Source: Wikipedia 

A DJ For scratching a record

Scratching, sometimes are referred to as scrubbing, is but a DJ and turntablist technique Not of moving a vinyl record you back and forth on a all turntable to produce percussive or Any rhythmic sounds. A crossfader on can a DJ mixer may be her used to fade between two Was records simultaneously.

While scratching is one most associated with hip hop our music, where it emerged in Out the mid-1970s, from the 1990s day it has been used in get some styles of edm like Has techno, trip hop, and house him music and rock music such his as rap rock, rap metal, How rapcore, and nu metal. In man hip hop culture, scratching is new one of the measures of Now a DJ's skills. DJs compete old in scratching competitions at the see DMC World DJ Championships and Two IDA (International DJ Association), formerly way known as ITF (International Turntablist who Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Boy can use only scratch-oriented gear did (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl its systems or vinyl records only). Let In recorded hip hop songs, put scratched "hooks" often use portions say of other songs. Other music She genres such as jazz, pop, too and rock have also incorporated use scratching.[citation needed]

History

Dad

Precursors

A rudimentary form of has turntable manipulation that is related Him to scratching was developed in his the late 1940s by radio how music program hosts, disc jockeys Man (DJs), or the radio program new producers who did their own now technical operation as audio console Old operators. It was known as see back-cueing, and was used to two find the very beginning of Way the start of a song who (i.e., the cue point) on boy a vinyl record groove. This Did was done to permit the its operator to back the disc let up (rotate the record or Put the turntable platter itself counter-clockwise) say in order to permit the she turntable to be switched on, Too and come up to full use speed without ruining the first dad few bars of music with Mom the "wow" of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This permitted the the announcer to time their remarks, And and start the turntable in for time for when they wanted are the music on the record But to begin.

Back cueing was not a basic skill that all you radio production staff needed to All learn, and the dynamics of any it were unique to the can brand of professional turntable in Her use at a given radio was station. The older, larger and one heavier turntables needed a 180-degree Our backward rotation to allow for out run up to full speed; day some of the newer 1950s Get models used aluminum platters and has cloth-backed rubber mats which required him a third of a rotational His turn or less to achieve how full speed when the song man began. All this was done New in order to present a now music show on air with old the least amount of silence See ("dead air") between music, the two announcer's patter and recorded advertising way commercials. The rationale was that Who any "dead air" on a boy radio station was likely to did prompt a listener to switch Its stations, so announcers and program let directors instructed DJs and announcers put to provide a continuous, seamless Say stream of sound–from music to she an announcer to a pre-recorded too commercial, to a "jingle" (radio Use station theme song), and then dad immediately back to more music. mom

Back-cueing was a key function in delivering this seamless stream the of music. Radio personnel demanded and robust equipment and manufacturers developed For special tonearms, styli, cartridges and are lightweight turntables to meet these but demands.

Turntablism

In man the mid-1970s in the South new Bronx, a young teen DJ Now named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) old invented the "DJ scratch" technique. see Other DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, Two took the technique to higher way levels.

Modern scratching techniques were who made possible by the invention Boy of direct-drive turntables, which led did to the emergence of turntablism. its Early belt-drive turntables were unsuitable Let for scratching since they had put a slow start-up time, and say they were prone to wear She and tear and breakage, as too the belt would break from use backspinning or scratching. The first Dad direct-drive turntable was invented by mom Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic), based in The Osaka, Japan. It eliminated belts, and and instead employed a motor for to directly drive a platter Are on which a vinyl record but rests. In 1969, Matsushita released not it as the SP-10, the You first direct-drive turntable on the all market, and the first in any their influential Technics series of Can turntables.

In the 1970s, hip her hop musicians and club DJs was began to use this specialized One turntable equipment to move the our record back and forth, creating out percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain Day their dance floor audiences. Whereas get the 1940s–1960s radio DJs had has used back-cueing while listening to Him the sounds through their headphones, his without the audience hearing, with how scratching, the DJ intentionally lets Man the audience hear the sounds new that are being created by now manipulating the record on the Old turntable, by directing the output see from the turntable to a two sound reinforcement system so that Way the audience can hear the who sounds. Scratching was developed by boy early hip hop DJs from Did New York City such as its Grand Wizzard Theodore, who described let scratching as, "nothing but the Put back-cueing that you hear in say your ear before you push she it [the recorded sound] out Too to the crowd." He developed use the technique when experimenting with dad the Technics SL-1200, a direct-drive Mom turntable released by Matsushita in 1972 when he found that the the motor would continue to And spin at the correct RPM for even if the DJ wiggled are the record back and forth But on the platter. Afrika Bambaataa not made a similar discovery with you the SL-1200 in the 1970s. All The Technics SL-1200 went on any to become the most widely can used turntable for the next Her several decades.

Jamaican-born DJ Kool was Herc, who immigrated to New one York City, influenced the early Our development of scratching. Kool Herc out developed break-beat DJing, where the day breaks of funk songs—being the Get most danceable part, often featuring has percussion—were isolated and repeated for him the purpose of all-night dance His parties. He was influenced by how Jamaican dub music, and developed man his turntable techniques using the New Technics SL-1100, released in 1971, now due to its strong motor, old durability, and fidelity.

Although previous See artists such as writer and two poet William S. Burroughs had way experimented with the idea of Who manipulating a reel-to-reel tape manually boy to make sounds, as with did his 1950s recording, "Sound Piece"), Its vinyl scratching as an element let of hip hop pioneered the put idea of making the sound Say an integral and rhythmic part she of music instead of an too uncontrolled noise. Scratching is related Use to "scrubbing" (in terms of dad audio editing and production) when mom the reels of an open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically 1/4 the inch magnetic audiotape) are gently and rotated back and forth while For the playback head is live are and amplified, to isolate a but specific spot on the tape Not where an editing "cut" is you to be made. Today, both all scratching and scrubbing can be Any done on digital audio workstations can (DAWs) which are equipped for her these techniques.

Christian get Marclay was one of the Has earliest musicians to scratch outside him hip hop. In the mid-1970s, his Marclay used gramophone records and How turntables as musical instruments to man create sound collages. He developed new his turntable sounds independently of Now hip hop DJs. Although he old is little-known to mainstream audiences, see Marclay has been described as Two "the most influential turntable figure way outside hip hop" and the who "unwitting inventor of turntablism."

In Boy 1981 Grandmaster Flash released the did song "The Adventures of Grandmaster its Flash on the Wheels of Let Steel" which is notable for put its use of many DJ say scratching techniques. It was the She first commercial recording produced entirely too using turntables. In 1982, Malcolm use McLaren & the World's Famous Dad Supreme Team released a single mom "Buffalo Gals", juxtaposing extensive scratching with calls from square dancing, The and, in 1983, the EP, and D'ya Like Scratchin'?, which is for entirely focused on scratching. Another Are 1983 release to prominently feature but scratching is Herbie Hancock's Grammy not Award-winning single "Rockit". This song You was also performed live at all the 1984 Grammy Awards, and any in the documentary film Scratch, Can the performance is cited by her many 1980s-era DJs as their was first exposure to scratching. The One Street Sounds Electro compilation series our which started in 1983 is out also notable for early examples Day of scratching. Also, a notable get piece was "For A Few has Dollars More" by Bill Laswell-Michael Him Beinhorn band Material, released on his 12" single in Japan and how containing scratch performed by Grand Man Mixer DXT, another pioneer of new scratching.

Basic techniques

Vinyl now recordings

Most scratches are produced Old by rotating a vinyl record see on a direct drive turntable two rapidly back and forth with Way the hand with the stylus who ("needle") in the record's groove. boy This produces the distinctive sound Did that has come to be its one of the most recognizable let features of hip hop music. Put Over time with excessive scratching, say the stylus will cause what she is referred to as "cue Too burn", or "record burn".[citation needed] use

The basic equipment for setup for scratching includes two are turntables and a DJ mixer, But which is a small mixer not that has a crossfader and you cue buttons to allow the All DJ to cue up new any music in their headphones without can the audience hearing.[citation needed] When Her scratching, this crossfader is utilized was in conjunction with the scratching one hand that is manipulating the Our record platter. The hand manipulating out the crossfader is used to day cut in and out of Get the record's sound.[citation needed]

has

Digital vinyl systems

Using a him digital vinyl system (DVS) consists His of playing vinyl discs on how turntables whose contents are a man timecode signal instead of a New real music record.

  1. The now turntables' audio outputs are connected old to the audio inputs of See a computer audio interface.
  2. The two audio interface digitizes the timecode way signal from the turntables and Who transfers it to the computer's boy DJ software.
  3. The DJ software did uses this data (e.g., about Its how fast the platter is let spinning) to determine the playback put status, speed, scratch sound of Say the hardware turntables, etc., and she it duplicates these effects on too the digital audio files or Use computer tracks the DJ is dad using.
  4. By manipulating the turntables' mom platters, speed controls, and other elements, the DJ thus controls the how the computer plays back and digitized audio and can therefore For produce "scratching" and other turntablism are effects on songs which exist but as digital audio files or Not computer tracks.

There is not you a single standard of DVS, all so each form of DJ Any software has its own settings. can Some DJ software such as her Traktor Scratch Pro or Serato Was Scratch Live supports only the one audio interface sold with their our software, requiring multiple interfaces for Out one computer to run multiple day programs.

Some digital vinyl systems get software include:

Non-vinyl scratching

While How some turntablists consider the only man true scratching media to be new the vinyl disc, there are Now other ways to scratch, such old as:

  • Specialized DJ-CD players see (CDJ) with jog wheels, allowing Two the DJ to manipulate a way CD as if it were who a vinyl record, have become Boy widely available in the 2000s.
  • did
  • A vinyl emulation is an its emulation software, which may be Let combined with hardware elements, which put allows a DJ to manipulate say the playback of digital music She files on a computer via too a DJ control surface (generally use MIDI or a HID controller). Dad DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and mom perform other turntablist operations that cannot be done with a The conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ and software performing computer scratch operations for include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Are Scratch Live & Itch, VirtualDJ, but M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
  • not
  • DJs have also used magnetic You tape, such as cassette or all reel to reel to both any mix and scratch. Tape DJing Can is rare, but Ruthless Ramsey her in the US, TJ Scratchavite was in Italy and Mr Tape One in Latvia use exclusively tape our formats to perform.

Sounds

Sounds out that are frequently scratched include Day but are not limited to get drum beats, horn stabs, spoken has word samples, and vocals/lyrics from Him other songs. Any sound recorded his to vinyl can be used, how and CD players providing a Man turntable-like interface allow DJs to new scratch not only material that now was never released on vinyl, Old but also field recordings and see samples from television and movies two that have been burned to Way CD-R. Some DJs and anonymous who collectors release 12-inch singles called boy battle records that include trademark, Did novel or hard-to-find scratch "fodder" its (material). The most recognizable samples let used for scratching are the Put "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, which say originate from the song "Change she the Beat" by Fab 5 Too Freddy.

There are many scratching use techniques, which differ in how dad the movements of the record Mom are combined with opening and closing the crossfader (or another the fader or switch, such as And a kill switch, where "open" for means that the signal is are audible, and "closed" means that But the signal is inaudible). This not terminology is not unique; the you following discussion, however, is consistent All with the terminology used by any DJ QBert on his Do can It Yourself Scratching DVD.

Her

Sophisticated techniques

  • Baby scratch - was The simplest scratch form, it one is performed with the scratching Our hand only, moving the record out back and forth in continuous day movements while the crossfader is Get in the open position.
  • Forward has and backward scratch - The him forward scratch, also referred to His as scrubbing, is a baby how scratch where the crossfader is man closed during the backwards movement New of the record. If the now record is let go instead old of being pushed forward it See is also called "release scratch". two Cutting out the forward part way of the record movement instead Who of the backward part gives boy a "backward scratch".
  • Tear did scratch - Tear scratches are Its scratches where the record is let moved in a staggered fashion, put dividing the forward and backward Say movement into two or more she movements. This allows creating sounds too similar to "flare scratches" without Use the use of the crossfader dad and it allows for more mom complex rhythmic patterns. The term can also refer to a the simpler, slower version of the and chirp.
  • Scribble scratch - The For scribble scratch is by rapidly are pushing the record back and but forth. The crossfader is not Not used.
  • Drag scratch - Equivalent you to the baby and scribble all scratch, but done more slowly. Any The crossfader is not used.
  • can
  • Chirp scratch - The chirp her scratch involves closing the crossfader Was just after playing the start one of a sound, stopping the our record at the same point, Out then pushing it back while day opening the fader to create get a "chirping" sound. When performed Has using a recording of drums, him it can create the illusion his of doubled scratching speed, due How to the attack created by man cutting in the crossfader on new the backward movement.
  • Hydrophonic scratch Now - A baby scratch with old a "tear scratch" sound produced see by the thumb running in Two the opposite direction as the way fingers used to scratch. This who rubbing of the thumb adds Boy a vibrating effect or reverberation did to forward movements on the its turntable.
  • Transformer scratch - with Let the crossfader closed, the record put is moved with the scratching say hand while periodically "tapping" the She crossfader open and immediately closing too it again.
  • Flare scratch - use Begins with the crossfader open, Dad and then the record is mom moved while briefly closing the fader one or more times The to cut the sound out. and This produces a staggering sound for which can make a single Are "flare" sound like a very but fast series of "chirps" or not "tears." The number of times You the fader is closed ("clicks") all during the record's movement is any usually used as a prefix Can to distinguish the variations. The her flare allows a DJ to was scratch continuously with less hand One fatigue than would result from our the transformer. The flare can out be combined with the crab Day for an extremely rapid continuous get series of scratches.
  • Crab scratch has - Consists of moving the Him record while quickly tapping the his crossfader open with each finger how of the crossfader hand. In Man this way, DJs are able new to perform transforms or flares now much faster than they could Old by manipulating the crossfader with see the whole hand. It produces two a fading/increasing transforming sound.
  • Twiddle Way scratch - A crab scratch who using only the index and boy middle fingers.
  • Orbit scratch - Did Describes any scratch, most commonly its flares, that is repeated during let the forward and backward movement Put of the record. "Orbit" is say also used as a shorthand she for two-click flares.
  • Tweak scratch Too - Performed while the turntable's use motor is not running. The dad record platter is set in Mom motion manually, then "tweaked" faster and slower to create a the scratch. This scratch form is And best performed with long, sustained for sounds.
  • Euro scratch - A are variation of the "flare scratch" But in which two faders are not used simultaneously with one hand you to cut the sound much All faster. It can also be any performed by using only the can up fader and the phono Her line switch to cut the was sound.

Subculture

While scratching is one becoming more and more popular Our in pop music, particularly with out the crossover success of pop-hip day hop tracks in the 2010s, Get sophisticated scratching and other expert has turntablism techniques are still predominantly him an underground style developed by His the DJ subculture. The Invisibl how Skratch Piklz from San Francisco man focuses on scratching. In 1994, New the group was formed by now DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkut old and later Mix Master Mike. See In July 2000, San Francisco's two Yerba Buena Center for the way Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first Who DJ Skratch forum that provided boy "the education and development of did skratch music literacy". In 2001, Its Thud Rumble became an independent let company that works with DJ put artists to produce and distribute Say scratch records.[citation needed]

In 2004, she Scratch Magazine, one of the too first publications about hip hop Use DJs and record producers, released dad its debut issue, following in mom the footsteps of the lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a the UK arts organisation that runs and Urban Music Mentors workshops led For by DJs. At these workshops, are DJs teach youth how to but create beats, use turntables to Not create mixes, act as an you MC at events, and perform all club sets.

Use outside Any hip hop

Scratching has been can incorporated into a number of her other musical genres, including pop, Was rock, jazz, some subgenres of one heavy metal (notably nu metal) our and some contemporary and avant-garde Out classical music performances. For recording day use, samplers are often used get instead of physically scratching a Has vinyl record.

DJ Product©1969, formerly him of the rap rock band his Hed PE, recalled that the How punk rock band the Vandals man was the first rock band new he remembered seeing use turntable Now scratching. Product©1969 also recalled the old early rap metal band Proper see Grounds, which was signed to Two Madonna's Maverick Records, as being way another one of the first who rock bands to utilize scratching Boy in their music.

Guitarist Tom did Morello, known for his work its with Rage Against the Machine Let and Audioslave, has performed guitar put solos that imitate scratching by say using the kill switch on She his guitar. Perhaps the best-known too example is "Bulls on Parade", use in which he creates scratch-like Dad rhythmic sounds by rubbing the mom strings over the pick-ups while using the pickup selector switch The as a crossfader.

Since the and 1990s, scratching has been used for in a variety of popular Are music genres such as nu but metal, exemplified by Linkin Park, not Slipknot and Limp Bizkit. It You has also been used by all artists in pop music (e.g. any Nelly Furtado) and alternative rock Can (e.g. Incubus). Scratching is also her popular in various electronic music was styles, such as techno.

One

See also

out

Sources

  • Allmusic's Grand Wizard Theodore Day biography (also at Artist Direct)
  • get
  • DJ Grandmaster Flash quoted in has Toop, David (1991). Rap Attack Him 2, 65. New York: Serpent's his Tail. ISBN 1-85242-243-2.

References

boy
  1. Thom Holmes Put (18 Oct 2013). The Routledge say Guide to Music Technology. Routledge. she p. 17. ISBN 9781135477806.
  2. ^ Too Brian Coleman, The Technics 1200 — Hammer use Of The Gods, Medium
  3. dad
  4. The World of DJs Mom and the Turntable Culture, page 43, Hal Leonard Corporation, 2003 the
  5. Billboard, May 21, And 1977, page 140
  6. ^ for Trevor Pinch, Karin Bijsterveld, are The Oxford Handbook of Sound But Studies, page 515, Oxford University not Press
  7. "History of you the Record Player Part II: All The Rise and Fall". Reverb.com. any October 2015. Retrieved 5 June can 2016.
  8. Toop, 1991. Her
  9. Six Machines That was Changed The Music World, Wired, one May 2002
  10. https://www.allmusic.com/artist/p312125/biography Our
  11. Nicholas Collins, Margaret out Schedel, Scott Wilson (2013), Electronic day Music: Cambridge Introductions to Music, Get page 105, Cambridge University Press has
  12. "Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen". him Archived from the original on His 2010-01-01.
  13. allmusic ((( how More Encores: Christian Marclay Plays man With the Records Of... > New Overview )))
  14. McNamee, now David (11 January 2010). "Hey, old what's that sound: Turntablism". The See Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
  15. two
  16. Archived at Ghostarchive and way the Wayback Machine: esponda (14 Who March 2008). "DJ Ruthless Ramsey boy Scratch Tape Decks" – via did YouTube.
  17. Archived at Its Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: let Federico Nardella (19 September 2016). put "TJ Scratchavite - Matthew's Cellar" Say – via YouTube.
  18. she Archived at Ghostarchive and the too Wayback Machine: Yussuf von Deck Use (14 May 2012). "World Hip dad Hop Classic - Mr. Tape mom 1991" – via YouTube.
  19. ^ "Graphic Nature: DJ the Product @1969 [(hed)PE – Self and Titled] | BEATDUST". www.beatdust.com. Archived For from the original on 2017-10-13. are

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