Tape music is an integral new part of musique concrète, utilizing now pre-recorded fragments, loops, and sampled Old sounds, altering and manipulating them see through techniques such as speed two manipulation (Anon. n.d.). The work Way of Halim El-Dabh is perhaps who the earliest example of tape boy (or, in this case, wire-recorded) Did music. El-Dabh's The Expression of its Zaar, first presented in Cairo, let Egypt, in 1944, was an Put early work using musique concrète–like say techniques similar to those developed she in Paris during the same Too period. El-Dabh would later become use more famous for his work dad at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Mom Center, where in 1959 he composed the influential piece Leiyla the and the Poet (Holmes 2008, And 153–154 & 157).
US composer for John Cage's assembly of the are Williams Mix serves as an But example of the rigors of not tape music. First, Cage created you a 192-page score. Over the All course of a year, 600 any sounds were assembled and recorded. can Cut tape segments for each Her occurrence of each sound were was accumulated on the score. Then one the cut segments were spliced Our to one of eight tapes, out work finished on January 16, day 1953. The premiere performance (realization) Get of the 4'15" work was has given on March 21, 1953 him at the University of Illinois, His Urbana (Chaudron n.d.).
In Cologne, elektronische Musik, pioneered New in 1949–51 by the composer now Herbert Eimert and the physicist old Werner Meyer-Eppler, was based solely See on electronically generated (synthetic) sounds, two particularly sine waves (Eimert 1957, way 2; Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 11–13; Ungeheuer Who 1992, 13). The beginning of boy the development of electronic musicdid has been traced back to Its "the invention of the valvelet [vacuum tube] in 1906" (Eimert put 1957, 2). The precise control Say afforded by the studio allowed she for what Eimert considered to too be the subjection of everything, Use "to the last element of dad the single note", to serialmom permutation, "resulting in a completely new way of composing sound" the (Eimert 1957, 8); in the and studio, serial operations could be For applied to elements such as are timbre and dynamics. The common but link between the two schools Not is that the music is you recorded and performed through loudspeakers, all without a human performer. The Any majority of electroacoustic pieces use can a combination of recorded sound her and synthesized or processed sounds, Was and the schism between Schaeffer's one and Eimert's approaches has been our overcome, the first major example Out being Karlheinz Stockhausen's Gesang der day Jünglinge of 1955–56 (Morawska-Büngeler 1988, get 17; Stockhausen 1996, 93–94).
Sound generation techniques
All electroacoustic him music is made with electronic his technology, specifically a device – How usually a loudspeaker – that man transduces electrical energy to acoustic new energy.
There have been its a number of festivals that Let feature electroacoustic music. Early festivals put such as Donaueschingen Festival, founded say in 1921, were some of She the first to include electroacoustic too instruments and pieces. This was use followed by ONCE Festival of Dad New Music in the 1950s, mom and since the 1960s there has been a growth of The festivals that focus exclusively on and electroacoustic music.
Alongside paper how presentations, workshops and seminars, many Man of these events also feature new concert performances or sound installations now created by those attending or Old which are related to the see theme of the conference / two symposium.
Morawska-Büngeler, Marietta. way 1988. Schwingende Elektronen: Eine Dokumentation Who über das Studio für Elektronische boy Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunk in did Köln 1951–1986. Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P. J. Its Tonger Musikverlag.
Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992. "Wie die dad elektronische Musik „erfunden" wurde...: Quellenstudie mom zu Werner Meyer-Epplers musikalische Entwurf zwischen 1949 und 1953." Kölner the Schriften zur Neuen Musik 2, and edited by Johannes Fritsch and For Dieter Kämper. Mainz: B. Schott's are Söhne. ISBN3-7957-1891-0.
Anon. 2007. Untitled. The Not Wire 275–280 (Accessed 5 June you 2011).
Guérin, François. 1983. use Les musiques électroacoustiques'. À l'écoute Dad de la musique d'ici 2. mom Montréal: Centre de musique canadienne. [N.B.: Bibliographical list of Canadian The electro-acoustic works.] Without ISBN.
