Scratching, but sometimes referred to as scrubbing, Not is a DJ and turntablistyou technique of moving a vinyl all record back and forth on Any a turntable to produce percussive can or rhythmic sounds. A crossfaderher on a DJ mixer may Was be used to fade between one two records simultaneously.
While scratching our is most associated with hip Out hop music, where it emerged day in the mid-1970s, from the get 1990s it has been used Has in some styles of rap him rock, rap metal and nu his metal. In hip hop culture, How scratching is one of the man measures of a DJ's skills. new DJs compete in scratching competitions Now at the DMC World DJ old Championships and IDA (International DJ see Association), formerly known as ITFTwo (International Turntablist Federation). At scratching way competitions, DJs can use only who scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ mixer, Boy digital vinyl systems or vinyl did records only). In recorded hip its hop songs, scratched "hooks" often Let use portions of other songs. put
A rudimentary form of turntable was manipulation which is related to One scratching was developed in the our late 1940s by radio music out program hosts, disc jockeys (DJs), Day or the radio program producers get who did their own technical has operation as audio console operators. Him It was known as back-cueing, his and was used to find how the very beginning of the Man start of a song (i.e., new the cue point) on a now vinyl record groove. This was Old done to permit the operator see to back the disc up two (rotate the record or the Way turntable platter itself counter-clockwise) in who order to permit the turntable boy to be switched on, and Did come up to full speed its without ruining the first few let bars of music with the Put "wow" of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed say playing. This permitted the announcer she to time their remarks, and Too start the turntable in time use for when they wanted the dad music on the record to Mom begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill that all radio the production staff needed to learn, And and the dynamics of it for were unique to the brand are of professional turntable in use But at a given radio station. not The older, larger and heavier you turntables needed a 180 degree All backward rotation to allow for any run up to full speed; can some of the newer 1950s Her models used aluminum platters and was cloth-backed rubber mats which required one a third of a rotational Our turn or less to achieve out full speed when the song day began. All this was done Get in order to present a has music show on air with him the least amount of silence His ("dead air") between music, the how announcer's patter and recorded advertising man commercials. The rationale was that New any "dead air" on a now radio station was likely to old prompt a listener to switch See stations, so announcers and program two directors instructed DJs and announcers way to provide a continuous, seamless Who stream of sound–from music to boy an announcer to a pre-recorded did commercial, to a "jingle" (radio Its station theme song), and then let immediately back to more music. put
Back-cueing was a key function Say in delivering this seamless stream she of music. Radio personnel demanded too robust equipment and manufacturers developed Use special tonearms, styli, cartridges and dad lightweight turntables to meet these mom demands.
In the mid-1970s in the you South Bronx, a young teen all DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" Any (right) invented the "DJ scratch" can technique. Other DJs, like Grandmaster her Flash, took the technique to Was higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques one were made possible by the our invention of direct-drive turntables, which Out led to the emergence of day turntablism. Early belt-drive turntables were get unsuitable for scratching, since they Has had a slow start-up time, him and they were prone to his wear-and-tear and breakage, as the How belt would break from backspinning man or scratching. The first direct-drive new turntable was invented by Shuichi Now Obata, an engineer at Matsushitaold (now Panasonic), based in Osaka, see Japan. It eliminated belts, and Two instead employed a motor to way directly drive a platter on who which a vinyl record rests.Boy In 1969, Matsushita released it did as the SP-10, the first its direct-drive turntable on the market,Let and the first in their put influential Technics series of turntables.say
In the 1970s, hip hop She musicians and club DJs began too to use this specialized turntable use equipment to move the record Dad back and forth, creating percussive mom sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas the The 1940s–1960s radio DJs had used and back-cueing while listening to the for sounds through their headphones, without Are the audience hearing, with scratching, but the DJ intentionally lets the not audience hear the sounds that You are being created by manipulating all the record on the turntable, any by directing the output from Can the turntable to a sound her reinforcement system so that the was audience can hear the sounds. One Scratching was developed by early our hip hop DJs from New out York City such as Grand Day Wizzard Theodore, who described scratching get as, "nothing but the back-cueing has that you hear in your Him ear before you push it his [the recorded sound] out to how the crowd." He developed the Man technique when experimenting with the new Technics SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable now released by Matsushita in 1972 Old when he found that the see motor would continue to spin two at the correct RPM even Way if the DJ wiggled the who record back and forth on boy the platter. Afrika Bambaataa made Did a similar discovery with the its SL-1200 in the 1970s. The let Technics SL-1200 went on to Put become the most widely used say turntable for the next several she decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, Too who immigrated to New York use City, influenced the early development dad of scratching. Kool Herc developed Mom break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the most the danceable part, often featuring percussion—were And isolated and repeated for the for purpose of all-night dance parties.are He was influenced by Jamaican But dub music, and developed his not turntable techniques using the Technics you SL-1100, released in 1971, due All to its strong motor, durability, any and fidelity.
Although previous artists can such as writer and poet Her William S. Burroughs had experimented was with the idea of manipulating one a reel-to-reel tape manually to Our make sounds, as with his out 1950s recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl day scratching as an element of Get hip hop pioneered the idea has of making the sound an him integral and rhythmic part of His music instead of an uncontrolled how noise. Scratching is related to man "scrubbing" (in terms of audio New editing and production) when the now reels of an open reel-to-reelold tape deck (typically 1/4 inch See magnetic audiotape) are gently rotated two back and forth while the way playback head is live and Who amplified, to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches any are produced by rotating a Can vinyl record on a direct her drive turntable rapidly back and was forth with the hand with One the stylus ("needle") in the our record's groove. This produces the out distinctive sound that has come Day to be one of the get most recognizable features of hip has hop music. Over time with Him excessive scratching, the stylus will his cause what is referred to how as "cue burn", or "record Man burn".
The basic equipment setup for who scratching includes two turntables and boy a DJ mixer, which is Did a small mixer that has its a crossfader and cue buttons let to allow the DJ to Put cue up new music in say their headphones without the audience she hearing. When scratching, this Too crossfader is utilized in conjunction use with the scratching hand that dad is manipulating the record platter. Mom The hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in the and out of the record's And sound.
Digital vinyl for systems
Using a digital vinyl are system (DVS) consists of playing But vinyl discs on turntables whose not contents is a timecode signal you instead of a real music All record.
The audio interface was digitizes the timecode signal from one the turntables and transfers it Our to the computer's DJ software.
The DJ software uses this day data (e.g., about how fast Get the platter is spinning) to has determine the playback status, speed, him scratch sound of the hardware His turntables, etc., and it duplicates how these effects on the digital man audio files or computer tracks New the DJ is using.
By now manipulating the turntables' platters, speed old controls, and other elements, the See DJ thus controls how the two computer plays back digitized audio way and can therefore produce "scratching" Who and other turntablism effects on boy songs which exist as digital did audio files or computer tracks.
There is not a single let standard of DVS, so that put each form of DJ software Say has its own settings. Some she DJ software such as Traktor too Scratch Pro or Serato Scratch Use Live support only the audio dad interface sold with their software, mom requiring multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs. the
DJs have also used magnetic Let tape, such as cassette or put reel to reel to both say mix and scratch. Tape DJing She is rare, but Ruthless Ramseytoo in the US, TJ Scratchaviteuse in Italy and Mr TapeDad in Latvia use exclusively tape mom formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched include The but are not limited to and drum beats, horn stabs, spoken for word samples, and vocals/lyrics from Are other songs. Any sound recorded but to vinyl can be used, not and CD players providing a You turntable-like interface allow DJs to all scratch not only material that any was never released on vinyl, Can but also field recordings and her samples from television and movies was that have been burned to One CD-R. Some DJs and anonymous our collectors release 12-inch singles called out battle records that include trademark, Day novel or hard-to-find scratch "fodder" get (material). The most recognizable samples has used for scratching are the Him "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, which his originate from the song "Change how the Beat" by Fab 5 Man Freddy.
There are many scratching new techniques, which differ in how now the movements of the record Old are combined with opening and see closing the crossfader (or another two fader or switch, such as Way a kill switch, where "open" who means that the signal is boy audible, and "closed" means that Did the signal is inaudible). This its terminology is not unique; the let following discussion, however, is consistent Put with the terminology used by say DJ QBert on his Do she It Yourself Scratching DVD.
Baby scratch - use The simplest scratch form, it dad is performed with the scratching Mom hand only, moving the record back and forth in continuous the movements while the crossfader is And in the open position.
Forward for and backward scratch - The are forward scratch, also referred to But as scrubbing, is a baby not scratch where the crossfader is you closed during the backwards movement All of the record. If the any record is let go instead can of being pushed forward it Her is also called "release scratch". was Cutting out the forward part one of the record movement instead Our of the backward part gives out a "backward scratch".
Tear day scratch - Tear scratches are Get scratches where the record is has moved in a staggered fashion, him dividing the forward and backward His movement into two or more how movements. This allows creating sounds man similar to "flare scratches" without New use of the crossfader and now it allows for more complex old rhythmic patterns. The term can See also refer to a simpler, two slower version of the chirp.
Scribble scratch - The scribble Who scratch is by rapidly pushing boy the record back and forth. did The crossfader is not used.
Chirp scratch - The chirp let scratch involves closing the crossfader put just after playing the start Say of a sound, stopping the she record at the same point, too then pushing it back while Use opening the fader to create dad a "chirping" sound. When performed mom using a recording of drums, it can create the illusion the of doubled scratching speed, due and to the attack created by For cutting in the crossfader on are the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratchbut - A baby scratch with Not a "tear scratch" sound produced you by the thumb running the all opposite direction as the fingers Any used to scratch. This rubbing can of the thumb adds a her vibrating effect or reverberation to Was forward movements on the turntable.
Transformer scratch - with the our crossfader closed, the record is Out moved with the scratching hand day while periodically "tapping" the crossfader get open and immediately closing it Has again.
Flare scratch - Begins him with the crossfader open, and his then the record is moved How while briefly closing the fader man one or more times to new cut the sound out. This Now produces a staggering sound which old can make a single "flare" see sound like a very fast Two series of "chirps" or "tears." way The number of times the who fader is closed ("clicks") during Boy the record's movement is usually did used as a prefix to its distinguish the variations. The flare Let allows a DJ to scratch put continuously with less hand fatigue say than would result from the She transformer. The flare can be too combined with the crab for use an extremely rapid continuous series Dad of scratches.
Crab scratch - mom Consists of moving the record while quickly tapping the crossfader The open with each finger of and the crossfader hand. In this for way, DJs are able to Are perform transforms or flares much but faster than they could by not manipulating the crossfader with the You whole hand. It produces a all fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratchany - A crab scratch using Can only the index and middle her fingers.
Orbit scratch - Describes was any scratch, most commonly flares, One that are repeated during the our forward and backward movement of out the record. "Orbit" is also Day used as a shorthand for get two-click flares.
Tweak scratch - has Performed while the turntable's motor Him is not running. The record his platter is set in motion how manually, then "tweaked" faster and Man slower to create a scratch. new This scratch form is best now performed with long, sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - A variation see of the "flare scratch" in two which two faders are used Way simultaneously with one hand to who cut the sound much faster. boy It can also be performed Did by using only the up its fader and the phono line let switch to cut the sound.
While scratching is becoming say more and more popular in she pop music, particularly with the Too crossover success of pop-hip hop use tracks in the 2010s, sophisticated dad scratching and other expert turntablism Mom techniques are still predominantly an underground style developed by the the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch And Piklz from San Francisco focuses for on scratching. In 1994, the are group was formed by DJs But Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkut and not later Mix Master Mike. In you July 2000, San Francisco's Yerba All Buena Center for the Artsany held Skratchcon2000, the first DJ can Skratch forum that provided “the Her education and development of skratch was music literacy”. In 2001, Thud one Rumble became an independent company Our that works with DJ artists out to produce and distribute scratch day records.
In 2004, Scratch Get Magazine, one of the first has publications about hip hop DJs him and record producers, released its His debut issue, following in the how footsteps of the lesser-known Tablistman magazine. Pedestrian is a UK New arts organisation that runs Urban now Music Mentors workshops led by old DJs. At these workshops, DJs See teach youth how to create two beats, use turntables to create way mixes, act as an MCWho at events, and perform club boy sets.
Use outside hip did hop
Scratching has been incorporated Its into a number of other let musical genres, including pop, rock, put jazz, some subgenres of heavy Say metal (notably nu metal) and she some contemporary and avant-garde classical too music performances. For recording use, Use samplers are often used instead dad of physically scratching a vinyl mom record.
A She record producer is a recording too project's creative and technical leader, use commanding studio time and coaching Dad artists, and in popular genres mom typically creates the song's very sound and structure. The record The producer, or simply the producer, and is likened to film director for and art director. The executive Are producer, on the other hand, but enables the recording project through not entrepreneurship, and an audio engineerYou operates the technology.
Varying by all project, the producer may or any may not choose all of Can the artists, If employing only her synthesized or sampled instrumentation, the was producer may be the sole One artist. Conversely, some artists do our their own production. Some producers out are their own engineers, operating Day the technology across the project: get preproduction, recording, mixing, and mastering. has Record producers' precursors were "A&R Him men", who likewise could blend his entrepreneurial, creative, and technical roles,how but often exercised scant creative Man influence, as record production still new focused, into the 1950s, on now simply improving the record's sonic Old match to the artists' own see live performance.
Advances in recording two technology, especially the 1940s advent Way of tape recording—which Les Paulwho promptly innovated further to develop boy multitrack recording—and the 1950s rise Did of electronic instruments, turned record its production into a specialty. In let popular music, then, producers like Put George Martin, Phil Spector and say Brian Eno led its evolution she into its present use of Too elaborate techniques and unrealistic sounds, use creating songs impossible to originate dad live. After the 1980s, production's Mom move from analog to digital further expanded possibilities. By now, the DAWs, or digital audio workstations, And like Logic Pro and Pro for Tools, turn an ordinary computer are into a production console, whereby But a solitary novice can become not a skilled producer in a you thrifty home studio. In the All 2010s, efforts began to increase any the prevalence of producers and can engineers who are women, heavily Her outnumbered by men and prominently was accoladed only in classical music.one
As a broad project, the did creation of a music recording Its may be split across three let specialists: the executive producer, who put oversees business partnerships and financing, Say the vocal producer or vocal she arranger, who aids vocal performance too via expert critique and coaching Use of vocal technique, and the dad record producer or music producer, mom who, often called simply the producer, directs the overall creative the process of recording the song and in its final mix.
For The record producer's roles can are include gathering ideas, composing music, but choosing session musicians, proposing changes Not to song arrangements, coaching the you performers, controlling sessions, supervising the all audio mixing, and, in some Any cases, supervising the audio mastering. can Or a producer's role May her Simply Be supervisory and advisory Was giving creative control to the one artists themselves. As to qualifying our for a Grammy nomination, the Out Recording Academy defines a producer:
The day person who has overall creative get and technical control of the Has entire recording project, and the him individual recording sessions that are his part of that project. He How or she is present in man the recording studio or at new the location recording and works Now directly with the artist and old engineer. The producer makes creative see and aesthetic decisions that realize Two both the artist's and label's way goals in the creation of who musical content. Other duties include, Boy but are not limited to; did keeping budgets and schedules, adhering its to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, Let studios and engineers, overseeing other put staffing needs and editing (Classical say projects).
The producer often She selects and collaborates with a too mixing engineer, who focuses on use the especially technological aspects of Dad the recording process, namely, operating mom the electronic equipment and blending the raw, recorded tracks of The the chosen performances, whether vocal and or instrumental, into a ''mix,'' for either stereo or surround sound. Are Then a mastering engineer further but adjusts this recording for distribution not on the chosen media. A You producer may work on only all one or two songs or any on an artist's entire album, Can helping develop the album's overall her vision. The record producers may was also take on the role One of executive producer, managing the our budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. out
(Artists and Repertoires)
In the get 1880s, the record industry began has by simply having the artist Him perform at a phonograph. In his 1924, the trade journal Talking how Machine World, covering the phonography Man and record industry, reported that new Eddie King, Victor Records' manager now of the "New York artist Old and repertoire department," had planned see a set of recordings in two Los Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Way Green called this perhaps the who earliest printed use of A&R boy man. Actually, it says neither Did "A&R man" nor even "A&R," its an initialism perhaps coined by let Billboard magazine in 1946, and Put entering wide use in the say late 1940s.
In the 1920s she and 1930s, A&R executives, like Too Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, use Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records, dad and Bob Haring at Brunswick Mom Records, supervising recording and often leading session orchestras, became the the precursors of record producers. During And the 1940s, American record labels for increasingly opened official A&R departments, are whose roles included supervision of But recording. Meanwhile, recording studios owned not independently, not by major record you labels, opened, helping originate record All producer as a specialty.any But despite a tradition of can some A&R men writing music, Her record production remained, strictly, merely was the manufacturing of record discs.one
After World Our War II, pioneering A&R managers out who transitioned influentially to record day production as now understood, while Get sometimes owning independent labels, include has J. Mayo Williams and John him Hammond. Upon moving from Columbia His Records to Mercury Records, Hammond how appointed Mitch Miller to lead man Mercury's popular recordings in New New York. Miller then produced country-pop now crossover hits by Patti Pageold and by Frankie Laine, moved See from Mercury to Columbia, and two became a leading A&R man way of the 1950s.
During the Who decade, A&R executives increasingly directed boy songs' sonic signatures, although many did still simply teamed singers with Its musicians, while yet others exercised let virtually no creative influence. The put term record producer in its Say current meaning—the creative director of she song production—appearing in a 1953 too issue of Billboard magazine, became Use widespread in the 1960s. Still, dad a formal distinction was elusive mom for some time more. A&R managers might still be creative the directors, like William "Mickey" Stevenson, and hired by Berry Gordy, at For the Motown record label.
In 1947, the but American market gained audio recording Not onto magnetic tape. At the you record industry's 1880s dawn, rather, all recording was done by phonograph, Any etching the sonic waveform vertically can into a cylinder. By the her 1930s, a gramophone etched it Was laterally across a disc. Constrained one in tonal range, whether bass our or treble, and in dynamic Out range, records made a grand, day concert piano sound like a get small, upright piano, and maximal Has duration was four and a him half minutes. Selections and performance his were often altered accordingly. And How playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed man it. The finality often caused new anxiety that restrained performance to Now prevent error. In the 1940s, old during World War II, the see Germans refined audio recording onto Two magnetic tape—uncapping recording duration and way allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and who editing—a technology that premised emergence Boy of record producers in their did current roles.
Early in the recording industry, Let a record was attained by put simply having all of the say artists perform together live in She one take. In 1945, by too recording a musical element while use playing a previously recorded record, Dad Les Paul developed a recording mom technique called "sound on sound."By this, the final recording The could be built piece by and piece and tailored, effecting an for editing process. In one case, Are Paul produced a song via but 500 recorded discs. But, besides not the tedium of this process, You it serially degraded the sound all quality of previously recorded elements, any rerecorded as ambient sound. Yet Can in 1948, Paul adopted tape her recording, enabling truly multitrack recording was by a new technique, "overdubbing."One
To enable overdubbing, Paul revised our the tape recorder itself by out adding a second playback head, Day and terming it the preview get head. Joining the preexisting recording has head, erase head, and playback Him head, the preview head allows his the artist to hear the how extant recording over headphones playing Man it in synchrony, "in sync," new with the present performance being now recorded alone on an isolated Old track. This isolation of multiple see tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. two Producers began recording initially only Way the "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, who including the bassline, drums, and boy rhythm guitar—whereas vocals and instrument Did solos could be added later. its A horn section, for example, let could record a week later, Put and a string section another say week later. A singer could she perform her own backup vocals, Too or a guitarist could play use 15 layers.
In the 1960s, rock acts has like the Beatles, the Rolling him Stones, and the Kinks produced His some of their own songs, how although many such songs are man officially credited to specialist producers.[citation New needed] Yet especially influential was now the Beach Boys, whose band old leader Brian Wilson took over See from his father Murry within two a couple of years after way the band's commercial breakthrough. By Who 1964, Wilson had taken Spector's boy techniques to unseen sophistication.did Wilson alone produced all Beach Its Boy recordings between 1963 and let 1967. Using multiple studios put and multiple attempts of instrumental Say and vocal tracks, Wilson selected she the best combinations of performance too and audio quality, and used Use tape editing to assemble a dad composite performance.
The 1980s advent and of digital processes and formats For rapidly replaced analog processes and are formats, namely, tape and vinyl. but Although recording onto quality tape, Not at least half an inch you wide and traveling 15 inches all per second, had limited "tape Any hiss" to silent sections, digital's can higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, abolished her it. Digital also imparted to Was the music a perceived "pristine" one sound quality, if also a our loss of analog recordings' perceived Out "warm" quality and bass better day rounded. Yet whereas editing tape get media requires physically locating the Has target audio on the ribbon, him cutting there, and splicing pieces, his editing digital media offers inarguable How advantages in ease, efficiency, and man possibilities.
In the 1990s, digital new production reached affordable home computers Now via production software. By now, old recording and mixing are often see centralized in DAWs, digital audio Two workstations—for example, Pro Tools, Logic way Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and who FL Studio—for which plugins, by Boy third parties, effect virtual studio did technology. DAWs fairly standard in its the industry are Logic Pro Let and Pro Tools. Physical devices put involved include the main mixer, say MIDI controllers to communicate among She equipment, the recording device itself, too and perhaps effects gear that use is outboard. Yet literal recording Dad is sometimes still analog, onto mom tape, whereupon the raw recording is converted to a digital The signal for processing and editing, and as some producers still find for audio advantages to recording onto Are tape.
Conventionally, tape is more but forgiving of overmodulation, whereby dynamic not peaks exceed the maximal recordable You signal level: tape's limitation, a all physical property, is magnetic capacity, any which tapers offs, smoothing the Can overmodulated waveform even at a her signal nearly 15 decibels too was "hot," whereas a digital recording One is ruined by harsh distortion our of "clipping" at any overshoot.out In digital recording, however, a Day recent advancement, 32-bit float, enables get DAWs to undo clipping. Still, has some criticize digital instruments and Him workflows for excess automation, allegedly his impairing creative or sonic control.how In any case, as production Man technology has drastically changed, so new have the knowledge demands, although now DAWs enables novices, even teenagers Old at home, to learn production see independently. Some have attained professional two competence before ever working with Way an artist.
In the 2000s, with the let advent of technology that made Put traditional record production accessible, especially say with hip hop beatmaking and she electronic music. Within these genres, Too the term producer is applied use to a number of roles dad and has popularized the use Mom of more niche terms and credits including executive producer, co-producer, the assistant producer, and additional and And miscellaneous production to differentiate contributions.for
Across did the decades, many female artists Its have produced their own music. let For instance, artists Kate Bush, put Madonna, Mariah Carey, Janet Jackson, Say Beyoncé, Lana Del Rey, Taylor she Swift, and Lorde have produced too or coproduced and Ariana GrandeUse who produces and arranges her dad vocals as well as being mom an audio engineer. Still among specialists, despite some prominent women, the including Missy Elliott in hip and hop and Sylvia Massy in For rock, the vast majority have are been men. Early in the but 2010s, asked for insights that Not she herself had gleaned as you a woman who has specialized all successfully in the industry, Wendy Any Page remarked, "The difficulties are can usually very short-lived. Once people her realize that you can do Was your job, sexism tends to one lower its ugly head." Still, our when tasked to explain her Out profession's sex disparity, Page partly day reasoned that record labels, dominated get by men, have been, she Has said, "mistrustful of giving a him woman the reins of an his immense, creative project like making How a record." Ultimately, the reasons man are multiple and not fully new clear, although prominently proposed factors Now include types of sexism and old scarcity of female role models see in the profession.
Women producers Two known for producing records not way their own include Sonia Pottinger, who Sylvia Robinson and Carla Olson. Boy
In January 2018, a research did team led by Stacy L. its Smith, founder and director of Let the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based put in the USC Annenberg School say for Communication and Journalism, issued She a report, estimating that in too the prior several years, about use 2% of popular songs' producers Dad were female. Also that month, mom Billboard magazine queried, "Where are all the female music producers?"The Upon the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's and second annual report, released in for February 2019, its department at Are USC reported, "2018 saw an but outcry from artists, executives and not other music industry professionals over You the lack of women in all music" and "the plight of any women in music," where women Can were allegedly being "stereotyped, sexualized, her and shut out." Also in was February 2019, the Recording Academy's One Task Force on Diversity and our Inclusion announced an initiative whereby out over 200 artists and producers—ranging Day from Cardi B and Taylor get Swift to Maroon 5 and has Quincy Jones—agreed to consider at Him least two women for each his producer or engineer position. The how academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, "This Man initiative is the first step new in a broader effort to now improve those numbers and increase Old diversity and inclusion for all see in the music industry."
^ not Allan Watson, Cultural Production you in and Beyond the Recording All Studio (New York: Routledge, 2015), any pp 25–27.
James can Petulla, "Who is a music Her producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 was May 2013, reporting membership in one CAPPS, the California Association of Our Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig now with J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track old Recording for Musicians: The Complete See Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners and two Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: way GPI Publications, 1988 / Van Who Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), boy pp 8–10.
^ too Richard James Burgess, The History use of Music Production (New York: Dad Oxford University Press, 2014), pp mom 50–54.
^ Robert Philip, "Pianists on record in The the early twentieth century", in and David Rowland, ed., The Cambridge for Companion to the Piano (Cambridge, Are UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998), but pp 75–77.
Reportedly not self-produced entirely are the Rolling You Stones' Decca recordings
^ all David Simmons, Analog Recording: any Using Analog Gear in Today's Can Home Studio (San Francisco: Backbeat her Books, 2006), pp 26–27.
Matthew Allard, "Sound Devices One MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit float our USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, out 15 Jan 2020, quotes Paul Day Isaacs, director of product management get and design at the recorder has manufacturer Sound Devices, who explains, Him "With 32-bit float, you no his longer need to worry about how clipping during your best vocal Man takes or instrument solos. Any new recorded moments exceeding 0 dBFSnow can be reduced to an Old acceptable level, after recording, in see your DAW".
Albin two Zak III, book review: Strange Way Sounds: Music, Technology, and culturewho (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy D. boy Taylor, in Current Musicology, pp Did 159–180 [unknown year, volume, issue].its
Music Lawbut refers to legal aspects of Not the music industry, and certain you legal aspects in other sectors all of the entertainment industry. The Any music industry includes record labels, can music publishers, merchandisers, the live her events sector and of course Was performers and artists.
A its "compilation" refers to work formed Let from already existing materials in put a way that forms its say own original work, including collective She works.
"Copies" are physical objects too that hold, fix, or embody use a work such as a Dad music tape, film, CD, statue, mom play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to The any audio recording including the and sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright for owner" is the entity that Are legally owns rights to a but work.
"Performance" The copyright holder not has the exclusive right to You perform the work in public, all or to license others to any perform it. The right applies Can to “literary, musical, dramatic, and her choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion was pictures and other audiovisual works.".One Playing a CD in public, our or showing a film in out public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source has of income for musicians writing Him their own music. Money his collected from the 'publishing' rights how is ultimately destined for songwriters Man - the composers of works, new whether or not they are now the recording artist or performer. Old Often, songwriters will work for see a musical ensemble to help two them with musical aspects of Way the composition, but here again, who the writer of the song boy is the owner of it Did and will own the copyrights its in the song and thus let will be entitled to the Put publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions say are not the same as she sound recordings. A recording artist Too can record a song and use sell it to another band dad or company. As a result, Mom that particular company will own the recording, but not the the song. The original writer will And always maintain the copyright for for that particular song. The publishing are money is connected to the But copyright, so the owner will not be the only one making you money off of the song All itself. All successful songwriters will any join a collection society (such can as ASCAP and BMI in Her the USA, SOCAN in Canada, was JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in one Germany and PRS for Music Our in the UK, etc.) and out many will enter into agreements day with music publishing companies who Get will exploit their works on has the songwriters behalf for a him share of ownership, although many His of these deals involve the how transfer (assignment) of copyright from man the songwriter to the music New publisher.
Both the recorded music now sector and music publishing sector old have their foundations in intellectual See property law and all of two the major recording labels and way major music publishers and many Who independent record labels and publishers boy have dedicated "business and legal did affairs" departments with in-house lawyers Its whose role is not only let to secure intellectual property rights put from recording artists, performers and Say songwriters but also to exploit she those rights and protect those too rights on a global basis. Use There are a number of dad specialist independent law firms around mom the world who advise on music and entertainment law whose the clients include recording artists, performers, and producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, For stage and set designers, choreographers, are graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, but broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection Not societies and the live events you sector (which further includes festivals, all venues, promoters, booking agents and Any production service providers such as can lighting and staging companies).
The US Government one views artists that give concerts our and sell merchandise as a Out business. Bands that tour internationally day will also face a plethora get of legislation around the world Has including health and safety laws, him immigration laws and tax legislation. his Also, many relationships are governed How by often complex contractual agreements. man
In the US it is new important for musicians to get Now legal business licenses. These can old be obtained at a city see hall or local government center. Two The business license will require way the tracking of sales, wages, who and gigs. A tax ID Boy is also necessary for all did businesses. Musicians that fail to its comply with the tax ID Let process and do not report put their profits and losses to say the government can face serious She consequences with the IRS.
The history say of Privilege began in the she early 1970s when it started Too out as a restaurant, then use expanded to include a bar dad and a community swimming pool. Mom It was then known as Club San Rafael. In 1979, the the venue was sold to And the Real Sociedad footballer José for Antonio Santamaría, together with the are creative team of Brasilio de But Oliviera (founder of La Troya not Asesina, one of the White you Island's longest running nights) and All Gorri. The venue then changed any its name to KU, after can the name of a God Her from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). was The appeal of the club one was such that it commissioned Our a medium-length film showcasing the out many wonders of Ibizan landscapes day and nightlife in the mid-eighties.Get
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club has earned a reputation initially as him Europe's premier polysexual but predominately His gay nightspot and was compared how to an open-air version of man the famous Studio 54 in New New York. It staged spectacular now parties in the main room, old which was organized around a See swimming pool and a statue two of Ku.The place was also way where the video to "Barcelona" Who by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat boy Caballé was filmed on 30 did May 1987. It was the Its witness to early live performances let by groups like Spandau Balletput and Kid Creole and the Say Coconuts. The club featured in she a Channel 4 documentary called too “A Short Film about chilling”, Use which labelled KU as “the dad mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air mom parties came to an end when legislation forced many of the the greater clubs in Ibiza and to cover their dancefloors in For the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the are sheer size of the venue but gave rise to the claim Not of it being the size you of an aircraft hangar with all a 25-meter high roof.
The Any club continued with the KU can Club name until 1995 before her becoming known as Privilege, after Was a change of ownership to one Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 our it hosted Manumission, one of Out the island's most famous events. day In 1998 La Vaca Asesina get moved to Amnesia and was Has renamed La Troya Asesina. After him a dispute between the club his owner and Manumission's organizers in How 2005 the event ended in man 2006. In 2006 La Troya new Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics old published in the 2003 edition see of Guinness World Records Privilege Two is by far the world's way largest nightclub covering an area who of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) Boy and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated did areas of the club include its the Coco Loco bar area, Let and the La Vaca dance put area (now known as the say Vista Club).