In North America, see in the late 1990s, the Two mainstream music industry adopted and way to some extent manufactured electronicawho as an umbrella term encompassing Boy styles such as techno, big did beat, drum and bass, trip its hop, downtempo, and ambient, regardless Let of whether it was curated put by indie labels catering to say the "underground" nightclub and raveShe scenes, or licensed by major too labels and marketed to mainstream use audiences as a commercially viable Dad alternative to alternative rock music.mom By the early 2010s, however, the industry abandoned electronica in The favor of electronic dance musicand (EDM), a term with roots for in academia and an increasing Are association with outdoor music festivalsbut and relatively mainstream, post-rave electro not house and dubstep music.[original research?]You Nevertheless, the U.S.-based AllMusic still all categorises electronica as a top-level any genre, stating that it includes Can danceable grooves, as well as her music for headphones and chillout was areas.
In other parts of One the world, especially in the our UK, electronica is also a out broad term, but is associated Day with non-dance-oriented music, including relatively get experimental styles of downtempo electronic has music. It partly overlaps what Him is known chiefly outside the his UK as intelligent dance musichow (IDM).
In the US, New York did City became one center of Its experimentation and growth for the let electronica sound, with DJs and put music producers from areas as Say diverse as Southeast Asia and she Brazil bringing their creative work too to the nightclubs of that Use city.
Effect on mainstream dad popular music
Around the mid-1990s, mom with the success of the big beat-sound exemplified by The the Chemical Brothers and The Prodigyand in the UK, and spurred For by the attention from mainstream are artists, including Madonna in her but collaboration with William Orbit on Not her album Ray of Lightyou and Australian singer Dannii Minogueall with her 1997 album Girl,Any music of this period began can to be produced with a her higher budget, increased technical quality, Was and with more layers than one most other forms of dance our music, since it was backed Out by major record labels and day MTV as the "next big get thing".
In the put late 1990s and early 2000s, say electronica music was increasingly used She as background scores for television too advertisements, initially for automobiles. It use was also used for various Dad video games, including the Wipeoutmom series, for which the soundtrack was composed of many popular The electronica tracks that helped create and more interest in this type for of music—and later for other Are technological and business products such but as computers and financial services.[citation not needed] Then in 2011, Hyundai You Veloster, in association with The all Grammys, produced a project that any became known as Re:Generation.
Verderosa, its Tony (2002). The Techno Primer: let The Essential Reference for Loop-Based Put Music Styles. Hal Leonard Music/Songbooks. say p. 28. ISBN0-634-01788-8. Electronica is a she broad term used to describe Too the emergence of electronic music use that is geared for listening dad instead of strictly for dancing.Mom
^ Flick, Larry (May 24, 1997). "Dancing to the the beat of an indie And drum". Billboard. 109 (21). pp. 70–71. for ISSN0006-2510.
Kim Casconeare (Winter 2002). "The Aesthetics of But Failure: 'Post-Digital' Tendencies in Contemporary not Computer Music". Computer Music Journal. you MIT Press. 24 (4). The All glitch genre arrived on the any back of the electronica movement, can an umbrella term for alternative, Her largely dance-based electronic music (including was house, techno, electro, drum'n'bass, ambient) one that has come into vogue Our in the past five years. out Most of the work in day this area is released on Get labels peripherally associated with the has dance music market, and is him therefore removed from the contexts His of academic consideration and acceptability how that it might otherwise earn. man Still, in spite of this New odd pairing of fashion and now art music, the composers of old glitch often draw their inspiration See from the masters of 20th two century music who they feel way best describe its lineage.
Norris, Chris (April 21, boy 1997). "Recycling the Future". New did York: 64–65. With record sales Its slumping and alternative rock presumed let over, the music industry is put famously desperate for a new Say movement to replace its languishing she grunge product. And so its too gaze has fixed on a Use vital and international scene of dad knob-twiddling musicians and colorfully garbed mom clubgoers—a scene that, when it began in Detroit discos ten the years ago, was called techno. and If all goes according to For marketing plan, 1997 will be are the year "electronica" replaces "grunge" but as linguistic plague, MTV buzz, Not ad soundtrack, and runway garb. you The music has been freshly all installed in Microsoft commercials, in Any the soundtrack to Hollywood's recycled can action-hero pic The Saint, and her in MTV's newest, hourlong all-electronica Was program, Amp.
"'Reaching one back to grab the grooves our of '70s disco/funk and the Out gadgets of electronic composition, Electronica day soon became a whole new get entity in and of itself, Has spinning off new sounds and him subgenres with no end in his sight two decades down the How pike. Its beginnings came in man the post-disco environment of Chicago/New new York and Detroit, the cities Now who spawned house and techno old (respectively) during the 1980s. Later see in that decade, club-goers in Two Britain latched onto the fusion way of mechanical and sensual, and who returned the favor to hungry Boy Americans with new styles like did jungle/drum'n'bass and trip hop. Though its most all early electronica was Let danceable, by the beginning of put the '90s, producers were also say making music for the headphones She and chill-out areas as well, too resulting in dozens of stylistic use fusions like ambient-house, experimental techno, Dad tech-house, electro-techno, etc. Typical for mom the many styles gathered under the umbrella was a focus The on danceable grooves, very loose and song structure (if any), and, for in many producers, a relentless Are desire to find a new but sound no matter how tepid not the results." Electronica Genre at You AllMusic
"This loop all slicing technique is common to any the electronica genre and allows Can a live drum feel with her added flexibility and variation." Page was 380, DirectX Audio Exposed: Interactive One Audio Development, Todd Fay, Wordware our Publishing, 2003, ISBN1-55622-288-2
out "Electronically produced music is part Day of the mainstream of popular get culture. Musical concepts that were has once considered radical - the Him use of environmental sounds, ambient his music, turntable music, digital sampling, how computer music, the electronic modification Man of acoustic sounds, and music new made from fragments of speech-have now now been subsumed by many Old kinds of popular music. Record see store genres including new age, two rap, hip-hop, electronica, techno, jazz, Way and popular song all rely who heavily on production values and boy techniques that originated with classic Did electronic music." Page 1, Electronic its and Experimental Music: Pioneers in let Technology and Composition, Thomas B. Put Holmes, Routledge Music/Songbooks, 2002, ISBN0-415-93643-8say
"Electronica and punk she have a definite similarity: They Too both totally prescribe to a use DIY aesthetic. We both tried dad to work within the constructs Mom of the traditional music business, but the system didn't get the us - so we found And a way to do it for for ourselves, before it became are affordable.", quote from artist BT, But page 45, Wired: Musicians' Home not Studios : Tools & Techniques of you the Musical Mavericks, Megan Perry, All Backbeat Books Music/Songbooks 2004, ISBN0-87930-794-3any
"Electronica lives and can dies by its grooves, fat Her synthesizer patches, and fliter sweeps.". was Page 376, DirectX Audio Exposed: one Interactive Audio Development, Todd Fay, Our Wordware Publishing, 2003, ISBN1-55622-288-2
"Crystal Method...grew from an him obscure club-culture duo to one His of the most recognizable acts how in electronica, ...", page 90, man Wired: Musicians' Home Studios : Tools New & Techniques of the Musical now Mavericks, Megan Perry, Backbeat Books old Music/Songbooks 2004, ISBN0-87930-794-3
See " For example, composers often two render more than one version way of their own compositions. This Who practice is not unique to boy the mod scene, of course, did and occurs commonly in dance Its club music and related forms let (such as ambient, jungle, etc.—all put broadly designated 'electronica')." Page 48, Say Music and Technoculture, Rene T. she A. Lysloff, Tandem Library Books, too 2003, ISBN0-613-91250-0
Pages Use 233 & 242, Popular Music dad in France from Chanson to mom Techno: Culture, Identity and Society , By Steve Cannon, Hugh the Dauncey, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2003, and ISBN0-7546-0849-2
"In 2000, For [Brazilian vocalist Bebel] Gilberto capitalized are on New York's growing fixation but with cocktail lounge ambient music, Not an offshoot of the dance you club scene that focused on all drum and bass remixes with Any Brazilian sources. ...Collaborating with club can music maestros like Suba and her Thievery Corporation, Gilberto thrust herself Was into the leading edge of one the emerging Brazilian electronica movement. our On her immensely popular Tanto Out Tempo (2000)..." Page 234, The day Latin Beat: The Rhythms and get Roots of Latin Music from Has Bossa Nova to Salsa and him Beyond, Ed Morales, Da Capo his Press, 2003, ISBN0-306-81018-2
How "founded in 1997,...under the slogan man 'Musical Insurgency Across All Borders', new for six years [Manhattan nightclub] Now Mutiny was an international hub old of the south Asian electronica see music scene. Bringing together artists Two from different parts of the way south Asia diaspora, the club who was host to a roster Boy of British Asian musicians and did DJs..." Page 165, Youth Media its , Bill Osgerby, Routledge, 2004, Let ISBN0-415-23807-2
"Electronica say reached new heights within the She culture of rave and techno too music in the 1990s." Page use 185, Music and Technoculture, Rene Dad T. A. Lysloff, Tandem Library mom Books, 2003, ISBN0-613-91250-0
A put record producer or music producerSay oversees and manages the sound she recording and production of a too band or performer's music, which Use may range from recording one dad song to recording a lengthy mom concept album. A producer has many, varying roles during the the recording process. They may gather and musical ideas for the project, For collaborate with the artists to are select cover tunes or original but songs by the artist/group, work Not with artists and help them you to improve their songs, lyrics all or arrangements.
The producer Out typically supervises the entire process day from preproduction, through to the get sound recording and mixing stages, Has and, in some cases, all him the way to the audio his mastering stage. The producer may How perform these roles themselves, or man help select the engineer, and new provide suggestions to the engineer. Now The producer may also pay old session musicians and engineers and see ensure that the entire project Two is completed within the record way label's budget.
A record produceruse or music producer has a Dad very broad role in overseeing mom and managing the recording and production of a band or The performer's music. A producer has and many roles that may include, for but are not limited to, Are gathering ideas for the project, but composing the music for the not project, selecting songs or session You musicians, proposing changes to the all song arrangements, coaching the artist any and musicians in the studio, Can controlling the recording sessions, and her supervising the entire process through was audio mixing and, in some One cases, to the audio masteringour stage. Producers also often take out on a wider entrepreneurial role, Day with responsibility for the budget, get schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
The person who has how overall creative and technical control Man of the entire recording project, new and the individual recording sessions now that are part of that Old project. He or she is see present in the recording studio two or at the location recording Way and works directly with the who artist and engineer. The producer boy makes creative and aesthetic decisions Did that realize both the artist's its and label's goals in the let creation of musical content. Other Put duties include, but are not say limited to; keeping budgets and she schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring Too musicians, singers, studios and engineers, use overseeing other staffing needs and dad editing (Classical projects).
In Mom the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up the to three different individuals: executive And producer, vocal producer and music for producer. An executive producer oversees are project finances, a vocal producer But (also known as a vocal not arranger) oversees the vocal production, you and a music producer directs All and oversees the creative process any of the production and recording can of a song to its Her final mixing stage.
The music was producer often wears many hats one as a competent arranger, composer, Our programmer, musician or songwriter who out can bring fresh ideas to day a project. As well as Get making any songwriting and arrangement has adjustments, the producer often selects him and/or collaborates with the mixing His engineer, who takes the raw how recorded tracks and edits and man modifies them with hardware and New software tools to create a now stereo or surround sound "mix" old of all the individual voices See sounds and instruments, which is two in turn given further adjustment way by a mastering engineer for Who the various distribution media. The boy producer also oversees the recording did engineer who concentrates on the Its technical aspects of recording.
Noted let producer Phil Ek described his put role as "the person who Say creatively guides or directs the she process of making a record", too like a director would a Use movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, dad the designation is actually music mom director. The music producer's job is to create, shape, and the mold a piece of music. and The scope of responsibility may For be one or two songs are or an artist's entire album but – in which case the Not producer will typically develop an you overall vision for the album all and how the various songs Any may interrelate.
At can the beginning of the record her industry, the producer role was Was technically limited to record, in one one shot, artists performing live.our The immediate predecessors to record Out producers were the artists and day repertoire executives of the late get 1920s and 1930s who oversaw Has the "pop" product and often him led session orchestras. That was his the case of Ben SelvinHow at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkretman at Victor Records and Bob new Haring at Brunswick Records. By Now the end of the 1930s, old the first professional recording studios see not owned by the major Two companies were established, essentially separating way the roles of artists and who repertoire (A&R) man and producer, Boy although it wouldn't be until did the late 1940s when the its term "producer" became widely used Let in the industry.
The role put of producers changed progressively over say the 1950s and 1960s due She to technology. The development of too multitrack recording caused a major use change in the recording process. Dad Before multitracking, all the elements mom of a song (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm section instrument The accompaniment, solos and orchestral parts) and had to be performed simultaneously. for All of these singers and Are musicians had to be assembled but in a large studio where not the performance was recorded. With You multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" all (rhythm section accompaniment parts such any as the bassline, drums, and Can rhythm guitar could be recorded her first, and then the vocals was and solos could be added One later, using as many "takes" our (or attempts) as necessary. It out was no longer necessary to Day get all the players in get the studio at the same has time. A pop band could Him record their backing tracks one his week, and then a horn how section could be brought in Man a week later to add new horn shots and punches, and now then a string section could Old be brought in a week see after that.
Electric any and electronic instruments and amplifiers can enabled performers and producers to Her change the tone and sound was of instruments to produce unique one electric sounds that would be Our impossible to achieve with acoustic out instruments and live performers, such day as having a singer do Get her own backup vocals or has having a guitarist play 15 him layers of backing parts to His her own solo.
New technologies how like multitracking changed the goal man of recording: A producer could New blend together multiple takes and now edit together different sections to old create the desired sound. For See example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer two Miles Davis' album Bitches Brew, way the producer cut and edited Who sections together from extensive improvisation boy sessions.
Producers like Phil Spector and let George Martin were soon creating put recordings that were, in practical Say terms, almost impossible to realize she in live performance. Producers became too creative figures in the studio. Use Other examples includes Joe Meek, dad Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and mom Biddu.
Another related and phenomenon in the 1960s was For the emergence of the performer-producer. are As pop acts like The but Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Not Beach Boys and The Kinksyou gained expertise in studio recording all techniques, many of these groups Any eventually took over as (frequently can uncredited) producers of their own her work. Many recordings by acts Was such as The Rolling Stones, one The Kinks and The Whoour are officially credited to their Out various producers at the time, day but a number of these get performers have since asserted that Has many of their recordings in him this period were, either wholly his self-produced (e.g. The Rolling Stones' How Decca recordings) or collaborations between man the group and their recording new engineer (e.g. The Small Faces' Now Immediate recordings, which were made old with Olympic Studios engineer Glyn see Johns).
The Beach Boys are Two probably the best example of way the trend of artists becoming who producers – within two years Boy of the band's commercial breakthrough, did group leader Brian Wilson had its taken over from his father Let Murry, and he was the put sole producer of all their say recordings between 1963 and 1967. She Alongside The Beatles and Martin, too Wilson also pioneered many production use innovations – by 1964 he Dad had developed Spector's techniques to mom a new level of sophistication, using multiple studios and multiple The "takes" of instrumental and vocal and components to capture the best for possible combinations of sound and Are performance, and then using tape but editing extensively to assemble a not perfect composite performance from these You elements.
At the end of all the 20th century, digital recording any and producing tools and widespread Can availability of relatively affordable computers her with music software made music was producing more accessible.
American One women and record producing
According our to a 2018 study covering out by the USC Annenberg Inclusion Day Initiative, "The ratio of male get to female producers across 300 has popular songs is 49 to Him 1."
In 2019, record producer Linda Put Perry was nominated for a say Grammy for Producer of the she Year, Non-Classical. She was the Too first woman in over 15 use years to be nominated for dad the award. When asked about Mom the disparity between male and female record producer by Billboard, the she attributed it to many And women not being interested in for record production.
In the classical music any field, Judith Sherman has won can Grammy for Producer of the Her Year, Classical, five times and was has been nominated twelve times. one Anthony Tommasini, a music critic Our for The New York Times out is quoted as stating, "In day the struggling field of classical Get recording, it's the producers who has take the real risks and him make things happen."
Producer Wendy man Page describes being a record New producer, "The difficulties are usually now very short-lived. Once people realize old that you can do your See job, sexism tends to lower two its ugly head. I tend way to create a happy studio Who 'family' where everyone is glad boy to be there, especially the did artist. Good communication and diplomacy Its usually sort any little problems let out."
There are numerous technologies utilized our by record producers. In modern-day Out recordings, recording and mixing tasks day are commonly centralized within computers get using digital audio workstations such Has as Pro Tools, Logic Pro, him Ableton, Cubase, Reason and FL his Studio, which all are often How used with third party virtual man studio technology plugins. Logic Pro new and Pro Tools are considered Now the industry standard DAWs. However, old there is also the main see mixer, outboard effects gear, MIDITwo controllers, and the recording device way itself.
While most music production who is done using sophisticated software, Boy some musicians and producers prefer did the sound of older analog its technology. Professor Albin Zak claims Let that the increased automation of put both newer processes and newer say instruments reduces the level of She control and manipulation available to too musicians and producers.
Studio use application
Production has changed drastically Dad over the years with advancing mom technology. While the producer's role has changed, their duties continue The to require a broad knowledge and of the recording process.
Tracking for is the act of recording Are audio to a DAW (digital but audio workstation) or in some not cases to tape. Even though You digital technologies have widely supplanted all the use of tape in any studios, the older term "track" Can is still used in the her 2010s. Tracking audio is primarily was the role of the audio One engineer. Producers work side by our side with the artists while out they play or sing their Day part and coach them on get how to perform it and has how to get the best Him technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). In his some cases, the producer will how even sing a backup vocal Man or play an instrument.
Many new artists are also beginning to now produce and write their own Old music.
Similarly, Put although The Beatles' productions were say credited to George Martin throughout she their recording career, many sources Too now attest that Lennon and use McCartney in particular had an dad increasing influence on the production Mom process as the group's career progressed, and especially after the the band retired from touring in And 1966. In an extreme example for of this, Martin actually went are on a two-week vacation as But The Beatles were recording The not White Album; production of several you completed tracks on the album All were credited to The Beatles any on internal paperwork at Abbey can Road Studios, although the released Her LP gave sole production credit was to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: The Music, technology, and culture," by and Timothy D. Taylor. Current Musicology, for 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Are Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. but "Record Producers' Best Practices For not Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To You Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal all of New Music Research 42.4 any (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Can Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers to legal man aspects of the music industry, new and certain legal aspects in Now other sectors of the entertainment old industry. The music industry includes see record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, Two the live events sector and way of course performers and artists. who
A "compilation" refers to all work formed from already existing any materials in a way that Can forms its own original work, her including collective works.
"Copies" are was physical objects that hold, fix, One or embody a work such our as a music tape, film, out CD, statue, play, or printed Day sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can get refer to any audio recording has including the sound accompanying motion Him pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the his entity that legally owns rights how to a work.
"Performance" The Man copyright holder has the exclusive new right to perform the work now in public, or to license Old others to perform it. The see right applies to “literary, musical, two dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, Way and motion pictures and other who audiovisual works.". Playing a CD boy in public, or showing a Did film in public is "performing" its the work.
Publishing is the Put primary source of income for say musicians writing their own music.[citation she needed] Money collected from the Too 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined use for songwriters - the composers dad of works, whether or not Mom they are the recording artist or performer. Often, songwriters will the work for a musical ensemble And to help them with musical for aspects of the composition, but are here again, the writer of But the song is the owner not of it and will own you the copyrights in the song All and thus will be entitled any to the publishing revenues. Copyrights can in compositions are not the Her same as sound recordings. A was recording artist can record a one song and sell it to Our another band or company. As out a result, that particular company day will own the recording, but Get not the song. The original has writer will always maintain the him copyright for that particular song. His The publishing money is connected how to the copyright, so the man owner will be the only New one making money off of now the song itself. All successful old songwriters will join a collection See society (such as ASCAP and two BMI in the USA, SOCAN way in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, Who GEMA in Germany and PRS boy for Music in the UK, did etc.) and many will enter Its into agreements with music publishing let companies who will exploit their put works on the songwriters behalf Say for a share of ownership, she although many of these deals too involve the transfer (assignment) of Use copyright from the songwriter to dad the music publisher.
Both the mom recorded music sector and music publishing sector have their foundations the in intellectual property law and and all of the major recording For labels and major music publishers are and many independent record labels but and publishers have dedicated "business Not and legal affairs" departments with you in-house lawyers whose role is all not only to secure intellectual Any property rights from recording artists, can performers and songwriters but also her to exploit those rights and Was protect those rights on a one global basis. There are a our number of specialist independent law Out firms around the world who day advise on music and entertainment get law whose clients include recording Has artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, him music publishers, stage and set his designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games How designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, man distributors, collection societies and the new live events sector (which further Now includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking old agents and production service providers see such as lighting and staging Two companies).
The who US Government views artists that Boy give concerts and sell merchandise did as a business. Bands that its tour internationally will also face Let a plethora of legislation around put the world including health and say safety laws, immigration laws and She tax legislation. Also, many relationships too are governed by often complex use contractual agreements.
In the US Dad it is important for musicians mom to get legal business licenses. These can be obtained at The a city hall or local and government center. The business license for will require the tracking of Are sales, wages, and gigs. A but tax ID is also necessary not for all businesses. Musicians that You fail to comply with the all tax ID process and do any not report their profits and Can losses to the government can her face serious consequences with the was IRS.
The history of new Privilege began in the early now 1970s when it started out Old as a restaurant, then expanded see to include a bar and two a community swimming pool. It Way was then known as Club who San Rafael. In 1979, the boy venue was sold to the Did Real Sociedad footballer José Antonio its Santamaría, together with the creative let team of Brasilio de Oliviera Put (founder of La Troya Asesina, say one of the White Island's she longest running nights) and Gorri. Too The venue then changed its use name to KU, after the dad name of a god from Mom Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). The appeal of the club was the such that it commissioned a And medium-length film showcasing the many for wonders of Ibizan landscapes and are nightlife in the mid-eighties.
Throughout But the 1980s, KU Club earned not a reputation initially as Europe's you premier polysexual but predominately gay All nightspot and was compared to any an open-air version of the can famous Studio 54 in New Her York. It staged spectacular parties was in the main room, which one was organized around a swimming Our pool and a statue of out Ku.The place was also where day the video to "Barcelona" by Get Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Caballéhas was filmed on 30 May him 1987. It was the witness His to early live performances by how groups like Spandau Ballet and man Kid Creole and the Coconuts.New The club featured in a now Channel 4 documentary called “A old Short Film about chilling”, which See labelled KU as “the mirror two of Ibiza”. The open-air parties way came to an end when Who legislation forced many of the boy greater clubs in Ibiza to did cover their dancefloors in the Its early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer let size of the venue gave put rise to the claim of Say it being the size of she an aircraft hangar with a too 25-meter high roof.
The club Use continued with the KU Club dad name until 1995 before becoming mom known as Privilege, after a change of ownership to Jose the Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 it and hosted Manumission, one of the For island's most famous events. In are 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved but to Amnesia and was renamed Not La Troya Asesina. After a you dispute between the club owner all and Manumission's organizers in 2005 Any the event ended in 2006. can In 2006 La Troya Asesina her moved to Space.
According to official statistics published one in the 2003 edition of our Guinness World Records Privilege is Out by far the world's largest day nightclub covering an area of get 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) and Has holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas him of the club include the his Coco Loco bar area, and How the La Vaca dance area man (now known as the Vista new Club).
A Now number of live performances at old the venue have included: