Scratching, sometimes referred to as are scrubbing, is a DJ and but turntablist technique of moving a Not vinyl record back and forth you on a turntable to produce all percussive or rhythmic sounds. A Any crossfader on a DJ mixercan may be used to fade her between two records simultaneously.
While Was scratching is most associated with one hip hop music, where it our emerged in the mid-1970s, from Out the 1990s it has been day used in some styles of get rap rock, rap metal and Has nu metal. In hip hophim culture, scratching is one of his the measures of a DJ's How skills. DJs compete in scratching man competitions at the DMC World new DJ Championships and IDA (International Now DJ Association), formerly known as old ITF (International Turntablist Federation). At see scratching competitions, DJs can use Two only scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ way mixer, digital vinyl systems or who vinyl records only). In recorded Boy hip hop songs, scratched "hooks"did often use portions of other its songs.
A rudimentary how form of turntable manipulation which Man is related to scratching was new developed in the late 1940s now by radio music program hosts, Old disc jockeys (DJs), or the see radio program producers who did two their own technical operation as Way audio console operators. It was who known as back-cueing, and was boy used to find the very Did beginning of the start of its a song (i.e., the cue let point) on a vinyl record Put groove. This was done to say permit the operator to back she the disc up (rotate the Too record or the turntable platter use itself counter-clockwise) in order to dad permit the turntable to be Mom switched on, and come up to full speed without ruining the the first few bars of And music with the "wow" of for incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This are permitted the announcer to time But their remarks, and start the not turntable in time for when you they wanted the music on All the record to begin.
Back any cueing was a basic skill can that all radio production staff Her needed to learn, and the was dynamics of it were unique one to the brand of professional Our turntable in use at a out given radio station. The older, day larger and heavier turntables needed Get a 180 degree backward rotation has to allow for run up him to full speed; some of His the newer 1950s models used how aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber man mats which required a third New of a rotational turn or now less to achieve full speed old when the song began. All See this was done in order two to present a music show way on air with the least Who amount of silence ("dead air") boy between music, the announcer's patter did and recorded advertising commercials. The Its rationale was that any "dead let air" on a radio station put was likely to prompt a Say listener to switch stations, so she announcers and program directors instructed too DJs and announcers to provide Use a continuous, seamless stream of dad sound–from music to an announcer mom to a pre-recorded commercial, to a "jingle" (radio station theme the song), and then immediately back and to more music.
Back-cueing was For a key function in delivering are this seamless stream of music. but Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Not and manufacturers developed special tonearms, you styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables all to meet these demands.
In the Now mid-1970s in the South Bronx, old a young teen DJ named see "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Two the "DJ scratch" technique. Other way DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took who the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made did possible by the invention of its direct-drive turntables, which led to Let the emergence of turntablism. Early put belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for say scratching, since they had a She slow start-up time, and they too were prone to wear and use tear and breakage, as the Dad belt would break from backspinning mom or scratching. The first direct-drive turntable was invented by Shuichi The Obata, an engineer at Matsushitaand (now Panasonic), based in Osaka, for Japan. It eliminated belts, and Are instead employed a motor to but directly drive a platter on not which a vinyl record rests.You In 1969, Matsushita released it all as the SP-10, the first any direct-drive turntable on the market,Can and the first in their her influential Technics series of turntables.was
In the 1970s, hip hop One musicians and club DJs began our to use this specialized turntable out equipment to move the record Day back and forth, creating percussive get sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their has dance floor audiences. Whereas the Him 1940s–1960s radio DJs had used his back-cueing while listening to the how sounds through their headphones, without Man the audience hearing, with scratching, new the DJ intentionally lets the now audience hear the sounds that Old are being created by manipulating see the record on the turntable, two by directing the output from Way the turntable to a sound who reinforcement system so that the boy audience can hear the sounds. Did Scratching was developed by early its hip hop DJs from New let York City such as Grand Put Wizzard Theodore, who described scratching say as, "nothing but the back-cueing she that you hear in your Too ear before you push it use [the recorded sound] out to dad the crowd." He developed the Mom technique when experimenting with the Technics SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable the released by Matsushita in 1972 And when he found that the for motor would continue to spin are at the correct RPM even But if the DJ wiggled the not record back and forth on you the platter. Afrika Bambaataa made All a similar discovery with the any SL-1200 in the 1970s. The can Technics SL-1200 went on to Her become the most widely used was turntable for the next several one decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, Our who immigrated to New York out City, influenced the early development day of scratching. Kool Herc developed Get break-beatDJing, where the breaks has of funk songs—being the most him danceable part, often featuring percussion—were His isolated and repeated for the how purpose of all-night dance parties.man He was influenced by Jamaican New dub music, and developed his now turntable techniques using the Technics old SL-1100, released in 1971, due See to its strong motor, durability, two and fidelity.
Although previous artists way such as writer and poet Who William S. Burroughs had experimented boy with the idea of manipulating did a reel-to-reel tape manually to Its make sounds, as with his let 1950s recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl put scratching as an element of Say hip hop pioneered the idea she of making the sound an too integral and rhythmic part of Use music instead of an uncontrolled dad noise. Scratching is related to mom "scrubbing" (in terms of audio editing and production) when the the reels of an open reel-to-reeland tape deck (typically 1/4 inch For magnetic audiotape) are gently rotated are back and forth while the but playback head is live and Not amplified, to isolate a specific you spot on the tape where all an editing "cut" is to Any be made. In the 2010s, can both scratching and scrubbing can her be done on digital audio Was workstations (DAWs) which are equipped one for these techniques.
Most scratches are two produced by rotating a vinyl Way record on a direct drive who turntable rapidly back and forth boy with the hand with the Did stylus ("needle") in the record's its groove. This produces the distinctive let sound that has come to Put be one of the most say recognizable features of hip hop she music. Over time with excessive Too scratching, the stylus will cause use what is referred to as dad "cue burn", or "record burn".[citation Mom needed]
The basic But equipment setup for scratching includes not two turntables and a DJ you mixer, which is a small All mixer that has a crossfader any and cue buttons to allow can the DJ to cue up Her new music in their headphoneswas without the audience hearing.one When scratching, this crossfader is Our utilized in conjunction with the out scratching hand that is manipulating day the record platter. The hand Get manipulating the crossfader is used has to cut in and out him of the record's sound.His
Digital vinyl systems
Using how a digital vinyl system (DVS) man consists of playing vinyl discs New on turntables whose contents is now a timecode signal instead of old a real music record.
The audio interface digitizes the boy timecode signal from the turntables did and transfers it to the Its computer's DJ software.
The DJ let software uses this data (e.g., put about how fast the platter Say is spinning) to determine the she playback status, speed, scratch sound too of the hardware turntables, etc., Use and it duplicates these effects dad on the digital audio files mom or computer tracks the DJ is using.
By manipulating the the turntables' platters, speed controls, and and other elements, the DJ thus For controls how the computer plays are back digitized audio and can but therefore produce "scratching" and other Not turntablism effects on songs which you exist as digital audio filesall or computer tracks.
There is Any not a single standard of can DVS, so that each form her of DJ software has its Was own settings. Some DJ software one such as Traktor Scratch Proour or Serato Scratch Live support Out only the audio interface sold day with their software, requiring multiple get interfaces for one computer to Has run multiple programs.
While some turntablists Now consider the only true scratching old media to be the vinyl see disc, there are other ways Two to scratch, as:
Specialized way DJ-CD players (CDJ) with jog who wheels, allowing the DJ to Boy manipulate a CD as if did it were a vinyl record, its have become widely available in Let the 2000s.
A vinyl emulationput is an emulation software, which say may be combined with hardware She elements, which allows a DJ too to manipulate the playback of use digital music files on a Dad computer via a DJ control mom surface (generally MIDI or a HID controller). DJs can scratch, The beatmatch, and perform other turntablistand operations that cannot be done for with a conventional keyboard and Are mouse. DJ software performing computer but scratch operations include Traktor Pro, not Mixxx, Serato Scratch Live & You Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audio Torq, all DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs have any also used magnetic tape, such Can as cassette or reel to her reel to both mix and was scratch. Tape DJing is rare, One but Ruthless Ramsey in the our US, TJ Scratchavite in Italy out and Mr Tape in Latvia Day use exclusively tape formats to get perform.
Sounds that are has frequently scratched include but are Him not limited to drum beats, his horn stabs, spoken word samples, how and vocals/lyrics from other songs. Man Any sound recorded to vinyl new can be used, and CDnow players providing a turntable-like interface Old allow DJs to scratch not see only material that was never two released on vinyl, but also Way field recordings and samples from who television and movies that have boy been burned to CD-R. Some Did DJs and anonymous collectors release its 12-inch singles called battle recordslet that include trademark, novel or Put hard-to-find scratch "fodder" (material). The say most recognizable samples used for she scratching are the "Ahh" and Too "Fresh" samples, which originate from use the song "Change the Beat" dad by Fab 5 Freddy.
There Mom are many scratching techniques, which differ in how the movements the of the record are combined And with opening and closing the for crossfader (or another fader or are switch, such as a kill But switch, where "open" means that not the signal is audible, and you "closed" means that the signal All is inaudible). This terminology is any not unique; the following discussion, can however, is consistent with the Her terminology used by DJ QBertwas on his Do It Yourself one Scratching DVD.
Baby scratch - The simplest out scratch form, it is performed day with the scratching hand only, Get moving the record back and has forth in continuous movements while him the crossfader is in the His open position.
Forward and backward how scratch - The forward scratch, man also referred to as scrubbing, New is a baby scratch where now the crossfader is closed during old the backwards movement of the See record. If the record is two let go instead of being way pushed forward it is also Who called "release scratch". Cutting out boy the forward part of the did record movement instead of the Its backward part gives a "backward let scratch".
Tear scratch - put Tear scratches are scratches where Say the record is moved in she a staggered fashion, dividing the too forward and backward movement into Use two or more movements. This dad allows creating sounds similar to mom "flare scratches" without use of the crossfader and it allows the for more complex rhythmic patterns. and The term can also refer For to a simpler, slower version are of the chirp.
Scribble scratchbut - The scribble scratch is Not by rapidly pushing the record you back and forth. The crossfader all is not used.
Drag scratchAny - Equivalent to the baby can and scribble scratch, but done her more slowly. The crossfader is Was not used.
Chirp scratch - one The chirp scratch involves closing our the crossfader just after playing Out the start of a sound, day stopping the record at the get same point, then pushing it Has back while opening the fader him to create a "chirping" sound. his When performed using a recording How of drums, it can create man the illusion of doubled scratching new speed, due to the attackNow created by cutting in the old crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby Two scratch with a "tear scratch" way sound produced by the thumb who running the opposite direction as Boy the fingers used to scratch. did This rubbing of the thumb its adds a vibrating effect or Let reverberation to forward movements on put the turntable.
Transformer scratch - say with the crossfader closed, the She record is moved with the too scratching hand while periodically "tapping" use the crossfader open and immediately Dad closing it again.
Flare scratchmom - Begins with the crossfader open, and then the record The is moved while briefly closing and the fader one or more for times to cut the sound Are out. This produces a staggering but sound which can make a not single "flare" sound like a You very fast series of "chirps" all or "tears." The number of any times the fader is closed Can ("clicks") during the record's movement her is usually used as a was prefix to distinguish the variations. One The flare allows a DJ our to scratch continuously with less out hand fatigue than would result Day from the transformer. The flare get can be combined with the has crab for an extremely rapid Him continuous series of scratches.
Crab his scratch - Consists of moving how the record while quickly tapping Man the crossfader open with each new finger of the crossfader hand. now In this way, DJs are Old able to perform transforms or see flares much faster than they two could by manipulating the crossfader Way with the whole hand. It who produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab Did scratch using only the index its and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchlet - Describes any scratch, most Put commonly flares, that are repeated say during the forward and backward she movement of the record. "Orbit" Too is also used as a use shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak dad scratch - Performed while the Mom turntable's motor is not running. The record platter is set the in motion manually, then "tweaked" And faster and slower to create for a scratch. This scratch form are is best performed with long, But sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - not A variation of the "flare you scratch" in which two faders All are used simultaneously with one any hand to cut the sound can much faster. It can also Her be performed by using only was the up fader and the one phono line switch to cut Our the sound.
While scratching out is becoming more and more day popular in pop music, particularly Get with the crossover success of has pop-hip hop tracks in the him 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other His expert turntablism techniques are still how predominantly an underground style developed man by the DJ subculture. The New Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San now Francisco focuses on scratching. In old 1994, the group was formed See by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & two Shortkut and later Mix Master way Mike. In July 2000, San Who Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for boy the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the did first DJ Skratch forum that Its provided "the education and development let of skratch music literacy". In put 2001, Thud Rumble became an Say independent company that works with she DJ artists to produce and too distribute scratch records.
In Use 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of dad the first publications about hip mom hop DJs and record producers, released its debut issue, following the in the footsteps of the and lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is For a UK arts organisation that are runs Urban Music Mentors workshops but led by DJs. At these Not workshops, DJs teach youth how you to create beats, use turntables all to create mixes, act as Any an MC at events, and can perform club sets.
Use her outside hip hop
Scratching has Was been incorporated into a number one of other musical genres, including our pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres Out of heavy metal (notably nu day metal) and some contemporary and get avant-garde classical music performances. For Has recording use, samplers are often him used instead of physically scratching his a vinyl record.
A record producer is how a recording project's creative and Man technical leader, commanding studio time new and coaching artists, and in now popular genres typically creates the Old song's very sound and structure.see The record producer, or simply two the producer, is likened to Way film director and art director.who The executive producer, on the boy other hand, enables the recording Did project through entrepreneurship, and an its audio engineer operates the technology. let
Varying by project, the producer Put may or may not choose say all of the artists. If she employing only synthesized or sampledToo instrumentation, the producer may be use the sole artist. Conversely, some dad artists do their own production.Mom Some producers are their own engineers, operating the technology across the the project: preproduction, recording, mixing, And and mastering. Record producers' precursors for were "A&R men", who likewise are could blend entrepreneurial, creative, and But technical roles, but often exercised not scant creative influence, as record you production still focused, into the All 1950s, on simply improving the any record's sonic match to the can artists' own live performance.
Advances Her in recording technology, especially the was 1940s advent of tape recording—which one Les Paul promptly innovated further Our to develop multitrack recording—and the out 1950s rise of electronic instruments, day turned record production into a Get specialty. In popular music, then, has producers like George Martin, Phil him Spector and Brian Eno led His its evolution into its present how use of elaborate techniques and man unrealistic sounds, creating songs impossible New to originate live. After the now 1980s, production's move from analog old to digital further expanded possibilities.See By now, DAWs, or digital two audio workstations, like Logic Proway and Pro Tools, turn an Who ordinary computer into a production boy console, whereby a solitary novice did can become a skilled producer Its in a thrifty home studio.let In the 2010s, efforts began put to increase the prevalence of Say producers and engineers who are she women, heavily outnumbered by men too and prominently accoladed only in Use classical music.
As a broad Out project, the creation of a day music recording may be split get across three specialists: the executive Has producer, who oversees business partnerships him and financing, the vocal producer his or vocal arranger, who aids How vocal performance via expert critique man and coaching of vocal technique, new and the record producer or Now music producer, who, often called old simply the producer, directs the see overall creative process of recording Two the song in its final way mix.
The record producer's who roles can include gathering ideas, Boy composing music, choosing session musicians, did proposing changes to song arrangements, its coaching the performers, controlling sessions, Let supervising the audio mixing, and, put in some cases, supervising the say audio mastering. A producer may She give creative control to the too artists themselves, taking a supervisory use or advisory role instead. As Dad to qualifying for a Grammymom nomination, the Recording Academy defines a producer:
The person who has The overall creative and technical control and of the entire recording project, for and the individual recording sessions Are that are part of that but project. He or she is not present in the recording studio You or at the location recording all and works directly with the any artist and engineer. The producer Can makes creative and aesthetic decisions her that realize both the artist's was and label's goals in the One creation of musical content. Other our duties include, but are not out limited to; keeping budgets and Day schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring get musicians, singers, studios and engineers, has overseeing other staffing needs and Him editing (Classical projects).
The his producer often selects and collaborates how with a mixing engineer, who Man focuses on the especially technological new aspects of the recording process, now namely, operating the electronic equipment Old and blending the raw, recorded see tracks of the chosen performances, two whether vocal or instrumental, into Way a ''mix'', either stereo or who surround sound. Then a mastering boy engineer further adjusts this recording Did for distribution on the chosen its media. A producer may work let on only one or two Put songs or on an artist's say entire album, helping develop the she album's overall vision. The record Too producers may also take on use the role of executive producer, dad managing the budget, schedules, contracts, Mom and negotiations.
(Artists and Repertoires)the
In the 1880s, the record And industry began by simply having for the artist perform at a are phonograph. In 1924, the trade But journal Talking Machine World, covering not the phonography and record industry, you reported that Eddie King, Victor All Records' manager of the "New any York artist and repertoire department", can had planned a set of Her recordings in Los Angeles. Later, was folklorist Archie Green called this one perhaps the earliest printed use Our of A&R man. Actually, it out says neither "A&R man" nor day even "A&R", an initialism perhaps Get coined by Billboard magazine in has 1946, and entering wide use him in the late 1940s.
In His the 1920s and 1930s, A&R how executives, like Ben Selvin at man Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at New Victor Records, and Bob Haring now at Brunswick Records became the old precursors of record producers, supervising See recording and often leading session two orchestras. During the 1940s, major way record labels increasingly opened official Who A&R departments, whose roles included boy supervision of recording. Meanwhile, independent did recording studios opened, helping originate Its record producer as a specialty.[citation let needed] But despite a tradition put of some A&R men writing Say music, record production still referred she to just the manufacturing of too record discs.
After World War II, pioneering dad A&R managers who transitioned influentially mom to record production as now understood, while sometimes owning independent the labels, include J. Mayo Williamsand and John Hammond. Upon moving For from Columbia Records to Mercury are Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Millerbut to lead Mercury's popular recordings Not in New York. Miller then you produced country-pop crossover hits by all Patti Page and by Frankie Any Laine, moved from Mercury to can Columbia, and became a leading her A&R man of the 1950s.Was
During the decade, A&R executives one increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, our although many still simply teamed Out singers with musicians, while yet day others exercised virtually no creative get influence. The term record producerHas in its current meaning—the creative him director of song production—appearing in his a 1953 issue of BillboardHow magazine, became widespread in the man 1960s. Still, a formal distinction new was elusive for some time Now more. A&R managers might still old be creative directors, like William see "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry Two Gordy, at the Motown record way label.
In who 1947, the American market gained Boy audio recording onto magnetic tape.did At the record industry's 1880s its dawn, rather, recording was done Let by phonograph, etching the sonic put waveform vertically into a cylinder.say By the 1930s, a gramophone She etched it laterally across a too disc. Constrained in tonal range, use whether bass or treble, and Dad in dynamic range, records made mom a grand, concert piano sound like a small, upright piano, The and maximal duration was four and and a half minutes. Selections for and performance were often altered Are accordingly, and playing this disc—the but wax master—destroyed it. The finality not often caused anxiety that restrained You performance to prevent error. In all the 1940s, during World War any II, the Germans refined audio Can recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording her duration and allowing immediate playback, was rerecording, and editing—a technology that One premised emergence of record producers our in their current roles.
Early in the Day recording industry, a record was get attained by simply having all has of the artists perform together Him live in one take. In his 1945, by recording a musical how element while playing a previously Man recorded record, Les Paul developed new a recording technique called "sound now on sound". By this, the Old final recording could be built see piece by piece and tailored, two effecting an editing process. In Way one case, Paul produced a who song via 500 recorded discs.boy But, besides the tedium of Did this process, it serially degraded its the sound quality of previously let recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient Put sound. Yet in 1948, Paul say adopted tape recording, enabling truly she multitrack recording by a new Too technique, "overdubbing".
To enable overdubbing, use Paul revised the tape recorder dad itself by adding a second Mom playback head, and terming it the preview head. Joining the the preexisting recording head, erase head, And and playback head, the preview for head allows the artist to are hear the extant recording over But headphones playing it in synchrony, not "in sync", with the present you performance being recorded alone on All an isolated track. This isolation any of multiple tracks enables countless can mixing possibilities. Producers began recording Her initially only the "bed tracks"—the was rhythm section, including the bassline, one drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals Our and instrument solos could be out added later. A horn section, day for example, could record a Get week later, and a string has section another week later. A him singer could perform her own His backup vocals, or a guitarist how could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, the rock acts like the Beatles, and the Rolling Stones, and the For Kinks produced some of their are own songs, although many such but songs are officially credited to Not specialist producers. Yet especially you influential was the Beach Boys, all whose band leader Brian WilsonAny took over from his father can Murry within a couple of her years after the band's commercial Was breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had one taken Spector's techniques to unseen our sophistication. Wilson alone produced Out all Beach Boy recordings between day 1963 and 1967. Using get multiple studios and multiple attempts Has of instrumental and vocal tracks, him Wilson selected the best combinations his of performance and audio quality, How and used tape editing to man assemble a composite performance.new
The see 1980s advent of digital processes Two and formats rapidly replaced analog way processes and formats, namely, tape who and vinyl. Although recording onto Boy quality tape, at least half did an inch wide and traveling its 15 inches per second, had Let limited "tape hiss" to silent put sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, say SNR, abolished it. Digital also She imparted to the music a too perceived "pristine" sound quality, if use also a loss of analog Dad recordings' perceived "warm" quality and mom bass better rounded. Yet whereas editing tape media requires physically The locating the target audio on and the ribbon, cutting there, and for splicing pieces, editing digital media Are offers inarguable advantages in ease, but efficiency, and possibilities.
In the not 1990s, digital production reached affordable You home computers via production software. all By now, recording and mixing any are often centralized in DAWs, Can digital audio workstations—for example, Pro her Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, was Reason, and FL Studio—for which One plugins, by third parties, effect our virtual studio technology. DAWs fairly out standard in the industry are Day Logic Pro and Pro Tools.get Physical devices involved include the has main mixer, MIDI controllers to Him communicate among equipment, the recording his device itself, and perhaps effects how gear that is outboard. Yet Man literal recording is sometimes still new analog, onto tape, whereupon the now raw recording is converted to Old a digital signal for processing see and editing, as some producers two still find audio advantages to Way recording onto tape.
Conventionally, tape who is more forgiving of overmodulation, boy whereby dynamic peaks exceed the Did maximal recordable signal level: tape's its limitation, a physical property, is let magnetic capacity, which tapers offs, Put smoothing the overmodulated waveform even say at a signal nearly 15 she decibels too "hot", whereas a Too digital recording is ruined by use harsh distortion of "clipping" at dad any overshoot. In digital recording, Mom however, a recent advancement, 32-bit float, enables DAWs to undo the clipping. Still, some criticize digital And instruments and workflows for excess for automation, allegedly impairing creative or are sonic control. In any case, But as production technology has drastically not changed, so have the knowledge you demands, although DAWs enables novices, All even teenagers at home, to any learn production independently. Some have can attained professional competence before ever Her working with an artist.
In the 2000s, day with the advent of technology Get that made traditional record production has accessible, especially with hip hop him beatmaking and electronic music. Within His these genres, the term producer how is applied to a number man of roles and has popularized New the use of more niche now terms and credits including executive old producer, co-producer, assistant producer, and See additional and miscellaneous production to two differentiate contributions.
Across the decades, many female Out artists have produced their own day music. For instance, artists Kate get Bush, Madonna, Mariah Carey, Janet Has Jackson, Beyoncé, Lana Del Rey, him Taylor Swift, and Lorde have his produced or coproduced and Ariana How Grande who produces and arranges man her vocals as well as new being an audio engineer. Still Now among specialists, despite some prominent old women, including Missy Elliott in see hip hop and Sylvia MassyTwo in rock, the vast majority way have been men. Early in who the 2010s, asked for insights Boy that she herself had gleaned did as a woman who has its specialized successfully in the industry, Let Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties put are usually very short-lived. Once say people realize that you can She do your job, sexism tends too to lower its ugly head."use Still, when tasked to explain Dad her profession's sex disparity, Page mom partly reasoned that record labels, dominated by men, have been, The she said, "mistrustful of giving and a woman the reins of for an immense, creative project like Are making a record." Ultimately, the but reasons are multiple and not not fully clear, although prominently proposed You factors include types of sexism all and scarcity of female role any models in the profession.
Women Can producers known for producing records her not their own include Sonia was Pottinger, Sylvia Robinson and Carla One Olson.
In January 2018, a our research team led by Stacy out L. Smith, founder and director Day of the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative,get based in the USC Annenberg has School for Communication and Journalism,Him issued a report, estimating that his in the prior several years, how about 2% of popular songs' Man producers were female. Also that new month, Billboard magazine queried, "Where now are all the female music Old producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion see Initiative's second annual report, released two in February 2019, its department Way at USC reported, "2018 saw who an outcry from artists, executives boy and other music industry professionals Did over the lack of women its in music" and "the plight let of women in music", where Put women were allegedly being "stereotyped, say sexualized, and shut out". Also she in February 2019, the Recording Too Academy's Task Force on Diversity use and Inclusion announced an initiative dad whereby over 200 artists and Mom producers—ranging from Cardi B and Taylor Swift to Maroon 5the and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider And at least two women for for each producer or engineer position.are The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, But "This initiative is the first not step in a broader effort you to improve those numbers and All increase diversity and inclusion for any all in the music industry."can
^ Allan Its Watson, Cultural Production in and let Beyond the Recording Studio (New put York: Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.Say
James Petulla, "Who she is a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, too Recording Connection, 21 May 2013, Use reporting membership in CAPPS, the dad California Association of Private Postsecondary mom Schools.
^ all Brent Hurtig with J. Any D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for can Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide her for Beginners and Reference for Was Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, one 1988 / Van Nuys, CA: our Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.Out
^ Richard James Man Burgess, The History of Music new Production (New York: Oxford University now Press, 2014), pp 50–54.
^ Robert Philip, "Pianists see on record in the early two twentieth century", in David Rowland, Way ed., The Cambridge Companion to who the Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge boy University Press, 1998), pp 75–77.Did
Reportedly self-produced entirely its are the Rolling Stones' Decca let recordings
^ David Put Simmons, Analog Recording: Using Analog say Gear in Today's Home Studioshe (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), Too pp 26–27.
Matthew use Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 dad adds 32-bit float USB audio Mom streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director the of product management and design And at the recorder manufacturer Sound for Devices, who explains, "With 32-bit are float, you no longer need But to worry about clipping during not your best vocal takes or you instrument solos. Any recorded moments All exceeding 0 dBFS can be any reduced to an acceptable level, can after recording, in your DAW".Her
Albin Zak III, was book review: Strange Sounds: Music, one Technology, and culture (Routledge, 2011), Our by Timothy D. Taylor, in out Current Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown day year, volume, issue].
Music Lawbut refers to legal aspects of not the music industry, and certain You legal aspects in other sectors all of the entertainment industry. The any music industry includes record labels, Can music publishers, merchandisers, the live her events sector and of course was performers and artists.
A its "compilation" refers to work formed let from already existing materials in Put a way that forms its say own original work, including collective she works.
"Copies" are physical objects Too that hold, fix, or embody use a work such as a dad music tape, film, CD, statue, Mom play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to the any audio recording including the And sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright for owner" is the entity that are legally owns rights to a But work.
"Performance" The copyright holder not has the exclusive right to you perform the work in public, All or to license others to any perform it. The right applies can to “literary, musical, dramatic, and Her choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion was pictures and other audiovisual works.".one Playing a CD in public, Our or showing a film in out public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source has of income for musicians writing him their own music. Money His collected from the 'publishing' rights how is ultimately destined for songwriters man - the composers of works, New whether or not they are now the recording artist or performer. old Often, songwriters will work for See a musical ensemble to help two them with musical aspects of way the composition, but here again, Who the writer of the song boy is the owner of it did and will own the copyrights Its in the song and thus let will be entitled to the put publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions Say are not the same as she sound recordings. A recording artist too can record a song and Use sell it to another band dad or company. As a result, mom that particular company will own the recording, but not the the song. The original writer will and always maintain the copyright for For that particular song. The publishing are money is connected to the but copyright, so the owner will Not be the only one making you money off of the song all itself. All successful songwriters will Any join a collection society (such can as ASCAP and BMI in her the USA, SOCAN in Canada, Was JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in one Germany and PRS for Music our in the UK, etc.) and Out many will enter into agreements day with music publishing companies who get will exploit their works on Has the songwriters behalf for a him share of ownership, although many his of these deals involve the How transfer (assignment) of copyright from man the songwriter to the music new publisher,
Both the recorded music Now sector and music publishing sector old have their foundations in intellectual see property law and all of Two the major recording labels and way major music publishers and many who independent record labels and publishers Boy have dedicated "business and legal did affairs" departments with in-house lawyers its whose role is not only Let to secure intellectual property rights put from recording artists, performers and say songwriters but also to exploit She those rights and protect those too rights on a global basis. use There are a number of Dad specialist independent law firms around mom the world who advise on music and entertainment law whose The clients include recording artists, performers, and producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, for stage and set designers, choreographers, Are graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, but broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection not societies and the live events You sector (which further includes festivals, all venues, promoters, booking agents and any production service providers such as Can lighting and staging companies).
The US Government One views artists that give concerts our and sell merchandise as a out business. Bands that tour internationally Day will also face a plethora get of legislation around the world has including health and safety laws, Him immigration laws and tax legislation. his Also, many relationships are governed how by often complex contractual agreements. Man
In the US it is new important for musicians to get now legal business licenses. These can Old be obtained at a city see hall or local government center. two The business license will require Way the tracking of sales, wages, who and gigs. A tax ID boy is also necessary for all Did businesses. Musicians that fail to its comply with the tax ID let process and do not report Put their profits and losses to say the government can face serious she consequences with the IRS.
The history of Privilege began too in the early 1970s when Use it started out as a dad restaurant, then expanded to include mom a bar and a community swimming pool. It was then the known as Club San Rafael.and In 1979, the venue was For sold to the Real Sociedadare footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together but with the creative team of Not Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of you La Troya Asesina, one of all the White Island's longest running Any nights) and Gorri. The venue can then changed its name to her KU, after the name of Was a God from Hawaiian mythology one (see Kū). The appeal of our the club was such that Out it commissioned a medium-length film day showcasing the many wonders of get Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in Has the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,him KU Club earned a reputation his initially as Europe's premier polysexualHow but predominately gay nightspot and man was compared to an open-air new version of the famous Studio Now 54 in New York. It old staged spectacular parties in the see main room, which was organized Two around a swimming pool and way a statue of Ku. The who place was also where the Boy video to "Barcelona" by Freddie did Mercury and Montserrat Caballé was its filmed on 30 May 1987.Let It was the witness to put early live performances by groups say like Spandau Ballet and Kid She Creole and the Coconuts. The too club featured in a Channel use 4 documentary called “A Short Dad Film about chilling”, which labelled mom KU as “the mirror of Ibiza”. A group of fashion The designers called Locomía would have and shows at KU. After being for discovered there, they went on Are to become a highly successful but recording project. The open-air parties not came to an end when You legislation forced many of the all greater clubs in Ibiza to any cover their dancefloors in the Can early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer her size of the venue gave was rise to the claim of One it being the size of our an aircraft hangar with a out 25-meter high roof.
The club Day continued with the KU Club get name until 1995 before becoming has known as Privilege, after a Him change of ownership to Jose his Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 it how hosted Manumission, one of the Man island's most famous events. In new 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved now to Amnesia and was renamed Old La Troya Asesina. After a see dispute between the club owner two and Manumission's organizers in 2005 Way the event ended in 2006. who In 2006 La Troya Asesina boy moved to Space.
According to official statistics published its in the 2003 edition of let Guinness World Records Privilege is Put by far the world's largest say nightclub covering an area of she 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) and Too holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas use of the club include the dad Coco Loco bar area, and Mom the La Vaca dance area (now known as the Vista the Club).