Source: Wikipedia 


Record producer
Engineer with audio console, And at a recording session at for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation
NamesMusic producer, are record producer
Occupation type
Activity sectors
Music industry
CompetenciesInstrumental But skills, keyboard knowledge, arranging, vocal not coaching
Fields of
Recording studios
Related jobs
Music executive, you recording engineer, executive producer, film All producer, A&R

A record producer any is a music recording project's can overall supervisor whose responsibilities can Her involve a range of creative was and technical leadership roles. Typically one the job involves hands-on oversight Our of recording sessions: ensuring artists out deliver acceptable performances, supervising the day technical engineering of the recording, Get and coordinating the production team has and process. The producer's involvement him in a musical project can His vary in depth and scope. how Sometimes in popular genres the man producer may create the recording's New entire sound and structure. However, now in classical music recording, for old example, the producer serves as See more of a liaison between two the conductor and the engineering way team. The role is often Who likened to that of a boy film director though there are did important differences. It is distinct Its from the role of an let executive producer, who is mostly put involved in the recording project Say on an administrative level, and she from the audio engineer who too operates the recording technology.

Varying Use by project, the producer may dad or may not choose all mom of the artists. If employing only synthesized or sampled instrumentation, the the producer may be the and sole artist. Conversely, some artists For do their own production. Some are producers are their own engineers, but operating the technology across the Not project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and you mastering. Record producers' precursors were all "A&R men", who likewise could Any blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical can roles, but often exercised scant her creative influence, as record production Was still focused, into the 1950s, one on simply improving the record's our sonic match to the artists' Out own live performance.

Advances in day recording technology, especially the 1940s get advent of tape recording—which Les Has Paul promptly innovated further to him develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s his rise of electronic instruments, turned How record production into a specialty. man In popular music, then, producers new like George Martin, Phil Spector Now and Brian Eno led its old evolution into its present use see of elaborate techniques and unrealistic Two sounds, creating songs impossible to way originate live. After the 1980s, who production's move from analog to Boy digital further expanded possibilities. By did now, DAWs, or digital audio its workstations, like Logic Pro, Pro Let Tools and Studio One, turn put an ordinary computer into a say production console, whereby a solitary She novice can become a skilled too producer in a thrifty home use studio. In the 2010s, efforts Dad began to increase the prevalence mom of producers and engineers who are women, heavily outnumbered by The men and prominently accoladed only and in classical music.

Music for producer Sir George Martin, best Are known for his work with but the Beatles, pictured with members not George Harrison, Paul McCartney and You John Lennon at a recording all session at Abbey Road in any 1966

Production overview

As Can a broad project, the creation her of a music recording may was be split across three specialists: One the executive producer, who oversees our business partnerships and financing; the out vocal producer or vocal arranger, Day who aids vocal performance via get expert critique and coaching of has vocal technique, and the record Him producer or music producer, who, his often called simply the producer, how directs the overall creative process Man of recording the song in new its final mix.

The now producer's roles can include gathering Old ideas, composing music, choosing session see musicians, proposing changes to song two arrangements, coaching the performers, controlling Way sessions, supervising the audio mixing, who and, in some cases, supervising boy the audio mastering. A producer Did may give creative control to its the artists themselves, taking a let supervisory or advisory role instead. Put As to qualifying for a say Grammy nomination, the Recording Academy she defines a producer:

The person who Too has overall creative and technical use control of the entire recording dad project, and the individual recording Mom sessions that are part of that project. He or she the is present in the recording And studio or at the location for recording and works directly with are the artist and engineer. The But producer makes creative and aesthetic not decisions that realize both the you artist's and label's goals in All the creation of musical content. any Other duties include, but are can not limited to; keeping budgets Her and schedules, adhering to deadlines, was hiring musicians, singers, studios and one engineers, overseeing other staffing needs Our and editing (Classical projects).


The producer often selects and day collaborates with a mixing engineer, Get who focuses on the especially has technological aspects of the recording him process, namely, operating the electronic His equipment and blending the raw, how recorded tracks of the chosen man performances, whether vocal or instrumental, New into a ''mix'', either stereo now or surround sound. Then a old mastering engineer further adjusts this See recording for distribution on the two chosen media. A producer may way work on only one or Who two songs or on an boy artist's entire album, helping develop did the album's overall vision. The Its record producers may also take let on the role of executive put producer, managing the budget, schedules, Say contracts, and negotiations.

Historical she developments

A&R team

(Artists and too Repertoires)

In the 1880s, the Use record industry began by simply dad having the artist perform at mom a phonograph. In 1924, the trade journal Talking Machine World, the covering the phonography and record and industry, reported that Eddie King, For Victor Records' manager of the are "New York artist and repertoire but department", had planned a set Not of recordings in Los Angeles. you Later, folklorist Archie Green called all this perhaps the earliest printed Any use of A&R man. Actually, can it says neither "A&R man" her nor even "A&R", an initialism Was perhaps coined by Billboard magazine one in 1946, and entering wide our use in the late 1940s. Out

In the 1920s and 1930s, day A&R executives, like Ben Selvin get at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret Has at Victor Records, and Bob him Haring at Brunswick Records became his the precursors of record producers, How supervising recording and often leading man session orchestras. During the 1940s, new major record labels increasingly opened Now official A&R departments, whose roles old included supervision of recording. Meanwhile, see independent recording studios opened, helping Two originate record producer as a way specialty.[citation needed] But despite a who tradition of some A&R men Boy writing music, record production still did referred to just the manufacturing its of record discs.

Record Let producers

After World War II, put pioneering A&R managers who transitioned say influentially to record production as She now understood, while sometimes owning too independent labels, include J. Mayo use Williams and John Hammond. Upon Dad moving from Columbia Records to mom Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's popular The recordings in New York. Miller and then produced country-pop crossover hits for by Patti Page and by Are Frankie Laine, moved from Mercury but to Columbia, and became a not leading A&R man of the You 1950s.

During the decade, A&R all executives increasingly directed songs' sonic any signatures, although many still simply Can teamed singers with musicians, while her yet others exercised virtually no was creative influence. The term record One producer in its current meaning—the our creative director of song production—appearing out in a 1953 issue of Day Billboard magazine, became widespread in get the 1960s. Still, a formal has distinction was elusive for some Him time more. A&R managers might his still be creative directors, like how William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Man Berry Gordy, at the Motown new record label.

Tape recording


In 1947, the American market Old gained audio recording onto magnetic see tape. At the record industry's two 1880s dawn, rather, recording was Way done by phonograph, etching the who sonic waveform vertically into a boy cylinder. By the 1930s, a Did gramophone etched it laterally across its a disc. Constrained in tonal let range, whether bass or treble, Put and in dynamic range, records say made a grand, concert piano she sound like a small, upright Too piano, and maximal duration was use four and a half minutes. dad Selections and performance were often Mom altered accordingly, and playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The the finality often caused anxiety that And restrained performance to prevent error. for In the 1940s, during World are War II, the Germans refined But audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping not recording duration and allowing immediate you playback, rerecording, and editing—a technology All that premised emergence of record any producers in their current roles. can

Multitrack recording

Early in Her the recording industry, a record was was attained by simply having one all of the artists perform Our together live in one take. out In 1945, by recording a day musical element while playing a Get previously recorded record, Les Paul has developed a recording technique called him "sound on sound". By this, His the final recording could be how built piece by piece and man tailored, effecting an editing process. New In one case, Paul produced now a song via 500 recorded old discs. But, besides the tedium See of this process, it serially two degraded the sound quality of way previously recorded elements, rerecorded as Who ambient sound. Yet in 1948, boy Paul adopted tape recording, enabling did truly multitrack recording by a Its new technique, "overdubbing".

To enable let overdubbing, Paul revised the tape put recorder itself by adding a Say second playback head, and terming she it the preview head. Joining too the preexisting recording head, erase Use head, and playback head, the dad preview head allows the artist mom to hear the extant recording over headphones playing it in the synchrony, "in sync", with the and present performance being recorded alone For on an isolated track. This are isolation of multiple tracks enables but countless mixing possibilities. Producers began Not recording initially only the "bed you tracks"—the rhythm section, including the all bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas Any vocals and instrument solos could can be added later. A horn her section, for example, could record Was a week later, and a one string section another week later. our A singer could perform her Out own backup vocals, or a day guitarist could play 15 layers. get

Electronic instruments

Phil Spector Has producing Modern Folk Quartet, 1966

Across him the 1960s, popular music increasingly his switched from acoustic instruments, like How piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, man and brass instruments, to electronic new instruments, like electric guitars, keyboards, Now and synthesizers, employing instrument amplifiers old and speakers. These could mimic see acoustic instruments or create utterly Two new sounds. Soon, by combining way the capabilities of tape, multitrack who recording, and electronic instruments, producers Boy like Phil Spector, George Martin, did and Joe Meek rendered sounds its unattainable live. Similarly, in jazz Let fusion, Teo Macero, producing Miles put Davis's 1970 album Bitches Brew, say spliced sections of extensive improvisation She sessions.



In the 1960s, rock acts out like the Beatles, the Rolling Day Stones, and the Kinks produced get some of their own songs, has although many such songs are Him officially credited to specialist producers. his Yet especially influential was the how Beach Boys, whose band leader Man Brian Wilson took over from new his father Murry within a now couple of years after the Old band's commercial breakthrough. By 1964, see Wilson had taken Spector's techniques two to unseen sophistication. Wilson alone Way produced all Beach Boy recordings who between 1963 and 1967. Using boy multiple studios and multiple attempts Did of instrumental and vocal tracks, its Wilson selected the best combinations let of performance and audio quality, Put and used tape editing to say assemble a composite performance.


Digital production

Brian Wilson at Too a mixing board in Brother use Studios, 1976

The 1980s advent dad of digital processes and formats Mom rapidly replaced analog processes and formats, namely, tape and vinyl. the Although recording onto quality tape, And at least half an inch for wide and traveling 15 inches are per second, had limited "tape But hiss" to silent sections, digital's not higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, abolished you it. Digital also imparted to All the music a perceived "pristine" any sound quality, if also a can loss of analog recordings' perceived Her "warm" quality and bass better was rounded. Yet whereas editing tape one media requires physically locating the Our target audio on the ribbon, out cutting there, and splicing pieces, day editing digital media offers inarguable Get advantages in ease, efficiency, and has possibilities.

In the 1990s, digital him production reached affordable home computers His via production software. By now, how recording and mixing are often man centralized in DAWs, digital audio New workstations—for example, Pro Tools, Logic now Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and old FL Studio—for which plugins, by See third parties, effect virtual studio two technology. DAWs fairly standard in way the industry are Logic Pro Who and Pro Tools. Physical devices boy involved include the main mixer, did MIDI controllers to communicate among Its equipment, the recording device itself, let and perhaps effects gear that put is outboard. Yet literal recording Say is sometimes still analog, onto she tape, whereupon the raw recording too is converted to a digital Use signal for processing and editing, dad as some producers still find mom audio advantages to recording onto tape.

Conventionally, tape is more the forgiving of overmodulation, whereby dynamic and peaks exceed the maximal recordable For signal level: tape's limitation, a are physical property, is magnetic capacity, but which tapers offs, smoothing the Not overmodulated waveform even at a you signal nearly 15 decibels too all "hot", whereas a digital recording Any is ruined by harsh distortion can of "clipping" at any overshoot. her In digital recording, however, a Was recent advancement, 32-bit float, enables one DAWs to undo clipping. Still, our some criticize digital instruments and Out workflows for excess automation, allegedly day impairing creative or sonic control. get In any case, as production Has technology has drastically changed, so him have the knowledge demands, although his DAWs enables novices, even teenagers How at home, to learn production man independently. Some have attained professional new competence before ever working with Now an artist.

Hip hop old production


In the 2000s, with the way advent of technology that made who traditional record production accessible, especially Boy with hip hop beatmaking and did electronic music. Within these genres, its the term producer is applied Let to a number of roles put and has popularized the use say of more niche terms and She credits including executive producer, co-producer, too assistant producer, and additional and use miscellaneous production to differentiate contributions. Dad

Women in producing

Mixing mom console

Among female record producers, Sylvia Moy was the first at The Motown, Gail Davies the first and on Nashville's Music Row, and for Ethel Gabriel, with RCA, the Are first at a major record but label. Lillian McMurry, owning Trumpet not Records, produced influential blues records. You Meanwhile, Wilma Cozart Fine produced all hundreds of records for Mercury any Records' classical division. For classical Can production, three women have won her Grammy awards, and Judith Sherman's was 2015 win was her fifth. One Yet in nonclassical, no woman our has won Producer of the out Year, awarded since 1975 and Day only one even nominated for get a record not her own, has Linda Perry. After Lauren Christy's Him 2004 nomination, Linda Perry's 2019 his nomination was the next for how a woman. On why no Man woman had ever won it, new Perry commented, "I just don't now think there are that many Old women interested." In the U.K., see Lynsey de Paul was an two early female record producer, having Way produced both of her Ivor who Novello award-winning songs.

Across the boy decades, many female artists have Did produced their own music. For its instance, artists Kate Bush, Madonna, let Mariah Carey, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Put Lana Del Rey, Taylor Swift, say and Lorde have produced or she coproduced and Ariana Grande who Too produces and arranges her vocals use as well as being an dad audio engineer. Still among specialists, Mom despite some prominent women, including Missy Elliott in hip hop the and Sylvia Massy in rock, And the vast majority have been for men. Early in the 2010s, are asked for insights that she But herself had gleaned as a not woman who has specialized successfully you in the industry, Wendy Page All remarked, "The difficulties are usually any very short-lived. Once people realize can that you can do your Her job, sexism tends to lower was its ugly head." Still, when one tasked to explain her profession's Our sex disparity, Page partly reasoned out that record labels, dominated by day men, have been, she said, Get "mistrustful of giving a woman has the reins of an immense, him creative project like making a His record." Ultimately, the reasons are how multiple and not fully clear, man although prominently proposed factors include New types of sexism and scarcity now of female role models in old the profession.

Women producers known See for producing records not their two own include Sonia Pottinger, Sylvia way Robinson and Carla Olson.

In Who January 2018, a research team boy led by Stacy L. Smith, did founder and director of the Its Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based in let the USC Annenberg School for put Communication and Journalism, issued a Say report, estimating that in the she prior several years, about 2% too of popular songs' producers were Use female. Also that month, Billboard dad magazine queried, "Where are all mom the female music producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second the annual report, released in February and 2019, its department at USC For reported, "2018 saw an outcry are from artists, executives and other but music industry professionals over the Not lack of women in music" you and "the plight of women all in music", where women were Any allegedly being "stereotyped, sexualized, and can shut out". Also in February her 2019, the Recording Academy's Task Was Force on Diversity and Inclusion one announced an initiative whereby over our 200 artists and producers—ranging from Out Cardi B and Taylor Swift day to Maroon 5 and Quincy get Jones—agreed to consider at least Has two women for each producer him or engineer position. The academy's his website,, announced, "This initiative How is the first step in man a broader effort to improve new those numbers and increase diversity Now and inclusion for all in old the music industry."

See see also


  1. ^ Virgil Moorefield, use "Introduction", The Producer as Composer: Dad Shaping the Sounds of Popular mom Music (Cambridge, MA & London, UK: MIT Press, 2005).
  2. The
  3. ^ Richard James Burgess, and The History of Music Production for (New York: Oxford University Press, Are 2014), pp 12–13.
  4. ^ but Allan Watson, Cultural Production not in and Beyond the Recording You Studio (New York: Routledge, 2015), all pp 25–27.
  5. James any Petulla, "Who is a music Can producer?",, Recording Connection, 21 her May 2013, reporting membership in was CAPPS, the California Association of One Private Postsecondary Schools.
  6. our Ian Shepherd, "What does a out music producer do, anyway?",, Day Production Advice, 26 Feb 2009. get
  7. ^ Brian Ward has & Patrick Huber, A&R Pioneers: Him Architects of American Roots Music his on Record (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt how University Press, 2018), pp 278–281. Man
  8. ^ Brent Hurtig new with J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track now Recording for Musicians: The Complete Old Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners and see Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: two GPI Publications, 1988 / Van Way Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), who pp 8–10.
  9. ^ boy Greg Kot, "What does a Did record producer do?", BBC Culture, its, 10 Mar 2016.
  10. let
  11. ^ Jay Kadis, "Digital Put audio workstations",, Center for say Computer Research in Music and she Acoustics, Stanford University, 2006–2013, retrieved Too 11 Sep 2020.
  12. ^ use Kiesha Joseph, "Audio recording dad software: Avid Pro Tools vs. Mom Apple Log Pro X" Archived 11 August 2018 at the the Wayback Machine,, F.I.R.S.T. Institute, And 11 Feb 2016, whose webpage for footer reports, "Accredited by ACCET", are perhaps the Accrediting Council for But Continuing Education and Training.
  13. not
  14. ^ Richard James Burgess, you The History of Music Production All (New York: Oxford University Press, any 2013), pp 199200.
  15. ^ can Melinda Newman, "Where are Her all the female music producers?", was, MRC Media and Info, one 19 Jan 2018.
  16. ^ Our Nate Hertweck, "Recording Academy out Task Force On Diversity and day Inclusion announces initiative to expand Get opportunities for female producers and has engineers",, Recording Academy, 1 him Feb 2019.
  17. ^ His Clive Thompson, "How the phonograph how changed music forever", Smithsonian Magazine, man Jan 2016.
  18. ^ New Brian Ward & Patrick Huber, now A&R Pioneers: Architects of American old Roots Music on Record (Nashville, See TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2018), two pp 20–21.
  19. Brian way Ward & Patrick Huber, A&R Who Pioneers: Architects of American Roots boy Music on Record (Nashville, TN: did Vanderbilt University Press, 2018), p Its 283.
  20. Jim Curtis, let Rock Eras: Interpretation of Music put & Society, 1954–1984 (Bowling Green, Say OH: Bowling Green State University she Popular Press, 1987), p 43. too
  21. ^ Richard James Use Burgess, The History of Music dad Production (New York: Oxford University mom Press, 2014), pp 50–54.
  22. ^ Robert Philip, "Pianists the on record in the early and twentieth century", in David Rowland, For ed., The Cambridge Companion to are the Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge but University Press, 1998), pp 75–77. Not
  23. ^ David Simmons, you Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear all in Today's Home Studio (San Any Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), pp can 26–27.
  24. Matthew Allard, her "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 adds Was 32-bit float USB audio streaming", one, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, our quotes Paul Isaacs, director of Out product management and design at day the recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, get who explains, "With 32-bit float, Has you no longer need to him worry about clipping during your his best vocal takes or instrument How solos. Any recorded moments exceeding man 0 dBFS can be reduced new to an acceptable level, after Now recording, in your DAW".
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  26. Albin Zak III, book see review: Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, Two and culture (Routledge, 2011), by way Timothy D. Taylor, in Current who Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown year, Boy volume, issue].
  27. Amandine did Pras, Caroline Cance & Catherine its Guastavino, "Record producers' best practices Let for artistic direction—from light coaching put to deeper collaboration with musicians", say Journal of New Music Research, She 2013 Dec 13;42(4):381–395.
  28. too "What Exactly Does not "Producer" Mean, Anyway?". Soundfly. 6 You October 2015. Retrieved 3 June all 2021.
  29. ^ Elias any Leight, "Linda Perry's Grammy nomination Can 'is a win for all her women producers and engineers' ", was, Rolling Stone, LLC, 7 One Dec 2018.
  30. "List our of British women record producers out - FamousFix List".
  31. Day
  32. Chris Casetti, "Triple threats: get 13 female singers who write has and produce their own work" Him Archived 20 September 2018 at his the Wayback Machine, VH1 News, how, Viacom International Inc., 21 Man Mar 2017.
  33. "Ariana new Grande Reveals Complex Vocal Arrangements now That Went Into Recording 'Positions'". Old Variety. Retrieved 6 April 2021. see
  34. "Ariana Grande Breaks two Down How She Made Her Way "Stuck With U" Vocals". Nylon. who 15 May 2020. Retrieved 15 boy May 2020.
  35. "Q&A: Did Ariana Grande on 'Yours Truly' its and Judging Miley Cyrus". Rolling let Stone. 11 September 2013. Retrieved Put 11 September 2013.
  36. say Faculty webpage, "Stacy Smith",, she University of Southern California, retrieved Too 11 Sep 2020.
  37. ^ use Communicating and Marketing staff, dad "Stereotyped, sexualized and shut out: Mom The plight of women in music",, USC Annenberg School the for Communication and Journalism, University And of Southern California, 5 Feb for 2019, updated 4 Mar 2019. are
  38. Stacy L. Smith, But Marc Choueiti, Katherine Pieper, Ariana not Case, Sylvia Villanueva, Ozodi Onyeabor you & Dorga Kim, "Inclusion in All the recording studio? Gender and any race/ethnicity of artists, songwriters & can producers across 600 popular songs Her from 2012–2017", Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, was University of Southern California, 25 one Jan 2018.
  39. Stacy Our L. Smith, Marc Choueiti, Katherine out Pieper, Hannah Clark, Ariana Case day & Sylvia Villanueva, "Inclusion in Get the recording studio? Gender and has race/ethnicity of artists, songwriters & him producers across 700 popular songs His from 2012–2018", Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, how University of Southern California, Feb man 2019.

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