Notes Production the ceased in late 2010 but and resumed in 2016
Technics SL-1200For is a series of direct-drive are turntables originally manufactured from October but 1972 until 2010, and resumed Not in 2016, by Matsushita (later you known as Panasonic) under the all brand name of Technics. SAny means "Stereo", L means "Player". can Originally released as a high her fidelity consumer record player, it Was quickly became adopted among radio one and disco club disc jockeys, our thanks to the direct drive, Out high torque motor design, making day it initially suitable for pushbutton get cueing and starting of tracks Has on radio and in dance him clubs. It is still extremely his popular with audiophiles.
When the How use of slip-mats for cueing man and beat-mixing (and scratching) became new popular in hip hop music, Now the quartz-controlled high torque motor old system enabled records to be see mixed with consistency and accuracy. Two A primary design goal was way for hi-fidelity, but having good who build quality, control over wow Boy and flutter, and minimized resonance did made the equipment particularly suitable its for use in nightclubs and Let other public-address applications. Since its put release in 1978, SL-1200MK2 and say its successors were the most She common turntable for DJing and too scratching. Producers, DJs and MCs use refer to the Technics turntable Dad as the "Tec 12's", "that mom record player" and the "Wheels of Steel".
1200s are commonly The used in recording studios and and for non-electronic live music performance. for More than 3 million units Are were sold. It is widely but regarded as one of the not most durable and reliable turntables You ever produced. Many 1970s units all are still in heavy use. any In the autumn of 2010, Can Panasonic announced that the series her was to be discontinued. However, was at the 2016 Consumer Electronics One Show, Panasonic announced that they our would return in two models out named "Grand Class": one a Day limited run of 1200 globally get (1200GAE), and the other a has consumer product (1200G). A lighter Him and less expensive 1200GR model his was announced.
At the London how Science Museum, a Technics SL-1210Man is on display as one new of the pieces of technology now that have "shaped the world Old we live in".
Magnetic (no wear), direct drive Our (low slip) mechanism.
High torqueout (1.5 kgf·cm or 0.15 N·m), day which means the platter spins Get at the desired speed almost has immediately (0.7 seconds to reach him 33 ¹⁄₃ RPM from standstill), His and rapidly reacquires the desired how speed, without "overshooting", if the man platter is dragged or nudged. New This aids beatmatching.
High torquenow (3.3 kgf·cm for SL-1200G & old SL-1200GAE)
Low wowway and flutter (0.01%), implying that Who the platter stays within 1/100 boy of 1% of the desired did speed.
Heavy base (2.5 kg), and Its increased isolation of platter from let base, reduced the likelihood of put feedback or stylus jumping.
Variable Say pitch control, allowing the rotational she speed to be adjusted from too -8% to +8% (for the Use purpose of beatmatching). Option to dad select -16% to +16% added mom (M5G/MK5G/GLD, GAE/G/GR & MK7).
High reliability: many examples of SL-1200s the lasting well over 15 years and of heavy use and withstanding For physical shock without functional impairment.
S-shaped tone arm: No longer but popular on high end hi-fi Not turntables.
Dimensions MK1: 45.3 cm you (w) x 36.6 cm (d) x all 18 cm (h)
Dimensions MK2: 45.3 cm Any (w) x 36 cm (d) x can 16.2 cm (h)
Weight MK2: 11 kg her (net, unboxed without lid)
Weight Was G/GAE: 18 kg
Weight GR: 11.5 kg
Weight MK7: 7.6 kg
Voltage: 220 our V / 110 V (selectable)
Pitch Control: +/- 8% or day +/- 16%
Starting Time (MK2): get 0.7s
Rotation Speeds: 33-1/3 & Has 45 rpm
Rotation Speeds: 33-1/3, him 45 rpm & 78rpm (MK4 his & MK7)
The SL-1200 was the man most influential turntable. It was new developed in 1971 by a Now team led by Shuichi Obata old at Matsushita, which then released see it onto the market in Two 1972. It was adopted by way New York Cityhip hopwho DJs such as Grand Wizzard Boy Theodore, Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster did Flash in the 1970s. As its they experimented with the SL-1200 Let decks, they developed scratching techniques put when they found that the say motor would continue to spin She at the correct RPM even too if the DJ wiggled the use record back and forth on Dad the platter.
The original SL-1200 from 1972
The The Technics EPA-120 tonearm was standard and equipment on the original SL-1200 for and was significantly different than Are the tonearm introduced with the but MK2 and subsequent models
The SL-1200 was introduced in You 1972 as an evolution to all the popular SL-1100. It was any dubbed "The Middle Class Player Can System". It was delivered in her two different versions: The SL-1200 was came with a tonearm section. One The SL-120 came without a our tonearm section. An SME tonearm out was the usual choice for Day the audiophile.
The SL-1200 Mark 2 was has introduced in 1979 as an Him update to the SL-1200. It his represented a culmination of Technics how Turntable Innovations. It was dubbed Man as "The Middle Class Quartz new Direct Drive". It soon found now its way into discos as Old well as radio stations for see airplay because of its vibration two damping ability and resistance to Way feedback, and eventually it became who popular with pioneering hip-hop DJs. boy Model numbers indicated colour: the Did 1200 (silver) and 1210 (matte its black). This was the same let in the US and Japan Put initially, however later the 1200 say was available in both silver she and matte black finishes. Since Too 1997, The Mk2 had the use pitch slide potentiometer improved in dad order to remove the quartz Mom lock conflict when beatmatching near the 0% mark. in order the to do this, the SFDZ122N11-1 And part number was replaced with for an improved SFDZ122N11-2 part which are had a +/- 0.5mm quartz But travel lock, much shorter than not previous versions. This meant that you the null point on the All centre voltage tap was slightly any bigger thus removing the quartz can lock conflict. The difference can Her be seen in the following was video demonstration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_rr01ssq8o
Released in 1979, this model Our came in both silver and out matte black. Technics improved the day motor and shock resistance and Get changed the rotary pitch control has to a slider style. This him became the base model and His is the oldest whose production how continued until 2010. The older man version of this model that New was sold in the 1970s now and 1980s has a large old 4-inch-diameter (100 mm) plate where the See RCA and ground wires enter two the unit, while the newer way version has a smaller 2-inch-diameter Who (51 mm) hole in the rubber boy where the RCA and ground did enter. International versions of the Its SL-1200MK2 included switches for line let voltage and frequency beneath the put platter.
This model Say came in satin black metallic she finish and is nearly the too same in function as the Use SL-1200MK2, although some of the dad circuitry inside is updated to mom use fewer types of pots and resistors. The Technics 1210 the series also had a switch and to change between voltages on For the underside of the platter. are It was unavailable from official but Panasonic dealers in the United Not States.
This model you has a matte black finish, all and was only available in Any the United States.
MK3 can models
Released in 1989, her has a matte black finish Was like the MK2, gold RCA one plugs, and a small gold-foil our Technics label on the back. Out It was destined only for day the Japanese market.
Japan only, factory gold RCA Has cables, black or silver finish) him
Released in 1997, his has a silver finish like How the MK2, a detached dust man cover (no hinges), a recessed new power switch to avoid DJ's Now from accidentally turning the deck old off during use, and no see self-locking detent ("click") at the Two zero point of the pitch way adjustment slider, allowing more precise who control of pitch near that Boy point. It has a reset did button that sets the pitch its adjustment to 0, regardless of Let the actual position of the put pitch adjustment slider. In addition say the M3D series has unique She details: the brand and model too label is printed in a use single line instead of two; Dad and the stroboscopic light is mom red with a slightly orange tone. This model also introduced The a slot near the counterweight and allowing for storage of a for second headshell.
This Are model is the same as but the SL-1200M3D except with a not matte black finish like the You MK2 and a voltage switch. all
The any SL-1200 Mark 4 was introduced Can in 1996. It was an her update to the SL-1200MK2. Only was available in Japan / Southeast One Asia Markets Price for around our $650.00. It has a matte out black finish. This model is Day aimed at the hi-end audiophile get market rather than DJs. It has is the last model made Him with the detent ("click") in his the neutral position (+/- 0%) how of the pitch adjustment slider. Man In addition to the existing new 33 RPM and 45 RPM now buttons, the MK4 adds a Old 78 RPM button. It is see designed to be used with two regular removable RCA cables (along Way with a removable ground/earth cable) who rather than having hard wired boy RCA cables like all other Did 1200/1210 models. The tonearm was its different to the previous models let as it was made from Put titanium.
Technics SL-1200 say MK5 playing a record.
MK5 she models
Released on 1 Too November 2000, has a silver use finish like the MK2, increases dad the range of anti-skate settings Mom from 0–3 grams-force (0–30 mN) to 0–6 grams-force (0–60 mN). It has the a white LED target light And (previous versions only had an for incandescent bulb). Current MK5 models are have a removable lid with But magnets as opposed to the not MK2 and MK3 removable hinged you lid. Available as 120 volt All model for the North American any market. The MK5 is the can last 1200 model to retain Her an analog pitch control.
Has a matte black one finish like the MK2, and Our is exactly the same as out the SL-1200MK5, aside from the day voltage switch, like the other Get decks in the 1210 series. has Available as 120 volt model him for the North American market. His
Similar to the how SL-1210M5G.
Released on man 1 November 2002, has a New glossy black finish with silver now speckles. It was a special old 30th-anniversary edition. It was initially See launched in Japan only (together two with the MK5) but then way became internationally available. It switches Who between ±8% and ±16% ranges boy for pitch adjustment, and the did pitch control is digital which Its will be the standard for let all 1200 models from this put point on. It also features Say blue target lights and blue she pitch-number illumination. The brake strength too potentiometer, although still located beneath Use platter, can now be adjusted, dad unlike previous models, using a mom small plastic knob. Minor improvements over Mk2, Mk3, Mk4, & the 1200LTD include improved tonearm mounting and and oxygen-free copper wire, improved For vibration damping in the body, are improvements to pitch control accuracy but and better LEDs. Available as Not 120 volt model for the you North American market.
MK6 all models
SL-1200MK6-K & SL-1200MK6-S (released Any in February 2008 in Japan) can with minor improvements including improved her tonearm mounting and oxygen-free copper Was wire, improved vibration damping in one the body, improvements to the our pitch control accuracy and better Out LEDs. -S model has a day silver finish like the MK2.
SL-1200MK6K1 Released on 12 December Has 2007 (in Japan) as a him special 35th-anniversary Limited edition of his 1000 units. It consisted of How a standard black MK6 packaged man up with a booklet and new gold record.
These Now were limited edition versions, with old 24 karat gold plated metal see parts including tonearm and buttons. Two Many "non-official" special models of way the SL-1200 and SL-1210 appeared who over the years, mainly given Boy away as prizes for turntablism, did most notably the DMC World its Championship, who awarded the winner Let a pair of 24K gold put plated Technics turntables. Due to say the customisation trend that has She grown in the DJ community, too many local events or competitions use gave away custom coloured or Dad finished units.
The mom SL-1200 Limited Edition was introduced in 1995 commemorating two million The units in sales. Only 5,000 and units were made. Like the for MK3D, it has a pitch Are reset button, but differs in but that it also has a not self-locking detent at the zero You position of pitch adjustment. This all model has a piano black any gloss finish and gold-plated hardware. Can It was priced at about her US$1200.00.
Released in was 2004, another limited edition model, One with only 3,000 units manufactured. our 1,500 of them were sold out in the U.S. and the Day other 1,500 internationally. It is get based on the MK5G model, has with blue (instead of the Him regular white) target lights, a his piano black gloss finish, and how gold-plated hardware. It was "created Man to commemorate the 3 Million new turntables sold by technics in now the last 30 years".
Grand Class SL-1200 see Series
Development of a completely two rebuilt SL-1200 from the ground Way up with the intent to who create a new system for boy Hi-Fi use and to redefine Did the direct-drive turntable reference.
Announced in January 2016 let CES in Las Vegas, released Put in October 2016, SL-1200 Grand say Class, an aluminum bound turntable she with a high–damping tonearm, a Too "three–layer" turntable system, complete with use a microprocessor and the use dad of a newly developed coreless Mom twin-rotor direct-drive motor with no iron core with rotary positing the sensors to eliminate cogging, as And well as 78 rpm speed for compatibility.
Announced in are January 2016 CES in Las But Vegas, released in April 2016, not SL-1200 Grand Class 50th Anniversary you Edition - A Limited edition All of 1,200 units. Same as any above, with a magnesium tonearm, can as opposed to aluminum, and Her different viscous material in the was turntable feet. Both the G one and GAE had an approximate Our MSRP price of £3,100 / out $4,000 USD.
Announced day in January 2017 CES, the Get GR model is a stripped-down has budget version of the G him cutting the price tag more His than half at an approximate how MSRP of £1,299 / $1,700 man USD. It differs in body New construction that it uses a now more traditional cast aluminium design old similar to the older decks See and a one-piece cast platter two which brings an overall weight way difference between the G/GAE. The Who G/GAE and GR both use boy what are essentially the same did 9-pole motor. Whereas the G Its has twin rotors, the GR let has a single rotor, giving put it less torque. The GR Say differs from the G in she its use of a feedback too generator coil system (as used Use in the original SL1200) instead dad of an optical encoder.
Is the same as the SL-1200GR except with a the matte black finish.
MK7 and models
The MK7 models were For launched as the first new are Technics standard DJ turntable in but approximately nine years.
Announced in January 2019 CES, you the new model inherits the all traditional design of the same Any series in all black and can maintains the same operating ease, her reliability and durability, while newly Was adding a coreless direct drive one motor and other sound-enhancing technologies. our It also features new DJ Out play functions and features, such day as reverse playback, adjustable starting get torque and brake speed, detachable Has terminals for power cable and him phono cables (which was previously his only available on the MK4 How model), an option to select man the strobe light indicator from new red to blue (the 33/45 Now lights, 0-pitch reset light and old the X2 pitch range light see also change to match the Two color selected), and a new way push-type structure for the white who LED stylus illuminator.
Is the same as the did SL-1200MK7, but intended for the its European market.
The SL-1200 series was mom developed as a special project by Technics parent company MatsushitaThe in an attempt to solve and problems related to turntable design. for The task included minimizing acoustic Are feedback, unwanted resonances, wow and but flutter and speed errors. This not was achieved by designing a You heavy plinth (base) made of all a non-resonant composite sandwiched between any a cast alloy top plate Can and a solid rubber base. her In addition, the adjustable rubber-damped was feet insulated against acoustic feedback, One which can be a serious our problem when operating a turntable out in close proximity to loudspeakers Day (a common situation for DJs). get
The drive system designed by has Matsushita is direct-drive rather than Him the more commonly found belt-drivehis type, a less expensive design. how The direct-drive design, which was Man developed to reduce wow and new flutter, produces a very quiet now turntable that, for a direct-drive Old turntable, has minimal motor and see bearing noise, (although the bearing two rumble does tend to become Way characteristic in well-used turntables). This who was partially achieved through the boy fact that the SL1210/1200 made Did the platter a part of its the motor mechanism.
On the let underside of the platter a Put large magnet is placed over say the spindle, surrounding the coils she and forming the motor drive, Too thus eliminating loss through power use transfer. The SL-1200 utilizes a dad Frequency Generator Servo Control Quartz Mom Lock system that is claimed to produce the most accurate the and consistent speed possible. The And system is immune to static for and dynamic stylus drag which are otherwise cause unwanted speed variances But that change the pitch and not tempo of the music.
Panasonic Her reactive statement - Production of was analogue turntables has ceased
Panasonic one has confirmed that it ceased Our the production of its Technics-branded out analogue turntables this autumn.
After day more than 35 years as Get a leading manufacturer of analogue has turntables, Panasonic has regretfully taken him the decision to leave this His market. However, Panasonic will continue how to sell headphones under the man Technics brand.
We are New sure that retailers and consumers now will understand that our product old range has to reflect the See accelerating transformation of the entire two audio market from analogue to way digital.
In addition, the number Who of component suppliers serving the boy analogue market has dwindled in did recent years and we brought Its forward the decision to leave let the market rather than risk put being unable to fulfil future Say orders because of a lack she of parts.
Panasonic employees who too have been working on the Use analogue turntable range have been dad redeployed elsewhere within Panasonic - mom many of them continuing to work in Panasonic´s Audio Video the Business Unit.
Due and to the increasing popularity of For vinyl by DJs, a petition are has been underway (and a but petition page on Facebook.) for Not the re-launch of the Technicsyou SL1200/SL1210 series turntables. As of all September 2015 the petition had Any 27,000 supporters, while 35,000can is the target Panasonic requested. her On January 5, 2016 Technics Was agreed to relaunch both the one SL-1200G and the SL-1200GAE our
At the Out 2016 Consumer Electronics Show in day Las Vegas, Panasonic announced it get would be resuming production with Has a new line of turntables,him beginning with the Limited Edition his SL-1200GAE
At the 2019 How Consumer Electronics Show, Panasonic confirmed man future production of a new new turntable respectively the SL-1200 Mk7 Now in matte black, adding new old features, fixing known issues with see previous models, and all new Two lighter construction of aluminum and way fiber glass.
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages The the sound recording and production and of a band or performer's for music, which may range from Are recording one song to recording but a lengthy concept album. A not producer has many, varying roles You during the recording process. They all may gather musical ideas for any the project, collaborate with the Can artists to select cover tunesher or original songs by the was artist/group, work with artists and One help them to improve their our songs, lyrics or arrangements.
Coach the his singers and musicians in the how studio
The producer typically supervises Man the entire process from preproduction, new through to the sound recordingnow and mixing stages, and, in Old some cases, all the way see to the audio mastering stage. two The producer may perform these Way roles themself, or help select who the engineer, and provide suggestions boy to the engineer. The producer Did may also pay session musicians its and engineers and ensure that let the entire project is completed Put within the record label's budget. say
A record producer or music are producer has a very broad But role in overseeing and managing not the recording and production of you a band or performer's music. All A producer has many roles any that may include, but are can not limited to, gathering ideas Her for the project, composing the was music for the project, selecting one songs or session musicians, proposing Our changes to the song arrangements, out coaching the artist and musicians day in the studio, controlling the Get recording sessions, and supervising the has entire process through audio mixing him (recorded music) and, in some His cases, to the audio masteringhow stage. Producers also often take man on a wider entrepreneurial role, New with responsibility for the budget, now schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
Writer old Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes See a producer functions like a two creative consultant — someone who way helps a band achieve a Who certain aesthetic, or who comes boy up with the perfect violin did part to complement the vocal Its melody, or who insists that let a chorus should actually be put a bridge. Other times a Say producer will build a complete she piece of music from the too ground up and present the Use finished product to a vocalist, dad like Metro Boomin supplying Future mom with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add the lyrics and melody to an and otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”For
The artist of an album are may not be a record but producer or music producer for Not his/her album. While both contribute you creatively, the official credit of all "record producer" may depend on Any the record contract. Christina Aguilera, can for example, did not receive her record producer credits until many Was albums into her career.
In one the 2010s, the recording industry our has three kinds of producers Out with different roles: executive producer, day vocal producer and music producer. get Executive producers oversee project finances, Has Vocal Producers also known as him vocal arrangers oversees the vocal his production, while music producers oversee How the creative process of recording man songs or albums.
In most new cases the music producer is Now also a competent arranger, composer, old musician or songwriter who can see bring fresh ideas to a Two project. As well as making way any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, who the producer often selects or Boy gives suggestions to the mixing did engineer, who takes the raw its recorded tracks and edits and Let modifies them with hardware and put software tools and creates a say stereo or surround sound "mix" She of all the individual voices too sounds and instruments, which is use in turn given further adjustment Dad by a mastering engineer. The mom producer will also liaise with the recording engineer who concentrates The on the technical aspects of and recording, whereas the executive producer for keeps an eye on the Are overall project's marketability.
Noted producer but Phil Ek described his role not as "the person who creatively You guides or directs the process all of making a record", like any a director would a movie. Can Indeed, in Bollywood music, the her designation is actually music director.was The music producer's job is One to create, shape, and mold our a piece of music. The out scope of responsibility may be Day one or two songs or get an artist's entire album – has in which case the producer Him will typically develop an overall his vision for the album and how how the various songs may Man interrelate.
At the new beginning of record industry, the now producer role was technically limited Old to record, in one shot, see artists performing live. The immediate two predecessors to record producers were Way the artists and repertoire executives who of the late 1920s and boy 1930s who oversaw the "pop" Did product and often led session its orchestras. That was the case let of Ben Selvin at Columbia Put Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor say Records and Bob Haring at she Brunswick Records. By the end Too of the 1930s, the first use professional recording studios not owned dad by the major companies were Mom established, essentially separating the roles of A&R man and producer, the although it wouldn't be until And the late 1940s when the for term "producer" became widely used are in the industry.
The role But of producers changed progressively over not the 1950s and 1960s due you to technological developments. The development All of multitrack recording caused a any major change in the recording can process. Before multitracking, all the Her elements of a song (lead was vocals, backup vocals, rhythm sectionone instrument accompaniment, solos and orchestral Our parts) had to be performed out simultaneously. All of these singers day and musicians had to be Get assembled in a large studio has and the performance had to him be recorded. With multitrack recording, His the "bed tracks" (rhythm section how accompaniment parts such as the man bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar New could be recorded first, and now then the vocals and solos old could be added later, using See as many "takes" (or attempts) two as it took. As well, way for a song that used Who 20 instruments, it was no boy longer necessary to get all did the players in the studio Its at the same time. A let pop band could record their put backing tracks one week, and Say then a horn section could she be brought in a week too later to add horn shots Use and punches, and then a dad string section could be brought mom in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another profound the effect on music production: it and enabled producers and audio engineers For to create new sounds that are would be impossible in a but live performance style ordering. Examples Not include the psychedelic rock sound you effects of the 1960s, e.g. all playing back the sound of Any recorded instruments backward changing the can tape to produce unique sound her effects. During the same period, Was the instruments of popular music one began to shift from the our acoustic instruments of traditional musicOut (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, day strings, brass and wind instruments) get to electric piano, electronic organ, Has synthesizer, electric bass and electric him guitar. These new instruments were his electric or electronic, and thus How they used instrument amplifiers and man speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to new create sound.
Electric and electronic Now instruments and amplifiers enabled performers old and producers to change the see tone and sound of instruments Two to produce unique electric sounds way that would be impossible to who achieve with acoustic instruments and Boy live performers, such as having did a singer do her own its backup vocals or having a Let guitarist play 15 layers of put backing parts to her own say solo.
New technologies like multitracking She changed the goal of recording: too A producer could blend together use multiple takes and edit together Dad different sections to create the mom desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' The album Bitches Brew, the producer and cut and edited sections together for from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like not Phil Spector and George MartinYou were soon creating recordings that all were, in practical terms, almost any impossible to realize in live Can performance. Producers became creative figures her in the studio. Other examples was of such engineers includes Joe One Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, our and Biddu.
Another get related phenomenon in the 1960s has was the emergence of the Him performer-producer. As pop acts like his The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, how The Beach Boys and The Man Kinks gained expertise in studio new recording techniques, many of these now groups eventually took over as Old (frequently uncredited) producers of their see own work. Many recordings by two acts such as The Rolling Way Stones, The Kinks and The who Who are officially credited to boy their various producers at the Did time, but a number of its these performers have since asserted let that many of their recordings Put in this period were, either say wholly self-produced (e.g. The Rolling she Stones' Decca recordings) or collaborations Too between the group and their use recording engineer (e.g. The Small dad Faces' Immediate recordings, which were Mom made with Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Boys the are probably the best example And of the trend of artists for becoming producers – within two are years of the band's commercial But breakthrough, group leader Brian Wilson not had taken over from his you father Murry, and he was All the sole producer of all any their recordings between 1963 and can 1967. Alongside The Beatles and Her Martin, Wilson also pioneered many was production innovations – by 1964 one he had developed Spector's techniques Our to a new level of out sophistication, using multiple studios and day multiple "takes" of instrumental and Get vocal components to capture the has best possible combinations of sound him and performance, and then using His tape editing extensively to assemble how a perfect composite performance from man these elements.
At the end New of the 20th century, digital now recording and producing tools, then old widespread availability of relatively affordable See computers with music software made two music producing more accessible.
Women and Record Producing
According Who to a 2018 study by boy the USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, did "The ratio of male to Its female producers across 300 popular let songs is 49 to 1." put
They also discovered only 2 Say percent of music producers are she women. In 2019, The Recording too Academy’s Task Force on Diversity Use and Inclusion announced the "Producer dad & Engineer Inclusion Initiative." This mom initiative asks musicians, record labels, studios and others to consider the at least two women for and each producer or engineer position. For Major artists, producers and organizations are have signed on including Lady but Gaga, Quincy Jones, Pearl Jam, Not John Legend, Pharrell Williams, Pink, you Cardi B, Maroon 5 and all over 200 others.
In 2019, Any record producer Linda Perry was can nominated for a Grammy for her Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. Was She was the first woman one in over 15 years to our be nominated for the award. Out Previous nominees include Lauren Christyday (2004), Sheryl Crowe, Lauryn Hillget and Janet Jackson. None have Has won the award.
In the him classical music field, Judith Shermanhis has won Grammy for Producer How of the Year, Classical, three man times and been nominated twelve new times. Wilma Cozart Fine produced Now hundreds of recordings for Mercury old Records.
Producer Wendy Page describes see being a record producer, "The Two difficulties are usually very short-lived. way Once people realize that you who can do your job, sexism Boy tends to lower its ugly did head. I tend to create its a happy studio 'family' where Let everyone is glad to be put there, especially the artist. Good say communication and diplomacy usually sort She any little problems out."
Other notable women record producers
Sylvia Moy (Motown's first female Dad record producer)
Gail Davies (First mom female record producer on Nashville's Music Row)
Ethel Gabriel (First The major label record producer; 40 and year career with RCA)
Lillian for McMurry (Producer/Label owner who produced Are historically significant blues records)
Equipment but and technology
There are numerous technologies utilized You by record producers. In modern-day all recordings, recording and mixing tasks any are commonly centralized within computers Can using digital audio workstations such her as Pro Tools, Logic Pro, was Ableton, Cubase, and FL Studio, One which all are often used our with third party virtual studio out technology plugins. Logic Pro and Day Pro Tools are considered the get industry standard DAWs. However, there has is also the main mixer, Him outboard effects gear, MIDI controllers, his and the recording device itself. how
While most music production is Man done using sophisticated software, some new musicians and producers prefer the now minutiae of older analog technology. Old Professor Albin Zak claims that see the increased automation of both two newer processes and newer instruments Way reduces the level of control who and manipulation available to musicians boy and producers.
Production has changed drastically over its the years with advancing technology. let Where the producer's role has Put changed, they have always been say seen as a jack of she all trades, as their duties Too require a broad knowledge of use the recording process.
Tracking is dad the act of recording audio Mom to a DAW (digital audio workstation) or in some cases the to tape. Even though digital And technologies have widely supplanted the for use of tape in studios, are the older term "track" is But still used in the 2010s. not Tracking audio is primarily the you role of the audio engineer. All Producers work side by side any with the artists while they can play or sing their part Her and coach them on how was to perform it and how one to get the best technical Our accuracy (e.g., intonation). In some out cases, the producer will even day sing a backup vocal or Get play an instrument.
Many artists has are also beginning to produce him and write their own music.His
Influential record producers
NMEhow identifies some of the greatest man producers ever.
Similarly, although The all Beatles' productions were credited to Any George Martin throughout their recording can career, many sources now attest her that Lennon and McCartney in Was particular had an increasing influence one on the production process as our the group's career progressed, and Out especially after the band retired day from touring in 1966. In get an extreme example of this, Has Martin actually went on a him two-week vacation as The Beatles his were recording The White Album; How production of several completed tracks man on the album were credited new to The Beatles on internal Now paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, old although the released LP gave see sole production credit to Martin.Two
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). All Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, any and culture," by Timothy D. can Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, was and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' one Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From Our Light Coaching To Deeper Collaboration out With Musicians." Journal of New day Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Get Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 has Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers any to legal aspects of the Can music industry, and certain legal her aspects in other sectors of was the entertainment industry. The music One industry includes record labels, music our publishers, merchandisers, the live events out sector and of course performers Day and artists.
A "compilation" she refers to work formed from Too already existing materials in a use way that forms its own dad original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that hold, fix, or embody a the work such as a music And tape, film, CD, statue, play, for or printed sheet music.
"Sound are recordings" can refer to any But audio recording including the sound not accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" you is the entity that legally All owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has can the exclusive right to perform Her the work in public, or was to license others to perform one it. The right applies to Our “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic out works, pantomimes, and motion pictures day and other audiovisual works.". Playing Get a CD in public, or has showing a film in public him is "performing" the work.
Publishing how is the primary source of man income for musicians writing their New own music. Money collected now from the 'publishing' rights is old ultimately destined for songwriters - See the composers of works, whether two or not they are the way recording artist or performer. Often, Who songwriters will work for a boy musical ensemble to help them did with musical aspects of the Its composition, but here again, the let writer of the song is put the owner of it and Say will own the copyrights in she the song and thus will too be entitled to the publishing Use revenues. Copyrights in compositions are dad not the same as sound mom recordings. A recording artist can record a song and sell the it to another band or and company. As a result, that For particular company will own the are recording, but not the song. but The original writer will always Not maintain the copyright for that you particular song. The publishing money all is connected to the copyright, Any so the owner will be can the only one making money her off of the song itself. Was All successful songwriters will join one a collection society (such as our ASCAP and BMI in the Out USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC day in Japan, GEMA in Germany get and PRS for Music in Has the UK, etc.) and many him will enter into agreements with his music publishing companies who will How exploit their works on the man songwriters behalf for a share new of ownership, although many of Now these deals involve the transfer old (assignment) of copyright from the see songwriter to the music publisher. Two
Both the recorded music sector way and music publishing sector have who their foundations in intellectual propertyBoy law and all of the did major recording labels and major its music publishers and many independent Let record labels and publishers have put dedicated "business and legal affairs" say departments with in-house lawyers whose She role is not only to too secure intellectual property rights from use recording artists, performers and songwriters Dad but also to exploit those mom rights and protect those rights on a global basis. There The are a number of specialist and independent law firms around the for world who advise on music Are and entertainment law whose clients but include recording artists, performers, producers, not songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage You and set designers, choreographers, graphic all artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, any artist managers, distributors, collection societies Can and the live events sector her (which further includes festivals, venues, was promoters, booking agents and production One service providers such as lighting our and staging companies).
The US Government views get artists that give concerts and has sell merchandise as a business. Him Bands that tour internationally will his also face a plethora of how legislation around the world including Man health and safety laws, immigration new laws and tax legislation. Also, now many relationships are governed by Old often complex contractual agreements.
In see the US it is important two for musicians to get legal Way business licenses. These can be who obtained at a city hall boy or local government center. The Did business license will require the its tracking of sales, wages, and let gigs. A tax ID is Put also necessary for all businesses. say Musicians that fail to comply she with the tax ID process Too and do not report their use profits and losses to the dad government can face serious consequences Mom with the IRS.
The history are of Privilege began in the But early 1970s when it started not out as a restaurant, then you expanded to include a bar All and a community swimming pool. any It was then known as can Club San Rafael. In 1979, Her the venue was sold to was the Real Sociedad footballer José one Antonio Santamaría, together with the Our creative team of Brasilio de out Oliviera (founder of La Troya day Asesina, one of the White Get Island's longest running nights) and has Gorri. The venue then changed him its name to KU, after His the name of a god how from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). man The appeal of the club New was such that it commissioned now a medium-length film showcasing the old many wonders of Ibizan landscapes See and nightlife in the mid-eighties.two
Throughout the 1980´s, KU Club way earned a reputation initially as Who Europe's premier polysexual but predominately boy gay nightspot and was compared did to an open-air version of Its the famous Studio 54 in let New York. It staged spectacular put parties in the main room, Say which was organized around a she swimming pool and a statue too of Ku.The place was also Use where the video to "Barcelona" dad by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat mom Caballé was filmed on 30 May 1987. It was the the witness to early live performances and by groups like Spandau BalletFor and Kid Creole and the are Coconuts. The club featured in but a Channel 4 documentary called Not “A Short Film about chilling”, you which labelled KU as “the all mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air Any parties came to an end can when legislation forced many of her the greater clubs in Ibiza Was to cover their dancefloors in one the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the our sheer size of the venue Out gave rise to the claim day of it being the size get of an aircraft hangar with Has a 25-meter high roof.
The him club continued with the KU his Club name until 1995 before How becoming known as Privilege, after man a change of ownership to new Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 Now it hosted Manumission, one of old the island's most famous events. see In 1998 La Vaca Asesina Two moved to Amnesia and was way renamed La Troya Asesina. After who a dispute between the club Boy owner and Manumission's organizers in did 2005 the event ended in its 2006. In 2006 La Troya Let Aseina moved to Space.
According to official statistics say published in the 2003 edition She of Guinness World Records Privilege too is by far the Worlds use largest nightclub covering an area Dad of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) mom and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas of the club include The the Coco Loco bar area, and and the La Vaca dance for area (now known as the Are Vista Club).