Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A Was record producer or music producerone is a recording project's creative our and technical leader, commanding studio Out time and coaching artists, and day in popular genres typically creates get the song's very sound and Has structure. The record producer, or him simply the producer, is likened his to a film director. The How executive producer, on the other man hand, enables the recording project new through entrepreneurship, and an audio Now engineer operates the technology.
Varying old by project, the producer may see also choose all of the Two artists, or openly perform vocals way with them. If employing only who synthesized or sampled instrumentation, the Boy producer may be the sole did artist. Conversely, some artists do its their own production. And some Let producers are their own engineers,put operating the technology across the say project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and She mastering. Record producers' precursors were too "A&R men," who likewise could use blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical Dad roles, but often exercised scant mom creative influence, as record production still focused, into the 1950s, The on simply improving the record's and sonic match to the artists' for own live performance.
Advances in Are recording technology, especially the 1940s but advent of tape recording—which Les not Paul promptly innovated further to You develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s all rise of electronic instruments, turned any record production into a specialty.Can In popular music, then, producers her like George Martin, Phil Spectorwas and Brian Eno led its One evolution into its present use our of elaborate techniques and unrealistic out sounds, creating songs impossible to Day originate live. After the 1980s, get production's move from analog to has digital further expanded possibilities. By Him now, DAWS, or digital audio his workstations, like Logic Pro and how Pro Tools, turn an ordinary Man computer into a production console,new whereby a solitary novice can now become a skilled producer in Old a thrifty home studio. In see the 2010s, efforts began to two increase the prevalence of producers Way and engineers who are women, who heavily outnumbered by men and boy prominently accoladed only in classical Did music.
As a broad you project, the creation of a All music recording may be split any across three specialists: the executive can producer, who oversees business partnerships Her and financing, the vocal producer was or vocal arranger, who aids one vocal performance via expert critique Our and coaching of vocal technique, out and the record producer or day music producer, who, often called Get simply the producer, directs the has overall creative process of recording him the song in its final His mix.
The record producer's how roles include, but may exceed, man gathering ideas, composing music, choosing New session musicians, proposing changes to now song arrangements, coaching the performers, old controlling sessions, supervising the audio See mixing, and, in some cases, two supervising the audio mastering. As way to qualifying for a GrammyWho nomination, the Recording Academy defines boy a producer:
The person who has did overall creative and technical control Its of the entire recording project, let and the individual recording sessions put that are part of that Say project. He or she is she present in the recording studio too or at the location recording Use and works directly with the dad artist and engineer. The producer mom makes creative and aesthetic decisions that realize both the artist's the and label's goals in the and creation of musical content. Other For duties include, but are not are limited to; keeping budgets and but schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring Not musicians, singers, studios and engineers, you overseeing other staffing needs and all editing (Classical projects).
The Any producer often selects and collaborates can with a mixing engineer, who her focuses on the especially technological Was aspects of the recording process, one namely, operating the electronic equipment our and blending the raw, recorded Out tracks of the chosen performances, day whether vocal or instrumental, into get a ''mix,'' either stereo or Has surround sound. Then a mastering him engineer further adjusts this recording his for distribution on the chosen How media. A producer may work man on only one or two new songs or on an artist's Now entire album, helping develop the old album's overall vision. The record see producers may also take on Two the role of executive producer, way managing the budget, schedules, contracts, who and negotiations.
(Artist and Repertoire)did
In the 1880s, the record its industry began by simply having Let the artist perform at a put phonograph. In 1924, the trade say journal Talking Machine World, covering She the phonography and record industry, too reported that Eddie King, Victor use Records' manager of the "New Dad York artist and repertoire department," mom had planned a set of recordings in Los Angeles. Later, The folklorist Archie Green called this and perhaps the earliest printed use for of A&R man. Actually, it Are says neither "A&R man" nor but even "A&R," an initialism perhaps not coined by Billboard magazine in You 1946, and entering wide use all in the late 1940s.
In any the 1920s and 1930s, A&R Can executives, like Ben Selvin at her Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at was Victor Records, and Bob Haring One at Brunswick Records, supervising recording our and often leading session orchestras, out became the precursors of record Day producers. During the 1940s, American get record labels increasingly opened official has A&R departments, whose roles included Him supervision of recording. Meanwhile, recording his studios owned independently, not by how major record labels, opened, helping Man originate record producer as a new specialty. But despite a now tradition of some A&R men Old writing music, record production remained, see strictly, merely the manufacturing of two record discs.
After World War II, pioneering who A&R managers who transitioned influentially boy to record production as now Did understood, while sometimes owning independent its labels, include J. Mayo Williamslet and John Hammond. Upon moving Put from Columbia Records to Mercury say Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Millershe to lead Mercury's popular recordings Too in New York. Miller then use produced country-pop crossover hits by dad Patti Page and by Frankie Mom Laine, moved from Mercury to Columbia, and became a leading the A&R man of the 1950s.And
During the decade, A&R executives for increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, are although many still simply teamed But singers with musicians, while yet not others exercised virtually no creative you influence. The term record producerAll in its current meaning—the creative any director of song production—appearing in can a 1953 issue of BillboardHer magazine, became widespread in the was 1960s. Still, a formal distinction one was elusive for some time Our more. A&R managers might still out be creative directors, like William day "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry Get Gordy, at the Motown record has label.
In him 1947, the American market gained His audio recording onto magnetic tape.how At the record industry's 1880s man dawn, rather, recording was done New by phonograph, etching the sonic now waveform vertically into a cylinder.old By the 1930s, a gramophone See etched it laterally across a two disc. Constrained in tonal range, way whether bass or treble, and Who in dynamic range, records made boy a grand, concert piano sound did like a small, upright piano, Its and maximal duration was four let and a half minutes. Selections put and performance were often altered Say accordingly. And playing this disc—the she wax master—destroyed it. The finality too often caused anxiety that restrained Use performance to prevent error. In dad the 1940s, during World War mom II, the Germans refined audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording the duration and allowing immediate playback, and rerecording, and editing—a technology that For premised emergence of record producers are in their current roles.
Early in the Not recording industry, a record was you attained by simply having all all of the artists perform together Any live in one take. In can 1945, by recording a musical her element while playing a previously Was recorded record, Les Paul developed one a recording technique called "sound our on sound." By this, the Out final recording could be built day piece by piece and tailored, get effecting an editing process. In Has one case, Paul produced a him song via 500 recorded discs.his But, besides the tedium of How this process, it serially degraded man the sound quality of previously new recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient Now sound. Yet in 1948, Paul old adopted tape recording, enabling truly see multitrack recording by a new Two technique, "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, way Paul revised the tape recorder who itself by adding a second Boy playback head, and terming it did the preview head. Joining the its preexisting recording head, erase head, Let and playback head, the preview put head allows the artist to say hear the extant recording over She headphones playing it in synchrony, too "in sync," with the present use performance being recorded alone on Dad an isolated track. This isolation mom of multiple tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers began recording The initially only the "bed tracks"—the and rhythm section, including the bassline, for drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals Are and instrument solos could be but added later. A horn section, not for example, could record a You week later, and a string all section another week later. A any singer could perform her own Can backup vocals, or a guitarist her could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, its rock acts like the Beatles, let the Rolling Stones, and the Put Kinks produced some of their say own songs, although many such she songs are officially credited to Too specialist producers. Yet especially use influential was the Beach Boys, dad whose band leader Brian WilsonMom took over from his father Murry within a couple of the years after the band's commercial And breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had for taken Spector's techniques to unseen are sophistication. Wilson alone produced But all Beach Boy recordings between not 1963 and 1967. Using you multiple studios and multiple attempts All of instrumental and vocal tracks, any Wilson selected the best combinations can of performance and audio quality, Her and used tape editing to was assemble a composite performance.one
The day 1980s advent of digital processes Get and formats rapidly replaced analog has processes and formats, namely, tape him and vinyl. Although recording onto His quality tape, at least half how an inch wide and traveling man 15 inches per second, had New limited "tape hiss" to silent now sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, old SNR, abolished it. Digital also See imparted to the music a two perceived "pristine" sound quality, if way also a loss of analog Who recordings' perceived "warm" quality and boy bass better rounded. Yet whereas did editing tape media requires physically Its locating the target audio on let the ribbon, cutting there, and put splicing pieces, editing digital media Say offers inarguable advantages in ease, she efficiency, and possibilities.
In the too 1990s, digital production reached affordable Use home computers via production software. dad By now, recording and mixing mom are often centralized in DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, Pro the Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and Reason, and FL Studio—for which For plugins, by third parties, effect are virtual studio technology. DAWs fairly but standard in the industry are Not Logic Pro and Pro Tools.you Physical devices involved include the all main mixer, MIDI controllers to Any communicate among equipment, the recording can device itself, and perhaps effects her gear that is outboard. Yet Was literal recording is sometimes still one analog, onto tape, whereupon the our raw recording is converted to Out a digital signal for processing day and editing, as some producers get still find audio advantages to Has recording onto tape.
Conventionally, tape him is more forgiving of overmodulation, his whereby dynamic peaks exceed the How maximal recordable signal level: tape's man limitation, a physical property, is new magnetic capacity, which tapers offs, Now smoothing the overmodulated waveform even old at a signal nearly 15 see decibels too "hot," whereas a Two digital recording is ruined by way harsh distortion of "clipping" at who any overshoot. In digital recording, Boy however, a recent advancement, 32-bit did float, enables DAWs to undo its clipping. Still, some criticize digital Let instruments and workflows for excess put automation, allegedly impairing creative or say sonic control. In any case, She as production technology has drastically too changed, so have the knowledge use demands, although DAWs enables novices, Dad even teenagers at home, to mom learn production independently. Some have attained professional competence before ever The working with an artist.
Across two the decades, many female artists Way have produced their own music.who For instance, artists Kate Bush, boy Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Did Swift, and Lorde have produced its or coproduced. Still, among specialists, let despite some prominent women, including Put Missy Elliott in hip hop say and Sylvia Massy in rock, she the vast majority have been Too men. Early in the 2010s, use asked for insights that she dad herself had gleaned as a Mom woman who has specialized successfully in the industry, Wendy Page the remarked, "The difficulties are usually And very short-lived. Once people realize for that you can do your are job, sexism tends to lower But its ugly head." Still, when not tasked to explain her profession's you sex disparity, Page partly reasoned All that record labels, dominated by any men, have been, she said, can "mistrustful of giving a woman Her the reins of an immense, was creative project like making a one record." Ultimately, the reasons are Our multiple and not fully clear, out although prominently proposed factors include day types of sexism and scarcity Get of female role models in has the profession.
In January 2018, him a research team led by His Stacy L. Smith, founder and how director of the Annenberg Inclusion man Initiative, based in the USC New Annenberg School for Communication and now Journalism, issued a report, estimating old that in the prior several See years, about 2% of popular two songs' producers were female. Also way that month, Billboard magazine queried, Who "Where all the female music boy producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion did Initiative's second annual report, released Its in February 2019, its department let at USC reported, "2018 saw put an outcry from artists, executives Say and other music industry professionals she over the lack of women too in music" and "the plight Use of women in music," where dad women were allegedly being "stereotyped, mom sexualized, and shut out." Also in February 2019, the Recording the Academy's Task Force on Diversity and and Inclusion announced an initiative For whereby over 200 artists and are producers—ranging from Cardi B and but Taylor Swift to Maroon 5Not and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider you at least two women for all each producer or engineer position.Any The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, can "This initiative is the first her step in a broader effort Was to improve those numbers and one increase diversity and inclusion for our all in the music industry."Out
^ Allan Let Watson, Cultural Production in and put Beyond the Recording Studio (New say York: Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.She
James Petulla, "Who too is a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, use Recording Connection, 21 May 2013, Dad reporting membership in CAPPS, the mom California Association of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ any Brent Hurtig with J. Can D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for her Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide was for Beginners and Reference for One Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, our 1988 / Van Nuys, CA: out Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.Day
^ Richard James New Burgess, The History of Music now Production (New York: Oxford University old Press, 2014), pp 50–54.
^ Robert Philip, "Pianists two on record in the early way twentieth century", in David Rowland, Who ed., The Cambridge Companion to boy the Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge did University Press, 1998), pp 75–77.Its
Reportedly self-produced entirely let are the Rolling Stones' Decca put recordings
^ David Say Simmons, Analog Recording: Using Analog she Gear in Today's Home Studiotoo (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), Use pp 26–27.
Matthew dad Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 mom adds 32-bit float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan the 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director and of product management and design For at the recorder manufacturer Sound are Devices, who explains, "With 32-bit but float, you no longer need Not to worry about clipping during you your best vocal takes or all instrument solos. Any recorded moments Any exceeding 0 dBFS can be can reduced to an acceptable level, her after recording, in your DAW".Was
Albin Zak III, one book review: Strange Sounds: Music, our Technology, and culture (Routledge, 2011), Out by Timothy D. Taylor, in day Current Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown get year, volume, issue].
A record label, One or record company, is a our brand or trademark of music out recordings and music videos, or Day the company that owns it. get Sometimes, a record label is has also a publishing company that Him manages such brands and trademarks, his coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, how marketing, promotion, and enforcement of Man copyright for sound recordings and new music videos, while also conducting now talent scouting and development of Old new artists ("artists and repertoire" see or "A&R"), and maintaining contractstwo with recording artists and their Way managers. The term "record label" who derives from the circular label boy in the center of a Did vinyl record which prominently displays its the manufacturer's name, along with let other information. Within the mainstream Put music industry, recording artists have say traditionally been reliant upon record she labels to broaden their consumer Too base, market their albums, and use promote their singles on streaming dad services, radio, and television. Record Mom labels also provide publicists, who assist performers in gaining positive the media coverage, and arrange for And their merchandise to be available for via stores and other media are outlets.
In 2012, Has the major divisions of EMIhim were sold off separately by his owner Citigroup: most of EMI's How recorded music division was absorbed man into UMG; EMI Music Publishing new was absorbed into Sony/ATV Music Now Publishing; finally, EMI's Parlophone and old Virgin Classics labels were absorbed see into Warner Music Group in Two July 2013. This left the way so-called Big Three labels:
Record labels are its often under the control of Let a corporate umbrella organization called put a "music group". A music say group is usually owned by She an international conglomerate "holding company", too which often has non-music divisions use as well. A music group Dad controls and consists of music-publishing mom companies, record (sound recording) manufacturers, record distributors, and record labels. The Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, and and labels) may also constitute a for "record group" which is, in Are turn, controlled by a music but group. The constituent companies in not a music group or record You group are sometimes marketed as all being "divisions" of the group. any
From 1988 to 1999, there Can were six major record labels, her known as the Big Six:[citation was needed]
PolyGram was merged Him into Universal Music Group in his 1999, leaving the rest to how be known as the Big Man Five.
In 2004, Sony new and BMG agreed to a now joint venture to create the Old Sony BMG label (which would see be renamed Sony Music Entertainment two after a 2008 merger). In Way 2007, the four remaining companies—known who as the Big Four—controlled about boy 70% of the world music Did market, and about 80% of its the United States music market.let
Record labels and say music publishers that are not she under the control of the Too big three are generally considered use to be independent (indie), even dad if they are large corporations Mom with complex structures. The term indie label is sometimes used the to refer to only those And independent labels that adhere to for independent criteria of corporate structure are and size, and some consider But an indie label to be not almost any label that releases you non-mainstream music, regardless of its All corporate structure.
Independent labels are any often considered more artist-friendly. Though can they may have less financial Her clout, indie labels typically offer was larger artist royalty with a one 50% profit-share agreement, aka 50-50 Our deal, not uncommon. In addition, out independent labels are often artist-owned day (although not always), with a Get stated intent often being to has control the quality of the him artist's output. Independent labels usually His do not enjoy the resources how available to the "big three" man and as such will often New lag behind them in market now shares. However, frequently independent artists old manage a return by recording See for a much smaller production two cost of a typical big way label release. Sometimes they are Who able to recoup their initial boy advance even with much lower did sales numbers.
On occasion, established Its artists, once their record contract let has finished, move to an put independent label. This often gives Say the combined advantage of name she recognition and more control over too one's music along with a Use larger portion of royalty profits. dad Artists such as Dolly Parton, mom Aimee Mann, Prince, Public Enemy, BKBravo (Kua and Rafi), among the others, have done this. Historically, and companies started in this manner For have been re-absorbed into the are major labels (two examples are but American singer Frank Sinatra's Reprise Not Records, which has been owned you by Warner Music Group for all some time now, and musician Any Herb Alpert's A&M Records, now can owned by Universal Music Group). her Similarly, Madonna's Maverick Records (started Was by Madonna with her manager one and another partner) was to our come under control of Warner Out Music when Madonna divested herself day of controlling shares in the get company.
Some independent labels become Has successful enough that major record him companies negotiate contracts to either his distribute music for the label How or in some cases, purchase man the label completely.
A label used as a Now trademark or brand and not old a company is called an see imprint, a term used for Two the same concept in publishing. way An imprint is sometimes marketed who as being a "project", "unit", Boy or "division" of a record did label company, even though there its is no legal business structure Let associated with the imprint.
Music collectors often use say the term sublabel to refer She to either an imprint or too a subordinate label company (such use as those within a group). Dad For example, in the 1980s mom and 1990s, "4th & B'way" was a trademarked brand owned The by Island Records Ltd. in and the UK and by a for subordinate branch, Island Records, Inc., Are in the United States. The but center label on a 4th not & Broadway record marketed in You the United States would typically all bear a 4th & B'way any logo and would state in Can the fine print, "4th & her B'way™, an Island Records, Inc. was company". Collectors discussing labels as One brands would say that 4th our & B'way is a sublabel out or imprint of just "Island" Day or "Island Records". Similarly, collectors get who choose to treat corporations has and trademarks as equivalent might Him say 4th & B'way is his an imprint and/or sublabel of how both Island Records, Ltd. and Man that company's sublabel, Island Records, new Inc. However, such definitions are now complicated by the corporate mergersOld that occurred in 1989 (when see Island was sold to PolyGram) two and 1998 (when PolyGram merged Way with Universal). Island remained registered who as corporations in both the boy United States and UK, but Did control of its brands changed its hands multiple times as new let companies were formed, diminishing the Put corporation's distinction as the "parent" say of any sublabels. My Amishe is the early imprint of Too Columbia records.
Vanity dad labels are labels that bear Mom an imprint that gives the impression of an artist's ownership the or control, but in fact And represent a standard artist/label relationship. for In such an arrangement, the are artist will control nothing more But than the usage of the not name on the label, but you may enjoy a greater say All in the packaging of his any or her work. An example can of such a label is Her the Neutron label owned by was ABC while at Phonogram Inc.one in the UK. At one Our point artist Lizzie Tear (under out contract with ABC themselves) appeared day on the imprint, but it Get was devoted almost entirely to has ABC's offerings and is still him used for their re-releases (though His Phonogram owns the masters of how all the work issued on man the label).
