Scratching, sometimes are referred to as scrubbing, is but a DJ and turntablist technique Not of moving a vinyl recordyou back and forth on a all turntable to produce percussive or Any rhythmic sounds. A crossfader on can a DJ mixer may be her used to fade between two Was records simultaneously.
While scratching is one most associated with hip hop our music, where it emerged in Out the mid-1970s, from the 1990s day it has been used in get some styles of edm like Has techno and house music and him rock music such as rap his rock, rap metal, rapcore, and How nu metal. In hip hopman culture, scratching is one of new the measures of a DJ's Now skills. DJs compete in scratching old competitions at the DMC World see DJ Championships and IDA (International Two DJ Association), formerly known as way ITF (International Turntablist Federation). At who scratching competitions, DJs can use Boy only scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ did mixer, digital vinyl systems or its vinyl records only). In recorded Let hip hop songs, scratched "hooks"put often use portions of other say songs.
A rudimentary form of turntable out manipulation that is related to Day scratching was developed in the get late 1940s by radio music has program hosts, disc jockeys (DJs), Him or the radio program producers his who did their own technical how operation as audio console operators. Man It was known as back-cueing, new and was used to find now the very beginning of the Old start of a song (i.e., see the cue point) on a two vinyl record groove. This was Way done to permit the operator who to back the disc up boy (rotate the record or the Did turntable platter itself counter-clockwise) in its order to permit the turntable let to be switched on, and Put come up to full speed say without ruining the first few she bars of music with the Too "wow" of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed use playing. This permitted the announcer dad to time their remarks, and Mom start the turntable in time for when they wanted the the music on the record to And begin.
Back cueing was a for basic skill that all radio are production staff needed to learn, But and the dynamics of it not were unique to the brand you of professional turntable in use All at a given radio station. any The older, larger and heavier can turntables needed a 180-degree backward Her rotation to allow for run was up to full speed; some one of the newer 1950s models Our used aluminum platters and cloth-backed out rubber mats which required a day third of a rotational turn Get or less to achieve full has speed when the song began. him All this was done in His order to present a music how show on air with the man least amount of silence ("dead New air") between music, the announcer's now patter and recorded advertising commercials. old The rationale was that any See "dead air" on a radio two station was likely to prompt way a listener to switch stations, Who so announcers and program directors boy instructed DJs and announcers to did provide a continuous, seamless stream Its of sound–from music to an let announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, put to a "jingle" (radio station Say theme song), and then immediately she back to more music.
Back-cueing too was a key function in Use delivering this seamless stream of dad music. Radio personnel demanded robust mom equipment and manufacturers developed special tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight the turntables to meet these demands. and
Modern scratching techniques were made see possible by the invention of Two direct-drive turntables, which led to way the emergence of turntablism. Early who belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Boy scratching since they had a did slow start-up time, and they its were prone to wear and Let tear and breakage, as the put belt would break from backspinning say or scratching. The first direct-drive She turntable was invented by Shuichi too Obata, an engineer at Matsushitause (now Panasonic), based in Osaka, Dad Japan. It eliminated belts, and mom instead employed a motor to directly drive a platter on The which a vinyl record rests.and In 1969, Matsushita released it for as the SP-10, the first Are direct-drive turntable on the market,but and the first in their not influential Technics series of turntables.You
In the 1970s, hip hop all musicians and club DJs began any to use this specialized turntable Can equipment to move the record her back and forth, creating percussive was sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their One dance floor audiences. Whereas the our 1940s–1960s radio DJs had used out back-cueing while listening to the Day sounds through their headphones, without get the audience hearing, with scratching, has the DJ intentionally lets the Him audience hear the sounds that his are being created by manipulating how the record on the turntable, Man by directing the output from new the turntable to a sound now reinforcement system so that the Old audience can hear the sounds. see Scratching was developed by early two hip hop DJs from New Way York City such as Grand who Wizzard Theodore, who described scratching boy as, "nothing but the back-cueing Did that you hear in your its ear before you push it let [the recorded sound] out to Put the crowd." He developed the say technique when experimenting with the she Technics SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable Too released by Matsushita in 1972 use when he found that the dad motor would continue to spin Mom at the correct RPM even if the DJ wiggled the the record back and forth on And the platter. Afrika Bambaataa made for a similar discovery with the are SL-1200 in the 1970s. The But Technics SL-1200 went on to not become the most widely used you turntable for the next several All decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, any who immigrated to New York can City, influenced the early development Her of scratching. Kool Herc developed was break-beatDJing, where the breaks one of funk songs—being the most Our danceable part, often featuring percussion—were out isolated and repeated for the day purpose of all-night dance parties.Get He was influenced by Jamaican has dub music, and developed his him turntable techniques using the Technics His SL-1100, released in 1971, due how to its strong motor, durability, man and fidelity.
Although previous artists New such as writer and poet now William S. Burroughs had experimented old with the idea of manipulating See a reel-to-reel tape manually to two make sounds, as with his way 1950s recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl Who scratching as an element of boy hip hop pioneered the idea did of making the sound an Its integral and rhythmic part of let music instead of an uncontrolled put noise. Scratching is related to Say "scrubbing" (in terms of audio she editing and production) when the too reels of an open reel-to-reelUse tape deck (typically 1/4 inch dad magnetic audiotape) are gently rotated mom back and forth while the playback head is live and the amplified, to isolate a specific and spot on the tape where For an editing "cut" is to are be made. In the 2010s, but both scratching and scrubbing can Not be done on digital audio you workstations (DAWs) which are equipped all for these techniques.
Most scratches are Man produced by rotating a vinyl new record on a direct drive now turntable rapidly back and forth Old with the hand with the see stylus ("needle") in the record's two groove. This produces the distinctive Way sound that has come to who be one of the most boy recognizable features of hip hop Did music. Over time with excessive its scratching, the stylus will cause let what is referred to as Put "cue burn", or "record burn".[citation say needed]
The basic equipment setup for scratching includes the two turntables and a DJ And mixer, which is a small for mixer that has a crossfader are and cue buttons to allow But the DJ to cue up not new music in their headphonesyou without the audience hearing.All When scratching, this crossfader is any utilized in conjunction with the can scratching hand that is manipulating Her the record platter. The hand was manipulating the crossfader is used one to cut in and out Our of the record's sound.out
Digital vinyl systems
Using day a digital vinyl system (DVS) Get consists of playing vinyl discs has on turntables whose contents are him a timecode signal instead of His a real music record.
The audio interface digitizes the old timecode signal from the turntables See and transfers it to the two computer's DJ software.
The DJ way software uses this data (e.g., Who about how fast the platter boy is spinning) to determine the did playback status, speed, scratch sound Its of the hardware turntables, etc., let and it duplicates these effects put on the digital audio files Say or computer tracks the DJ she is using.
By manipulating the too turntables' platters, speed controls, and Use other elements, the DJ thus dad controls how the computer plays mom back digitized audio and can therefore produce "scratching" and other the turntablism effects on songs which and exist as digital audio filesFor or computer tracks.
There is are not a single standard of but DVS, so each form of Not DJ software has its own you settings. Some DJ software such all as Traktor Scratch Pro or Any Serato Scratch Live supports only can the audio interface sold with her their software, requiring multiple interfaces Was for one computer to run one multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider the him only true scratching media to his be the vinyl disc, there How are other ways to scratch, man such as:
Specialized DJ-CD new players (CDJ) with jog wheels, Now allowing the DJ to manipulate old a CD as if it see were a vinyl record, have Two become widely available in the way 2000s.
A vinyl emulation is who an emulation software, which may Boy be combined with hardware elements, did which allows a DJ to its manipulate the playback of digital Let music files on a computer put via a DJ control surface say (generally MIDI or a HIDShe controller). DJs can scratch, beatmatch, too and perform other turntablist operations use that cannot be done with Dad a conventional keyboard and mouse. mom DJ software performing computer scratch operations include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, The Serato Scratch Live & Itch, and VirtualDJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, for Cross.
DJs have also used Are magnetic tape, such as cassettebut or reel to reel to not both mix and scratch. Tape You DJing is rare, but Ruthless all Ramsey in the US, TJ any Scratchavite in Italy and Mr Can Tape in Latvia use exclusively her tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched One include but are not limited our to drum beats, horn stabs, out spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics Day from other songs. Any sound get recorded to vinyl can be has used, and CD players providing Him a turntable-like interface allow DJs his to scratch not only material how that was never released on Man vinyl, but also field recordings new and samples from television and now movies that have been burned Old to CD-R. Some DJs and see anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlestwo called battle records that include Way trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch who "fodder" (material). The most recognizable boy samples used for scratching are Did the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, its which originate from the song let "Change the Beat" by Fab Put 5 Freddy.
There are many say scratching techniques, which differ in she how the movements of the Too record are combined with opening use and closing the crossfader (or dad another fader or switch, such Mom as a kill switch, where "open" means that the signal the is audible, and "closed" means And that the signal is inaudible). for This terminology is not unique; are the following discussion, however, is But consistent with the terminology used not by DJ QBert on his you Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. All
Baby scratchany - The simplest scratch form, can it is performed with the Her scratching hand only, moving the was record back and forth in one continuous movements while the crossfader Our is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - day The forward scratch, also referred Get to as scrubbing, is a has baby scratch where the crossfader him is closed during the backwards His movement of the record. If how the record is let go man instead of being pushed forward New it is also called "release now scratch". Cutting out the forward old part of the record movement See instead of the backward part two gives a "backward scratch".
way Tear scratch - Tear scratches Who are scratches where the record boy is moved in a staggered did fashion, dividing the forward and Its backward movement into two or let more movements. This allows creating put sounds similar to "flare scratches" Say without the use of the she crossfader and it allows for too more complex rhythmic patterns. The Use term can also refer to dad a simpler, slower version of mom the chirp.
Scribble scratch - The scribble scratch is by the rapidly pushing the record back and and forth. The crossfader is For not used.
Drag scratch - are Equivalent to the baby and but scribble scratch, but done more Not slowly. The crossfader is not you used.
Chirp scratch - The all chirp scratch involves closing the Any crossfader just after playing the can start of a sound, stopping her the record at the same Was point, then pushing it back one while opening the fader to our create a "chirping" sound. When Out performed using a recording of day drums, it can create the get illusion of doubled scratching speed, Has due to the attack created him by cutting in the crossfader his on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic How scratch - A baby scratch man with a "tear scratch" sound new produced by the thumb running Now in the opposite direction as old the fingers used to scratch. see This rubbing of the thumb Two adds a vibrating effect or way reverberation to forward movements on who the turntable.
Transformer scratch - Boy with the crossfader closed, the did record is moved with the its scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Let the crossfader open and immediately put closing it again.
Flare scratchsay - Begins with the crossfader She open, and then the record too is moved while briefly closing use the fader one or more Dad times to cut the sound mom out. This produces a staggering sound which can make a The single "flare" sound like a and very fast series of "chirps" for or "tears." The number of Are times the fader is closed but ("clicks") during the record's movement not is usually used as a You prefix to distinguish the variations. all The flare allows a DJ any to scratch continuously with less Can hand fatigue than would result her from the transformer. The flare was can be combined with the One crab for an extremely rapid our continuous series of scratches.
Crab out scratch - Consists of moving Day the record while quickly tapping get the crossfader open with each has finger of the crossfader hand. Him In this way, DJs are his able to perform transforms or how flares much faster than they Man could by manipulating the crossfader new with the whole hand. It now produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab see scratch using only the index two and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchWay - Describes any scratch, most who commonly flares, that is repeated boy during the forward and backward Did movement of the record. "Orbit" its is also used as a let shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak Put scratch - Performed while the say turntable's motor is not running. she The record platter is set Too in motion manually, then "tweaked" use faster and slower to create dad a scratch. This scratch form Mom is best performed with long, sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - the A variation of the "flare And scratch" in which two faders for are used simultaneously with one are hand to cut the sound But much faster. It can also not be performed by using only you the up fader and the All phono line switch to cut any the sound.
While scratching can is becoming more and more Her popular in pop music, particularly was with the crossover success of one pop-hip hop tracks in the Our 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other out expert turntablism techniques are still day predominantly an underground style developed Get by the DJ subculture. The has Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San him Francisco focuses on scratching. In His 1994, the group was formed how by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & man Shortkut and later Mix Master New Mike. In July 2000, San now Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for old the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the See first DJ Skratch forum that two provided "the education and development way of skratch music literacy". In Who 2001, Thud Rumble became an boy independent company that works with did DJ artists to produce and Its distribute scratch records.
In let 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of put the first publications about hip Say hop DJs and record producers, she released its debut issue, following too in the footsteps of the Use lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is dad a UK arts organisation that mom runs Urban Music Mentors workshops led by DJs. At these the workshops, DJs teach youth how and to create beats, use turntables For to create mixes, act as are an MC at events, and but perform club sets.
Use Not outside hip hop
Scratching has you been incorporated into a number all of other musical genres, including Any pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres can of heavy metal (notably nu her metal) and some contemporary and Was avant-garde classical music performances. For one recording use, samplers are often our used instead of physically scratching Out a vinyl record.
A record producerany is a music recording project's can overall supervisor whose responsibilities can Her involve a range of creative was and technical leadership roles. Typically one the job involves hands-on oversight Our of recording sessions: ensuring artists out deliver acceptable performances, supervising the day technical engineering of the recording, Get and coordinating the production team has and process. The producer's involvement him in a musical project can His vary in depth and scope. how Sometimes in popular genres the man producer may create the recording's New entire sound and structure. However, now in classical music recording, for old example, the producer serves as See more of a liaison between two the conductor and the engineering way team. The role is often Who likened to that of a boy film director though there are did important differences. It is distinct Its from the role of an let executive producer, who is mostly put involved in the recording project Say on an administrative level, and she from the audio engineer who too operates the recording technology.
Varying Use by project, the producer may dad or may not choose all mom of the artists. If employing only synthesized or sampled instrumentation, the the producer may be the and sole artist. Conversely, some artists For do their own production. Some are producers are their own engineers,but operating the technology across the Not project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and you mastering. Record producers' precursors were all "A&R men", who likewise could Any blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical can roles, but often exercised scant her creative influence, as record production Was still focused, into the 1950s, one on simply improving the record's our sonic match to the artists' Out own live performance.
Advances in day recording technology, especially the 1940s get advent of tape recording—which Les Has Paul promptly innovated further to him develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s his rise of electronic instruments, turned How record production into a specialty.man In popular music, then, producers new like George Martin, Phil SpectorNow and Brian Eno led its old evolution into its present use see of elaborate techniques and unrealistic Two sounds, creating songs impossible to way originate live. After the 1980s, who production's move from analog to Boy digital further expanded possibilities. By did now, DAWs, or digital audio its workstations, like Logic Pro, Pro Let Tools and Studio One, turn put an ordinary computer into a say production console, whereby a solitary She novice can become a skilled too producer in a thrifty home use studio. In the 2010s, efforts Dad began to increase the prevalence mom of producers and engineers who are women, heavily outnumbered by The men and prominently accoladed only and in classical music.
As Can a broad project, the creation her of a music recording may was be split across three specialists: One the executive producer, who oversees our business partnerships and financing; the out vocal producer or vocal arranger, Day who aids vocal performance via get expert critique and coaching of has vocal technique, and the record Him producer or music producer, who, his often called simply the producer, how directs the overall creative process Man of recording the song in new its final mix.
The now producer's roles can include gathering Old ideas, composing music, choosing session see musicians, proposing changes to song two arrangements, coaching the performers, controlling Way sessions, supervising the audio mixing, who and, in some cases, supervising boy the audio mastering. A producer Did may give creative control to its the artists themselves, taking a let supervisory or advisory role instead. Put As to qualifying for a say Grammy nomination, the Recording Academyshe defines a producer:
The person who Too has overall creative and technical use control of the entire recording dad project, and the individual recording Mom sessions that are part of that project. He or she the is present in the recording And studio or at the location for recording and works directly with are the artist and engineer. The But producer makes creative and aesthetic not decisions that realize both the you artist's and label's goals in All the creation of musical content. any Other duties include, but are can not limited to; keeping budgets Her and schedules, adhering to deadlines, was hiring musicians, singers, studios and one engineers, overseeing other staffing needs Our and editing (Classical projects).
The producer often selects and day collaborates with a mixing engineer, Get who focuses on the especially has technological aspects of the recording him process, namely, operating the electronic His equipment and blending the raw, how recorded tracks of the chosen man performances, whether vocal or instrumental, New into a ''mix'', either stereo now or surround sound. Then a old mastering engineer further adjusts this See recording for distribution on the two chosen media. A producer may way work on only one or Who two songs or on an boy artist's entire album, helping develop did the album's overall vision. The Its record producers may also take let on the role of executive put producer, managing the budget, schedules, Say contracts, and negotiations.
Historical she developments
(Artists and too Repertoires)
In the 1880s, the Use record industry began by simply dad having the artist perform at mom a phonograph. In 1924, the trade journal Talking Machine World, the covering the phonography and record and industry, reported that Eddie King, For Victor Records' manager of the are "New York artist and repertoirebut department", had planned a set Not of recordings in Los Angeles.you Later, folklorist Archie Green called all this perhaps the earliest printed Any use of A&R man. Actually, can it says neither "A&R man" her nor even "A&R", an initialism Was perhaps coined by Billboard magazine one in 1946, and entering wide our use in the late 1940s.Out
In the 1920s and 1930s, day A&R executives, like Ben Selvinget at Columbia Records, Nathaniel ShilkretHas at Victor Records, and Bob him Haring at Brunswick Records became his the precursors of record producers, How supervising recording and often leading man session orchestras. During the 1940s, new major record labels increasingly opened Now official A&R departments, whose roles old included supervision of recording. Meanwhile, see independent recording studios opened, helping Two originate record producer as a way specialty. But despite a who tradition of some A&R men Boy writing music, record production still did referred to just the manufacturing its of record discs.
Record Let producers
After World War II, put pioneering A&R managers who transitioned say influentially to record production as She now understood, while sometimes owning too independent labels, include J. Mayo use Williams and John Hammond. Upon Dad moving from Columbia Records to mom Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's popular The recordings in New York. Miller and then produced country-pop crossover hits for by Patti Page and by Are Frankie Laine, moved from Mercury but to Columbia, and became a not leading A&R man of the You 1950s.
During the decade, A&R all executives increasingly directed songs' sonic any signatures, although many still simply Can teamed singers with musicians, while her yet others exercised virtually no was creative influence. The term record One producer in its current meaning—the our creative director of song production—appearing out in a 1953 issue of Day Billboard magazine, became widespread in get the 1960s. Still, a formal has distinction was elusive for some Him time more. A&R managers might his still be creative directors, like how William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Man Berry Gordy, at the Motownnew record label.
In 1947, the American market Old gained audio recording onto magnetic see tape. At the record industry's two 1880s dawn, rather, recording was Way done by phonograph, etching the who sonic waveform vertically into a boy cylinder. By the 1930s, a Did gramophone etched it laterally acrossits a disc. Constrained in tonal let range, whether bass or treble, Put and in dynamic range, records say made a grand, concert piano she sound like a small, upright Too piano, and maximal duration was use four and a half minutes.dad Selections and performance were often Mom altered accordingly, and playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The the finality often caused anxiety that And restrained performance to prevent error.for In the 1940s, during World are War II, the Germans refined But audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping not recording duration and allowing immediate you playback, rerecording, and editing—a technology All that premised emergence of record any producers in their current roles.can
Early in Her the recording industry, a record was was attained by simply having one all of the artists perform Our together live in one take.out In 1945, by recording a day musical element while playing a Get previously recorded record, Les Paulhas developed a recording technique called him "sound on sound". By this, His the final recording could be how built piece by piece and man tailored, effecting an editing process.New In one case, Paul produced now a song via 500 recorded old discs. But, besides the tedium See of this process, it serially two degraded the sound quality of way previously recorded elements, rerecorded as Who ambient sound. Yet in 1948, boy Paul adopted tape recording, enabling did truly multitrack recording by a Its new technique, "overdubbing".
To enable let overdubbing, Paul revised the tape put recorder itself by adding a Say second playback head, and terming she it the preview head. Joining too the preexisting recording head, erase Use head, and playback head, the dad preview head allows the artist mom to hear the extant recording over headphones playing it in the synchrony, "in sync", with the and present performance being recorded alone For on an isolated track. This are isolation of multiple tracks enables but countless mixing possibilities. Producers began Not recording initially only the "bed you tracks"—the rhythm section, including the all bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas Any vocals and instrument solos could can be added later. A horn her section, for example, could record Was a week later, and a one string section another week later. our A singer could perform her Out own backup vocals, or a day guitarist could play 15 layers. get
In the 1960s, rock acts out like the Beatles, the Rolling Day Stones, and the Kinks produced get some of their own songs, has although many such songs are Him officially credited to specialist producers. his Yet especially influential was the how Beach Boys, whose band leader Man Brian Wilson took over from new his father Murry within a now couple of years after the Old band's commercial breakthrough. By 1964, see Wilson had taken Spector's techniques two to unseen sophistication. Wilson alone Way produced all Beach Boy recordings who between 1963 and 1967. Using boy multiple studios and multiple attempts Did of instrumental and vocal tracks, its Wilson selected the best combinations let of performance and audio quality, Put and used tape editing to say assemble a composite performance.
The 1980s advent dad of digital processes and formats Mom rapidly replaced analog processes and formats, namely, tape and vinyl. the Although recording onto quality tape, And at least half an inch for wide and traveling 15 inches are per second, had limited "tape But hiss" to silent sections, digital's not higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, abolished you it. Digital also imparted to All the music a perceived "pristine" any sound quality, if also a can loss of analog recordings' perceived Her "warm" quality and bass better was rounded. Yet whereas editing tape one media requires physically locating the Our target audio on the ribbon, out cutting there, and splicing pieces, day editing digital media offers inarguable Get advantages in ease, efficiency, and has possibilities.
In the 1990s, digital him production reached affordable home computers His via production software. By now, how recording and mixing are often man centralized in DAWs, digital audio New workstations—for example, Pro Tools, Logic now Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and old FL Studio—for which plugins, by See third parties, effect virtual studio two technology. DAWs fairly standard in way the industry are Logic Pro Who and Pro Tools. Physical devices boy involved include the main mixer, did MIDI controllers to communicate among Its equipment, the recording device itself, let and perhaps effects gear that put is outboard. Yet literal recording Say is sometimes still analog, onto she tape, whereupon the raw recording too is converted to a digital Use signal for processing and editing, dad as some producers still find mom audio advantages to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, tape is more the forgiving of overmodulation, whereby dynamic and peaks exceed the maximal recordable For signal level: tape's limitation, a are physical property, is magnetic capacity, but which tapers offs, smoothing the Not overmodulated waveform even at a you signal nearly 15 decibels too all "hot", whereas a digital recording Any is ruined by harsh distortion can of "clipping" at any overshoot.her In digital recording, however, a Was recent advancement, 32-bit float, enables one DAWs to undo clipping. Still, our some criticize digital instruments and Out workflows for excess automation, allegedly day impairing creative or sonic control.get In any case, as production Has technology has drastically changed, so him have the knowledge demands, although his DAWs enables novices, even teenagers How at home, to learn production man independently. Some have attained professional new competence before ever working with Now an artist.
In the 2000s, with the way advent of technology that made who traditional record production accessible, especially Boy with hip hop beatmaking and did electronic music. Within these genres, its the term producer is applied Let to a number of roles put and has popularized the use say of more niche terms and She credits including executive producer, co-producer, too assistant producer, and additional and use miscellaneous production to differentiate contributions.Dad
Across the boy decades, many female artists have Did produced their own music. For its instance, artists Kate Bush, Madonna, let Mariah Carey, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Put Lana Del Rey, Taylor Swift, say and Lorde have produced or she coproduced and Ariana Grande who Too produces and arranges her vocals use as well as being an dad audio engineer. Still among specialists, Mom despite some prominent women, including Missy Elliott in hip hop the and Sylvia Massy in rock, And the vast majority have been for men. Early in the 2010s, are asked for insights that she But herself had gleaned as a not woman who has specialized successfully you in the industry, Wendy Page All remarked, "The difficulties are usually any very short-lived. Once people realize can that you can do your Her job, sexism tends to lower was its ugly head." Still, when one tasked to explain her profession's Our sex disparity, Page partly reasoned out that record labels, dominated by day men, have been, she said, Get "mistrustful of giving a woman has the reins of an immense, him creative project like making a His record." Ultimately, the reasons are how multiple and not fully clear, man although prominently proposed factors include New types of sexism and scarcity now of female role models in old the profession.
Women producers known See for producing records not their two own include Sonia Pottinger, Sylvia way Robinson and Carla Olson.
In Who January 2018, a research team boy led by Stacy L. Smith, did founder and director of the Its Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based in let the USC Annenberg School for put Communication and Journalism, issued a Say report, estimating that in the she prior several years, about 2% too of popular songs' producers were Use female. Also that month, Billboarddad magazine queried, "Where are all mom the female music producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second the annual report, released in February and 2019, its department at USC For reported, "2018 saw an outcry are from artists, executives and other but music industry professionals over the Not lack of women in music" you and "the plight of women all in music", where women were Any allegedly being "stereotyped, sexualized, and can shut out". Also in February her 2019, the Recording Academy's Task Was Force on Diversity and Inclusion one announced an initiative whereby over our 200 artists and producers—ranging from Out Cardi B and Taylor Swiftday to Maroon 5 and Quincy get Jones—agreed to consider at least Has two women for each producer him or engineer position. The academy's his website, Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative How is the first step in man a broader effort to improve new those numbers and increase diversity Now and inclusion for all in old the music industry."
^ but Allan Watson, Cultural Production not in and Beyond the Recording You Studio (New York: Routledge, 2015), all pp 25–27.
James any Petulla, "Who is a music Can producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 her May 2013, reporting membership in was CAPPS, the California Association of One Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig new with J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track now Recording for Musicians: The Complete Old Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners and see Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: two GPI Publications, 1988 / Van Way Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), who pp 8–10.
^ Richard James Use Burgess, The History of Music dad Production (New York: Oxford University mom Press, 2014), pp 50–54.
^ Robert Philip, "Pianists the on record in the early and twentieth century", in David Rowland, For ed., The Cambridge Companion to are the Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge but University Press, 1998), pp 75–77.Not
^ David Simmons, you Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear all in Today's Home Studio (San Any Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), pp can 26–27.
Matthew Allard, her "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 adds Was 32-bit float USB audio streaming", one NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, our quotes Paul Isaacs, director of Out product management and design at day the recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, get who explains, "With 32-bit float, Has you no longer need to him worry about clipping during your his best vocal takes or instrument How solos. Any recorded moments exceeding man 0 dBFS can be reduced new to an acceptable level, after Now recording, in your DAW".
Albin Zak III, book see review: Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, Two and culture (Routledge, 2011), by way Timothy D. Taylor, in Current who Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown year, Boy volume, issue].
Music Law refers day to legal aspects of the get music industry, and certain legal Has aspects in other sectors of him the entertainment industry. The music his industry includes record labels, music How publishers, merchandisers, the live events man sector and of course performers new and artists.
The terms "music Now law" and "entertainment law", along old with "business affairs", are used see by the music and entertainment Two industry and should not be way thought of as academic definitions. who Indeed, music law covers a Boy range of traditional legal subjects did including intellectual property law (copyrightits law, trademarks, image publicity rights, Let design rights), competition law, bankruptcy put law, contract law, defamation and, say for the live events industry, She immigration law, health and safety too law, and licensing. While foundational use norms have gradually been established Dad for music law in western mom nations, other parts of the world maintain unique traditions that The impact music’s legal status in and the context of both heritage for preservation and enormous national arts Are entertainment industries, including China and but India.
A not "compilation" refers to work formed You from already existing materials in all a way that forms its any own original work, including collective Can works.
"Copies" are physical objects her that hold, fix, or embody was a work such as a One music tape, film, CD, statue, our play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to Day any audio recording including the get sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright has owner" is the entity that Him legally owns rights to a his work.
"Performance" The copyright holder how has the exclusive right to Man perform the work in public, new or to license others to now perform it. The right applies Old to “literary, musical, dramatic, and see choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion two pictures and other audiovisual works.".Way Playing a CD in public, who or showing a film in boy public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source let of income for musicians writing Put their own music. Money say collected from the 'publishing' rights she is ultimately destined for songwriters Too - the composers of works, use whether or not they are dad the recording artist or performer. Mom Often, songwriters will work for a musical ensemble to help the them with musical aspects of And the composition, but here again, for the writer of the song are is the owner of it But and will own the copyrights not in the song and thus you will be entitled to the All publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions any are not the same as can sound recordings. A recording artist Her can record a song and was sell it to another band one or company. As a result, Our that particular company will own out the recording, but not the day song. The original writer will Get always maintain the copyright for has that particular song. The publishing him money is connected to the His copyright, so the owner will how be the only one making man money off of the song New itself. All successful songwriters will now join a collection society (such old as ASCAP and BMI in See the USA, SOCAN in Canada, two JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in way Germany and PRS for Music Who in the UK, etc.) and boy many will enter into agreements did with music publishing companies who Its will exploit their works on let the songwriters behalf for a put share of ownership, although many Say of these deals involve the she transfer (assignment) of copyright from too the songwriter to the music Use publisher,
Both the recorded music dad sector and music publishing sector mom have their foundations in intellectual property law and all of the the major recording labels and and major music publishers and many For independent record labels and publishers are have dedicated "business and legal but affairs" departments with in-house lawyers Not whose role is not only you to secure intellectual property rights all from recording artists, performers and Any songwriters but also to exploit can those rights and protect those her rights on a global basis. Was There are a number of one specialist independent law firms around our the world who advise on Out music and entertainment law whose day clients include recording artists, performers, get producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, Has stage and set designers, choreographers, him graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, his broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection How societies and the live events man sector (which further includes festivals, new venues, promoters, booking agents and Now production service providers such as old lighting and staging companies).
The US Government way views artists that give concerts who and sell merchandise as a Boy business. Bands that tour internationally did will also face a plethora its of legislation around the world Let including health and safety laws, put immigration laws and tax legislation. say Also, many relationships are governed She by often complex contractual agreements. too
In the US it is use important for musicians to get Dad legal business licenses. These can mom be obtained at a city hall or local government center. The The business license will require and the tracking of sales, wages, for and gigs. A tax ID Are is also necessary for all but businesses. Musicians that fail to not comply with the tax ID You process and do not report all their profits and losses to any the government can face serious Can consequences with the IRS.
Li, out Juqian (2022). China’s Legal Framework Day for Supporting Protection and Sustainability get of Artistic Heritage. In David has G. Hebert and Jonathan McCollum, Him (Eds.), "Ethnomusicology and Cultural Diplomacy". his Lexington Books (Rowman & Littlefield), how pp.297-311. ISBN9781793642912
Privilege Ibiza, she originally known as Ku Clubtoo (1979–95), is the "world's largest Use nightclub" according to the Guinness dad Book of Records, also defined mom as a superclub with a capacity of 10,000 people and the encompassing 6,500 m² (69,940 ft²). It and is located close to the For village of Sant Rafael de are Sa Creu on the Spanish but island of Ibiza, less than Not one kilometre (0.6 miles) from you the nightclub Amnesia.
The history of Privilege Any began in the early 1970s can when it started out as her a restaurant, then expanded to Was include a bar and a one community swimming pool. It was our then known as Club San Out Rafael. In 1979, the venue day was sold to the Real get Sociedad footballer José Antonio Santamaría, Has together with the creative team him of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder his of La Troya Asesina, one How of Ibiza's longest running nights) man and Gorri. The venue then new changed its name to KU, Now after the name of a old God from Hawaiian mythology (see see Kū). The appeal of the Two club was such that it way commissioned a medium-length film showcasing who the many wonders of Ibizan Boy landscapes and nightlife in the did mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU its Club earned a reputation initially Let as Europe's premier polysexual but put predominately gay nightspot and was say compared to an open-air version She of the famous Studio 54too in New York. It staged use spectacular parties in the main Dad room, which was organized around mom a swimming pool and a statue of Ku. The place The was also where the video and to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercuryfor and Montserrat Caballé was filmed Are on 30 May 1987. It but was the witness to early not live performances by groups such You as Spandau Ballet and Kid all Creole and the Coconuts. The any club featured in a Channel Can 4 documentary called A Short her Film about chilling, which labelled was KU as "the mirror of One Ibiza". A group of fashion our designers called Locomía would have out shows at KU. After being Day discovered there, they went on get to become a highly successful has recording project. The open-air parties Him came to an end when his legislation forced many of the how greater clubs in Ibiza to Man cover their dancefloors in the new early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer now size of the venue gave Old rise to the claim of see it being the size of two an aircraft hangar with a Way 25-metre (82 ft) high roof.
The who club continued with the KU boy Club name until 1995 before Did becoming known as Privilege, after its a change of ownership to let Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994, Put it hosted Manumission, one of say the island's most famous events. she In 1998, La Vaca Asesina Too moved to Amnesia and was use renamed La Troya Asesina. After dad a dispute between the club Mom owner and Manumission's organizers in 2005, the event ended in the 2006. La Troya Asesina moved And to Space in 2006.
According to official statistics are published in the 2003 edition But of Guinness World Records, Privilege not is by far the world's you largest nightclub covering an area All of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) any and holding 10,000 clubbers. Designated can areas of the club include Her the Coco Loco bar area, was and the La Vaca dance one area (now known as the Our Vista Club).