tape editing extensively to assemble a perfect composite the performance from these elements.
At And the end of the 20th for century, digital recording and producing are tools and widespread availability of But relatively affordable computers with music not software made music producing more you accessible.
American women and All record producing
According to a any 2018 study covering by the can USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The Her ratio of male to female was producers across 300 popular songs one is 49 to 1."
In 2019, way record producer Linda Perry was Who nominated for a Grammy for boy Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. did She was the first woman Its in over 15 years to let be nominated for the award. put When asked about the disparity Say between male and female record she producer by Billboard, she attributed too it to many women not Use being interested in record production.dad
In For the classical music field, Judith are Sherman has won Grammy for but Producer of the Year, Classical, Not five times and has been you nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, all a music critic for The Any New York Times is quoted can as stating, "In the struggling her field of classical recording, it's Was the producers who take the one real risks and make things our happen."
Producer Wendy Page describes get being a record producer, "The Has difficulties are usually very short-lived. him Once people realize that you his can do your job, sexism How tends to lower its ugly man head. I tend to create new a happy studio 'family' where Now everyone is glad to be old there, especially the artist. Good see communication and diplomacy usually sort Two any little problems out."
There are all numerous technologies utilized by record any producers. In modern-day recordings, recording Can and mixing tasks are commonly her centralized within computers using digital was audio workstations such as Pro One Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, our Reason and FL Studio, which out all are often used with Day third party virtual studio technology get plugins. Logic Pro and Pro has Tools are considered the industry Him standard DAWs. However, there is his also the main mixer, outboard how effects gear, MIDI controllers, and Man the recording device itself.
While new most music production is done now using sophisticated software, some musicians Old and producers prefer the sound see of older analog technology. Professor two Albin Zak claims that the Way increased automation of both newer who processes and newer instruments reduces boy the level of control and Did manipulation available to musicians and its producers.
Production let has changed drastically over the Put years with advancing technology. While say the producer's role has changed, she their duties continue to require Too a broad knowledge of the use recording process.
Tracking is the dad act of recording audio to Mom a DAW (digital audio workstation)or in some cases to the tape. Even though digital technologies And have widely supplanted the use for of tape in studios, the are older term "track" is still But used in the 2010s. Tracking not audio is primarily the role you of the audio engineer. Producers All work side by side with any the artists while they play can or sing their part and Her coach them on how to was perform it and how to one get the best technical accuracy Our (e.g., intonation). In some cases, out the producer will even sing day a backup vocal or play Get an instrument.
Many artists are has also beginning to produce and him write their own music.
Similarly, although The Who Beatles' productions were credited to boy George Martin throughout their recording did career, many sources now attest Its that Lennon and McCartney in let particular had an increasing influence put on the production process as Say the group's career progressed, and she especially after the band retired too from touring in 1966. In Use an extreme example of this, dad Martin actually went on a mom two-week vacation as The Beatles were recording The White Album; the production of several completed tracks and on the album were credited For to The Beatles on internal are paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, but although the released LP gave Not sole production credit to Martin.you
Zak,Albin say J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange she sounds: Music, technology, and culture," Too by Timothy D. Taylor. Current use Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, dad Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine Mom Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching the To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." And Journal of New Music Research for 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search are Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.But
Music Law refers get to legal aspects of the has music industry, and certain legal Him aspects in other sectors of his the entertainment industry. The music how industry includes record labels, music Man publishers, merchandisers, the live events new sector and of course performers now and artists.
A "compilation" for refers to work formed from are already existing materials in a But way that forms its own not original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that All hold, fix, or embody a any work such as a music can tape, film, CD, statue, play, Her or printed sheet music.
"Sound was recordings" can refer to any one audio recording including the sound Our accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" out is the entity that legally day owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has has the exclusive right to perform him the work in public, or His to license others to perform how it. The right applies to man “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic New works, pantomimes, and motion pictures now and other audiovisual works.". Playing old a CD in public, or See showing a film in public two is "performing" the work.
Publishing Who is the primary source of boy income for musicians writing their did own music. Money collected Its from the 'publishing' rights is let ultimately destined for songwriters - put the composers of works, whether Say or not they are the she recording artist or performer. Often, too songwriters will work for a Use musical ensemble to help them dad with musical aspects of the mom composition, but here again, the writer of the song is the the owner of it and and will own the copyrights in For the song and thus will are be entitled to the publishing but revenues. Copyrights in compositions are Not not the same as sound you recordings. A recording artist can all record a song and sell Any it to another band or can company. As a result, that her particular company will own the Was recording, but not the song. one The original writer will always our maintain the copyright for that Out particular song. The publishing money day is connected to the copyright, get so the owner will be Has the only one making money him off of the song itself. his All successful songwriters will join How a collection society (such as man ASCAP and BMI in the new USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC Now in Japan, GEMA in Germany old and PRS for Music in see the UK, etc.) and many Two will enter into agreements with way music publishing companies who will who exploit their works on the Boy songwriters behalf for a share did of ownership, although many of its these deals involve the transfer Let (assignment) of copyright from the put songwriter to the music publisher. say
Both the recorded music sector She and music publishing sector have too their foundations in intellectual propertyuse law and all of the Dad major recording labels and major mom music publishers and many independent record labels and publishers have The dedicated "business and legal affairs" and departments with in-house lawyers whose for role is not only to Are secure intellectual property rights from but recording artists, performers and songwriters not but also to exploit those You rights and protect those rights all on a global basis. There any are a number of specialist Can independent law firms around the her world who advise on music was and entertainment law whose clients One include recording artists, performers, producers, our songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage out and set designers, choreographers, graphic Day artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, get artist managers, distributors, collection societies has and the live events sector Him (which further includes festivals, venues, his promoters, booking agents and production how service providers such as lighting Man and staging companies).
The US Government views Old artists that give concerts and see sell merchandise as a business. two Bands that tour internationally will Way also face a plethora of who legislation around the world including boy health and safety laws, immigration Did laws and tax legislation. Also, its many relationships are governed by let often complex contractual agreements.
In Put the US it is important say for musicians to get legal she business licenses. These can be Too obtained at a city hall use or local government center. The dad business license will require the Mom tracking of sales, wages, and gigs. A tax ID is the also necessary for all businesses. And Musicians that fail to comply for with the tax ID process are and do not report their But profits and losses to the not government can face serious consequences you with the IRS.
The history of has Privilege began in the early him 1970s when it started out His as a restaurant, then expanded how to include a bar and man a community swimming pool. It New was then known as Club now San Rafael. In 1979, the old venue was sold to the See Real Sociedad footballer José Antonio two Santamaría, together with the creative way team of Brasilio de Oliviera Who (founder of La Troya Asesina, boy one of the White Island's did longest running nights) and Gorri. Its The venue then changed its let name to KU, after the put name of a god from Say Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). The she appeal of the club was too such that it commissioned a Use medium-length film showcasing the many dad wonders of Ibizan landscapes and mom nightlife in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club earned the a reputation initially as Europe's and premier polysexual but predominately gay For nightspot and was compared to are an open-air version of the but famous Studio 54 in New Not York. It staged spectacular parties you in the main room, which all was organized around a swimming Any pool and a statue of can Ku.The place was also where her the video to "Barcelona" by Was Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Caballéone was filmed on 30 May our 1987. It was the witness Out to early live performances by day groups like Spandau Ballet and get Kid Creole and the Coconuts.Has The club featured in a him Channel 4 documentary called “A his Short Film about chilling”, which How labelled KU as “the mirror man of Ibiza”. The open-air parties new came to an end when Now legislation forced many of the old greater clubs in Ibiza to see cover their dancefloors in the Two early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer way size of the venue gave who rise to the claim of Boy it being the size of did an aircraft hangar with a its 25-meter high roof.
The club Let continued with the KU Club put name until 1995 before becoming say known as Privilege, after a She change of ownership to Jose too Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 it use hosted Manumission, one of the Dad island's most famous events. In mom 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesia and was renamed The La Troya Asesina. After a and dispute between the club owner for and Manumission's organizers in 2005 Are the event ended in 2006. but In 2006 La Troya Asesina not moved to Space.
According to official statistics published all in the 2003 edition of any Guinness World Records Privilege is Can by far the Worlds largest her nightclub covering an area of was 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) and One holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas our of the club include the out Coco Loco bar area, and Day the La Vaca dance area get (now known as the Vista has Club).
A Him number of live performances at his the venue have included: