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Electroacoustic music our is a genre of Western Out art music[citation needed] in which day composers use technology to manipulate get the timbres of acoustic sounds, Has sometimes by using audio signal him processing, such as reverb or his harmonizing, on acoustical instruments.(Staff n.d.) How It originated around the middle man of the 20th century, following new the incorporation of electric sound Now production into compositional practice. The old initial developments in electroacoustic music see composition to fixed media during Two the 20th century are associated way with the activities of the who Groupe de Recherches Musicales at Boy the ORTF in Paris, the did home of musique concrète, the its Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk (NWDR) studio in Let Cologne, where the focus was put on the composition of elektronische say Musik, and the Columbia-Princeton Electronic She Music Center in New York too City, where tape music, electronic use music, and computer music were Dad all explored. Practical electronic music mom instruments began to appear in the early 1900s.

Tape music


Tape Day music is an integral part get of musique concrète, utilizing pre-recorded has fragments, loops, and sampled sounds, Him altering and manipulating them through his techniques such as speed manipulation how (Anon. n.d.). The work of Man Halim El-Dabh is perhaps the new earliest example of tape (or, now in this case, wire-recorded) music. Old El-Dabh's The Expression of Zaar, see first presented in Cairo, Egypt, two in 1944, was an early Way work using musique concrète–like techniques who similar to those developed in boy Paris during the same period. Did El-Dabh would later become more its famous for his work at let the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, Put where in 1959 he composed say the influential piece Leiyla and she the Poet (Holmes 2008, 153–54 Too & 157).

US composer John use Cage's assembly of the Williams dad Mix serves as an example Mom of the rigors of tape music. First, Cage created a the 192-page score. Over the course And of a year, 600 sounds for were assembled and recorded. Cut are tape segments for each occurrence But of each sound were accumulated not on the score. Then the you cut segments were spliced to All one of eight tapes, work any finished on January 16, 1953. can The premiere performance (realization) of Her the 4'15" work was given was on March 21, 1953 at one the University of Illinois, Urbana Our (Chaudron n.d.).

Electronic music


In day Cologne, elektronische Musik, pioneered in Get 1949–51 by the composer Herbert has Eimert and the physicist Werner him Meyer-Eppler, was based solely on His electronically generated (synthetic) sounds, particularly how sine waves (Eimert 1957, 2; man Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 11–13; Ungeheuer 1992, New 13). The beginning of the now development of electronic music has old been traced back to "the See invention of the valve [vacuum two tube] in 1906" (Eimert 1957, way 2). The precise control afforded Who by the studio allowed for boy what Eimert considered to be did the subjection of everything, "to Its the last element of the let single note", to serial permutation, put "resulting in a completely new Say way of composing sound" (Eimert she 1957, 8); in the studio, too serial operations could be applied Use to elements such as timbre dad and dynamics. The common link mom between the two schools is that the music is recorded the and performed through loudspeakers, without and a human performer. The majority For of electroacoustic pieces use a are combination of recorded sound and but synthesized or processed sounds, and Not the schism between Schaeffer's and you Eimert's approaches has been overcome, all the first major example being Any Karlheinz Stockhausen's Gesang der Jünglinge can of 1955–56 (Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 17; her Stockhausen 1996, 93–94).

Sound Was generation techniques

All electroacoustic music one is made with electronic technology, our specifically a device – usually Out a loudspeaker – that transduces day electrical energy to acoustic energy. get

Circuit bending

Circuit bending is him the creative short-circuiting of low his voltage, battery-powered electronic audio devices How such as guitar effects, children's man toys and small synthesizers to new create new musical instruments and Now sound generators. Emphasizing spontaneity and old randomness, the techniques of circuit see bending have been commonly associated Two with noise music, though many way more conventional contemporary musicians and who musical groups have been known Boy to experiment with "bent" instruments did (Collins 2006,[page needed]).

Examples of its notable electroacoustic works

Electronic are and electroacoustic instruments


Centers, associations and events she for electroacoustics and related arts


Important centers of research and Use composition can be found around dad the world, and there are mom numerous conferences and festivals which present electroacoustic music, notably the the International Computer Music Conference, the and International Conference on New interfaces For for musical expression, the Electroacoustic are Music Studies Conference, and the but Ars Electronica Festival (Linz, Austria). Not

A number of national associations you promote the art form, notably all the Canadian Electroacoustic Community (CEC) Any in Canada, the Society for can Electro-Acoustic Music in the United her States (SEAMUS) in the US, Was the Australasian Computer Music Association one in Australia and New Zealand, our and Sound and Music (previously Out the Sonic Arts Network) in day the UK. The Computer Music get Journal and Organised Sound are Has the two most important peer-reviewed him journals dedicated to electroacoustic studies, his while several national associations produce How print and electronic publications.



There have Now been a number of festivals old that feature electroacoustic music. Early see festivals such as Donaueschingen Festival, Two founded in 1921, were some way of the first to include who electroacoustic instruments and pieces. This Boy was followed by ONCE Festival did of New Music in the its 1950s, and since the 1960s Let there has been a growth put of festivals that focus exclusively say on electroacoustic music.

Festivals She focused on electroacoustic music

Conferences out and symposiums

Alongside paper presentations, Day workshops and seminars, many of get these events also feature concert has performances or sound installations created Him by those attending or which his are related to the theme how of the conference / symposium. Man

  • NIME – International Conference new on New Interfaces for Musical now Expression (since 2000)

See also



  • Anon. n.d. "Avant-Garde » Modern let Composition » Tape Music". AllMusic.com (accessed Put 18 May 2017).
  • Boreal Electro say Acoustic Music Society announcement. 2012 she [1][full citation needed]
  • Chaudron, André. Too n.d. "Williams Mix" (Accessed 9 use July 2011).
  • Collins, Nicolas. 2006. dad Handmade Electronic Music: The Art Mom of Hardware Hacking. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97592-1 (pbk).
  • Eimert, Her Herbert. 1957. "What is Electronic was Music?" Die Reihe 1 [English one edition] ("Electronic Music"): 1–10.
  • Holmes, Our Thom. 2008. "Early Synthesizers and out Experimenters". In his Electronic and day Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Get Culture, third edition. New York: has Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-95781-6 (cloth); ISBN 978-0-415-95782-3 (pbk), him (accessed 4 June 2011).
  • Midgette, His Anne. 2004. "Noises Off! Making how a Boombox Cacophony". The New man York Times (20 December).
  • Morawska-Büngeler, New Marietta. 1988. Schwingende Elektronen: Eine now Dokumentation über das Studio für old Elektronische Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunk See in Köln 1951–1986. Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P. two J. Tonger Musikverlag.
  • Smalley, Denis. way 1997. "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes." Organised Who Sound 2, no. 2:107–26.
  • Staff boy (n.d.). "Electro-Acoustic: Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved did 26 December 2019.
  • Stockhausen, Karlheinz. Its 1996. "Electroacoustic Performance Practice", translated let by Jerome Kohl. Perspectives of put New Music 34, no. 1 Say (Fall): 74–105.
  • Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992. she "Wie die elektronische Musik „erfunden" too wurde…: Quellenstudie zu Werner Meyer-Epplers Use musikalische Entwurf zwischen 1949 und dad 1953." Kölner Schriften zur Neuen mom Musik 2, edited by Johannes Fritsch and Dieter Kämper. Mainz: the B. Schott's Söhne. ISBN 3-7957-1891-0.

Further reading

Key journals for dad electroacoustics and sound art


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