Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockeys (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the early you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record producer or Boy music producer oversees and manages did the sound recording and production its of a band or performer's Let music, which may range from put recording one song to recording say a lengthy concept album. A She producer has many, varying roles too during the recording process. They use may gather musical ideas for Dad the project, collaborate with the mom artists to select cover tunesor original songs by the The artist/group, work with artists and and help them to improve their for songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the her entire process from preproduction, through was to the sound recording and One mixing stages, and, in some our cases, all the way to out the audio mastering stage. The Day producer may perform these roles get themselves, or help select the has engineer, and provide suggestions to Him the engineer. The producer may his also pay session musicians and how engineers and ensure that the Man entire project is completed within new the record label's budget.
A let record producer or music producerPut has a very broad role say in overseeing and managing the she recording and production of a Too band or performer's music. A use producer has many roles that dad may include, but are not Mom limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music the for the project, selecting songs And or session musicians, proposing changes for to the song arrangements, coaching are the artist and musicians in But the studio, controlling the recording not sessions, and supervising the entire you process through audio mixing and, All in some cases, to the any audio mastering stage. Producers also can often take on a wider Her entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for was the budget, schedules, contracts, and one negotiations.
The person day who has overall creative and Get technical control of the entire has recording project, and the individual him recording sessions that are part His of that project. He or how she is present in the man recording studio or at the New location recording and works directly now with the artist and engineer. old The producer makes creative and See aesthetic decisions that realize both two the artist's and label's goals way in the creation of musical Who content. Other duties include, but boy are not limited to; keeping did budgets and schedules, adhering to Its deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios let and engineers, overseeing other staffing put needs and editing (Classical projects). Say
In the 2010s, the she producer role is sometimes divided too among up to three different Use individuals: executive producer, vocal producer dad and music producer. An executive mom producer oversees project finances, a vocal producer (also known as the a vocal arranger) oversees the and vocal production, and a music For producer directs and oversees the are creative process of the production but and recording of a song Not to its final mixing stage. you
The music producer often wears all many hats as a competent Any arranger, composer, programmer, musician or can songwriter who can bring fresh her ideas to a project. As Was well as making any songwriting one and arrangement adjustments, the producer our often selects and/or collaborates with Out the mixing engineer, who takes day the raw recorded tracks and get edits and modifies them with Has hardware and software tools to him create a stereo or surround his sound "mix" of all the How individual voices sounds and instruments, man which is in turn given new further adjustment by a mastering Now engineer for the various distribution old media. The producer also oversees see the recording engineer who concentrates Two on the technical aspects of way recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekwho described his role as "the Boy person who creatively guides or did directs the process of making its a record", like a director Let would a movie. Indeed, in put Bollywood music, the designation is say actually music director. The music She producer's job is to create, too shape, and mold a piece use of music. The scope of Dad responsibility may be one or mom two songs or an artist's entire album – in which The case the producer will typically and develop an overall vision for for the album and how the Are various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of not the record industry, the producer You role was technically limited to all record, in one shot, artists any performing live. The immediate predecessors Can to record producers were the her artists and repertoire executives of was the late 1920s and 1930s One who oversaw the "pop" product our and often led session orchestras. out That was the case of Day Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, get Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordshas and Bob Haring at Brunswick Him Records. By the end of his the 1930s, the first professional how recording studios not owned by Man the major companies were established, new essentially separating the roles of now artists and repertoire (A&R) man Old and producer, although it wouldn't see be until the late 1940s two when the term "producer" became Way widely used in the industry. who
The role of producers changed boy progressively over the 1950s and Did 1960s due to technology. The its development of multitrack recording caused let a major change in the Put recording process. Before multitracking, all say the elements of a song she (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm Too section instrument accompaniment, solos and use orchestral parts) had to be dad performed simultaneously. All of these Mom singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large the studio where the performance was And recorded. With multitrack recording, the for "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment are parts such as the bassline, But drums, and rhythm guitar could not be recorded first, and then you the vocals and solos could All be added later, using as any many "takes" (or attempts) as can necessary. It was no longer Her necessary to get all the was players in the studio at one the same time. A pop Our band could record their backing out tracks one week, and then day a horn section could be Get brought in a week later has to add horn shots and him punches, and then a string His section could be brought in how a week after that.
Multitrack man recording had another profound effect New on music production: it enabled now producers and audio engineers to old create new sounds that would See be impossible in a live two performance style ordering. Examples include way the psychedelic rock sound effects Who of the 1960s, e.g. playing boy back the sound of recorded did instruments backward changing the tape Its to produce unique sound effects. let During the same period, the put instruments of popular music began Say to shift from the acoustic she instruments of traditional music (piano, too upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, Use brass and wind instruments) to dad electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, mom electric bass and electric guitar. These new instruments were electric the or electronic, and thus they and used instrument amplifiers and speaker For enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create are sound.
Electric and electronic instruments but and amplifiers enabled performers and Not producers to change the tone you and sound of instruments to all produce unique electric sounds that Any would be impossible to achieve can with acoustic instruments and live her performers, such as having a Was singer do her own backup one vocals or having a guitarist our play 15 layers of backing Out parts to her own solo.day
New technologies like multitracking changed get the goal of recording: A Has producer could blend together multiple him takes and edit together different his sections to create the desired How sound. For example, in jazz man fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album new Bitches Brew, the producer cut Now and edited sections together from old extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the Dad 1960s was the emergence of mom the performer-producer. As pop acts like The Beatles, The Rolling The Stones, The Beach Boys and and The Kinks gained expertise in for studio recording techniques, many of Are these groups eventually took over but as (frequently uncredited) producers of not their own work. Many recordings You by acts such as The all Rolling Stones, The Kinks and any The Who are officially credited Can to their various producers at her the time, but a number was of these performers have since One asserted that many of their our recordings in this period were, out either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Day Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or get collaborations between the group and has their recording engineer (e.g. The Him Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which his were made with Olympic Studioshow engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Man Boys are probably the best new example of the trend of now artists becoming producers – within Old two years of the band's see commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian two Wilson had taken over from Way his father Murry, and he who was the sole producer of boy all their recordings between 1963 Did and 1967. Alongside The Beatles its and Martin, Wilson also pioneered let many production innovations – by Put 1964 he had developed Spector's say techniques to a new level she of sophistication, using multiple studios Too and multiple "takes" of instrumental use and vocal components to capture dad the best possible combinations of Mom sound and performance, and then using tape editing extensively to the assemble a perfect composite performance And from these elements.
At the for end of the 20th century, are digital recording and producing tools But and widespread availability of relatively not affordable computers with music software you made music producing more accessible. All
American women and record any producing
According to a 2018 can study covering by the USC Her Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio was of male to female producers one across 300 popular songs is Our 49 to 1."
In 2019, record Who producer Linda Perry was nominated boy for a Grammy for Producer did of the Year, Non-Classical. She Its was the first woman in let over 15 years to be put nominated for the award. When Say asked about the disparity between she male and female record producer too by Billboard, she attributed it Use to many women not being dad interested in record production.
In the are classical music field, Judith Shermanbut has won Grammy for Producer Not of the Year, Classical, five you times and has been nominated all twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a Any music critic for The New can York Times is quoted as her stating, "In the struggling field Was of classical recording, it's the one producers who take the real our risks and make things happen."Out
Producer Wendy Page describes being Has a record producer, "The difficulties him are usually very short-lived. Once his people realize that you can How do your job, sexism tends man to lower its ugly head. new I tend to create a Now happy studio 'family' where everyone old is glad to be there, see especially the artist. Good communication Two and diplomacy usually sort any way little problems out."
There are numerous any technologies utilized by record producers. Can In modern-day recordings, recording and her mixing tasks are commonly centralized was within computers using digital audio One workstations such as Pro Tools, our Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reasonout and FL Studio, which all Day are often used with third get party virtual studio technology plugins.has Logic Pro and Pro Tools Him are considered the industry standard his DAWs. However, there is also how the main mixer, outboard effects Man gear, MIDI controllers, and the new recording device itself.
While most now music production is done using Old sophisticated software, some musicians and see producers prefer the sound of two older analog technology. Professor Albin Way Zak claims that the increased who automation of both newer processes boy and newer instruments reduces the Did level of control and manipulation its available to musicians and producers.let
Production has Put changed drastically over the years say with advancing technology. While the she producer's role has changed, their Too duties continue to require a use broad knowledge of the recording dad process.
Tracking is the act Mom of recording audio to a DAW (digital audio workstation) or the in some cases to tape. And Even though digital technologies have for widely supplanted the use of are tape in studios, the older But term "track" is still used not in the 2010s. Tracking audio you is primarily the role of All the audio engineer. Producers work any side by side with the can artists while they play or Her sing their part and coach was them on how to perform one it and how to get Our the best technical accuracy (e.g., out intonation). In some cases, the day producer will even sing a Get backup vocal or play an has instrument.
Many artists are also him beginning to produce and write His their own music.
Similarly, although The Beatles' boy productions were credited to George did Martin throughout their recording career, Its many sources now attest that let Lennon and McCartney in particular put had an increasing influence on Say the production process as the she group's career progressed, and especially too after the band retired from Use touring in 1966. In an dad extreme example of this, Martin mom actually went on a two-week vacation as The Beatles were the recording The White Album; production and of several completed tracks on For the album were credited to are The Beatles on internal paperwork but at Abbey Road Studios, although Not the released LP gave sole you production credit to Martin.
she Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: Too "strange sounds: Music, technology, and use culture," by Timothy D. Taylor. dad Current Musicology, 159-180.
Mom Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best the Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light And Coaching To Deeper Collaboration With for Musicians." Journal of New Music are Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic But Search Premier. Web. 7 Sept. not 2015.
A record label, or record how company, is a brand or Man trademark of music recordings and new music videos, or the company now that owns it. Sometimes, a Old record label is also a see publishing company that manages such two brands and trademarks, coordinates the Way production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, who and enforcement of copyright for boy sound recordings and music videos, Did while also conducting talent scouting its and development of new artists let ("artists and repertoire" or "A&R"), Put and maintaining contracts with recording say artists and their managers. The she term "record label" derives from Too the circular label in the use center of a vinyl record dad which prominently displays the manufacturer's Mom name, along with other information.Within the mainstream music industry, the recording artists have traditionally been And reliant upon record labels to for broaden their consumer base, market are their albums, and promote their But singles on streaming services, radio, not and television. Record labels also you provide publicists, who assist performers All in gaining positive media coverage, any and arrange for their merchandise can to be available via stores Her and other media outlets.
Record labels now may be small, localized and old "independent" ("indie"), or they may See be part of a large two international media group, or somewhere way in between. The Association of Who Independent Music (AIM) defines a boy 'major' as "a multinational company did which (together with the companies Its in its group) has more let than 5% of the world put market(s) for the sale of Say records or music videos." As she of 2012, there are only too three labels that can be Use referred to as "major labels" dad (Universal Music Group, Sony Music mom Entertainment, and Warner Music Group). In 2014 AIM estimated that the the majors had a collective and global market share of some For 65–70%.
Record labels are often but under the control of a Not corporate umbrella organization called a you "music group". A music group all is usually owned by an Any international conglomerate "holding company", which can often has non-music divisions as her well. A music group controls Was and consists of music publishing one companies, record (sound recording) manufacturers, our record distributors, and record labels. Out Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, and day labels) may also constitute a get "record group" which is, in Has turn, controlled by a music him group. The constituent companies in his a music group or record How group are sometimes marketed as man being "divisions" of the group. new
From 1988 to 1999, there Now were six major record labels, old known as the Big Six:[citation see needed]
PolyGram was merged Let into UMG in 1999, leaving put the rest to be known say as the Big Five.She
In 2004, Sony and BMG too agreed to a joint venture use to create the Sony BMGDad label (which would be renamed mom Sony Music Entertainment after a 2008 merger). In 2007, the The four remaining companies—known as the and Big Four—controlled about 70% of for the world music market, and Are about 80% of the United but States music market.
In 2012, not the major divisions of EMIYou were sold off separately by all owner Citigroup: most of EMI's any recorded music division was absorbed Can into UMG; EMI Music Publishing her was absorbed into Sony/ATV Music was Publishing; finally, EMI's Parlophone and One Virgin Classics labels were absorbed our into Warner Music Group in out July 2013. This left the Day so-called Big Three labels:
Record labels and music publishers how that are not under the Man control of the big three new are generally considered to be now independent (indie), even if they Old are large corporations with complex see structures. The term indie labeltwo is sometimes used to refer Way to only those independent labels who that adhere to independent criteria boy of corporate structure and size, Did and some consider an indie its label to be almost any let label that releases non-mainstream music, Put regardless of its corporate structure. say
Independent labels are often considered she more artist-friendly. Though they may Too have less financial clout, indie use labels typically offer larger artist dad royalty with a 50% profit-share Mom agreement, aka 50-50 deal, not uncommon. In addition, independent labels the are often artist-owned (although not And always), with a stated intent for often being to control the are quality of the artist's output. But Independent labels usually do not not enjoy the resources available to you the "big three" and as All such will often lag behind any them in market shares. However, can frequently independent artists manage a Her return by recording for a was much smaller production cost of one a typical big label release. Our Sometimes they are able to out recoup their initial advance even day with much lower sales numbers. Get
On occasion, established artists, once has their record contract has finished, him move to an independent label. His This often gives the combined how advantage of name recognition and man more control over one's music New along with a larger portion now of royalty profits. Artists such old as Dolly Parton, Aimee Mann, See Prince, Public Enemy, BKBravo (Kua two and Rafi), among others, have way done this. Historically, companies started Who in this manner have been boy re-absorbed into the major labels did (two examples are American singer Its Frank Sinatra's Reprise Records, which let has been owned by Warner put Music Group for some time Say now, and musician Herb Alpert's she A&M Records, now owned by too Universal Music Group). Similarly, Madonna's Use Maverick Records (started by Madonna dad with her manager and another mom partner) was to come under control of Warner Music when the Madonna divested herself of controlling and shares in the company.
Some For independent labels become successful enough are that major record companies negotiate but contracts to either distribute music Not for the label or in you some cases, purchase the label all completely.
A label Any used as a trademark or can brand and not a company her is called an imprint, a Was term used for the same one concept in publishing. An imprint our is sometimes marketed as being Out a "project", "unit", or "division" day of a record label company, get even though there is no Has legal business structure associated with him the imprint.
Music his collectors often use the term How sublabel to refer to either man an imprint or a subordinate new label company (such as those Now within a group). For example, old in the 1980s and 1990s, see "4th & B'way" was a Two trademarked brand owned by Island way Records Ltd. in the UK who and by a subordinate branch, Boy Island Records, Inc., in the did United States. The center label its on a 4th & Broadway Let record marketed in the United put States would typically bear a say 4th & B'way logo and She would state in the fine too print, "4th & B'way™, an use Island Records, Inc. company". Collectors Dad discussing labels as brands would mom say that 4th & B'way is a sublabel or imprint The of just "Island" or "Island and Records". Similarly, collectors who choose for to treat corporations and trademarks Are as equivalent might say 4th but & B'way is an imprint not and/or sublabel of both Island You Records, Ltd. and that company's all sublabel, Island Records, Inc. However, any such definitions are complicated by Can the corporate mergers that occurred her in 1989 (when Island was was sold to PolyGram) and 1998 One (when PolyGram merged with Universal). our Island remained registered as corporations out in both the United States Day and UK, but control of get its brands changed hands multiple has times as new companies were Him formed, diminishing the corporation's distinction his as the "parent" of any how sublabels. My Ami is the Man early imprint of Columbia records. new
Vanity labels are Old labels that bear an imprint see that gives the impression of two an artist's ownership or control, Way but in fact represent a who standard artist/label relationship. In such boy an arrangement, the artist will Did control nothing more than the its usage of the name on let the label, but may enjoy Put a greater say in the say packaging of his or her she work. An example of such Too a label is the Neutron use label owned by ABC while dad at Phonogram Inc. in the Mom UK. At one point artist Lizzie Tear (under contract with the ABC themselves) appeared on the And imprint, but it was devoted for almost entirely to ABC's offerings are and is still used for But their re-releases (though Phonogram owns not the masters of all the you work issued on the label). All
However, not all labels dedicated any to particular artists are completely can superficial in origin. Many artists, Her early in their careers, create was their own labels which are one later bought out by a Our bigger company. If this is out the case it can sometimes day give the artist greater freedom Get than if they were signed has directly to the big label. him There are many examples of His this kind of label, such how as Nothing Records, owned by man Trent Reznor of Nine Inch New Nails; and Morning Records, owned now by the Cooper Temple Clause, old who were releasing EPs for See years before the company was two bought by RCA.
Relationship way with artists
A label typically Who enters into an exclusive recording boy contract with an artist to did market the artist's recordings in Its return for royalties on the let selling price of the recordings. put Contracts may extend over short Say or long durations, and may she or may not refer to too specific recordings. Established, successful artists Use tend to be able to dad renegotiate their contracts to get mom terms more favorable to them, but Prince's much-publicized 1994–1996 feud the with Warner Bros. Records provides and a strong counterexample, as does For Roger McGuinn's claim, made in are July 2000 before a US but Senate committee, that the ByrdsNot never received any of the you royalties they had been promised all for their biggest hits, "Mr. Tambourine Any Man" and "Turn! Turn!, Turn!".can
A contract either provides for her the artist to deliver completed Was recordings to the label, or one for the label to undertake our the recording with the artist. Out For artists without a recording day history, the label is often get involved in selecting producers, recording Has studios, additional musicians, and songs him to be recorded, and may his supervise the output of recording How sessions. For established artists, a man label is usually less involved new in the recording process.
The Now relationship between record labels and old artists can be a difficult see one. Many artists have had Two albums altered or censored in way some way by the labels who before they are released—songs being Boy edited, artwork or titles being did changed, etc. Record labels its generally do this because they Let believe that the album will put sell better if the changes say are made. Often the record She label's decisions are prudent ones too from a commercial perspective, but use these decisions may frustrate artists Dad who feel that their art mom is being diminished or misrepresented by such actions.
In the The early days of the recording and industry, recording labels were absolutely for necessary for the success of Are any artist. The first but goal of any new artist not or band was to get You signed to a contract as all soon as possible. In the any 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, many Can artists were so desperate to her sign a contract with a was record company that they sometimes One ended up signing agreements in our which they sold the rights out to their recordings to the Day record label in perpetuity. Entertainment get lawyers are usually employed by has artists to discuss contract terms. Him
Through the advances of the his Internet the role of labels how is becoming increasingly changed, as Man artists are able to freely new distribute their own material through now web radio, peer to peer Old file sharing such as BitTorrent, see and other services, for little two or no cost but with Way little financial return. Established artists, who such as Nine Inch Nails, boy whose career was developed with Did major label backing, announced an its end to their major label let contracts, citing that the uncooperative Put nature of the recording industry say with these new trends is she hurting musicians, fans and the Too industry as a whole. However, use Nine Inch Nails later returned dad to working with a major Mom label, admitting that they needed the international marketing and promotional the reach that a major label And can provide. Radiohead also cited for similar motives with the end are of their contract with EMIBut when their album In Rainbowsnot was released as a "pay you what you want" sales model All as an online download, but any they also returned to a can label for a conventional release.Her Research shows that record labels was still control most access to one distribution.
New label strategies
Computers and internet technology led out to an increase in file day sharing and direct-to-fan digital distribution, Get causing music sales to plummet has in recent years. Labels and him organizations have had to change His their strategies and the way how they work with artists. New man types of deals are being New made with artists called "multiple now rights" or "360" deals with old artists. These types of pacts See give labels rights and percentages two to artist's touring, merchandising, and way endorsements. In exchange for these Who rights, labels usually give higher boy advance payments to artists, have did more patience with artist development, Its and pay higher percentages of let CD sales. These 360 deals put are most effective when the Say artist is established and has she a loyal fan base. For too that reason, labels now have Use to be more relaxed with dad the development of artists because mom longevity is the key to these types of pacts. Several the artists such as Paramore, Maino, and and even Madonna have signed For such types of deals.
A are look at an actual 360 but deal offered by Atlantic RecordsNot to an artist shows a you variation of the structure. Atlantic's all document offers a conventional cash Any advance to sign the artist, can who would receive a royalty her for sales after expenses were Was recouped. With the release of one the artist's first album, however, our the label has an option Out to pay an additional $200,000 day in exchange for 30 percent get of the net income from Has all touring, merchandise, endorsements, and him fan-club fees. Atlantic would also his have the right to approve How the act's tour schedule, and man the salaries of certain tour new and merchandise sales employees hired Now by the artist. In addition, old the label also offers the see artist a 30 percent cut Two of the label's album profits—if way any—which represents an improvement from who the typical industry royalty of Boy 15 percent.
With the Internet now being Let a viable source for obtaining put music, netlabels have emerged. Depending say on the ideals of the She net label, music files from too the artists may be downloaded use free of charge or for Dad a fee that is paid mom via PayPal or other online payment system. Some of these The labels also offer hard copy and CDs in addition to direct for download. Digital Labels are the Are latest version of a 'net' but label. Whereas 'net' labels were not started as a free site, You digital labels represent more competition all for the major record labels.any
The new her century brought the phenomenon of was open-source or open-content record labels. One These are inspired by the our free software and open sourceout movements and the success of Day Linux.
Publishers as labels
In the mid-2000s, some music has publishing companies began undertaking the Him work traditionally done by labels. his The publisher Sony/ATV Music, for how example, leveraged its connections within Man the Sony family to produce, new record, distribute, and promote Elliott now Yamin's debut album under a Old dormant Sony-owned imprint, rather than see waiting for a deal with two a proper label.
Suhr, Cecilia one (November 2011). "Understanding the Hegemonic our Struggle between Mainstream Vs. Independent Out Forces: The Music Industry and day Musicians in the Age of get Social Media". International Journal of Has Technology, Knowledge & Society. 7him (6): 123–136. doi:10.18848/1832-3669/CGP/v07i06/56248.
his Butler, Susan (31 March 2007), How "Publisher = Label? – Sony/ATV man Music releases; Elliott Yamin's record", new Billboard
The history of Privilege began in the early 1970s when the it started out as a and restaurant, then expanded to include For a bar and a community are swimming pool. It was then but known as Club San Rafael.Not In 1979, the venue was you sold to the Real Sociedadall footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together Any with the creative team of can Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of her La Troya Asesina, one of Was the White Island's longest running one nights) and Gorri. The venue our then changed its name to Out KU, after the name of day a god from Hawaiian mythology get (see Kū). The appeal of Has the club was such that him it commissioned a medium-length film his showcasing the many wonders of How Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in man the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,new KU Club earned a reputation Now initially as Europe's premier polysexualold but predominately gay nightspot and see was compared to an open-air Two version of the famous Studio way 54 in New York. It who staged spectacular parties in the Boy main room, which was organized did around a swimming pool and its a statue of Ku.The place Let was also where the video put to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercurysay and Montserrat Caballé was filmed She on 30 May 1987. It too was the witness to early use live performances by groups like Dad Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole mom and the Coconuts. The club featured in a Channel 4The documentary called “A Short Film and about chilling”, which labelled KU for as “the mirror of Ibiza”.Are The open-air parties came to but an end when legislation forced not many of the greater clubs You in Ibiza to cover their all dancefloors in the early 1990s. any Nevertheless, the sheer size of Can the venue gave rise to her the claim of it being was the size of an aircraft One hangar with a 25-meter high our roof.
The club continued with out the KU Club name until Day 1995 before becoming known as get Privilege, after a change of has ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.Him In 1994 it hosted Manumission, his one of the island's most how famous events. In 1998 La Man Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesianew and was renamed La Troya now Asesina. After a dispute between Old the club owner and Manumission's see organizers in 2005 the event two ended in 2006. In 2006 Way La Troya Asesina moved to who Space.
According to boy official statistics published in the Did 2003 edition of Guinness World its Records Privilege is by far let the world's largest nightclub covering Put an area of 69,968 sq say ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 she clubbers, Designated areas of the Too club include the Coco Loco use bar area, and the La dad Vaca dance area (now known Mom as the Vista Club).
A number of the live performances at the venue And have included: