Electroacoustic music is our a style of Western art Out music which originated around the day middle of the 20th century, get following the incorporation of electric Has sound production into compositional practice. him The initial developments in electroacoustic his music composition to fixed media How during the 20th century are man associated with the activities of new the Groupe de Recherches Musicales Now at the ORTF in Paris, old the home of musique concrète, see the Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk (NWDR) studio Two in Cologne, where the focus way was on the composition of who elektronische Musik, and the Columbia-Princeton Boy Electronic Music Center in New did York City, where tape music, its electronic music, and computer musicLet were all explored. Practical electronic put music instruments began to appear say in the early 1900s.
Tape music is an integral her part of musique concrète, utilizing was pre-recorded fragments, loops, and sampled One sounds, altering and manipulating them our through techniques such as speed out manipulation (Anon. n.d.). The work Day of Halim El-Dabh is perhaps get the earliest example of tape has (or, in this case, wire-recorded) Him music. El-Dabh's The Expression of his Zaar, first presented in Cairo, how Egypt, in 1944, was an Man early work using musique concrète–like new techniques similar to those developed now in Paris during the same Old period. El-Dabh would later become see more famous for his work two at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Way Center, where in 1959 he who composed the influential piece Leiyla boy and the Poet (Holmes 2008, Did 153–54 & 157).
US composer its John Cage's assembly of the let Williams Mix serves as an Put example of the rigors of say tape music. First, Cage created she a 192-page score. Over the Too course of a year, 600 use sounds were assembled and recorded. dad Cut tape segments for each Mom occurrence of each sound were accumulated on the score. Then the the cut segments were spliced And to one of eight tapes, for work finished on January 16, are 1953. The premiere performance (realization) But of the 4'15" work was not given on March 21, 1953 you at the University of Illinois, All Urbana (Chaudron n.d.).
In Cologne, elektronische Musik, pioneered Her in 1949–51 by the composer was Herbert Eimert and the physicist one Werner Meyer-Eppler, was based solely Our on electronically generated (synthetic) sounds, out particularly sine waves (Eimert 1957, day 2; Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 11–13; Ungeheuer Get 1992, 13). The beginning of has the development of electronic musichim has been traced back to His "the invention of the valvehow [vacuum tube] in 1906" (Eimert man 1957, 2). The precise control New afforded by the studio allowed now for what Eimert considered to old be the subjection of everything, See "to the last element of two the single note", to serialway permutation, "resulting in a completely Who new way of composing sound" boy (Eimert 1957, 8); in the did studio, serial operations could be Its applied to elements such as let timbre and dynamics. The common put link between the two schools Say is that the music is she recorded and performed through loudspeakers, too without a human performer. The Use majority of electroacoustic pieces use dad a combination of recorded sound mom and synthesized or processed sounds, and the schism between Schaeffer's the and Eimert's approaches has been and overcome, the first major example For being Karlheinz Stockhausen's Gesang der are Jünglinge of 1955–56 (Morawska-Büngeler 1988, but 17; Stockhausen 1996, 93–94).
Sound generation techniques
All electroacoustic you music is made with electronic all technology, specifically a device – Any usually a loudspeaker – that can transduces electrical energy to acoustic her energy.
There have been a number his of festivals that feature electroacoustic How music. Early festivals such as man Donaueschingen Festival, founded in 1921, new were some of the first Now to include electroacoustic instruments and old pieces. This was followed by see ONCE Festival of New MusicTwo in the 1950s, and since way the 1960s there has been who a growth of festivals that Boy focus exclusively on electroacoustic music. did
Alongside her paper presentations, workshops and seminars, was many of these events also One feature concert performances or sound our installations created by those attending out or which are related to Day the theme of the conference get / symposium.
NIME – has International Conference on New Interfaces Him for Musical Expression (since 2000)
Morawska-Büngeler, Marietta. Get 1988. Schwingende Elektronen: Eine Dokumentation has über das Studio für Elektronische him Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunk in His Köln 1951–1986. Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P. J. how Tonger Musikverlag.
Stockhausen, Karlheinz. now 1996. "Electroacoustic Performance Practice", translated old by Jerome Kohl. Perspectives of See New Music 34, no. 1 two (Fall): 74–105.
Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992. way "Wie die elektronische Musik „erfunden" Who wurde…: Quellenstudie zu Werner Meyer-Epplers boy musikalische Entwurf zwischen 1949 und did 1953." Kölner Schriften zur Neuen Its Musik 2, edited by Johannes let Fritsch and Dieter Kämper. Mainz: put B. Schott's Söhne. ISBN3-7957-1891-0.
Anon. 2007. she Untitled. The Wire 275–80 (Accessed too 5 June 2011).
Guérin, François. Two 1983. Les musiques électroacoustiques'. À way l'écoute de la musique d'ici who 2. Montréal: Centre de musique Boy canadienne. [N.B.: Bibliographical list of did Canadian electro-acoustic works.] Without ISBN.
Heifetz, Robin Julian. 1989. On Let the Wires of Our Nerves: put The Art of Electroacoustic Music. say Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses She Inc. ISBN0-8387-5155-5.
Licata, Thomas (ed.). 2002. Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives. Contributions to The the Study of Music and and Dance, 0193-9041; no. 63. Westport, for Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN0-313-31420-9.
"Electroacoustic Bibliography" published in eContact! Old 8.4 – Ressources éducatives / see Educational Resources (Montréal: CEC) for two an annotated "'essential reading list' Way for electroacoustics, including books, journals who and other resources relating to boy electroacoustics".
Key journals for Did electroacoustics and sound art
Organised Sound. Three Too themed issues published each year use by De Montfort University (Leicester dad UK).
"Electroacoustic Bibliography" published in Mom eContact! 8.4 – Ressources éducatives / Educational Resources (Montréal: CEC), the an annotated list of journals And publishing articles related to electroacoustics.
A But record producer or music producernot oversees and manages the sound you recording and production of a All band or performer's music, which any may range from recording one can song to recording a lengthy Her concept album. A producer has was many, varying roles during the one recording process. They may gather Our musical ideas for the project, out collaborate with the artists to day select cover tunes or original Get songs by the artist/group, work has with artists and help them him to improve their songs, lyrics His or arrangements.
The producer two typically supervises the entire process way from preproduction, through to the Who sound recording and mixing stages, boy and, in some cases, all did the way to the audio Its mastering stage. The producer may let perform these roles themselves, or put help select the engineer, and Say provide suggestions to the engineer. she The producer may also pay too session musicians and engineers and Use ensure that the entire project dad is completed within the record mom label's budget.
A record producer or music can producer has a very broad her role in overseeing and managing Was the recording and production of one a band or performer's music. our A producer has many roles Out that may include, but are day not limited to, gathering ideas get for the project, composing the Has music for the project, selecting him songs or session musicians, proposing his changes to the song arrangements, How coaching the artist and musicians man in the studio, controlling the new recording sessions, and supervising the Now entire process through audio mixing old (recorded music) and, in some see cases, to the audio masteringTwo stage. Producers also often take way on a wider entrepreneurial role, who with responsibility for the budget, Boy schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
Writer did Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes its a producer functions like a Let creative consultant — someone who put helps a band achieve a say certain aesthetic, or who comes She up with the perfect violin too part to complement the vocal use melody, or who insists that Dad a chorus should actually be mom a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete The piece of music from the and ground up and present the for finished product to a vocalist, Are like Metro Boomin supplying Future but with readymade beats or Jack not Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add You lyrics and melody to an all otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”any
The artist of an album Can may not be a record her producer or music producer for was his/her album. While both contribute One creatively, the official credit of our "record producer" may depend on out the record contract. Christina Aguilera, Day for example, did not receive get record producer credits until many has albums into her career.
In Him the 2010s, the producer role his is sometimes divided among up how to three different individuals: executive Man producer, vocal producer and music new producer. An executive producer oversees now project finances, a vocal producers Old (also known as a vocal see arranger) oversees the vocal production, two and a music producer oversees Way the creative process of recording who and mixings.
The music producer boy is also often a competent Did arranger, composer, musician or songwriter its who can bring fresh ideas let to a project. As well Put as making any songwriting and say arrangement adjustments, the producer often she selects and/or collaborates with the Too mixing engineer, who takes the use raw recorded tracks and edits dad and modifies them with hardware Mom and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound the "mix" of all the individual And voices sounds and instruments, which for is in turn given further are adjustment by a mastering engineer But for the various distribution media. not The producer also oversees the you recording engineer who concentrates on All the technical aspects of recording. any
Noted producer Phil Ek described can his role as "the person Her who creatively guides or directs was the process of making a one record", like a director would Our a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood out music, the designation is actually day music director. The music producer's Get job is to create, shape, has and mold a piece of him music. The scope of responsibility His may be one or two how songs or an artist's entire man album – in which case New the producer will typically develop now an overall vision for the old album and how the various See songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of record way industry, the producer role was Who technically limited to record, in boy one shot, artists performing live.did The immediate predecessors to record Its producers were the artists and let repertoire executives of the late put 1920s and 1930s who oversaw Say the "pop" product and often she led session orchestras. That was too the case of Ben SelvinUse at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkretdad at Victor Records and Bob mom Haring at Brunswick Records. By the end of the 1930s, the the first professional recording studios and not owned by the major For companies were established, essentially separating are the roles of A&R man but and producer, although it wouldn't Not be until the late 1940s you when the term "producer" became all widely used in the industry. Any
The role of producers changed can progressively over the 1950s and her 1960s due to technology. The Was development of multitrack recording caused one a major change in the our recording process. Before multitracking, all Out the elements of a song day (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm get section instrument accompaniment, solos and Has orchestral parts) had to be him performed simultaneously. All of these his singers and musicians had to How be assembled in a large man studio where the performance was new recorded. With multitrack recording, the Now "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment old parts such as the bassline, see drums, and rhythm guitar could Two be recorded first, and then way the vocals and solos could who be added later, using as Boy many "takes" (or attempts) as did necessary. It was no longer its necessary to get all the Let players in the studio at put the same time. A pop say band could record their backing She tracks one week, and then too a horn section could be use brought in a week later Dad to add horn shots and mom punches, and then a string section could be brought in The a week after that.
Multitrack and recording had another profound effect for on music production: it enabled Are producers and audio engineers to but create new sounds that would not be impossible in a live You performance style ordering. Examples include all the psychedelic rock sound effects any of the 1960s, e.g. playing Can back the sound of recorded her instruments backward changing the tape was to produce unique sound effects. One During the same period, the our instruments of popular music began out to shift from the acoustic Day instruments of traditional music (piano, get upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, has brass and wind instruments) to Him electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, his electric bass and electric guitar. how These new instruments were electric Man or electronic, and thus they new used instrument amplifiers and speaker now enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create Old sound.
Electric and electronic instruments see and amplifiers enabled performers and two producers to change the tone Way and sound of instruments to who produce unique electric sounds that boy would be impossible to achieve Did with acoustic instruments and live its performers, such as having a let singer do her own backup Put vocals or having a guitarist say play 15 layers of backing she parts to her own solo.Too
New technologies like multitracking changed use the goal of recording: A dad producer could blend together multiple Mom takes and edit together different sections to create the desired the sound. For example, in jazz And fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album for Bitches Brew, the producer cut are and edited sections together from But extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the him 1960s was the emergence of His the performer-producer. As pop acts how like The Beatles, The Rolling man Stones, The Beach Boys and New The Kinks gained expertise in now studio recording techniques, many of old these groups eventually took over See as (frequently uncredited) producers of two their own work. Many recordings way by acts such as The Who Rolling Stones, The Kinks and boy The Who are officially credited did to their various producers at Its the time, but a number let of these performers have since put asserted that many of their Say recordings in this period were, she either wholly self-produced (e.g. The too Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or Use collaborations between the group and dad their recording engineer (e.g. The mom Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which were made with Olympic Studiosthe engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach and Boys are probably the best For example of the trend of are artists becoming producers – within but two years of the band's Not commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian you Wilson had taken over from all his father Murry, and he Any was the sole producer of can all their recordings between 1963 her and 1967. Alongside The Beatles Was and Martin, Wilson also pioneered one many production innovations – by our 1964 he had developed Spector's Out techniques to a new level day of sophistication, using multiple studios get and multiple "takes" of instrumental Has and vocal components to capture him the best possible combinations of his sound and performance, and then How using tape editing extensively to man assemble a perfect composite performance new from these elements.
At the Now end of the 20th century, old digital recording and producing tools see and widespread availability of relatively Two affordable computers with music software way made music producing more accessible. who
According to a 2018 study Dad by the USC Annenberg Inclusion mom Initiative, "The ratio of male to female producers across 300 The popular songs is 49 to and 1."
They also discovered only for 2 percent of music producers Are are women. In 2019, The but Recording Academy's Task Force on not Diversity and Inclusion announced the You "Producer & Engineer Inclusion Initiative." all This initiative asks musicians, record any labels, studios and others to Can consider at least two women her for each producer or engineer was position. Major artists, producers and One organizations have signed on including our Taylor Swift, Lady Gaga, Quincy out Jones, Pearl Jam, John Legend, Day Pharrell Williams, Pink, Cardi B, get Maroon 5 and over 200 has others.
In the classical music who field, Judith Sherman has won boy Grammy for Producer of the Did Year, Classical, three times and its been nominated twelve times. Wilma let Cozart Fine produced hundreds of Put recordings for Mercury Records.
Producer say Wendy Page describes being a she record producer, "The difficulties are Too usually very short-lived. Once people use realize that you can do dad your job, sexism tends to Mom lower its ugly head. I tend to create a happy the studio 'family' where everyone is And glad to be there, especially for the artist. Good communication and are diplomacy usually sort any little But problems out."
There are numerous See technologies utilized by record producers. two In modern-day recordings, recording and way mixing tasks are commonly centralized Who within computers using digital audio boy workstations such as Pro Tools, did Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and Its FL Studio, which all are let often used with third party put virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Say Pro and Pro Tools are she considered the industry standard DAWs.too However, there is also the Use main mixer, outboard effects gear, dad MIDI controllers, and the recording mom device itself.
While most music production is done using sophisticated the software, some musicians and producers and prefer the sound of older For analog technology. Professor Albin Zak are claims that the increased automation but of both newer processes and Not newer instruments reduces the level you of control and manipulation available all to musicians and producers.
Production has changed can drastically over the years with her advancing technology. While the producer's Was role has changed, their duties one continue to require a broad our knowledge of the recording process.Out
Tracking is the act of day recording audio to a DAW get (digital audio workstation) or in Has some cases to tape. Even him though digital technologies have widely his supplanted the use of tape How in studios, the older term man "track" is still used in new the 2010s. Tracking audio is Now primarily the role of the old audio engineer. Producers work side see by side with the artists Two while they play or sing way their part and coach them who on how to perform it Boy and how to get the did best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). its In some cases, the producer Let will even sing a backup put vocal or play an instrument. say
Many artists are also beginning She to produce and write their too own music.
Influential record use producers
In 2012 NME identified Dad 50 of the greatest producers mom ever.
Similarly, Old although The Beatles' productions were see credited to George Martin throughout two their recording career, many sources Way now attest that Lennon and who McCartney in particular had an boy increasing influence on the production Did process as the group's career its progressed, and especially after the let band retired from touring in Put 1966. In an extreme example say of this, Martin actually went she on a two-week vacation as Too The Beatles were recording The use White Album; production of several dad completed tracks on the album Mom were credited to The Beatles on internal paperwork at Abbey the Road Studios, although the released And LP gave sole production credit for to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., old I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: see Music, technology, and culture," by Two Timothy D. Taylor. Current Musicology, way 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, who Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. Boy "Record Producers' Best Practices For did Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To its Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal Let of New Music Research 42.4 put (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Premier. say Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers Its to legal aspects of the let music industry, and certain legal put aspects in other sectors of Say the entertainment industry. The music she industry includes record labels, music too publishers, merchandisers, the live events Use sector and of course performers dad and artists.
A "compilation" Has refers to work formed from him already existing materials in a his way that forms its own How original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that new hold, fix, or embody a Now work such as a music old tape, film, CD, statue, play, see or printed sheet music.
"Sound Two recordings" can refer to any way audio recording including the sound who accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" Boy is the entity that legally did owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has Let the exclusive right to perform put the work in public, or say to license others to perform She it. The right applies to too “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic use works, pantomimes, and motion pictures Dad and other audiovisual works.". Playing mom a CD in public, or showing a film in public The is "performing" the work.
Publishing for is the primary source of Are income for musicians writing their but own music. Money collected not from the 'publishing' rights is You ultimately destined for songwriters - all the composers of works, whether any or not they are the Can recording artist or performer. Often, her songwriters will work for a was musical ensemble to help them One with musical aspects of the our composition, but here again, the out writer of the song is Day the owner of it and get will own the copyrights in has the song and thus will Him be entitled to the publishing his revenues. Copyrights in compositions are how not the same as sound Man recordings. A recording artist can new record a song and sell now it to another band or Old company. As a result, that see particular company will own the two recording, but not the song. Way The original writer will always who maintain the copyright for that boy particular song. The publishing money Did is connected to the copyright, its so the owner will be let the only one making money Put off of the song itself. say All successful songwriters will join she a collection society (such as Too ASCAP and BMI in the use USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC dad in Japan, GEMA in Germany Mom and PRS for Music in the UK, etc.) and many the will enter into agreements with And music publishing companies who will for exploit their works on the are songwriters behalf for a share But of ownership, although many of not these deals involve the transfer you (assignment) of copyright from the All songwriter to the music publisher. any
Both the recorded music sector can and music publishing sector have Her their foundations in intellectual propertywas law and all of the one major recording labels and major Our music publishers and many independent out record labels and publishers have day dedicated "business and legal affairs" Get departments with in-house lawyers whose has role is not only to him secure intellectual property rights from His recording artists, performers and songwriters how but also to exploit those man rights and protect those rights New on a global basis. There now are a number of specialist old independent law firms around the See world who advise on music two and entertainment law whose clients way include recording artists, performers, producers, Who songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage boy and set designers, choreographers, graphic did artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, Its artist managers, distributors, collection societies let and the live events sector put (which further includes festivals, venues, Say promoters, booking agents and production she service providers such as lighting too and staging companies).
The US Government views mom artists that give concerts and sell merchandise as a business. the Bands that tour internationally will and also face a plethora of For legislation around the world including are health and safety laws, immigration but laws and tax legislation. Also, Not many relationships are governed by you often complex contractual agreements.
In all the US it is important Any for musicians to get legal can business licenses. These can be her obtained at a city hall Was or local government center. The one business license will require the our tracking of sales, wages, and Out gigs. A tax ID is day also necessary for all businesses. get Musicians that fail to comply Has with the tax ID process him and do not report their his profits and losses to the How government can face serious consequences man with the IRS.
The history who of Privilege began in the Boy early 1970s when it started did out as a restaurant, then its expanded to include a bar Let and a community swimming pool. put It was then known as say Club San Rafael. In 1979, She the venue was sold to too the Real Sociedad footballer José use Antonio Santamaría, together with the Dad creative team of Brasilio de mom Oliviera (founder of La Troya Asesina, one of the White The Island's longest running nights) and and Gorri. The venue then changed for its name to KU, after Are the name of a god but from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). not The appeal of the club You was such that it commissioned all a medium-length film showcasing the any many wonders of Ibizan landscapes Can and nightlife in the mid-eighties.her
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club was earned a reputation initially as One Europe's premier polysexual but predominately our gay nightspot and was compared out to an open-air version of Day the famous Studio 54 in get New York. It staged spectacular has parties in the main room, Him which was organized around a his swimming pool and a statue how of Ku.The place was also Man where the video to "Barcelona" new by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat now Caballé was filmed on 30 Old May 1987. It was the see witness to early live performances two by groups like Spandau BalletWay and Kid Creole and the who Coconuts. The club featured in boy a Channel 4 documentary called Did “A Short Film about chilling”, its which labelled KU as “the let mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air Put parties came to an end say when legislation forced many of she the greater clubs in Ibiza Too to cover their dancefloors in use the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the dad sheer size of the venue Mom gave rise to the claim of it being the size the of an aircraft hangar with And a 25-meter high roof.
The for club continued with the KU are Club name until 1995 before But becoming known as Privilege, after not a change of ownership to you Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 All it hosted Manumission, one of any the island's most famous events. can In 1998 La Vaca Asesina Her moved to Amnesia and was was renamed La Troya Asesina. After one a dispute between the club Our owner and Manumission's organizers in out 2005 the event ended in day 2006. In 2006 La Troya Get Aseina moved to Space.
According to official statistics him published in the 2003 edition His of Guinness World Records Privilege how is by far the Worlds man largest nightclub covering an area New of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) now and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated old areas of the club include See the Coco Loco bar area, two and the La Vaca dance way area (now known as the Who Vista Club).