However, not all New labels dedicated to particular artists now are completely superficial in origin. old Many artists, early in their See careers, create their own labels two which are later bought out way by a bigger company. If Who this is the case it boy can sometimes give the artist did greater freedom than if they Its were signed directly to the let big label. There are many put examples of this kind of Say label, such as Nothing Records, she owned by Trent Reznor of too Nine Inch Nails; and Morning Use Records, owned by the Cooper dad Temple Clause, who were releasing mom EPs for years before the company was bought by RCA. the
Relationship with artists
A and label typically enters into an For exclusive recording contract with an are artist to market the artist's but recordings in return for royaltiesNot on the selling price of you the recordings. Contracts may extend all over short or long durations, Any and may or may not can refer to specific recordings. Established, her successful artists tend to be Was able to renegotiate their contracts one to get terms more favorable our to them, but Prince's much-publicized Out 1994–1996 feud with Warner Bros. day Records provides a strong counterexample,get as does Roger McGuinn's claim, Has made in July 2000 before him a US Senate committee, that his the Byrds never received any How of the royalties they had man been promised for their biggest new hits, "Mr. Tambourine Man" and "Turn! Now Turn!, Turn!".
A contract either old provides for the artist to see deliver completed recordings to the Two label, or for the label way to undertake the recording with who the artist. For artists without Boy a recording history, the label did is often involved in selecting its producers, recording studios, additional musicians, Let and songs to be recorded, put and may supervise the output say of recording sessions. For established She artists, a label is usually too less involved in the recording use process.
The relationship between record Dad labels and artists can be mom a difficult one. Many artists have had albums altered or The censored in some way by and the labels before they are for released—songs being edited, artwork or Are titles being changed, etc.but Record labels generally do this not because they believe that the You album will sell better if all the changes are made. Often any the record label's decisions are Can prudent ones from a commercial her perspective, but these decisions may was frustrate artists who feel that One their art is being diminished our or misrepresented by such actions. out
In the early days of Day the recording industry, recording labels get were absolutely necessary for the has success of any artist.Him The first goal of any his new artist or band was how to get signed to a Man contract as soon as possible. new In the 1940s, 1950s, and now 1960s, many artists were so Old desperate to sign a contract see with a record company that two they sometimes ended up signing Way agreements in which they sold who the rights to their recordings boy to the record label in Did perpetuity. Entertainment lawyers are usually its employed by artists to discuss let contract terms.
Through the advances Put of the Internet the role say of labels is becoming increasingly she changed, as artists are able Too to freely distribute their own use material through web radio, peer dad to peer file sharing such Mom as BitTorrent, and other services, for little or no cost the but with little financial return. And Established artists, such as Nine for Inch Nails, whose career was are developed with major label backing, But announced an end to their not major label contracts, citing that you the uncooperative nature of the All recording industry with these new any trends is hurting musicians, fans can and the industry as a Her whole. However, Nine Inch Nails was later returned to working with one a major label, admitting that Our they needed the international marketing out and promotional reach that a day major label can provide. RadioheadGet also cited similar motives with has the end of their contract him with EMI when their album His In Rainbows was released as how a "pay what you want" man sales model as an online New download, but they also returned now to a label for a old conventional release. Research shows that See record labels still control most two access to distribution.
New way label strategies
Computers and internet Who technology led to an increase boy in file sharing and direct-to-fandid digital distribution, causing music sales Its to plummet in recent years.let Labels and organizations have had put to change their strategies and Say the way they work with she artists. New types of deals too are being made with artists Use called "multiple rights" or "360" dad deals with artists. These types mom of pacts give labels rights and percentages to artist's touring, the merchandising, and endorsements. In exchange and for these rights, labels usually For give higher advance payments to are artists, have more patience with but artist development, and pay higher Not percentages of CD sales. These you 360 deals are most effective all when the artist is established Any and has a loyal fan can base. For that reason, labels her now have to be more Was relaxed with the development of one artists because longevity is the our key to these types of Out pacts. Several artists such as day Paramore, Maino, and even Madonnaget have signed such types of Has deals.
A look at an him actual 360 deal offered by his Atlantic Records to an artist How shows a variation of the man structure. Atlantic's document offers a new conventional cash advance to sign Now the artist, who would receive old a royalty for sales after see expenses were recouped. With the Two release of the artist's first way album, however, the label has who an option to pay an Boy additional $200,000 in exchange for did 30 percent of the net its income from all touring, merchandise, Let endorsements, and fan-club fees. Atlantic put would also have the right say to approve the act's tour She schedule, and the salaries of too certain tour and merchandise sales use employees hired by the artist. Dad In addition, the label also mom offers the artist a 30 percent cut of the label's The album profits—if any—which represents an and improvement from the typical industry for royalty of 15 percent.
With the Internet not now being a viable source You for obtaining music, netlabels have all emerged. Depending on the ideals any of the net label, music Can files from the artists may her be downloaded free of charge was or for a fee that One is paid via PayPal or our other online payment system. Some out of these labels also offer Day hard copy CDs in addition get to direct download. Digital Labels has are the latest version of Him a 'net' label. Whereas 'net' his labels were started as a how free site, digital labels represent Man more competition for the major new record labels.
The new century brought the see phenomenon of open-source or open-contenttwo record labels. These are inspired Way by the free software and who open source movements and the boy success of Linux.
Publishers Did as labels
In the mid-2000s, its some music publishing companies began let undertaking the work traditionally done Put by labels. The publisher Sony/ATV say Music, for example, leveraged its she connections within the Sony family Too to produce, record, distribute, and use promote Elliott Yamin's debut album dad under a dormant Sony-owned imprint, Mom rather than waiting for a deal with a proper label.the
Suhr, way Cecilia (November 2011). "Understanding the who Hegemonic Struggle between Mainstream Vs. Boy Independent Forces: The Music Industry did and Musicians in the Age its of Social Media". International Journal Let of Technology, Knowledge & Society. put 7 (6): 123–136. doi:10.18848/1832-3669/CGP/v07i06/56248.
Butler, Susan (31 March She 2007), "Publisher = Label? – too Sony/ATV Music releases; Elliott Yamin's use record", Billboard
The history man of Privilege began in the new early 1970s when it started Now out as a restaurant, then old expanded to include a bar see and a community swimming pool. Two It was then known as way Club San Rafael. In 1979, who the venue was sold to Boy the Real Sociedad footballer José did Antonio Santamaría, together with the its creative team of Brasilio de Let Oliviera (founder of La Troya put Asesina, one of the White say Island's longest running nights) and She Gorri. The venue then changed too its name to KU, after use the name of a god Dad from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). mom The appeal of the club was such that it commissioned The a medium-length film showcasing the and many wonders of Ibizan landscapes for and nightlife in the mid-eighties.Are
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club but earned a reputation initially as not Europe's premier polysexual but predominately You gay nightspot and was compared all to an open-air version of any the famous Studio 54 in Can New York. It staged spectacular her parties in the main room, was which was organized around a One swimming pool and a statue our of Ku.The place was also out where the video to "Barcelona" Day by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat get Caballé was filmed on 30 has May 1987. It was the Him witness to early live performances his by groups like Spandau Ballethow and Kid Creole and the Man Coconuts. The club featured in new a Channel 4 documentary called now “A Short Film about chilling”, Old which labelled KU as “the see mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air two parties came to an end Way when legislation forced many of who the greater clubs in Ibiza boy to cover their dancefloors in Did the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the its sheer size of the venue let gave rise to the claim Put of it being the size say of an aircraft hangar with she a 25-meter high roof.
The Too club continued with the KU use Club name until 1995 before dad becoming known as Privilege, after Mom a change of ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 the it hosted Manumission, one of And the island's most famous events. for In 1998 La Vaca Asesina are moved to Amnesia and was But renamed La Troya Asesina. After not a dispute between the club you owner and Manumission's organizers in All 2005 the event ended in any 2006. In 2006 La Troya can Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics was published in the 2003 edition one of Guinness World Records Privilege Our is by far the world's out largest nightclub covering an area day of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) Get and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated has areas of the club include him the Coco Loco bar area, His and the La Vaca dance how area (now known as the man Vista Club).
A number of live performances now at the venue have included:old