A record his producer is a music recording How project's overall supervisor whose responsibilities man can involve a range of new creative and/or technical leadership roles. Now Typically the job involves hands-on old oversight of recording sessions: ensuring see artists deliver acceptable performances, supervising Two the technical engineering of the way recording, and coordinating the production who team and process. The producer's Boy involvement in a musical project did can vary in depth and its scope. Sometimes in popular genres Let the producer may create the put recording's entire sound and structure.say However in classical music recording, She for example, the producer serves too as more of a liaison use between the conductor and the Dad engineering team. The role is mom often likened to that of a film director though there The are important differences. It is and distinct from the role of for an executive producer, who is Are mostly involved in the recording but project on an administrative level, not and from the audio engineerYou who operates the recording technology. all
Varying by project, the producer any may or may not choose Can all of the artists. If her employing only synthesized or sampledwas instrumentation, the producer may be One the sole artist. Conversely, some our artists do their own production.out Some producers are their own Day engineers, operating the technology across get the project: preproduction, recording, mixing, has and mastering. Record producers' precursors Him were "A&R men", who likewise his could blend entrepreneurial, creative, and how technical roles, but often exercised Man scant creative influence, as record new production still focused, into the now 1950s, on simply improving the Old record's sonic match to the see artists' own live performance.
Advances two in recording technology, especially the Way 1940s advent of tape recording—which who Les Paul promptly innovated further boy to develop multitrack recording—and the Did 1950s rise of electronic instruments, its turned record production into a let specialty. In popular music, then, Put producers like George Martin, Phil say Spector and Brian Eno led she its evolution into its present Too use of elaborate techniques and use unrealistic sounds, creating songs impossible dad to originate live. After the Mom 1980s, production's move from analog to digital further expanded possibilities.the By now, DAWs, or digital And audio workstations, like Logic Pro, for Pro Tools and Studio One, are turn an ordinary computer into But a production console, whereby a not solitary novice can become a you skilled producer in a thrifty All home studio. In the 2010s, any efforts began to increase the can prevalence of producers and engineers Her who are women, heavily outnumbered was by men and prominently accoladed one only in classical music.
As a broad project, man the creation of a music New recording may be split across now three specialists: the executive producer, old who oversees business partnerships and See financing; the vocal producer or two vocal arranger, who aids vocal way performance via expert critique and Who coaching of vocal technique, and boy the record producer or music did producer, who, often called simply Its the producer, directs the overall let creative process of recording the put song in its final mix. Say
The producer's roles can she include gathering ideas, composing music, too choosing session musicians, proposing changes Use to song arrangements, coaching the dad performers, controlling sessions, supervising the mom audio mixing, and, in some cases, supervising the audio mastering. the A producer may give creative and control to the artists themselves, For taking a supervisory or advisory are role instead. As to qualifying but for a Grammy nomination, the Not Recording Academy defines a producer:
The you person who has overall creative all and technical control of the Any entire recording project, and the can individual recording sessions that are her part of that project. He Was or she is present in one the recording studio or at our the location recording and works Out directly with the artist and day engineer. The producer makes creative get and aesthetic decisions that realize Has both the artist's and label's him goals in the creation of his musical content. Other duties include, How but are not limited to; man keeping budgets and schedules, adhering new to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, Now studios and engineers, overseeing other old staffing needs and editing (Classical see projects).
The producer often Two selects and collaborates with a way mixing engineer, who focuses on who the especially technological aspects of Boy the recording process, namely, operating did the electronic equipment and blending its the raw, recorded tracks of Let the chosen performances, whether vocal put or instrumental, into a ''mix'', say either stereo or surround sound. She Then a mastering engineer further too adjusts this recording for distribution use on the chosen media. A Dad producer may work on only mom one or two songs or on an artist's entire album, The helping develop the album's overall and vision. The record producers may for also take on the role Are of executive producer, managing the but budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. not
(Artists and Repertoires)
In the all 1880s, the record industry began any by simply having the artist Can perform at a phonograph. In her 1924, the trade journal Talking was Machine World, covering the phonography One and record industry, reported that our Eddie King, Victor Records' manager out of the "New York artist Day and repertoire department", had planned get a set of recordings in has Los Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Him Green called this perhaps the his earliest printed use of A&R how man. Actually, it says neither Man "A&R man" nor even "A&R", new an initialism perhaps coined by now Billboard magazine in 1946, and Old entering wide use in the see late 1940s.
In the 1920s two and 1930s, A&R executives, like Way Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, who Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records, boy and Bob Haring at Brunswick Did Records became the precursors of its record producers, supervising recording and let often leading session orchestras. During Put the 1940s, major record labelssay increasingly opened official A&R departments, she whose roles included supervision of Too recording. Meanwhile, independent recording studios use opened, helping originate record producerdad as a specialty. But Mom despite a tradition of some A&R men writing music, record the production still referred to just And the manufacturing of record discs.for
After World are War II, pioneering A&R managers But who transitioned influentially to record not production as now understood, while you sometimes owning independent labels, include All J. Mayo Williams and John any Hammond. Upon moving from Columbia can Records to Mercury Records, Hammond Her appointed Mitch Miller to lead was Mercury's popular recordings in New one York. Miller then produced country-pop Our crossover hits by Patti Pageout and by Frankie Laine, moved day from Mercury to Columbia, and Get became a leading A&R man has of the 1950s.
During the him decade, A&R executives increasingly directed His songs' sonic signatures, although many how still simply teamed singers with man musicians, while yet others exercised New virtually no creative influence. The now term record producer in its old current meaning—the creative director of See song production—appearing in a 1953 two issue of Billboard magazine, became way widespread in the 1960s. Still, Who a formal distinction was elusive boy for some time more. A&R did managers might still be creative Its directors, like William "Mickey" Stevenson, let hired by Berry Gordy, at put the Motown record label.
In 1947, the she American market gained audio recording too onto magnetic tape. At the Use record industry's 1880s dawn, rather, dad recording was done by phonograph, mom etching the sonic waveform vertically into a cylinder. By the the 1930s, a gramophone etched it and laterally across a disc. Constrained For in tonal range, whether bass are or treble, and in dynamic but range, records made a grand, Not concert piano sound like a you small, upright piano, and maximal all duration was four and a Any half minutes. Selections and performance can were often altered accordingly, and her playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed Was it. The finality often caused one anxiety that restrained performance to our prevent error. In the 1940s, Out during World War II, the day Germans refined audio recording onto get magnetic tape—uncapping recording duration and Has allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and him editing—a technology that premised emergence his of record producers in their How current roles.
Early in the recording industry, new a record was attained by Now simply having all of the old artists perform together live in see one take. In 1945, by Two recording a musical element while way playing a previously recorded record, who Les Paul developed a recording Boy technique called "sound on sound".did By this, the final recording its could be built piece by Let piece and tailored, effecting an put editing process. In one case, say Paul produced a song via She 500 recorded discs. But, besides too the tedium of this process, use it serially degraded the sound Dad quality of previously recorded elements, mom rerecorded as ambient sound. Yet in 1948, Paul adopted tape The recording, enabling truly multitrack recording and by a new technique, "overdubbing".for
To enable overdubbing, Paul revised Are the tape recorder itself by but adding a second playback head, not and terming it the preview You head. Joining the preexisting recording all head, erase head, and playback any head, the preview head allows Can the artist to hear the her extant recording over headphones playing was it in synchrony, "in sync", One with the present performance being our recorded alone on an isolated out track. This isolation of multiple Day tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. get Producers began recording initially only has the "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, Him including the bassline, drums, and his rhythm guitar—whereas vocals and instrument how solos could be added later. Man A horn section, for example, new could record a week later, now and a string section another Old week later. A singer could see perform her own backup vocals, two or a guitarist could play Way 15 layers.
In the 1960s, rock acts All like the Beatles, the Rolling any Stones, and the Kinks produced can some of their own songs, Her although many such songs are was officially credited to specialist producers.[citation one needed] Yet especially influential was Our the Beach Boys, whose band out leader Brian Wilson took over day from his father Murry within Get a couple of years after has the band's commercial breakthrough. By him 1964, Wilson had taken Spector's His techniques to unseen sophistication.how Wilson alone produced all Beach man Boy recordings between 1963 and New 1967. Using multiple studios now and multiple attempts of instrumental old and vocal tracks, Wilson selected See the best combinations of performance two and audio quality, and used way tape editing to assemble a Who composite performance.
The 1980s advent let of digital processes and formats put rapidly replaced analog processes and Say formats, namely, tape and vinyl. she Although recording onto quality tape, too at least half an inch Use wide and traveling 15 inches dad per second, had limited "tape mom hiss" to silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, abolished the it. Digital also imparted to and the music a perceived "pristine" For sound quality, if also a are loss of analog recordings' perceived but "warm" quality and bass better Not rounded. Yet whereas editing tape you media requires physically locating the all target audio on the ribbon, Any cutting there, and splicing pieces, can editing digital media offers inarguable her advantages in ease, efficiency, and Was possibilities.
In the 1990s, digital one production reached affordable home computers our via production software. By now, Out recording and mixing are often day centralized in DAWs, digital audio get workstations—for example, Pro Tools, Logic Has Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and him FL Studio—for which plugins, by his third parties, effect virtual studio How technology. DAWs fairly standard in man the industry are Logic Pro new and Pro Tools. Physical devices Now involved include the main mixer, old MIDI controllers to communicate among see equipment, the recording device itself, Two and perhaps effects gear that way is outboard. Yet literal recording who is sometimes still analog, onto Boy tape, whereupon the raw recording did is converted to a digital its signal for processing and editing, Let as some producers still find put audio advantages to recording onto say tape.
Conventionally, tape is more She forgiving of overmodulation, whereby dynamic too peaks exceed the maximal recordable use signal level: tape's limitation, a Dad physical property, is magnetic capacity, mom which tapers offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform even at a The signal nearly 15 decibels too and "hot", whereas a digital recording for is ruined by harsh distortion Are of "clipping" at any overshoot.but In digital recording, however, a not recent advancement, 32-bit float, enables You DAWs to undo clipping. Still, all some criticize digital instruments and any workflows for excess automation, allegedly Can impairing creative or sonic control.her In any case, as production was technology has drastically changed, so One have the knowledge demands, although our DAWs enables novices, even teenagers out at home, to learn production Day independently. Some have attained professional get competence before ever working with has an artist.
In the 2000s, with the Man advent of technology that made new traditional record production accessible, especially now with hip hop beatmaking and Old electronic music. Within these genres, see the term producer is applied two to a number of roles Way and has popularized the use who of more niche terms and boy credits including executive producer, co-producer, Did assistant producer, and additional and its miscellaneous production to differentiate contributions.let
Across the His decades, many female artists have how produced their own music. For man instance, artists Kate Bush, Madonna, New Mariah Carey, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, now Lana Del Rey, Taylor Swift, old and Lorde have produced or See coproduced and Ariana Grande who two produces and arranges her vocals way as well as being an Who audio engineer. Still among specialists, boy despite some prominent women, including did Missy Elliott in hip hop Its and Sylvia Massy in rock, let the vast majority have been put men. Early in the 2010s, Say asked for insights that she she herself had gleaned as a too woman who has specialized successfully Use in the industry, Wendy Page dad remarked, "The difficulties are usually mom very short-lived. Once people realize that you can do your the job, sexism tends to lower and its ugly head." Still, when For tasked to explain her profession's are sex disparity, Page partly reasoned but that record labels, dominated by Not men, have been, she said, you "mistrustful of giving a woman all the reins of an immense, Any creative project like making a can record." Ultimately, the reasons are her multiple and not fully clear, Was although prominently proposed factors include one types of sexism and scarcity our of female role models in Out the profession.
Women producers known day for producing records not their get own include Sonia Pottinger, Sylvia Has Robinson and Carla Olson.
In him January 2018, a research team his led by Stacy L. Smith, How founder and director of the man Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based in new the USC Annenberg School for Now Communication and Journalism, issued a old report, estimating that in the see prior several years, about 2% Two of popular songs' producers were way female. Also that month, Billboardwho magazine queried, "Where are all Boy the female music producers?" Upon did the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second its annual report, released in February Let 2019, its department at USC put reported, "2018 saw an outcry say from artists, executives and other She music industry professionals over the too lack of women in music" use and "the plight of women Dad in music", where women were mom allegedly being "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut out". Also in February The 2019, the Recording Academy's Task and Force on Diversity and Inclusion for announced an initiative whereby over Are 200 artists and producers—ranging from but Cardi B and Taylor Swiftnot to Maroon 5 and Quincy You Jones—agreed to consider at least all two women for each producer any or engineer position. The academy's Can website, Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative her is the first step in was a broader effort to improve One those numbers and increase diversity our and inclusion for all in out the music industry."
^ she Allan Watson, Cultural Production Too in and Beyond the Recording use Studio (New York: Routledge, 2015), dad pp 25–27.
James Mom Petulla, "Who is a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 the May 2013, reporting membership in And CAPPS, the California Association of for Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig one with J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Our Recording for Musicians: The Complete out Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners and day Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: Get GPI Publications, 1988 / Van has Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), him pp 8–10.
^ Richard James way Burgess, The History of Music who Production (New York: Oxford University Boy Press, 2014), pp 50–54.
^ Robert Philip, "Pianists its on record in the early Let twentieth century", in David Rowland, put ed., The Cambridge Companion to say the Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge She University Press, 1998), pp 75–77.too
Reportedly self-produced entirely use are the Rolling Stones' Decca Dad recordings
^ David mom Simmons, Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear in Today's Home StudioThe (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), and pp 26–27.
Matthew for Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 Are adds 32-bit float USB audio but streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan not 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director You of product management and design all at the recorder manufacturer Sound any Devices, who explains, "With 32-bit Can float, you no longer need her to worry about clipping during was your best vocal takes or One instrument solos. Any recorded moments our exceeding 0 dBFS can be out reduced to an acceptable level, Day after recording, in your DAW".get
Albin Zak III, has book review: Strange Sounds: Music, Him Technology, and culture (Routledge, 2011), his by Timothy D. Taylor, in how Current Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown Man year, volume, issue].
Music Law refers to legal and aspects of the music industry, for and certain legal aspects in Are other sectors of the entertainment but industry. The music industry includes not record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, You the live events sector and all of course performers and artists. any
The terms "music law" and Can "entertainment law", along with "business her affairs", are used by the was music and entertainment industry and One should not be thought of our as academic definitions. Indeed, music out law covers a range of Day traditional legal subjects including intellectual get property law (copyright law, trademarks, has image publicity rights, design rights), Him competition law, bankruptcy law, contract his law, defamation and, for the how live events industry, immigration law, Man health and safety law, and new licensing. While foundational norms have now gradually been established for music Old law in western nations, other see parts of the world maintain two unique traditions that impact music’s Way legal status in the context who of both heritage preservation and boy enormous national arts entertainment industries, Did including China and India.
A "compilation" refers let to work formed from already Put existing materials in a way say that forms its own original she work, including collective works.
"Copies" Too are physical objects that hold, use fix, or embody a work dad such as a music tape, Mom film, CD, statue, play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" the can refer to any audio And recording including the sound accompanying for motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is are the entity that legally owns But rights to a work.
"Performance" not The copyright holder has the you exclusive right to perform the All work in public, or to any license others to perform it. can The right applies to “literary, Her musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, was pantomimes, and motion pictures and one other audiovisual works.". Playing a Our CD in public, or showing out a film in public is day "performing" the work.
Publishing is has the primary source of income him for musicians writing their own His music. Money collected from how the 'publishing' rights is ultimately man destined for songwriters - the New composers of works, whether or now not they are the recording old artist or performer. Often, songwritersSee will work for a musical two ensemble to help them with way musical aspects of the composition, Who but here again, the writer boy of the song is the did owner of it and will Its own the copyrights in the let song and thus will be put entitled to the publishing revenues. Say Copyrights in compositions are not she the same as sound recordings. too A recording artist can record Use a song and sell it dad to another band or company. mom As a result, that particular company will own the recording, the but not the song. The and original writer will always maintain For the copyright for that particular are song. The publishing money is but connected to the copyright, so Not the owner will be the you only one making money off all of the song itself. All Any successful songwriters will join a can collection society (such as ASCAP her and BMI in the USA, Was SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in one Japan, GEMA in Germany and our PRS for Music in the Out UK, etc.) and many will day enter into agreements with music get publishing companies who will exploit Has their works on the songwriters him behalf for a share of his ownership, although many of these How deals involve the transfer (assignment) man of copyright from the songwriter new to the music publisher,
Both Now the recorded music sector and old music publishing sector have their see foundations in intellectual property law Two and all of the major way recording labels and major music who publishers and many independent record Boy labels and publishers have dedicated did "business and legal affairs" departments its with in-house lawyers whose role Let is not only to secure put intellectual property rights from recording say artists, performers and songwriters but She also to exploit those rights too and protect those rights on use a global basis. There are Dad a number of specialist independent mom law firms around the world who advise on music and The entertainment law whose clients include and recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, for labels, music publishers, stage and Are set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, but games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist not managers, distributors, collection societies and You the live events sector (which all further includes festivals, venues, promoters, any booking agents and production service Can providers such as lighting and her staging companies).
The US Government views artists our that give concerts and sell out merchandise as a business. Bands Day that tour internationally will also get face a plethora of legislation has around the world including health Him and safety laws, immigration laws his and tax legislation. Also, many how relationships are governed by often Man complex contractual agreements.
In the new US it is important for now musicians to get legal business Old licenses. These can be obtained see at a city hall or two local government center. The business Way license will require the tracking who of sales, wages, and gigs. boy A tax ID is also Did necessary for all businesses. Musicians its that fail to comply with let the tax ID process and Put do not report their profits say and losses to the government she can face serious consequences with Too the IRS.
The did history of Privilege began in its the early 1970s when it Let started out as a restaurant, put then expanded to include a say bar and a community swimming She pool. It was then known too as Club San Rafael. In use 1979, the venue was sold Dad to the Real Sociedad footballer mom José Antonio Santamaría, together with the creative team of Brasilio The de Oliviera (founder of La and Troya Asesina, one of the for White Island's longest running nights) Are and Gorri. The venue then but changed its name to KU, not after the name of a You God from Hawaiian mythology (see all Kū). The appeal of the any club was such that it Can commissioned a medium-length film showcasing her the many wonders of Ibizan was landscapes and nightlife in the One mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU our Club earned a reputation initially out as Europe's premier polysexual but Day predominately gay nightspot and was get compared to an open-air version has of the famous Studio 54Him in New York. It staged his spectacular parties in the main how room, which was organized around Man a swimming pool and a new statue of Ku. The place now was also where the video Old to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercurysee and Montserrat Caballé was filmed two on 30 May 1987. It Way was the witness to early who live performances by groups like boy Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole Did and the Coconuts. The club its featured in a Channel 4let documentary called “A Short Film Put about chilling”, which labelled KU say as “the mirror of Ibiza”.she A group of fashion designers Too called Locomía would have shows use at KU. After being discovered dad there, they went on to Mom become a highly successful recording project. The open-air parties came the to an end when legislation And forced many of the greater for clubs in Ibiza to cover are their dancefloors in the early But 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer size not of the venue gave rise you to the claim of it All being the size of an any aircraft hangar with a 25-meter can high roof.
The club continued Her with the KU Club name was until 1995 before becoming known one as Privilege, after a change Our of ownership to Jose Maria out Etxaniz. In 1994 it hosted day Manumission, one of the island's Get most famous events. In 1998 has La Vaca Asesina moved to him Amnesia and was renamed La His Troya Asesina. After a dispute how between the club owner and man Manumission's organizers in 2005 the New event ended in 2006. In now 2006 La Troya Asesina moved old to Space.
According See to official statistics published in two the 2003 edition of Guinness way World Records Privilege is by Who far the world's largest nightclub boy covering an area of 69,968 did sq ft (6,500 m2) and holding Its 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas of let the club include the Coco put Loco bar area, and the Say La Vaca dance area (now she known as the Vista Club).too