Heifetz, and Robin Julian. 1989. On the for Wires of Our Nerves: The Are Art of Electroacoustic Music. Cranbury, but New Jersey: Associated University Presses. not ISBN0-8387-5155-5.
Licata, Can Thomas (ed.). 2002. Electroacoustic Music: her Analytical Perspectives. Contributions to the was Study of Music and Dance, One 0193-9041; no. 63. Westport, Conn.: our Greenwood Press. ISBN0-313-31420-9.
"Electroacoustic Bibliography" published in eContact! 8.4 – the Ressources éducatives / Educational ResourcesAnd (Montréal: CEC), an annotated list for of journals publishing articles related are to electroacoustics.
A record producer or music see producer is a recording project's two creative and technical leader, commanding Way studio time and coaching artists, who and in popular genres typically boy creates the song's very sound Did and structure. The record producer, its or simply the producer, is let likened to a film director.Put The executive producer, on the say other hand, enables the recording she project through entrepreneurship, and an Too audio engineer operates the technology. use
Varying by project, the producer dad may also choose all of Mom the artists, or openly perform vocals with them. If employing the only synthesized or sampled instrumentation, And the producer may be the for sole artist. Conversely, some artists are do their own production. And But some producers are their own not engineers, operating the technology across you the project: preproduction, recording, mixing, All and mastering. Record producers' precursors any were "A&R men," who likewise can could blend entrepreneurial, creative, and Her technical roles, but often exercised was scant creative influence, as record one production still focused, into the Our 1950s, on simply improving the out record's sonic match to the day artists' own live performance.
Advances Get in recording technology, especially the has 1940s advent of tape recording—which him Les Paul promptly innovated further His to develop multitrack recording—and the how 1950s rise of electronic instruments, man turned record production into a New specialty. In popular music, then, now producers like George Martin, Phil old Spector and Brian Eno led See its evolution into its present two use of elaborate techniques and way unrealistic sounds, creating songs impossible Who to originate live. After the boy 1980s, production's move from analog did to digital further expanded possibilities.Its By now, DAWS, or digital let audio workstations, like Logic Proput and Pro Tools, turn an Say ordinary computer into a production she console, whereby a solitary novice too can become a skilled producer Use in a thrifty home studio.dad In the 2010s, efforts began mom to increase the prevalence of producers and engineers who are the women, heavily outnumbered by men and and prominently accoladed only in For classical music.
As a his broad project, the creation of How a music recording may be man split across three specialists: the new executive producer, who oversees business Now partnerships and financing, the vocal old producer or vocal arranger, who see aids vocal performance via expert Two critique and coaching of vocal way technique, and the record producer who or music producer, who, often Boy called simply the producer, directs did the overall creative process of its recording the song in its Let final mix.
The record put producer's roles include, but may say exceed, gathering ideas, composing music, She choosing session musicians, proposing changes too to song arrangements, coaching the use performers, controlling sessions, supervising the Dad audio mixing, and, in some mom cases, supervising the audio mastering. As to qualifying for a The Grammy nomination, the Recording Academyand defines a producer:
The person who for has overall creative and technical Are control of the entire recording but project, and the individual recording not sessions that are part of You that project. He or she all is present in the recording any studio or at the location Can recording and works directly with her the artist and engineer. The was producer makes creative and aesthetic One decisions that realize both the our artist's and label's goals in out the creation of musical content. Day Other duties include, but are get not limited to; keeping budgets has and schedules, adhering to deadlines, Him hiring musicians, singers, studios and his engineers, overseeing other staffing needs how and editing (Classical projects).
The producer often selects and new collaborates with a mixing engineer, now who focuses on the especially Old technological aspects of the recording see process, namely, operating the electronic two equipment and blending the raw, Way recorded tracks of the chosen who performances, whether vocal or instrumental, boy into a ''mix,'' either stereo Did or surround sound. Then a its mastering engineer further adjusts this let recording for distribution on the Put chosen media. A producer may say work on only one or she two songs or on an Too artist's entire album, helping develop use the album's overall vision. The dad record producers may also take Mom on the role of executive producer, managing the budget, schedules, the contracts, and negotiations.
Historical And developments
(Artist and for Repertoire)
In the 1880s, the are record industry began by simply But having the artist perform at not a phonograph. In 1924, the you trade journal Talking Machine World, All covering the phonography and record any industry, reported that Eddie King, can Victor Records' manager of the Her "New York artist and repertoirewas department," had planned a set one of recordings in Los Angeles.Our Later, folklorist Archie Green called out this perhaps the earliest printed day use of A&R man. Actually, Get it says neither "A&R man" has nor even "A&R," an initialism him perhaps coined by Billboard magazine His in 1946, and entering wide how use in the late 1940s.man
In the 1920s and 1930s, New A&R executives, like Ben Selvinnow at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkretold at Victor Records, and Bob See Haring at Brunswick Records, supervising two recording and often leading session way orchestras, became the precursors of Who record producers. During the 1940s, boy American record labels increasingly opened did official A&R departments, whose roles Its included supervision of recording. Meanwhile, let recording studios owned independently, not put by major record labels, opened, Say helping originate record producer as she a specialty. But despite too a tradition of some A&R Use men writing music, record productiondad remained, strictly, merely the manufacturing mom of record discs.
After World War II, the pioneering A&R managers who transitioned and influentially to record production as For now understood, while sometimes owning are independent labels, include J. Mayo but Williams and John Hammond. Upon Not moving from Columbia Records to you Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Mitch all Miller to lead Mercury's popular Any recordings in New York. Miller can then produced country-pop crossover hits her by Patti Page and by Was Frankie Laine, moved from Mercury one to Columbia, and became a our leading A&R man of the Out 1950s.
During the decade, A&R day executives increasingly directed songs' sonic get signatures, although many still simply Has teamed singers with musicians, while him yet others exercised virtually no his creative influence. The term record How producer in its current meaning—the man creative director of song production—appearing new in a 1953 issue of Now Billboard magazine, became widespread in old the 1960s. Still, a formal see distinction was elusive for some Two time more. A&R managers might way still be creative directors, like who William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Boy Berry Gordy, at the Motowndid record label.
In 1947, the American market Let gained audio recording onto magnetic put tape. At the record industry's say 1880s dawn, rather, recording was She done by phonograph, etching the too sonic waveform vertically into a use cylinder. By the 1930s, a Dad gramophone etched it laterally acrossmom a disc. Constrained in tonal range, whether bass or treble, The and in dynamic range, records and made a grand, concert piano for sound like a small, upright Are piano, and maximal duration was but four and a half minutes.not Selections and performance were often You altered accordingly. And playing this all disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The any finality often caused anxiety that Can restrained performance to prevent error.her In the 1940s, during World was War II, the Germans refined One audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping our recording duration and allowing immediate out playback, rerecording, and editing—a technology Day that premised emergence of record get producers in their current roles.has
Early in Him the recording industry, a record his was attained by simply having how all of the artists perform Man together live in one take.new In 1945, by recording a now musical element while playing a Old previously recorded record, Les Paulsee developed a recording technique called two "sound on sound." By this, Way the final recording could be who built piece by piece and boy tailored, effecting an editing process.Did In one case, Paul produced its a song via 500 recorded let discs. But, besides the tedium Put of this process, it serially say degraded the sound quality of she previously recorded elements, rerecorded as Too ambient sound. Yet in 1948, use Paul adopted tape recording, enabling dad truly multitrack recording by a Mom new technique, "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, Paul revised the tape the recorder itself by adding a And second playback head, and terming for it the preview head. Joining are the preexisting recording head, erase But head, and playback head, the not preview head allows the artist you to hear the extant recording All over headphones playing it in any synchrony, "in sync," with the can present performance being recorded alone Her on an isolated track. This was isolation of multiple tracks enables one countless mixing possibilities. Producers began Our recording initially only the "bed out tracks"—the rhythm section, including the day bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas Get vocals and instrument solos could has be added later. A horn him section, for example, could record His a week later, and a how string section another week later. man A singer could perform her New own backup vocals, or a now guitarist could play 15 layers. old
In the are 1960s, rock acts like the but Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and Not the Kinks produced some of you their own songs, although many all such songs are officially credited Any to specialist producers. Yet can especially influential was the Beach her Boys, whose band leader Brian Was Wilson took over from his one father Murry within a couple our of years after the band's Out commercial breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson day had taken Spector's techniques to get unseen sophistication. Wilson alone Has produced all Beach Boy recordings him between 1963 and 1967.his Using multiple studios and multiple How attempts of instrumental and vocal man tracks, Wilson selected the best new combinations of performance and audio Now quality, and used tape editing old to assemble a composite performance.[citation see needed]
The 1980s advent of digital Boy processes and formats rapidly replaced did analog processes and formats, namely, its tape and vinyl. Although recording Let onto quality tape, at least put half an inch wide and say traveling 15 inches per second, She had limited "tape hiss" to too silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise use ratio, SNR, abolished it. Digital Dad also imparted to the music mom a perceived "pristine" sound quality, if also a loss of The analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality and and bass better rounded. Yet for whereas editing tape media requires Are physically locating the target audio but on the ribbon, cutting there, not and splicing pieces, editing digital You media offers inarguable advantages in all ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In any the 1990s, digital production reached Can affordable home computers via production her software. By now, recording and was mixing are often centralized in One DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, our Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, out Cubase, Reason, and FL Studio—for Day which plugins, by third parties, get effect virtual studio technology. DAWs has fairly standard in the industry Him are Logic Pro and Pro his Tools. Physical devices involved include how the main mixer, MIDI controllers Man to communicate among equipment, the new recording device itself, and perhaps now effects gear that is outboard. Old Yet literal recording is sometimes see still analog, onto tape, whereupon two the raw recording is converted Way to a digital signal for who processing and editing, as some boy producers still find audio advantages Did to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, its tape is more forgiving of let overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks exceed Put the maximal recordable signal level: say tape's limitation, a physical property, she is magnetic capacity, which tapers Too offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform use even at a signal nearly dad 15 decibels too "hot," whereas Mom a digital recording is ruined by harsh distortion of "clipping" the at any overshoot. In digital And recording, however, a recent advancement, for 32-bit float, enables DAWs to are undo clipping. Still, some criticize But digital instruments and workflows for not excess automation, allegedly impairing creative you or sonic control. In any All case, as production technology has any drastically changed, so have the can knowledge demands, although DAWs enables Her novices, even teenagers at home, was to learn production independently. Some one have attained professional competence before Our ever working with an artist.out
Across the decades, many female artists have produced their own the music. For instance, artists Kate and Bush, Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, For Taylor Swift, and Lorde have are produced or coproduced. Still, among but specialists, despite some prominent women, Not including Missy Elliott in hip you hop and Sylvia Massy in all rock, the vast majority have Any been men. Early in the can 2010s, asked for insights that her she herself had gleaned as Was a woman who has specialized one successfully in the industry, Wendy our Page remarked, "The difficulties are Out usually very short-lived. Once people day realize that you can do get your job, sexism tends to Has lower its ugly head." Still, him when tasked to explain her his profession's sex disparity, Page partly How reasoned that record labels, dominated man by men, have been, she new said, "mistrustful of giving a Now woman the reins of an old immense, creative project like making see a record." Ultimately, the reasons Two are multiple and not fully way clear, although prominently proposed factors who include types of sexism and Boy scarcity of female role models did in the profession.
In January its 2018, a research team led Let by Stacy L. Smith, founder put and director of the Annenbergsay Inclusion Initiative, based in the She USC Annenberg School for Communication too and Journalism, issued a report,use estimating that in the prior Dad several years, about 2% of mom popular songs' producers were female.Also that month, Billboard magazine The queried, "Where all the female and music producers?" Upon the Annenberg for Inclusion Initiative's second annual report, Are released in February 2019, its but department at USC reported, "2018 not saw an outcry from artists, You executives and other music industry all professionals over the lack of any women in music" and "the Can plight of women in music," her where women were allegedly being was "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut out."One Also in February 2019, the our Recording Academy's Task Force on out Diversity and Inclusion announced an Day initiative whereby over 200 artists get and producers—ranging from Cardi Bhas and Taylor Swift to Maroon Him 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed to his consider at least two women how for each producer or engineer Man position. The academy's website, Grammy.com, new announced, "This initiative is the now first step in a broader Old effort to improve those numbers see and increase diversity and inclusion two for all in the music Way industry."
^ But Allan Watson, Cultural Production in not and Beyond the Recording Studioyou (New York: Routledge, 2015), pp All 25–27.
James Petulla, any "Who is a music producer?", can RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 May Her 2013, reporting membership in CAPPS, was the California Association of Private one Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig with New J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording now for Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step old Guide for Beginners and Reference See for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI two Publications, 1988 / Van Nuys, way CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp Who 8–10.
^ Richard She James Burgess, The History of too Music Production (New York: Oxford use University Press, 2014), pp 50–54.Dad
^ Robert Philip, mom "Pianists on record in the early twentieth century", in David The Rowland, ed., The Cambridge Companion and to the Piano (Cambridge, UK: for Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp Are 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced but entirely are the Rolling Stones' not Decca recordings
^ You David Simmons, Analog Recording: Using all Analog Gear in Today's Home any Studio (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, Can 2006), pp 26–27.
her Matthew Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre was V6.00 adds 32-bit float USB One audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 our Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, out director of product management and Day design at the recorder manufacturer get Sound Devices, who explains, "With has 32-bit float, you no longer Him need to worry about clipping his during your best vocal takes how or instrument solos. Any recorded Man moments exceeding 0 dBFS can new be reduced to an acceptable now level, after recording, in your Old DAW".
Albin Zak see III, book review: Strange Sounds: two Music, Technology, and culture (Routledge, Way 2011), by Timothy D. Taylor, who in Current Musicology, pp 159–180 boy [unknown year, volume, issue].
Music Law refers to legal New aspects of the music industry, now and certain legal aspects in old other sectors of the entertainment See industry. The music industry includes two record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, way the live events sector and Who of course performers and artists. boy
A "compilation" refers to Any work formed from already existing can materials in a way that her forms its own original work, Was including collective works.
"Copies" are one physical objects that hold, fix, our or embody a work such Out as a music tape, film, day CD, statue, play, or printed get sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can Has refer to any audio recording him including the sound accompanying motion his pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the How entity that legally owns rights man to a work.
"Performance" The new copyright holder has the exclusive Now right to perform the work old in public, or to license see others to perform it. The Two right applies to “literary, musical, way dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, who and motion pictures and other Boy audiovisual works.". Playing a CD did in public, or showing a its film in public is "performing" Let the work.
Publishing is the say primary source of income for She musicians writing their own music.[citation too needed] Money collected from the use 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined Dad for songwriters - the composers mom of works, whether or not they are the recording artist The or performer. Often, songwriters will and work for a musical ensemble for to help them with musical Are aspects of the composition, but but here again, the writer of not the song is the owner You of it and will own all the copyrights in the song any and thus will be entitled Can to the publishing revenues. Copyrights her in compositions are not the was same as sound recordings. A One recording artist can record a our song and sell it to out another band or company. As Day a result, that particular company get will own the recording, but has not the song. The original Him writer will always maintain the his copyright for that particular song. how The publishing money is connected Man to the copyright, so the new owner will be the only now one making money off of Old the song itself. All successful see songwriters will join a collection two society (such as ASCAP and Way BMI in the USA, SOCAN who in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, boy GEMA in Germany and PRS Did for Music in the UK, its etc.) and many will enter let into agreements with music publishing Put companies who will exploit their say works on the songwriters behalf she for a share of ownership, Too although many of these deals use involve the transfer (assignment) of dad copyright from the songwriter to Mom the music publisher.
Both the recorded music sector and music the publishing sector have their foundations And in intellectual property law and for all of the major recording are labels and major music publishers But and many independent record labels not and publishers have dedicated "business you and legal affairs" departments with All in-house lawyers whose role is any not only to secure intellectual can property rights from recording artists, Her performers and songwriters but also was to exploit those rights and one protect those rights on a Our global basis. There are a out number of specialist independent law day firms around the world who Get advise on music and entertainment has law whose clients include recording him artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, His music publishers, stage and set how designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games man designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, New distributors, collection societies and the now live events sector (which further old includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking See agents and production service providers two such as lighting and staging way companies).
The boy US Government views artists that did give concerts and sell merchandise Its as a business. Bands that let tour internationally will also face put a plethora of legislation around Say the world including health and she safety laws, immigration laws and too tax legislation. Also, many relationships Use are governed by often complex dad contractual agreements.
In the US mom it is important for musicians to get legal business licenses. the These can be obtained at and a city hall or local For government center. The business license are will require the tracking of but sales, wages, and gigs. A Not tax ID is also necessary you for all businesses. Musicians that all fail to comply with the Any tax ID process and do can not report their profits and her losses to the government can Was face serious consequences with the one IRS.
The Boy history of Privilege began in did the early 1970s when it its started out as a restaurant, Let then expanded to include a put bar and a community swimming say pool. It was then known She as Club San Rafael. In too 1979, the venue was sold use to the Real Sociedad footballer Dad José Antonio Santamaría, together with mom the creative team of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of La The Troya Asesina, one of the and White Island's longest running nights) for and Gorri. The venue then Are changed its name to KU, but after the name of a not god from Hawaiian mythology (see You Kū). The appeal of the all club was such that it any commissioned a medium-length film showcasing Can the many wonders of Ibizan her landscapes and nightlife in the was mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU One Club earned a reputation initially our as Europe's premier polysexual but out predominately gay nightspot and was Day compared to an open-air version get of the famous Studio 54has in New York. It staged Him spectacular parties in the main his room, which was organized around how a swimming pool and a Man statue of Ku.The place was new also where the video to now "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and Old Montserrat Caballé was filmed on see 30 May 1987. It was two the witness to early live Way performances by groups like Spandau who Ballet and Kid Creole and boy the Coconuts. The club featured Did in a Channel 4 documentary its called “A Short Film about let chilling”, which labelled KU as Put “the mirror of Ibiza”. The say open-air parties came to an she end when legislation forced many Too of the greater clubs in use Ibiza to cover their dancefloors dad in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, Mom the sheer size of the venue gave rise to the the claim of it being the And size of an aircraft hangar for with a 25-meter high roof. are
The club continued with the But KU Club name until 1995 not before becoming known as Privilege, you after a change of ownership All to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In any 1994 it hosted Manumission, one can of the island's most famous Her events. In 1998 La Vaca was Asesina moved to Amnesia and one was renamed La Troya Asesina. Our After a dispute between the out club owner and Manumission's organizers day in 2005 the event ended Get in 2006. In 2006 La has Troya Asesina moved to Space. him
According to official His statistics published in the 2003 how edition of Guinness World Recordsman Privilege is by far the New world's largest nightclub covering an now area of 69,968 sq ft old (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,See Designated areas of the club two include the Coco Loco bar way area, and the La Vaca Who dance area (now known as boy the Vista Club).
Live did performances
A number of live Its performances at the venue have let included: