Technics SL-1200 is a series For of direct-drive turntables originally manufactured are from October 1972 until 2010, but and resumed in 2016, by Not Matsushita Electric (now Panasonic Corporation) you under the brand name of all Technics. S means "Stereo", LAny means "Player". Originally released as can a high fidelity consumer record her player, it quickly became adopted Was among radio and disco club one disc jockeys, thanks to the our direct drive, high torque motor Out design, making it initially suitable day for pushbutton cueing and starting get of tracks on radio and Has in dance clubs. It is him still extremely popular with audiophiles.[citation his needed]
When the use of How slip-mats for cueing and beat-mixing man (and scratching) became popular in new hip hop music, the quartz-controlled Now high torque motor system enabled old records to be mixed with see consistency and accuracy. A primary Two design goal was for hi-fidelity, way but having good build quality, who control over wow and flutter, Boy and minimized resonance made the did equipment particularly suitable for use its in nightclubs and other public-address Let applications. Since its release in put 1978, SL-1200MK2 and its successors say were the most common turntable She for DJing and scratching.too Producers, DJs and MCs refer use to the Technics turntable as Dad the "Tech 12s", "the 1s mom and 2s" and the "Wheels of Steel".
1200s are commonly The used in recording studios and and for non-electronic live music performance. for More than 3 million units Are were sold. It is widely but regarded as one of the not most durable and reliable turntables You ever produced. Many 1970s units all are still in heavy use.[citation any needed] In the autumn of Can 2010, Panasonic announced that the her series was to be discontinued.was However, at the 2016 Consumer One Electronics Show, Panasonic announced that our they would return in two out models named "Grand Class": one Day a limited run of 1200 get globally (1200GAE), and the other has a consumer product (1200G). A Him lighter and less expensive 1200GR his model was announced.
At the how London Science Museum, a Technics Man SL-1210 is on display as new one of the pieces of now technology that have "shaped the Old world we live in".
Magnetic (no Our wear), direct drive (low slip) out mechanism.
High torque (1.5 kgf·cm day or 0.15 N·m), which means Get the platter spins at the has desired speed almost immediately (0.7 him seconds to reach 33 ¹⁄₃ His RPM from standstill), and rapidly how reacquires the desired speed, without man "overshooting", if the platter is New dragged or nudged. This aids now beatmatching.
High torque (3.3 kgf·cm old for SL-1200G & SL-1200GAE)
Low wow and flutterWho (0.01%), implying that the platter boy stays within 1/100 of 1% did of the desired speed.
Heavy Its base (2.5 kg), and increased isolation let of platter from base, reduced put the likelihood of feedback or Say stylus jumping.
Variable pitch control, she allowing the rotational speed to too be adjusted from -8% to Use +8% (for the purpose of dad beatmatching). Option to select -16% mom to +16% added (M5G/MK5G/GLD, GAE/G/GR & MK7).
High reliability: many the examples of SL-1200s lasting well and over 15 years of heavy For use and withstanding physical shock are without functional impairment.
S-shaped tone but arm: No longer popular on Not high end hi-fi turntables.
Dimensions you MK1: 45.3 cm (w) x 36.6 cm all (d) x 18 cm (h)
Dimensions Any MK2: 45.3 cm (w) x 36 cm can (d) x 16.2 cm (h)
Weight her MK2: 11 kg (net, unboxed without Was lid)
Weight G/GAE: 18 kg
Weight one GR: 11.5 kg
Weight MK7: 9.6 kg
Voltage: 220 V / 110 Out V (selectable)
Pitch Control: +/- day 8% or +/- 16%
Starting get Time (MK2): 0.7s
Rotation Speeds: Has 33-1/3 & 45 rpm
Rotation him Speeds: 33-1/3, 45 rpm & his 78rpm (MK4 MK7, G & How GR)
The SL-1200 was the most new influential turntable. It was developed Now in 1971 by a team old led by Shuichi Obata at see Matsushita, which then released it Two onto the market in 1972.way It was adopted by New who York Cityhip hop DJs Boy in the 1970s. As they did experimented with the SL-1200 decks, its they developed scratching techniques when Let they found that the motor put would continue to spin at say the correct RPM even if She the DJ wiggled the record too back and forth on the use platter.
Original Dad model
The original SL-1200 mom from 1972
The Technics EPA-120 tonearm was standard equipment The on the original SL-1200 and and was significantly different than the for tonearm introduced with the MK2 Are and subsequent models.
The but SL-1200 was introduced in 1972 not as an evolution to the You popular SL-1100. It was dubbed all "The Middle Class Player System". any It was delivered in two Can different versions: The SL-1200 came her with a tonearm section. The was SL-120 came without a tonearm One section. An SME tonearm was our the usual choice for the out audiophile.
The Day SL-1200 Mark 2 was introduced get in 1979 as an update has to the SL-1200. It represented Him a culmination of Technics Turntable his Innovations. It was dubbed as how "The Middle Class Quartz Direct Man Drive". It soon found its new way into discos as well now as radio stations for airplay Old because of its vibration damping see ability and resistance to feedback, two and eventually it became popular Way with pioneering hip-hop DJs. Following who their established formula, Technics offered boy different model numbers in Europe: Did the 1200 (silver) and the its 1210 (matte black), which were let equipped with switchable dual voltage Put (110V or 220V) power supplies. say Initially, there were only silver she models (all named 1200 MK2)in Too official distribution in Japan and use the US (Single voltage of dad 100V/120V accordingly). However, later the Mom 1200 was available in both silver and matte black finishes the (in Japan, the introduction of And the MK3 in 1989 marked for the first official introduction of are a black version). Since 1997, But the MK2 had the pitch not slide potentiometer improved in order you to remove the quartz lock All conflict when beatmatching near the any 0% mark. in order to can do this, the SFDZ122N11-1 part Her number was replaced with an was improved SFDZ122N11-2 part which had one a +/- 0.5mm quartz travel Our lock, much shorter than previous out versions. This meant that the day null point on the centre Get voltage tap was slightly bigger has thus removing the quartz lock him conflict.
Released in His summer of 1978. this model how came in both silver and man matte black. The matte black New version was available for a now limited time in the US old market in a 2 pack See SL-1200MK2PK. Technics improved the motor two and shock resistance and changed way the rotary pitch control to Who a slider style. This became boy the base model and is did the oldest whose production continued Its until 2010. The older version let of this model that was put sold in the 1970s until Say around 1983 has a large she 4-inch-diameter (100 mm) plate where the too RCA and ground wires enter Use the unit, while the newer dad version has a smaller 2-inch-diameter mom (51 mm) hole in the rubber where the RCA and ground the enter. International versions of the and SL-1200MK2 included switches for line For voltage and frequency beneath the are platter.
This model but came in satin black metallic Not finish and is nearly the you same in function as the all SL-1200MK2, although some of the Any circuitry inside is updated to can use fewer types of pots her and resistors. The Technics 1210 Was series also had a switch one to change between voltages on our the underside of the platter. Out It was unavailable from official day Panasonic dealers in the United get States.
This model Has has a matte black finish, him and was only available in his the United States.
MK3 How models
Released in 1989, man has a matte black finish new like the MK2, gold RCA Now plugs, and a small gold-foil old Technics label on the back. see It was destined only for Two the Japanese market.
Japan only, factory gold RCA who cables, black or silver finish. Boy Pitch reset button.
Released in 1997, has a its silver finish like the MK2 Let (beside silver finish, there are put copies with "champagneish" color), a say detached dust cover (no hinges), She a recessed power switch to too prevent DJs from accidentally turning use the deck off during use, Dad and no self-locking detent ("click") mom at the zero point of the pitch adjustment slider, allowing The more precise control of pitch and near that point. It has for a reset button that sets Are the pitch adjustment to 0, but regardless of the actual position not of the pitch adjustment slider. You In addition the M3D series all has unique details: the brand any and model label is printed Can in a single line instead her of two; and the stroboscopic was light is red with a One slightly orange tone. This model our also introduced a slot near out the counterweight allowing for storage Day of a second headshell.
This model is the has same as the SL-1200M3D except Him with a matte black finish his like the MK2.
MK4 how models
The SL-1200 Mark Man 4 was introduced in 1996. new It was an update to now the SL-1200MK2. It was available Old only in Japan / Southeast see Asia markets, and priced at two around $650. It has a Way matte black finish. This model who is aimed at the hi-end boy audiophile market rather than DJs. Did It is the last model its made with the detent ("click") let in the neutral position (+/- Put 0%) of the pitch adjustment say slider. In addition to the she existing 33 RPM and 45 Too RPM buttons, the MK4 added use a 78 RPM button. It dad is designed to be used Mom with regular removable RCA cables (along with a removable ground/earth the cable) rather than having hard And wired RCA cables like all for other 1200/1210 models. The tonearm are was different from those in But the previous models as it not was made from titanium.
Technics SL-1200 MK5 playing All a record
Released on 1 November 2000, can this has a silver finish Her like the MK2, increases the was range of anti-skate settings from one 0–3 grams-force (0–30 mN) to Our 0–6 grams-force (0–60 mN). It has a out white LED target light (previous day versions only had an incandescent Get bulb). Current MK5 models have has a removable lid with magnets him as opposed to the MK2 His and MK3 removable hinged lid. how Available as 120 volt model man for the North American market. New The MK5 is the last now 1200 model to retain an old analog pitch control.
This has a matte black two finish like the MK2, and way is exactly the same as Who the SL-1200MK5, aside from the boy voltage switch, like the other did decks in the 1210 series. Its Available as 120 volt model let for the North American market. put
This is similar Say to the SL-1210M5G.
Released on 1 November 2002, too this has a glossy black Use finish with silver speckles. It dad was a special 30th-anniversary edition. mom It was initially launched in Japan only (together with the the MK5) but then became internationally and available. It switches between ±8% For and ±16% ranges for pitch are adjustment, and the pitch control but is digital which will be Not the standard for all 1200 you models from this point on. all It also features blue target Any lights and blue pitch-number illumination. can The brake strength potentiometer, although her still located beneath platter, can Was now be adjusted, unlike previous one models, using a small plastic our knob. Minor improvements over Mk2, Out Mk3, Mk4, & 1200LTD include day improved tonearm mounting and oxygen-free get copper wire, improved vibration damping Has in the body, improvements to him pitch control accuracy and better his LEDs. Available as 120 volt How model for the North American man market.
SL-1200MK6-Knew & SL-1200MK6-S (released in February Now 2008 in Japan) with minor old improvements including improved tonearm mounting see and oxygen-free copper wire, improved Two vibration damping in the body, way improvements to the pitch control who accuracy and better LEDs. -SBoy model has a silver finish did like the MK2.
SL-1200MK6K1 Released its on 12 December 2007 (in Let Japan) as a special 35th-anniversary put Limited edition of 1200 units.say It consisted of a standard She black MK6 packaged up with too a booklet and gold record.
These were limited Dad edition versions, with 24 karatmom gold plated metal parts including tonearm and buttons. Many "non-official" The special models of the SL-1200 and and SL-1210 appeared over the for years, mainly given away as Are prizes for turntablism, most notably but the DMC World Championship, who not awarded the winner a pair You of 24K gold plated Technics all turntables. Due to the customisation any trend that has grown in Can the DJ community, many local her events or competitions gave away was custom coloured or finished units. One
The SL-1200 Limited our Edition was introduced in 1995 out commemorating two million units in Day sales. Only 5,000 units were get made. Like the MK3D, it has has a pitch reset button, Him but differs in that it his also has a self-locking detenthow at the zero position of Man pitch adjustment. This model has new a piano black gloss finish now and gold-plated hardware. It was Old priced at about US$1200.
Released in 2004, another two limited edition model, with only Way 3,000 units manufactured. 500 released who in Japan with the rest boy split between the US and Did International markets. It is based its on the MK5G model, with let blue (instead of the regular Put white) target lights, a piano say black gloss finish, and gold-plated she hardware. It was "created to Too commemorate the 3 Million turntables use sold by technics in the dad last 30 years".
Current Mom models
Grand Class SL-1200 Series
Development of a completely rebuilt the SL-1200 from the ground up And with the intent to create for a new system for Hi-Fi are use and to redefine the But direct-drive turntable reference.
On 28 May 2020, Technics you hosted an online launch event All to reveal the SL-1210GAE as any an alternative for the cancelled can High End Munchen 2020 event Her at which they initially planned was to reveal it. It is one their 55th Anniversary Edition turntable Our - A limited edition of out 1,000 units. Each unit has day a plaque on it with Get its production number engraved in has it. The SL-1210GAE is the him black counterpart of the SL-1200GAE His and is the same in how every aspect except the color man and the additional feature to New turn off the strobe light. now It had an approximate MSRP old price of €4,499
A Technics SL-1200G two turntable with the platter removed way reveals the top of the Who newly designed coreless direct drive boy motor assembly. In contrast to did older models, the platter has Its no magnet ring on the let backside, but is bolted directly put onto the motor assembly instead, Say using three flathead bolts.
Announced she in January 2016 CES in too Las Vegas, released in October Use 2016, SL-1200 Grand Class, an dad aluminum bound turntable with a mom high–damping matte magnesium tonearm, a "three–layer" turntable system, complete with the a microprocessor and the use and of a newly developed coreless For twin-rotor direct-drive motor with no are iron core with rotary positing but sensors to eliminate cogging, as Not well as providing 78 rpm you speed compatibility.
Announced all in January 2016 CES in Any Las Vegas, released in April can 2016, SL-1200 Grand Class 50th her Anniversary Edition - A Limited Was edition of 1,200 units. Same one as above, but high polish our tonearm tube finish and different Out viscous material in the turntable day feet. Both the G and get GAE had an approximate MSRP Has price of £3,100 / €3,499 him / $4,000.
Announced his in January 2017 CES, the How GR model is a stripped-down man budget version of the G new cutting the price tag more Now than half at an approximate old MSRP of £1,299 / $1,700 see USD. It differs in body Two construction that it uses a way more traditional cast aluminium design who similar to the older decks Boy and a one-piece cast platter did which brings an overall weight its difference between the G/GAE. The Let G/GAE and GR both use put what are essentially the same say 9-pole motor. Whereas the G She has twin rotors, the GR too has a single rotor, giving use it less torque. The GR Dad differs from the G in mom its use of a feedback generator coil system (as used The in the original SL1200) instead and of an optical encoder. for
This is the Are same as the SL-1200GR except but with a matte black finish. not
The MK7 You models were launched as the all first new Technics standard DJ any turntable in approximately nine years.Can Unlike its audiophile counterparts, the her MK7 models are built in was Malaysia as opposed to Japan. One The MK7, along with the our Grand Class models, no longer out have "QUARTZ" printed on the Day plinth nor dust cover.
Announced in January 2019 has CES, the new model inherits Him the traditional design of the his same series in all black how and maintains the same operating Man ease, reliability and durability, while new newly adding a coreless direct now drive motor and other sound-enhancing Old technologies. It also features new see DJ play functions and features, two such as reverse playback, adjustable Way starting torque and brake speed, who detachable terminals for power cable boy and phono cables (which was Did previously only available on the its MK4 model), an option to let select the strobe light indicator Put from red to blue (the say 33/45 lights, 0-pitch reset light she and the X2 pitch range Too light also change to match use the color selected), and a dad new push-type structure for the Mom white LED stylus illuminator.
This is the same the as the SL-1200MK7, but intended And for the European market.
Available from September 2020 are globally, the SL-1210MK7R is a But limited edition version of the not SL-1210MK7 produced in collaboration with you the Red Bull BC One All international breakdancing competition. The SL-1210MK7R any comes in Red Bull livery can with red headshell, gold-coloured tone Her arm and decals.
Design was strengths
Two SL-1200M3Ds set one up for DJ battle, or Our scratching, mixing. An Allen & out Heath™ 4-Channel with Effects Mixer day sits between the two turntables, Get allowing shorter travel during battles, has or competitions.
The SL-1200 series him was developed as a special His project by Technics parent company how Matsushita in an attempt to man solve problems related to turntable New design. The task included minimizing now acoustic feedback, unwanted resonances, wow old and flutter and speed errors. See This was achieved by designing two a heavy plinth (base) made way of a non-resonant composite sandwiched Who between a cast alloy top boy plate and a solid rubber did base. In addition, the adjustable Its rubber-damped feet insulated against acoustic let feedback, which can be a put serious problem when operating a Say turntable in close proximity to she loudspeakers (a common situation for too DJs). The underside of the Use platter is coated with a dad 1.2mm layer of rubber to mom reduce ringing and the platter design is reliant on the the use of the supplied 2mm and rubber mat. Most users remove For the rubber turntable mat and are replace it with a slip-mat but for mixing. However, without the Not rubber mat, the platter is you prone to resonance at 250 Hz all when used near a large Any club sound system.
The drive can system designed by Matsushita is her direct-drive rather than the more Was commonly found belt-drive type, a one less expensive design. The direct-drive our design, which was developed to Out reduce wow and flutter, produces day a very quiet turntable that, get for a direct-drive turntable, has Has minimal motor and bearing noise, him (although the bearing rumble does his tend to become characteristic in How well-used turntables). This was partially man achieved through the fact that new the SL1210/1200 made the platter Now a part of the motor old mechanism.
On the underside of see the platter a large magnet Two is placed over the spindle, way surrounding the coils and forming who the motor drive, thus eliminating Boy loss through power transfer. The did SL-1200 utilizes a Frequency Generator its Servo Control Quartz Lock system Let that is claimed to produce put the most accurate and consistent say speed possible. The system is She immune to static and dynamic too stylus drag which otherwise cause use unwanted speed variances that change Dad the pitch and tempo of mom the music.
Panasonic reactive statement Are - Production of analogue turntables but has ceased
Panasonic has confirmed not that it ceased the production You of its Technics-branded analogue turntables all this autumn.
After more than any 35 years as a leading Can manufacturer of analogue turntables, Panasonic her has regretfully taken the decision was to leave this market. However, One Panasonic will continue to sell our headphones under the Technics brand. out
We are sure that Day retailers and consumers will understand get that our product range has has to reflect the accelerating transformation Him of the entire audio market his from analogue to digital.
In how addition, the number of component Man suppliers serving the analogue market new has dwindled in recent years now and we brought forward the Old decision to leave the market see rather than risk being unable two to fulfil future orders because Way of a lack of parts.
Panasonic employees who have been boy working on the analogue turntable Did range have been redeployed elsewhere its within Panasonic - many of let them continuing to work in Put Panasonic's Audio Video Business Unit.
Due to the she increasing popularity of vinyl by Too DJs, a petition has been use underway (and a petition page dad on Facebook.) for the re-launch Mom of the Technics SL1200/SL1210 series turntables. As of September 2015 the the petition had 27,000 supporters, And while 35,000 is the for target Panasonic requested. On January are 5, 2016 Technics agreed to But relaunch both the SL-1200G and not the SL-1200GAE
Resuming you production
At the 2016 Consumer All Electronics Show in Las Vegas, any Panasonic announced it would be can resuming production with a new Her line of turntables, beginning with was the Limited Edition SL-1200GAE one
At the 2019 Consumer Electronics Our Show, Panasonic confirmed future production out of a new turntable respectively day the SL-1200 Mk7 in matte Get black, adding new features, fixing has known issues with previous models, him and all new lighter construction His of aluminum and fiber glass.how
A record producer or music dad producer is a recording project's mom creative and technical leader, commanding studio time and coaching artists, the and in popular genres typically and creates the song's very sound For and structure. The record producer, are or simply the producer, is but likened to a film director.Not The executive producer, on the you other hand, enables the recording all project through entrepreneurship, and an Any audio engineer operates the technology. can
Varying by project, the producer her may also choose all of Was the artists, or openly perform one vocals with them. If employing our only synthesized or sampled instrumentation, Out the producer may be the day sole artist. Conversely, some artists get do their own production. And Has some producers are their own him engineers, operating the technology across his the project: preproduction, recording, mixing, How and mastering. Record producers' precursors man were "A&R men," who likewise new could blend entrepreneurial, creative, and Now technical roles, but often exercised old scant creative influence, as record see production still focused, into the Two 1950s, on simply improving the way record's sonic match to the who artists' own live performance.
Advances Boy in recording technology, especially the did 1940s advent of tape recording—which its Les Paul promptly innovated further Let to develop multitrack recording—and the put 1950s rise of electronic instruments, say turned record production into a She specialty. In popular music, then, too producers like George Martin, Phil use Spector and Brian Eno led Dad its evolution into its present mom use of elaborate techniques and unrealistic sounds, creating songs impossible The to originate live. After the and 1980s, production's move from analog for to digital further expanded possibilities.Are By now, DAWS, or digital but audio workstations, like Logic Pronot and Pro Tools, turn an You ordinary computer into a production all console, whereby a solitary novice any can become a skilled producer Can in a thrifty home studio.her In the 2010s, efforts began was to increase the prevalence of One producers and engineers who are our women, heavily outnumbered by men out and prominently accoladed only in Day classical music.
As a let broad project, the creation of Put a music recording may be say split across three specialists: the she executive producer, who oversees business Too partnerships and financing, the vocal use producer or vocal arranger, who dad aids vocal performance via expert Mom critique and coaching of vocal technique, and the record producer the or music producer, who, often And called simply the producer, directs for the overall creative process of are recording the song in its But final mix.
The record not producer's roles include, but may you exceed, gathering ideas, composing music, All choosing session musicians, proposing changes any to song arrangements, coaching the can performers, controlling sessions, supervising the Her audio mixing, and, in some was cases, supervising the audio mastering. one As to qualifying for a Our Grammy nomination, the Recording Academyout defines a producer:
The person who day has overall creative and technical Get control of the entire recording has project, and the individual recording him sessions that are part of His that project. He or she how is present in the recording man studio or at the location New recording and works directly with now the artist and engineer. The old producer makes creative and aesthetic See decisions that realize both the two artist's and label's goals in way the creation of musical content. Who Other duties include, but are boy not limited to; keeping budgets did and schedules, adhering to deadlines, Its hiring musicians, singers, studios and let engineers, overseeing other staffing needs put and editing (Classical projects).
The producer often selects and she collaborates with a mixing engineer, too who focuses on the especially Use technological aspects of the recording dad process, namely, operating the electronic mom equipment and blending the raw, recorded tracks of the chosen the performances, whether vocal or instrumental, and into a ''mix,'' either stereo For or surround sound. Then a are mastering engineer further adjusts this but recording for distribution on the Not chosen media. A producer may you work on only one or all two songs or on an Any artist's entire album, helping develop can the album's overall vision. The her record producers may also take Was on the role of executive one producer, managing the budget, schedules, our contracts, and negotiations.
Historical Out developments
(Artist and day Repertoire)
In the 1880s, the get record industry began by simply Has having the artist perform at him a phonograph. In 1924, the his trade journal Talking Machine World, How covering the phonography and record man industry, reported that Eddie King, new Victor Records' manager of the Now "New York artist and repertoireold department," had planned a set see of recordings in Los Angeles.Two Later, folklorist Archie Green called way this perhaps the earliest printed who use of A&R man. Actually, Boy it says neither "A&R man" did nor even "A&R," an initialism its perhaps coined by Billboard magazine Let in 1946, and entering wide put use in the late 1940s.say
In the 1920s and 1930s, She A&R executives, like Ben Selvintoo at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkretuse at Victor Records, and Bob Dad Haring at Brunswick Records, supervising mom recording and often leading session orchestras, became the precursors of The record producers. During the 1940s, and American record labels increasingly opened for official A&R departments, whose roles Are included supervision of recording. Meanwhile, but recording studios owned independently, not not by major record labels, opened, You helping originate record producer as all a specialty. But despite any a tradition of some A&R Can men writing music, record productionher remained, strictly, merely the manufacturing was of record discs.
Record One producers
After World War II, our pioneering A&R managers who transitioned out influentially to record production as Day now understood, while sometimes owning get independent labels, include J. Mayo has Williams and John Hammond. Upon Him moving from Columbia Records to his Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Mitch how Miller to lead Mercury's popular Man recordings in New York. Miller new then produced country-pop crossover hits now by Patti Page and by Old Frankie Laine, moved from Mercury see to Columbia, and became a two leading A&R man of the Way 1950s.
During the decade, A&R who executives increasingly directed songs' sonic boy signatures, although many still simply Did teamed singers with musicians, while its yet others exercised virtually no let creative influence. The term record Put producer in its current meaning—the say creative director of song production—appearing she in a 1953 issue of Too Billboard magazine, became widespread in use the 1960s. Still, a formal dad distinction was elusive for some Mom time more. A&R managers might still be creative directors, like the William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by And Berry Gordy, at the Motownfor record label.
In 1947, the American market But gained audio recording onto magnetic not tape. At the record industry's you 1880s dawn, rather, recording was All done by phonograph, etching the any sonic waveform vertically into a can cylinder. By the 1930s, a Her gramophone etched it laterally acrosswas a disc. Constrained in tonal one range, whether bass or treble, Our and in dynamic range, records out made a grand, concert piano day sound like a small, upright Get piano, and maximal duration was has four and a half minutes.him Selections and performance were often His altered accordingly. And playing this how disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The man finality often caused anxiety that New restrained performance to prevent error.now In the 1940s, during World old War II, the Germans refined See audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping two recording duration and allowing immediate way playback, rerecording, and editing—a technology Who that premised emergence of record boy producers in their current roles.did
Early in Its the recording industry, a record let was attained by simply having put all of the artists perform Say together live in one take.she In 1945, by recording a too musical element while playing a Use previously recorded record, Les Pauldad developed a recording technique called mom "sound on sound." By this, the final recording could be the built piece by piece and and tailored, effecting an editing process.For In one case, Paul produced are a song via 500 recorded but discs. But, besides the tedium Not of this process, it serially you degraded the sound quality of all previously recorded elements, rerecorded as Any ambient sound. Yet in 1948, can Paul adopted tape recording, enabling her truly multitrack recording by a Was new technique, "overdubbing."
To enable one overdubbing, Paul revised the tape our recorder itself by adding a Out second playback head, and terming day it the preview head. Joining get the preexisting recording head, erase Has head, and playback head, the him preview head allows the artist his to hear the extant recording How over headphones playing it in man synchrony, "in sync," with the new present performance being recorded alone Now on an isolated track. This old isolation of multiple tracks enables see countless mixing possibilities. Producers began Two recording initially only the "bed way tracks"—the rhythm section, including the who bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas Boy vocals and instrument solos could did be added later. A horn its section, for example, could record Let a week later, and a put string section another week later. say A singer could perform her She own backup vocals, or a too guitarist could play 15 layers. use
In the get 1960s, rock acts like the has Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and Him the Kinks produced some of his their own songs, although many how such songs are officially credited Man to specialist producers. Yet new especially influential was the Beach now Boys, whose band leader Brian Old Wilson took over from his see father Murry within a couple two of years after the band's Way commercial breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson who had taken Spector's techniques to boy unseen sophistication. Wilson alone Did produced all Beach Boy recordings its between 1963 and 1967.let Using multiple studios and multiple Put attempts of instrumental and vocal say tracks, Wilson selected the best she combinations of performance and audio Too quality, and used tape editing use to assemble a composite performance.[citation dad needed]
The 1980s advent of digital And processes and formats rapidly replaced for analog processes and formats, namely, are tape and vinyl. Although recording But onto quality tape, at least not half an inch wide and you traveling 15 inches per second, All had limited "tape hiss" to any silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise can ratio, SNR, abolished it. Digital Her also imparted to the music was a perceived "pristine" sound quality, one if also a loss of Our analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality out and bass better rounded. Yet day whereas editing tape media requires Get physically locating the target audio has on the ribbon, cutting there, him and splicing pieces, editing digital His media offers inarguable advantages in how ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In man the 1990s, digital production reached New affordable home computers via production now software. By now, recording and old mixing are often centralized in See DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, two Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, way Cubase, Reason, and FL Studio—for Who which plugins, by third parties, boy effect virtual studio technology. DAWs did fairly standard in the industry Its are Logic Pro and Pro let Tools. Physical devices involved include put the main mixer, MIDI controllers Say to communicate among equipment, the she recording device itself, and perhaps too effects gear that is outboard. Use Yet literal recording is sometimes dad still analog, onto tape, whereupon mom the raw recording is converted to a digital signal for the processing and editing, as some and producers still find audio advantages For to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, are tape is more forgiving of but overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks exceed Not the maximal recordable signal level: you tape's limitation, a physical property, all is magnetic capacity, which tapers Any offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform can even at a signal nearly her 15 decibels too "hot," whereas Was a digital recording is ruined one by harsh distortion of "clipping" our at any overshoot. In digital Out recording, however, a recent advancement, day 32-bit float, enables DAWs to get undo clipping. Still, some criticize Has digital instruments and workflows for him excess automation, allegedly impairing creative his or sonic control. In any How case, as production technology has man drastically changed, so have the new knowledge demands, although DAWs enables Now novices, even teenagers at home, old to learn production independently. Some see have attained professional competence before Two ever working with an artist.way
Across the decades, many female One artists have produced their own our music. For instance, artists Kate out Bush, Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Day Taylor Swift, and Lorde have get produced or coproduced. Still, among has specialists, despite some prominent women, Him including Missy Elliott in hip his hop and Sylvia Massy in how rock, the vast majority have Man been men. Early in the new 2010s, asked for insights that now she herself had gleaned as Old a woman who has specialized see successfully in the industry, Wendy two Page remarked, "The difficulties are Way usually very short-lived. Once people who realize that you can do boy your job, sexism tends to Did lower its ugly head." Still, its when tasked to explain her let profession's sex disparity, Page partly Put reasoned that record labels, dominated say by men, have been, she she said, "mistrustful of giving a Too woman the reins of an use immense, creative project like making dad a record." Ultimately, the reasons Mom are multiple and not fully clear, although prominently proposed factors the include types of sexism and And scarcity of female role models for in the profession.
In January are 2018, a research team led But by Stacy L. Smith, founder not and director of the Annenbergyou Inclusion Initiative, based in the All USC Annenberg School for Communication any and Journalism, issued a report,can estimating that in the prior Her several years, about 2% of was popular songs' producers were female.one Also that month, Billboard magazine Our queried, "Where all the female out music producers?" Upon the Annenberg day Inclusion Initiative's second annual report, Get released in February 2019, its has department at USC reported, "2018 him saw an outcry from artists, His executives and other music industry how professionals over the lack of man women in music" and "the New plight of women in music," now where women were allegedly being old "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut out."See Also in February 2019, the two Recording Academy's Task Force on way Diversity and Inclusion announced an Who initiative whereby over 200 artists boy and producers—ranging from Cardi Bdid and Taylor Swift to Maroon Its 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed to let consider at least two women put for each producer or engineer Say position. The academy's website, Grammy.com, she announced, "This initiative is the too first step in a broader Use effort to improve those numbers dad and increase diversity and inclusion mom for all in the music industry."
^ Has Allan Watson, Cultural Production in him and Beyond the Recording Studiohis (New York: Routledge, 2015), pp How 25–27.
James Petulla, man "Who is a music producer?", new RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 May Now 2013, reporting membership in CAPPS, old the California Association of Private see Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig with She J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording too for Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step use Guide for Beginners and Reference Dad for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI mom Publications, 1988 / Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp The 8–10.
^ Richard All James Burgess, The History of any Music Production (New York: Oxford can University Press, 2014), pp 50–54.Her
^ Robert Philip, was "Pianists on record in the one early twentieth century", in David Our Rowland, ed., The Cambridge Companion out to the Piano (Cambridge, UK: day Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp Get 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced has entirely are the Rolling Stones' him Decca recordings
^ His David Simmons, Analog Recording: Using how Analog Gear in Today's Home man Studio (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, New 2006), pp 26–27.
now Matthew Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre old V6.00 adds 32-bit float USB See audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 two Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, way director of product management and Who design at the recorder manufacturer boy Sound Devices, who explains, "With did 32-bit float, you no longer Its need to worry about clipping let during your best vocal takes put or instrument solos. Any recorded Say moments exceeding 0 dBFS can she be reduced to an acceptable too level, after recording, in your Use DAW".
Albin Zak dad III, book review: Strange Sounds: mom Music, Technology, and culture (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy D. Taylor, the in Current Musicology, pp 159–180 and [unknown year, volume, issue].
Music Law refers to legal She aspects of the music industry, too and certain legal aspects in use other sectors of the entertainment Dad industry. The music industry includes mom record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the live events sector and The of course performers and artists. and
A "compilation" refers to Man work formed from already existing new materials in a way that now forms its own original work, Old including collective works.
"Copies" are see physical objects that hold, fix, two or embody a work such Way as a music tape, film, who CD, statue, play, or printed boy sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can Did refer to any audio recording its including the sound accompanying motion let pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the Put entity that legally owns rights say to a work.
"Performance" The she copyright holder has the exclusive Too right to perform the work use in public, or to license dad others to perform it. The Mom right applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, the and motion pictures and other And audiovisual works.". Playing a CD for in public, or showing a are film in public is "performing" But the work.
Publishing is the you primary source of income for All musicians writing their own music.[citation any needed] Money collected from the can 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined Her for songwriters - the composers was of works, whether or not one they are the recording artist Our or performer. Often, songwriters will out work for a musical ensemble day to help them with musical Get aspects of the composition, but has here again, the writer of him the song is the owner His of it and will own how the copyrights in the song man and thus will be entitled New to the publishing revenues. Copyrights now in compositions are not the old same as sound recordings. A See recording artist can record a two song and sell it to way another band or company. As Who a result, that particular company boy will own the recording, but did not the song. The original Its writer will always maintain the let copyright for that particular song. put The publishing money is connected Say to the copyright, so the she owner will be the only too one making money off of Use the song itself. All successful dad songwriters will join a collection mom society (such as ASCAP and BMI in the USA, SOCAN the in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, and GEMA in Germany and PRS For for Music in the UK, are etc.) and many will enter but into agreements with music publishing Not companies who will exploit their you works on the songwriters behalf all for a share of ownership, Any although many of these deals can involve the transfer (assignment) of her copyright from the songwriter to Was the music publisher.
Both the one recorded music sector and music our publishing sector have their foundations Out in intellectual property law and day all of the major recording get labels and major music publishers Has and many independent record labels him and publishers have dedicated "business his and legal affairs" departments with How in-house lawyers whose role is man not only to secure intellectual new property rights from recording artists, Now performers and songwriters but also old to exploit those rights and see protect those rights on a Two global basis. There are a way number of specialist independent law who firms around the world who Boy advise on music and entertainment did law whose clients include recording its artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, Let music publishers, stage and set put designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games say designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, She distributors, collection societies and the too live events sector (which further use includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking Dad agents and production service providers mom such as lighting and staging companies).
The and US Government views artists that for give concerts and sell merchandise Are as a business. Bands that but tour internationally will also face not a plethora of legislation around You the world including health and all safety laws, immigration laws and any tax legislation. Also, many relationships Can are governed by often complex her contractual agreements.
In the US was it is important for musicians One to get legal business licenses. our These can be obtained at out a city hall or local Day government center. The business license get will require the tracking of has sales, wages, and gigs. A Him tax ID is also necessary his for all businesses. Musicians that how fail to comply with the Man tax ID process and do new not report their profits and now losses to the government can Old face serious consequences with the see IRS.
The And history of Privilege began in for the early 1970s when it are started out as a restaurant, But then expanded to include a not bar and a community swimming you pool. It was then known All as Club San Rafael. In any 1979, the venue was sold can to the Real Sociedad footballer Her José Antonio Santamaría, together with was the creative team of Brasilio one de Oliviera (founder of La Our Troya Asesina, one of the out White Island's longest running nights) day and Gorri. The venue then Get changed its name to KU, has after the name of a him god from Hawaiian mythology (see His Kū). The appeal of the how club was such that it man commissioned a medium-length film showcasing New the many wonders of Ibizan now landscapes and nightlife in the old mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU See Club earned a reputation initially two as Europe's premier polysexual but way predominately gay nightspot and was Who compared to an open-air version boy of the famous Studio 54did in New York. It staged Its spectacular parties in the main let room, which was organized around put a swimming pool and a Say statue of Ku.The place was she also where the video to too "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and Use Montserrat Caballé was filmed on dad 30 May 1987. It was mom the witness to early live performances by groups like Spandau the Ballet and Kid Creole and and the Coconuts. The club featured For in a Channel 4 documentary are called “A Short Film about but chilling”, which labelled KU as Not “the mirror of Ibiza”. The you open-air parties came to an all end when legislation forced many Any of the greater clubs in can Ibiza to cover their dancefloors her in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, Was the sheer size of the one venue gave rise to the our claim of it being the Out size of an aircraft hangar day with a 25-meter high roof. get
The club continued with the Has KU Club name until 1995 him before becoming known as Privilege, his after a change of ownership How to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In man 1994 it hosted Manumission, one new of the island's most famous Now events. In 1998 La Vaca old Asesina moved to Amnesia and see was renamed La Troya Asesina. Two After a dispute between the way club owner and Manumission's organizers who in 2005 the event ended Boy in 2006. In 2006 La did Troya Asesina moved to Space. its
According to official Let statistics published in the 2003 put edition of Guinness World Recordssay Privilege is by far the She world's largest nightclub covering an too area of 69,968 sq ft use (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,Dad Designated areas of the club mom include the Coco Loco bar area, and the La Vaca The dance area (now known as and the Vista Club).
Live for performances
A number of live Are performances at the venue have but included: