Scratching, sometimes referred to as are scrubbing, is a DJ and but turntablist technique of moving a Not vinyl record back and forth you on a turntable to produce all percussive or rhythmic sounds. A Any crossfader on a DJ mixercan may be used to fade her between two records simultaneously.
While Was scratching is most associated with one hip hop music, where it our emerged in the mid-1970s, from Out the 1990s it has been day used in some styles of get rap rock, rap metal and Has nu metal. In hip hophim culture, scratching is one of his the measures of a DJ's How skills. DJs compete in scratching man competitions at the DMC World new DJ Championships and IDA (International Now DJ Association), formerly known as old ITF (International Turntablist Federation). At see scratching competitions, DJs can use Two only scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ way mixer, digital vinyl systems or who vinyl records only). In recorded Boy hip hop songs, scratched "hooks"did often use portions of other its songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation that was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockeys (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she their remarks, and start the Too turntable in time for when use they wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180-degree backward rotation to All allow for run up to any full speed; some of the can newer 1950s models used aluminum Her platters and cloth-backed rubber mats was which required a third of one a rotational turn or less Our to achieve full speed when out the song began. All this day was done in order to Get present a music show on has air with the least amount him of silence ("dead air") between His music, the announcer's patter and how recorded advertising commercials. The rationale man was that any "dead air" New on a radio station was now likely to prompt a listener old to switch stations, so announcers See and program directors instructed DJs two and announcers to provide a way continuous, seamless stream of sound–from Who music to an announcer to boy a pre-recorded commercial, to a did "jingle" (radio station theme song), Its and then immediately back to let more music.
Back-cueing was a put key function in delivering this Say seamless stream of music. Radio she personnel demanded robust equipment and too manufacturers developed special tonearms, styli, Use cartridges and lightweight turntables to dad meet these demands.
In the mid-1970s day in the South Bronx, a get young teen DJ named "Grand Has Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the him "DJ scratch" technique. Other DJs, his like Grandmaster Flash, took the How technique to higher levels.
Modern man scratching techniques were made possible new by the invention of direct-drive Now turntables, which led to the old emergence of turntablism. Early belt-drive see turntables were unsuitable for scratching Two since they had a slow way start-up time, and they were who prone to wear and tear Boy and breakage, as the belt did would break from backspinning or its scratching. The first direct-drive turntable Let was invented by Shuichi Obata, put an engineer at Matsushita (now say Panasonic), based in Osaka, Japan.She It eliminated belts, and instead too employed a motor to directly use drive a platter on which Dad a vinyl record rests. In mom 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive The turntable on the market, and and the first in their influential for Technics series of turntables.
In Are the 1970s, hip hop musiciansbut and club DJs began to not use this specialized turntable equipment You to move the record back all and forth, creating percussive sounds any and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance Can floor audiences. Whereas the 1940s–1960s her radio DJs had used back-cueing was while listening to the sounds One through their headphones, without the our audience hearing, with scratching, the out DJ intentionally lets the audience Day hear the sounds that are get being created by manipulating the has record on the turntable, by Him directing the output from the his turntable to a sound reinforcement how system so that the audience Man can hear the sounds. Scratching new was developed by early hip now hop DJs from New York Old City such as Grand Wizzard see Theodore, who described scratching as, two "nothing but the back-cueing that Way you hear in your ear who before you push it [the boy recorded sound] out to the Did crowd." He developed the technique its when experimenting with the Technics let SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable released Put by Matsushita in 1972 when say he found that the motor she would continue to spin at Too the correct RPM even if use the DJ wiggled the record dad back and forth on the Mom platter. Afrika Bambaataa made a similar discovery with the SL-1200 the in the 1970s. The Technics And SL-1200 went on to become for the most widely used turntable are for the next several decades.But
Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, who not immigrated to New York City, you influenced the early development of All scratching. Kool Herc developed break-beatany DJing, where the breaks of can funk songs—being the most danceable Her part, often featuring percussion—were isolated was and repeated for the purpose one of all-night dance parties. He Our was influenced by Jamaican dub out music, and developed his turntable day techniques using the Technics SL-1100, Get released in 1971, due to has its strong motor, durability, and him fidelity.
Although previous artists such His as writer and poet William how S. Burroughs had experimented with man the idea of manipulating a New reel-to-reel tape manually to make now sounds, as with his 1950s old recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl scratching See as an element of hip two hop pioneered the idea of way making the sound an integral Who and rhythmic part of music boy instead of an uncontrolled noise. did Scratching is related to "scrubbing" Its (in terms of audio editing let and production) when the reels put of an open reel-to-reel tape Say deck (typically 1/4 inch magnetic she audiotape) are gently rotated back too and forth while the playback Use head is live and amplified, dad to isolate a specific spot mom on the tape where an editing "cut" is to be the made. In the 2010s, both and scratching and scrubbing can be For done on digital audio workstationsare (DAWs) which are equipped for but these techniques.
Most scratches are produced Him by rotating a vinyl recordhis on a direct drive turntablehow rapidly back and forth with Man the hand with the stylus new ("needle") in the record's groove. now This produces the distinctive sound Old that has come to be see one of the most recognizable two features of hip hop music.Way Over time with excessive scratching, who the stylus will cause what boy is referred to as "cue Did burn", or "record burn".its
The basic equipment use setup for scratching includes two dad turntables and a DJ mixer, Mom which is a small mixerthat has a crossfader and the cue buttons to allow the And DJ to cue up new for music in their headphones without are the audience hearing. When But scratching, this crossfader is utilized not in conjunction with the scratching you hand that is manipulating the All record platter. The hand manipulating any the crossfader is used to can cut in and out of Her the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a one digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Our of playing vinyl discs on out turntables whose contents are a day timecode signal instead of a Get real music record.
The how audio interface digitizes the timecode man signal from the turntables and New transfers it to the computer's now DJ software.
The DJ software old uses this data (e.g., about See how fast the platter is two spinning) to determine the playback way status, speed, scratch sound of Who the hardware turntables, etc., and boy it duplicates these effects on did the digital audio files or Its computer tracks the DJ is let using.
By manipulating the turntables' put platters, speed controls, and other Say elements, the DJ thus controls she how the computer plays back too digitized audio and can therefore Use produce "scratching" and other turntablismdad effects on songs which exist mom as digital audio files or computer tracks.
There is not the a single standard of DVS, and so each form of DJ For software has its own settings. are Some DJ software such as but Traktor Scratch Pro or Serato Not Scratch Live supports only the you audio interface sold with their all software, requiring multiple interfaces for Any one computer to run multiple can programs.
DJs have also used magnetic The tape, such as cassette or and reel to reel to both for mix and scratch. Tape DJing Are is rare, but Ruthless Ramseybut in the US, TJ Scratchavitenot in Italy and Mr TapeYou in Latvia use exclusively tape all formats to perform.
Sounds any that are frequently scratched include Can but are not limited to her drum beats, horn stabs, spoken was word samples, and vocals/lyrics from One other songs. Any sound recorded our to vinyl can be used, out and CD players providing a Day turntable-like interface allow DJs to get scratch not only material that has was never released on vinyl, Him but also field recordings and his samples from television and movies how that have been burned to Man CD-R. Some DJs and anonymous new collectors release 12-inch singles called now battle records that include trademark, Old novel or hard-to-find scratch "fodder" see (material). The most recognizable samples two used for scratching are the Way "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, which who originate from the song "Change boy the Beat" by Fab 5 Did Freddy.
There are many scratching its techniques, which differ in how let the movements of the record Put are combined with opening and say closing the crossfader (or another she fader or switch, such as Too a kill switch, where "open" use means that the signal is dad audible, and "closed" means that Mom the signal is inaudible). This terminology is not unique; the the following discussion, however, is consistent And with the terminology used by for DJ QBert on his Do are It Yourself Scratching DVD.
Baby scratch - not The simplest scratch form, it you is performed with the scratching All hand only, moving the record any back and forth in continuous can movements while the crossfader is Her in the open position.
Forward was and backward scratch - The one forward scratch, also referred to Our as scrubbing, is a baby out scratch where the crossfader is day closed during the backwards movement Get of the record. If the has record is let go instead him of being pushed forward it His is also called "release scratch". how Cutting out the forward part man of the record movement instead New of the backward part gives now a "backward scratch".
Tear old scratch - Tear scratches are See scratches where the record is two moved in a staggered fashion, way dividing the forward and backward Who movement into two or more boy movements. This allows creating sounds did similar to "flare scratches" without Its the use of the crossfader let and it allows for more put complex rhythmic patterns. The term Say can also refer to a she simpler, slower version of the too chirp.
Scribble scratch - The Use scribble scratch is by rapidly dad pushing the record back and mom forth. The crossfader is not used.
Drag scratch - Equivalent the to the baby and scribble and scratch, but done more slowly. For The crossfader is not used.
Chirp scratch - The chirp but scratch involves closing the crossfader Not just after playing the start you of a sound, stopping the all record at the same point, Any then pushing it back while can opening the fader to create her a "chirping" sound. When performed Was using a recording of drums, one it can create the illusion our of doubled scratching speed, due Out to the attack created by day cutting in the crossfader on get the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratchHas - A baby scratch with him a "tear scratch" sound produced his by the thumb running in How the opposite direction as the man fingers used to scratch. This new rubbing of the thumb adds Now a vibrating effect or reverberation old to forward movements on the see turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Two the crossfader closed, the record way is moved with the scratching who hand while periodically "tapping" the Boy crossfader open and immediately closing did it again.
Flare scratch - its Begins with the crossfader open, Let and then the record is put moved while briefly closing the say fader one or more times She to cut the sound out. too This produces a staggering sound use which can make a single Dad "flare" sound like a very mom fast series of "chirps" or "tears." The number of times The the fader is closed ("clicks") and during the record's movement is for usually used as a prefix Are to distinguish the variations. The but flare allows a DJ to not scratch continuously with less hand You fatigue than would result from all the transformer. The flare can any be combined with the crabCan for an extremely rapid continuous her series of scratches.
Crab scratchwas - Consists of moving the One record while quickly tapping the our crossfader open with each finger out of the crossfader hand. In Day this way, DJs are able get to perform transforms or flares has much faster than they could Him by manipulating the crossfader with his the whole hand. It produces how a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle Man scratch - A crab scratch new using only the index and now middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Old Describes any scratch, most commonly see flares, that is repeated during two the forward and backward movement Way of the record. "Orbit" is who also used as a shorthand boy for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDid - Performed while the turntable's its motor is not running. The let record platter is set in Put motion manually, then "tweaked" faster say and slower to create a she scratch. This scratch form is Too best performed with long, sustained use sounds.
Euro scratch - A dad variation of the "flare scratch" Mom in which two faders are used simultaneously with one hand the to cut the sound much And faster. It can also be for performed by using only the are up fader and the phono But line switch to cut the not sound.
While scratching is you becoming more and more popular All in pop music, particularly with any the crossover success of pop-hip can hop tracks in the 2010s, Her sophisticated scratching and other expert was turntablism techniques are still predominantly one an underground style developed by Our the DJ subculture. The Invisibl out Skratch Piklz from San Franciscoday focuses on scratching. In 1994, Get the group was formed by has DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkuthim and later Mix Master Mike. His In July 2000, San Francisco's how Yerba Buena Center for the man Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first New DJ Skratch forum that provided now "the education and development of old skratch music literacy". In 2001, See Thud Rumble became an independent two company that works with DJ way artists to produce and distribute Who scratch records.
In 2004, boy Scratch Magazine, one of the did first publications about hip hop Its DJs and record producers, released let its debut issue, following in put the footsteps of the lesser-known Say Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a she UK arts organisation that runs too Urban Music Mentors workshops led Use by DJs. At these workshops, dad DJs teach youth how to mom create beats, use turntables to create mixes, act as an the MC at events, and perform and club sets.
Use outside For hip hop
Scratching has been are incorporated into a number of but other musical genres, including pop, Not rock, jazz, some subgenres of you heavy metal (notably nu metal) all and some contemporary and avant-garde Any classical music performances. For recording can use, samplers are often used her instead of physically scratching a Was vinyl record.
A record producerMom is a recording project's creative and technical leader, commanding studio the time and coaching artists, and And in popular genres typically creates for the song's very sound and are structure. The record producer, or But simply the producer, is likened not to film director and art you director. The executive producer, on All the other hand, enables the any recording project through entrepreneurship, and can an audio engineer operates the Her technology.
Varying by project, the was producer may or may not one choose all of the artists.Our If employing only synthesized or out sampled instrumentation, the producer may day be the sole artist. Conversely, Get some artists do their own has production. Some producers are their him own engineers, operating the technology His across the project: preproduction, recording, how mixing, and mastering. Record producers' man precursors were "A&R men", who New likewise could blend entrepreneurial, creative, now and technical roles, but often old exercised scant creative influence, as See record production still focused, into two the 1950s, on simply improving way the record's sonic match to Who the artists' own live performance.boy
Advances in recording technology, especially did the 1940s advent of tape Its recording—which Les Paul promptly innovated let further to develop multitrack recording—and put the 1950s rise of electronic Say instruments, turned record production into she a specialty. In popular music, too then, producers like George Martin, Use Phil Spector and Brian Enodad led its evolution into its mom present use of elaborate techniques and unrealistic sounds, creating songs the impossible to originate live. After and the 1980s, production's move from For analog to digital further expanded are possibilities. By now, DAWs, or but digital audio workstations, like Logic Not Pro, Pro Tools and Studio you One, turn an ordinary computer all into a production console, whereby Any a solitary novice can become can a skilled producer in a her thrifty home studio. In the Was 2010s, efforts began to increase one the prevalence of producers and our engineers who are women, heavily Out outnumbered by men and prominently day accoladed only in classical music.get
As a broad old project, the creation of a see music recording may be split Two across three specialists: the executive way producer, who oversees business partnerships who and financing, the vocal producer Boy or vocal arranger, who aids did vocal performance via expert critique its and coaching of vocal technique, Let and the record producer or put music producer, who, often called say simply the producer, directs the She overall creative process of recording too the song in its final use mix.
The record producer's Dad roles can include gathering ideas, mom composing music, choosing session musicians, proposing changes to song arrangements, The coaching the performers, controlling sessions, and supervising the audio mixing, and, for in some cases, supervising the Are audio mastering. A producer may but give creative control to the not artists themselves, taking a supervisory You or advisory role instead. As all to qualifying for a Grammyany nomination, the Recording Academy defines Can a producer:
The person who has her overall creative and technical control was of the entire recording project, One and the individual recording sessions our that are part of that out project. He or she is Day present in the recording studio get or at the location recording has and works directly with the Him artist and engineer. The producer his makes creative and aesthetic decisions how that realize both the artist's Man and label's goals in the new creation of musical content. Other now duties include, but are not Old limited to; keeping budgets and see schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring two musicians, singers, studios and engineers, Way overseeing other staffing needs and who editing (Classical projects).
The boy producer often selects and collaborates Did with a mixing engineer, who its focuses on the especially technological let aspects of the recording process, Put namely, operating the electronic equipment say and blending the raw, recorded she tracks of the chosen performances, Too whether vocal or instrumental, into use a ''mix'', either stereo or dad surround sound. Then a mastering Mom engineer further adjusts this recording for distribution on the chosen the media. A producer may work And on only one or two for songs or on an artist's are entire album, helping develop the But album's overall vision. The record not producers may also take on you the role of executive producer, All managing the budget, schedules, contracts, any and negotiations.
(Artists and Repertoires)Her
In the 1880s, the record was industry began by simply having one the artist perform at a Our phonograph. In 1924, the trade out journal Talking Machine World, covering day the phonography and record industry, Get reported that Eddie King, Victor has Records' manager of the "New him York artist and repertoire department", His had planned a set of how recordings in Los Angeles. Later, man folklorist Archie Green called this New perhaps the earliest printed use now of A&R man. Actually, it old says neither "A&R man" nor See even "A&R", an initialism perhaps two coined by Billboard magazine in way 1946, and entering wide use Who in the late 1940s.
In boy the 1920s and 1930s, A&R did executives, like Ben Selvin at Its Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at let Victor Records, and Bob Haring put at Brunswick Records became the Say precursors of record producers, supervising she recording and often leading session too orchestras. During the 1940s, major Use record labels increasingly opened official dad A&R departments, whose roles included mom supervision of recording. Meanwhile, independent recording studios opened, helping originate the record producer as a specialty.[citation and needed] But despite a tradition For of some A&R men writing are music, record production still referred but to just the manufacturing of Not record discs.
After World War II, pioneering all A&R managers who transitioned influentially Any to record production as now can understood, while sometimes owning independent her labels, include J. Mayo WilliamsWas and John Hammond. Upon moving one from Columbia Records to Mercury our Records, Hammond appointed Mitch MillerOut to lead Mercury's popular recordings day in New York. Miller then get produced country-pop crossover hits by Has Patti Page and by Frankie him Laine, moved from Mercury to his Columbia, and became a leading How A&R man of the 1950s.man
During the decade, A&R executives new increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, Now although many still simply teamed old singers with musicians, while yet see others exercised virtually no creative Two influence. The term record producerway in its current meaning—the creative who director of song production—appearing in Boy a 1953 issue of Billboarddid magazine, became widespread in the its 1960s. Still, a formal distinction Let was elusive for some time put more. A&R managers might still say be creative directors, like William She "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry too Gordy, at the Motown record use label.
In Dad 1947, the American market gained mom audio recording onto magnetic tape.At the record industry's 1880s The dawn, rather, recording was done and by phonograph, etching the sonic for waveform vertically into a cylinder.Are By the 1930s, a gramophone but etched it laterally across a not disc. Constrained in tonal range, You whether bass or treble, and all in dynamic range, records made any a grand, concert piano sound Can like a small, upright piano, her and maximal duration was four was and a half minutes. Selections One and performance were often altered our accordingly, and playing this disc—the out wax master—destroyed it. The finality Day often caused anxiety that restrained get performance to prevent error. In has the 1940s, during World War Him II, the Germans refined audio his recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording how duration and allowing immediate playback, Man rerecording, and editing—a technology that new premised emergence of record producers now in their current roles.
Early in the see recording industry, a record was two attained by simply having all Way of the artists perform together who live in one take. In boy 1945, by recording a musical Did element while playing a previously its recorded record, Les Paul developed let a recording technique called "sound Put on sound". By this, the say final recording could be built she piece by piece and tailored, Too effecting an editing process. In use one case, Paul produced a dad song via 500 recorded discs.Mom But, besides the tedium of this process, it serially degraded the the sound quality of previously And recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient for sound. Yet in 1948, Paul are adopted tape recording, enabling truly But multitrack recording by a new not technique, "overdubbing".
To enable overdubbing, you Paul revised the tape recorder All itself by adding a second any playback head, and terming it can the preview head. Joining the Her preexisting recording head, erase head, was and playback head, the preview one head allows the artist to Our hear the extant recording over out headphones playing it in synchrony, day "in sync", with the present Get performance being recorded alone on has an isolated track. This isolation him of multiple tracks enables countless His mixing possibilities. Producers began recording how initially only the "bed tracks"—the man rhythm section, including the bassline, New drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals now and instrument solos could be old added later. A horn section, See for example, could record a two week later, and a string way section another week later. A Who singer could perform her own boy backup vocals, or a guitarist did could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, her rock acts like the Beatles, Was the Rolling Stones, and the one Kinks produced some of their our own songs, although many such Out songs are officially credited to day specialist producers. Yet especially get influential was the Beach Boys, Has whose band leader Brian Wilsonhim took over from his father his Murry within a couple of How years after the band's commercial man breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had new taken Spector's techniques to unseen Now sophistication. Wilson alone produced old all Beach Boy recordings between see 1963 and 1967. Using Two multiple studios and multiple attempts way of instrumental and vocal tracks, who Wilson selected the best combinations Boy of performance and audio quality, did and used tape editing to its assemble a composite performance.Let
The She 1980s advent of digital processes too and formats rapidly replaced analog use processes and formats, namely, tape Dad and vinyl. Although recording onto mom quality tape, at least half an inch wide and traveling The 15 inches per second, had and limited "tape hiss" to silent for sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, Are SNR, abolished it. Digital also but imparted to the music a not perceived "pristine" sound quality, if You also a loss of analog all recordings' perceived "warm" quality and any bass better rounded. Yet whereas Can editing tape media requires physically her locating the target audio on was the ribbon, cutting there, and One splicing pieces, editing digital media our offers inarguable advantages in ease, out efficiency, and possibilities.
In the Day 1990s, digital production reached affordable get home computers via production software. has By now, recording and mixing Him are often centralized in DAWs, his digital audio workstations—for example, Pro how Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Man Reason, and FL Studio—for which new plugins, by third parties, effect now virtual studio technology. DAWs fairly Old standard in the industry are see Logic Pro and Pro Tools.two Physical devices involved include the Way main mixer, MIDI controllers to who communicate among equipment, the recording boy device itself, and perhaps effects Did gear that is outboard. Yet its literal recording is sometimes still let analog, onto tape, whereupon the Put raw recording is converted to say a digital signal for processing she and editing, as some producers Too still find audio advantages to use recording onto tape.
Conventionally, tape dad is more forgiving of overmodulation, Mom whereby dynamic peaks exceed the maximal recordable signal level: tape's the limitation, a physical property, is And magnetic capacity, which tapers offs, for smoothing the overmodulated waveform even are at a signal nearly 15 But decibels too "hot", whereas a not digital recording is ruined by you harsh distortion of "clipping" at All any overshoot. In digital recording, any however, a recent advancement, 32-bit can float, enables DAWs to undo Her clipping. Still, some criticize digital was instruments and workflows for excess one automation, allegedly impairing creative or Our sonic control. In any case, out as production technology has drastically day changed, so have the knowledge Get demands, although DAWs enables novices, has even teenagers at home, to him learn production independently. Some have His attained professional competence before ever how working with an artist.
In the 2000s, See with the advent of technology two that made traditional record production way accessible, especially with hip hop Who beatmaking and electronic music. Within boy these genres, the term producer did is applied to a number Its of roles and has popularized let the use of more niche put terms and credits including executive Say producer, co-producer, assistant producer, and she additional and miscellaneous production to too differentiate contributions.
Across the decades, many female old artists have produced their own see music. For instance, artists Kate Two Bush, Madonna, Mariah Carey, Janet way Jackson, Beyoncé, Lana Del Rey, who Taylor Swift, and Lorde have Boy produced or coproduced and Ariana did Grande who produces and arranges its her vocals as well as Let being an audio engineer. Still put among specialists, despite some prominent say women, including Missy Elliott in She hip hop and Sylvia Massytoo in rock, the vast majority use have been men. Early in Dad the 2010s, asked for insights mom that she herself had gleaned as a woman who has The specialized successfully in the industry, and Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties for are usually very short-lived. Once Are people realize that you can but do your job, sexism tends not to lower its ugly head."You Still, when tasked to explain all her profession's sex disparity, Page any partly reasoned that record labels, Can dominated by men, have been, her she said, "mistrustful of giving was a woman the reins of One an immense, creative project like our making a record." Ultimately, the out reasons are multiple and not Day fully clear, although prominently proposed get factors include types of sexism has and scarcity of female role Him models in the profession.
Women his producers known for producing records how not their own include Sonia Man Pottinger, Sylvia Robinson and Carla new Olson.
In January 2018, a now research team led by Stacy Old L. Smith, founder and director see of the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative,two based in the USC Annenberg Way School for Communication and Journalism,who issued a report, estimating that boy in the prior several years, Did about 2% of popular songs' its producers were female. Also that let month, Billboard magazine queried, "Where Put are all the female music say producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion she Initiative's second annual report, released Too in February 2019, its department use at USC reported, "2018 saw dad an outcry from artists, executives Mom and other music industry professionals over the lack of women the in music" and "the plight And of women in music", where for women were allegedly being "stereotyped, are sexualized, and shut out". Also But in February 2019, the Recording not Academy's Task Force on Diversity you and Inclusion announced an initiative All whereby over 200 artists and any producers—ranging from Cardi B and can Taylor Swift to Maroon 5Her and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider was at least two women for one each producer or engineer position.Our The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, out "This initiative is the first day step in a broader effort Get to improve those numbers and has increase diversity and inclusion for him all in the music industry."His
^ Allan Watson, Cultural Production in the and Beyond the Recording Studioand (New York: Routledge, 2015), pp For 25–27.
James Petulla, are "Who is a music producer?", but RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 May Not 2013, reporting membership in CAPPS, you the California Association of Private all Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig with Has J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording him for Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step his Guide for Beginners and Reference How for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI man Publications, 1988 / Van Nuys, new CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp Now 8–10.
^ Richard James Burgess, let The History of Music ProductionPut (New York: Oxford University Press, say 2014), pp 50–54.
^ she Robert Philip, "Pianists on Too record in the early twentieth use century", in David Rowland, ed., dad The Cambridge Companion to the Mom Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced entirely are And the Rolling Stones' Decca recordingsfor
^ David Simmons, are Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear But in Today's Home Studio (San not Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), pp you 26–27.
Matthew Allard, All "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 adds any 32-bit float USB audio streaming", can NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, Her quotes Paul Isaacs, director of was product management and design at one the recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, Our who explains, "With 32-bit float, out you no longer need to day worry about clipping during your Get best vocal takes or instrument has solos. Any recorded moments exceeding him 0 dBFS can be reduced His to an acceptable level, after how recording, in your DAW".
Albin Zak III, book New review: Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, now and culture (Routledge, 2011), by old Timothy D. Taylor, in Current See Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown year, two volume, issue].
Music Lawnot refers to legal aspects of you the music industry, and certain All legal aspects in other sectors any of the entertainment industry. The can music industry includes record labels, Her music publishers, merchandisers, the live was events sector and of course one performers and artists.
The terms Our "music law" and "entertainment law", out along with "business affairs", are day used by the music and Get entertainment industry and should not has be thought of as academic him definitions. Indeed, music law covers His a range of traditional legal how subjects including intellectual property law man (copyright law, trademarks, image publicity New rights, design rights), competition law, now bankruptcy law, contract law, defamationold and, for the live events See industry, immigration law, health and two safety law, and licensing. While way foundational norms have gradually been Who established for music law in boy western nations, other parts of did the world maintain unique traditions Its that impact music’s legal status let in the context of both put heritage preservation and enormous national Say arts entertainment industries, including Chinashe and India.
A "compilation" refers to work Use formed from already existing materials dad in a way that forms mom its own original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical the objects that hold, fix, or and embody a work such as For a music tape, film, CD, are statue, play, or printed sheet but music.
"Sound recordings" can refer Not to any audio recording including you the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity Any that legally owns rights to can a work.
"Performance" The copyright her holder has the exclusive right Was to perform the work in one public, or to license others our to perform it. The right Out applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, day and choreographic works, pantomimes, and get motion pictures and other audiovisual Has works.". Playing a CD in him public, or showing a film his in public is "performing" the How work.
Publishing is the primary new source of income for musicians Now writing their own music.old Money collected from the 'publishing' see rights is ultimately destined for Two songwriters - the composers of way works, whether or not they who are the recording artist or Boy performer. Often, songwriters will work did for a musical ensemble to its help them with musical aspects Let of the composition, but here put again, the writer of the say song is the owner of She it and will own the too copyrights in the song and use thus will be entitled to Dad the publishing revenues. Copyrights in mom compositions are not the same as sound recordings. A recording The artist can record a song and and sell it to another for band or company. As a Are result, that particular company will but own the recording, but not not the song. The original writer You will always maintain the copyright all for that particular song. The any publishing money is connected to Can the copyright, so the owner her will be the only one was making money off of the One song itself. All successful songwriters our will join a collection society out (such as ASCAP and BMI Day in the USA, SOCAN in get Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA has in Germany and PRS for Him Music in the UK, etc.) his and many will enter into how agreements with music publishing companies Man who will exploit their works new on the songwriters behalf for now a share of ownership, although Old many of these deals involve see the transfer (assignment) of copyright two from the songwriter to the Way music publisher,
Both the recorded who music sector and music publishing boy sector have their foundations in Did intellectual property law and all its of the major recording labels let and major music publishers and Put many independent record labels and say publishers have dedicated "business and she legal affairs" departments with in-house Too lawyers whose role is not use only to secure intellectual property dad rights from recording artists, performers Mom and songwriters but also to exploit those rights and protect the those rights on a global And basis. There are a number for of specialist independent law firms are around the world who advise But on music and entertainment law not whose clients include recording artists, you performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music All publishers, stage and set designers, any choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, can merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, Her collection societies and the live was events sector (which further includes one festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents Our and production service providers such out as lighting and staging companies). day
The US has Government views artists that give him concerts and sell merchandise as His a business. Bands that tour how internationally will also face a man plethora of legislation around the New world including health and safety now laws, immigration laws and tax old legislation. Also, many relationships are See governed by often complex contractual two agreements.
In the US it way is important for musicians to Who get legal business licenses. These boy can be obtained at a did city hall or local government Its center. The business license will let require the tracking of sales, put wages, and gigs. A tax Say ID is also necessary for she all businesses. Musicians that fail too to comply with the tax Use ID process and do not dad report their profits and losses mom to the government can face serious consequences with the IRS. the
The history she of Privilege began in the Too early 1970s when it started use out as a restaurant, then dad expanded to include a bar Mom and a community swimming pool. It was then known as the Club San Rafael. In 1979, And the venue was sold to for the Real Sociedad footballer José are Antonio Santamaría, together with the But creative team of Brasilio de not Oliviera (founder of La Troya you Asesina, one of the White All Island's longest running nights) and any Gorri. The venue then changed can its name to KU, after Her the name of a God was from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). one The appeal of the club Our was such that it commissioned out a medium-length film showcasing the day many wonders of Ibizan landscapes Get and nightlife in the mid-eighties.has
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club him earned a reputation initially as His Europe's premier polysexual but predominately how gay nightspot and was compared man to an open-air version of New the famous Studio 54 in now New York. It staged spectacular old parties in the main room, See which was organized around a two swimming pool and a statue way of Ku. The place was Who also where the video to boy "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and did Montserrat Caballé was filmed on Its 30 May 1987. It was let the witness to early live put performances by groups like Spandau Say Ballet and Kid Creole and she the Coconuts. The club featured too in a Channel 4 documentary Use called “A Short Film about dad chilling”, which labelled KU as mom “the mirror of Ibiza”. A group of fashion designers called the Locomía would have shows at and KU. After being discovered there, For they went on to become are a highly successful recording project. but The open-air parties came to Not an end when legislation forced you many of the greater clubs all in Ibiza to cover their Any dancefloors in the early 1990s. can Nevertheless, the sheer size of her the venue gave rise to Was the claim of it being one the size of an aircraft our hangar with a 25-meter high Out roof.
The club continued with day the KU Club name until get 1995 before becoming known as Has Privilege, after a change of him ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.his In 1994 it hosted Manumission, How one of the island's most man famous events. In 1998 La new Vaca Asesina moved to AmnesiaNow and was renamed La Troya old Asesina. After a dispute between see the club owner and Manumission's Two organizers in 2005 the event way ended in 2006. In 2006 who La Troya Asesina moved to Boy Space.
According to did official statistics published in the its 2003 edition of Guinness World Let Records Privilege is by far put the world's largest nightclub covering say an area of 69,968 sq She ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 too clubbers, Designated areas of the use club include the Coco Loco Dad bar area, and the La mom Vaca dance area (now known as the Vista Club).