Tape Day music is an integral part get of musique concrète, utilizing pre-recorded has fragments, loops, and sampled sounds, Him altering and manipulating them through his techniques such as speed manipulation how (Anon. n.d.). The work of Man Halim El-Dabh is perhaps the new earliest example of tape (or, now in this case, wire-recorded) music. Old El-Dabh's The Expression of Zaar, see first presented in Cairo, Egypt, two in 1944, was an early Way work using musique concrète–like techniques who similar to those developed in boy Paris during the same period. Did El-Dabh would later become more its famous for his work at let the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, Put where in 1959 he composed say the influential piece Leiyla and she the Poet (Holmes 2008, 153–54 Too & 157).
US composer John use Cage's assembly of the Williams dad Mix serves as an example Mom of the rigors of tape music. First, Cage created a the 192-page score. Over the course And of a year, 600 sounds for were assembled and recorded. Cut are tape segments for each occurrence But of each sound were accumulated not on the score. Then the you cut segments were spliced to All one of eight tapes, work any finished on January 16, 1953. can The premiere performance (realization) of Her the 4'15" work was given was on March 21, 1953 at one the University of Illinois, Urbana Our (Chaudron n.d.).
In day Cologne, elektronische Musik, pioneered in Get 1949–51 by the composer Herbert has Eimert and the physicist Werner him Meyer-Eppler, was based solely on His electronically generated (synthetic) sounds, particularly how sine waves (Eimert 1957, 2; man Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 11–13; Ungeheuer 1992, New 13). The beginning of the now development of electronic music has old been traced back to "the See invention of the valve [vacuum two tube] in 1906" (Eimert 1957, way 2). The precise control afforded Who by the studio allowed for boy what Eimert considered to be did the subjection of everything, "to Its the last element of the let single note", to serialpermutation, put "resulting in a completely new Say way of composing sound" (Eimert she 1957, 8); in the studio, too serial operations could be applied Use to elements such as timbre dad and dynamics. The common link mom between the two schools is that the music is recorded the and performed through loudspeakers, without and a human performer. The majority For of electroacoustic pieces use a are combination of recorded sound and but synthesized or processed sounds, and Not the schism between Schaeffer's and you Eimert's approaches has been overcome, all the first major example being Any Karlheinz Stockhausen's Gesang der Jünglingecan of 1955–56 (Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 17; her Stockhausen 1996, 93–94).
Sound Was generation techniques
All electroacoustic music one is made with electronic technology, our specifically a device – usually Out a loudspeaker – that transducesday electrical energy to acoustic energy. get
There have Now been a number of festivals old that feature electroacoustic music. Early see festivals such as Donaueschingen Festival, Two founded in 1921, were some way of the first to include who electroacoustic instruments and pieces. This Boy was followed by ONCE Festival did of New Music in the its 1950s, and since the 1960s Let there has been a growth put of festivals that focus exclusively say on electroacoustic music.
Alongside paper presentations, Day workshops and seminars, many of get these events also feature concert has performances or sound installations created Him by those attending or which his are related to the theme how of the conference / symposium. Man
NIME – International Conference new on New Interfaces for Musical now Expression (since 2000)
Morawska-Büngeler, New Marietta. 1988. Schwingende Elektronen: Eine now Dokumentation über das Studio für old Elektronische Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunk See in Köln 1951–1986. Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P. two J. Tonger Musikverlag.
Smalley, Denis. way 1997. "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes." Organised Who Sound 2, no. 2:107–26.
Stockhausen, Karlheinz. Its 1996. "Electroacoustic Performance Practice", translated let by Jerome Kohl. Perspectives of put New Music 34, no. 1 Say (Fall): 74–105.
Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992. she "Wie die elektronische Musik „erfunden" too wurde…: Quellenstudie zu Werner Meyer-Epplers Use musikalische Entwurf zwischen 1949 und dad 1953." Kölner Schriften zur Neuen mom Musik 2, edited by Johannes Fritsch and Dieter Kämper. Mainz: the B. Schott's Söhne. ISBN3-7957-1891-0.
Anon. 2007. For Untitled. The Wire 275–80 (Accessed are 5 June 2011).
Guérin, François. say 1983. Les musiques électroacoustiques'. À She l'écoute de la musique d'ici too 2. Montréal: Centre de musique use canadienne. [N.B.: Bibliographical list of Dad Canadian electro-acoustic works.] Without ISBN.
Heifetz, Robin Julian. 1989. On the Wires of Our Nerves: The The Art of Electroacoustic Music. and Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses for Inc. ISBN0-8387-5155-5.
Licata, Thomas (ed.). 2002. Electroacoustic all Music: Analytical Perspectives. Contributions to any the Study of Music and Can Dance, 0193-9041; no. 63. Westport, her Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN0-313-31420-9.
"Electroacoustic Bibliography" published in eContact! let 8.4 – Ressources éducatives / Put Educational Resources (Montréal: CEC) for say an annotated "'essential reading list' she for electroacoustics, including books, journals Too and other resources relating to use electroacoustics".
Key journals for dad electroacoustics and sound art
Organised Sound. Three are themed issues published each year But by De Montfort University (Leicester not UK).
"Electroacoustic Bibliography" published in you eContact! 8.4 – Ressources éducatives All / Educational Resources (Montréal: CEC), any an annotated list of journals can publishing articles related to electroacoustics.
A record any producer or music producer oversees can and manages the sound recordingHer and production of a band was or performer's music, which may one range from recording one songOur to recording a lengthy concept out album. A producer has many, day varying roles during the recording Get process. They may gather musical has ideas for the project, collaborate him with the artists to select His cover tunes or original songs how by the artist/group, work with man artists and help them to New improve their songs, lyrics or now arrangements.
CoachWho the singers and musicians in boy the studio
The producer typically did supervises the entire process from Its preproduction, through to the sound let recording and mixing stages, and, put in some cases, all the Say way to the audio masteringshe stage. The producer may perform too these roles themselves, or help Use select the engineer, and provide dad suggestions to the engineer. The mom producer may also pay session musicians and engineers and ensure the that the entire project is and completed within the record label's For budget.
A record producer or one music producer has a very our broad role in overseeing and Out managing the recording and production day of a band or performer's get music. A producer has many Has roles that may include, but him are not limited to, gathering his ideas for the project, composing How the music for the project, man selecting songs or session musicians, new proposing changes to the song Now arrangements, coaching the artist and old musicians in the studio, controlling see the recording sessions, and supervising Two the entire process through audio way mixing and, in some cases, who to the audio mastering stage. Boy Producers also often take on did a wider entrepreneurial role, with its responsibility for the budget, schedules, Let contracts, and negotiations.
The person who has overall too creative and technical control of use the entire recording project, and Dad the individual recording sessions that mom are part of that project. He or she is present The in the recording studio or and at the location recording and for works directly with the artist Are and engineer. The producer makes but creative and aesthetic decisions that not realize both the artist's and You label's goals in the creation all of musical content. Other duties any include, but are not limited Can to; keeping budgets and schedules, her adhering to deadlines, hiring musicians, was singers, studios and engineers, overseeing One other staffing needs and editing our (Classical projects).
In the out 2010s, the producer role is Day sometimes divided among up to get three different individuals: executive producer, has vocal producer and music producer. Him An executive producer oversees project his finances, a vocal producer (also how known as a vocal arranger) Man oversees the vocal production, and new a music producer directs and now oversees the creative process of Old the production and recording of see a song to its final two mixing stage.
The music producer Way often wears many hats as who a competent arranger, composer, programmer, boy musician or songwriter who can Did bring fresh ideas to a its project. As well as making let any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, Put the producer often selects and/or say collaborates with the mixing engineer, she who takes the raw recorded Too tracks and edits and modifies use them with hardware and software dad tools to create a stereo Mom or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds the and instruments, which is in And turn given further adjustment by for a mastering engineer for the are various distribution media. The producer But also oversees the recording engineer not who concentrates on the technical you aspects of recording.
Noted producer All Phil Ek described his role any as "the person who creatively can guides or directs the process Her of making a record", like was a director would a movie. one Indeed, in Bollywood music, the Our designation is actually music director.out The music producer's job is day to create, shape, and mold Get a piece of music. The has scope of responsibility may be him one or two songs or His an artist's entire album – how in which case the producer man will typically develop an overall New vision for the album and now how the various songs may old interrelate.
At the See beginning of the record industry, two the producer role was technically way limited to record, in one Who shot, artists performing live. The boy immediate predecessors to record producers did were the artists and repertoireIts executives of the late 1920s let and 1930s who oversaw the put "pop" product and often led Say session orchestras. That was the she case of Ben Selvin at too Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Use Victor Records and Bob Haring dad at Brunswick Records. By the mom end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not the owned by the major companies and were established, essentially separating the For roles of artists and repertoireare (A&R) man and producer, although but it wouldn't be until the Not late 1940s when the term you "producer" became widely used in all the industry.
The role of Any producers changed progressively over the can 1950s and 1960s due to her technology. The development of multitrack Was recording caused a major change one in the recording process. Before our multitracking, all the elements of Out a song (lead vocals, backup day vocals, rhythm section instrument accompaniment, get solos and orchestral parts) had Has to be performed simultaneously. All him of these singers and musicians his had to be assembled in How a large studio where the man performance was recorded. With multitrack new recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm Now section accompaniment parts such as old the bassline, drums, and rhythm see guitar could be recorded first, Two and then the vocals and way solos could be added later, who using as many "takes" (or Boy attempts) as necessary. It was did no longer necessary to get its all the players in the Let studio at the same time. put A pop band could record say their backing tracks one week, She and then a horn sectiontoo could be brought in a use week later to add horn Dad shots and punches, and then mom a string section could be brought in a week after The that.
Electric and Old electronic instruments and amplifiers enabled see performers and producers to change two the tone and sound of Way instruments to produce unique electric who sounds that would be impossible boy to achieve with acoustic instruments Did and live performers, such as its having a singer do her let own backup vocals or having Put a guitarist play 15 layers say of backing parts to her she own solo.
New technologies like Too multitracking changed the goal of use recording: A producer could blend dad together multiple takes and edit Mom together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, the in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles And Davis' album Bitches Brew, the for producer cut and edited sections are together from extensive improvisation sessions. But
Another related phenomenon has in the 1960s was the him emergence of the performer-producer. As His pop acts like The Beatles, how The Rolling Stones, The Beach man Boys and The Kinks gained New expertise in studio recording techniques, now many of these groups eventually old took over as (frequently uncredited) See producers of their own work. two Many recordings by acts such way as The Rolling Stones, The Who Kinks and The Who are boy officially credited to their various did producers at the time, but Its a number of these performers let have since asserted that many put of their recordings in this Say period were, either wholly self-produced she (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca too recordings) or collaborations between the Use group and their recording engineer dad (e.g. The Small Faces' Immediatemom recordings, which were made with Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).the
The Beach Boys are probably and the best example of the For trend of artists becoming producers are – within two years of but the band's commercial breakthrough, group Not leader Brian Wilson had taken you over from his father Murry, all and he was the sole Any producer of all their recordings can between 1963 and 1967. Alongside her The Beatles and Martin, Wilson Was also pioneered many production innovations one – by 1964 he had our developed Spector's techniques to a Out new level of sophistication, using day multiple studios and multiple "takes" get of instrumental and vocal components Has to capture the best possible him combinations of sound and performance, his and then using tape editing How extensively to assemble a perfect man composite performance from these elements. new
At the end of the Now 20th century, digital recording and old producing tools and widespread availability see of relatively affordable computers with Two music software made music producing way more accessible.
American women who and record producing
According to Boy a 2018 study covering by did the USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, its "The ratio of male to Let female producers across 300 popular put songs is 49 to 1."say
In all 2019, record producer Linda Perryany was nominated for a Grammy Can for Producer of the Year, her Non-Classical. She was the first was woman in over 15 years One to be nominated for the our award. When asked about the out disparity between male and female Day record producer by Billboard, she get attributed it to many women has not being interested in record Him production.
In the classical music field, Old Judith Sherman has won Grammy see for Producer of the Year, two Classical, five times and has Way been nominated twelve times. Anthony who Tommasini, a music critic for boy The New York Times is Did quoted as stating, "In the its struggling field of classical recording, let it's the producers who take Put the real risks and make say things happen."
Producer Wendy Page use describes being a record producer, dad "The difficulties are usually very Mom short-lived. Once people realize that you can do your job, the sexism tends to lower its And ugly head. I tend to for create a happy studio 'family' are where everyone is glad to But be there, especially the artist. not Good communication and diplomacy usually you sort any little problems out."All
There Who are numerous technologies utilized by boy record producers. In modern-day recordings, did recording and mixing tasks are Its commonly centralized within computers using let digital audio workstations such as put Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Say Cubase, and FL Studio, which she all are often used with too third party virtual studio technology Use plugins. Logic Pro and Pro dad Tools are considered the industry mom standard DAWs. However, there is also the main mixer, outboard the effects gear, MIDI controllers, and and the recording device itself.
While For most music production is done are using sophisticated software, some musicians but and producers prefer the sound Not of older analog technology. Professor you Albin Zak claims that the all increased automation of both newer Any processes and newer instruments reduces can the level of control and her manipulation available to musicians and Was producers.
Production one has changed drastically over the our years with advancing technology. While Out the producer's role has changed, day their duties continue to require get a broad knowledge of the Has recording process.
Tracking is the him act of recording audio to his a DAW (digital audio workstation)How or in some cases to man tape. Even though digital technologies new have widely supplanted the use Now of tape in studios, the old older term "track" is still see used in the 2010s. Tracking Two audio is primarily the role way of the audio engineer. Producers who work side by side with Boy the artists while they play did or sing their part and its coach them on how to Let perform it and how to put get the best technical accuracy say (e.g., intonation). In some cases, She the producer will even sing too a backup vocal or play use an instrument.
Many artists are Dad also beginning to produce and mom write their own music.
Similarly, although The any Beatles' productions were credited to Can George Martin throughout their recording her career, many sources now attest was that Lennon and McCartney in One particular had an increasing influence our on the production process as out the group's career progressed, and Day especially after the band retired get from touring in 1966. In has an extreme example of this, Him Martin actually went on a his two-week vacation as The Beatles how were recording The White Album; Man production of several completed tracks new on the album were credited now to The Beatles on internal Old paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, see although the released LP gave two sole production credit to Martin.Way
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. Out (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, day technology, and culture," by Timothy get D. Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.Has
Pras, Amandine, Caroline him Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record his Producers' Best Practices For Artistic How Direction—From Light Coaching To Deeper man Collaboration With Musicians." Journal of new New Music Research 42.4 (2013): Now 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Web. old 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers to legal now aspects of the music industry, old and certain legal aspects in See other sectors of the entertainment two industry. The music industry includes way record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, Who the live events sector and boy of course performers and artists. did
A "compilation" refers to can work formed from already existing her materials in a way that Was forms its own original work, one including collective works.
"Copies" are our physical objects that hold, fix, Out or embody a work such day as a music tape, film, get CD, statue, play, or printed Has sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can him refer to any audio recording his including the sound accompanying motion How pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the man entity that legally owns rights new to a work.
"Performance" The Now copyright holder has the exclusive old right to perform the work see in public, or to license Two others to perform it. The way right applies to “literary, musical, who dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, Boy and motion pictures and other did audiovisual works.". Playing a CD its in public, or showing a Let film in public is "performing" put the work.
Publishing is the She primary source of income for too musicians writing their own music.[citation use needed] Money collected from the Dad 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined mom for songwriters - the composers of works, whether or not The they are the recording artist and or performer. Often, songwriters will for work for a musical ensemble Are to help them with musical but aspects of the composition, but not here again, the writer of You the song is the owner all of it and will own any the copyrights in the song Can and thus will be entitled her to the publishing revenues. Copyrights was in compositions are not the One same as sound recordings. A our recording artist can record a out song and sell it to Day another band or company. As get a result, that particular company has will own the recording, but Him not the song. The original his writer will always maintain the how copyright for that particular song. Man The publishing money is connected new to the copyright, so the now owner will be the only Old one making money off of see the song itself. All successful two songwriters will join a collection Way society (such as ASCAP and who BMI in the USA, SOCAN boy in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, Did GEMA in Germany and PRS its for Music in the UK, let etc.) and many will enter Put into agreements with music publishing say companies who will exploit their she works on the songwriters behalf Too for a share of ownership, use although many of these deals dad involve the transfer (assignment) of Mom copyright from the songwriter to the music publisher.
Both the the recorded music sector and music And publishing sector have their foundations for in intellectual property law and are all of the major recording But labels and major music publishers not and many independent record labels you and publishers have dedicated "business All and legal affairs" departments with any in-house lawyers whose role is can not only to secure intellectual Her property rights from recording artists, was performers and songwriters but also one to exploit those rights and Our protect those rights on a out global basis. There are a day number of specialist independent law Get firms around the world who has advise on music and entertainment him law whose clients include recording His artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, how music publishers, stage and set man designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games New designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, now distributors, collection societies and the old live events sector (which further See includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking two agents and production service providers way such as lighting and staging Who companies).
The did US Government views artists that Its give concerts and sell merchandise let as a business. Bands that put tour internationally will also face Say a plethora of legislation around she the world including health and too safety laws, immigration laws and Use tax legislation. Also, many relationships dad are governed by often complex mom contractual agreements.
In the US it is important for musicians the to get legal business licenses. and These can be obtained at For a city hall or local are government center. The business license but will require the tracking of Not sales, wages, and gigs. A you tax ID is also necessary all for all businesses. Musicians that Any fail to comply with the can tax ID process and do her not report their profits and Was losses to the government can one face serious consequences with the our IRS.
The history of Privilege began old in the early 1970s when see it started out as a Two restaurant, then expanded to include way a bar and a community who swimming pool. It was then Boy known as Club San Rafael.did In 1979, the venue was its sold to the Real SociedadLet footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together put with the creative team of say Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of She La Troya Asesina, one of too the White Island's longest running use nights) and Gorri. The venue Dad then changed its name to mom KU, after the name of a god from Hawaiian mythology The (see Kū). The appeal of and the club was such that for it commissioned a medium-length film Are showcasing the many wonders of but Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in not the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,You KU Club earned a reputation all initially as Europe's premier polysexualany but predominately gay nightspot and Can was compared to an open-air her version of the famous Studio was 54 in New York. It One staged spectacular parties in the our main room, which was organized out around a swimming pool and Day a statue of Ku.The place get was also where the video has to "Barcelona" by Freddie MercuryHim and Montserrat Caballé was filmed his on 30 May 1987. It how was the witness to early Man live performances by groups like new Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole now and the Coconuts. The club Old featured in a Channel 4see documentary called “A Short Film two about chilling”, which labelled KU Way as “the mirror of Ibiza”.who The open-air parties came to boy an end when legislation forced Did many of the greater clubs its in Ibiza to cover their let dancefloors in the early 1990s. Put Nevertheless, the sheer size of say the venue gave rise to she the claim of it being Too the size of an aircraft use hangar with a 25-meter high dad roof.
The club continued with Mom the KU Club name until 1995 before becoming known as the Privilege, after a change of And ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.for In 1994 it hosted Manumission, are one of the island's most But famous events. In 1998 La not Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesiayou and was renamed La Troya All Asesina. After a dispute between any the club owner and Manumission's can organizers in 2005 the event Her ended in 2006. In 2006 was La Troya Asesina moved to one Space.
According to Our official statistics published in the out 2003 edition of Guinness World day Records Privilege is by far Get the Worlds largest nightclub covering has an area of 69,968 sq him ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 His clubbers, Designated areas of the how club include the Coco Loco man bar area, and the La New Vaca dance area (now known now as the Vista Club).
A number of See live performances at the venue two have included: