Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockies (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the early you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record who producer or music producer oversees Boy and manages the sound recordingdid and production of a band its or performer's music, which may Let range from recording one songput to recording a lengthy concept say album. A producer has many, She varying roles during the recording too process. They may gather musical use ideas for the project, collaborate Dad with the artists to select mom cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with The artists and help them to and improve their songs, lyrics or for arrangements.
Coachall the singers and musicians in any the studio
The producer typically Can supervises the entire process from her preproduction, through to the sound was recording and mixing stages, and, One in some cases, all the our way to the audio masteringout stage. The producer may perform Day these roles themselves, or help get select the engineer, and provide has suggestions to the engineer. The Him producer may also pay session his musicians and engineers and ensure how that the entire project is Man completed within the record label's new budget.
A record producer or let music producer has a very Put broad role in overseeing and say managing the recording and production she of a band or performer's Too music. A producer has many use roles that may include, but dad are not limited to, gathering Mom ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, the selecting songs or session musicians, And proposing changes to the song for arrangements, coaching the artist and are musicians in the studio, controlling But the recording sessions, and supervising not the entire process through audio you mixing and, in some cases, All to the audio mastering stage. any Producers also often take on can a wider entrepreneurial role, with Her responsibility for the budget, schedules, was contracts, and negotiations.
The person who has overall day creative and technical control of Get the entire recording project, and has the individual recording sessions that him are part of that project. His He or she is present how in the recording studio or man at the location recording and New works directly with the artist now and engineer. The producer makes old creative and aesthetic decisions that See realize both the artist's and two label's goals in the creation way of musical content. Other duties Who include, but are not limited boy to; keeping budgets and schedules, did adhering to deadlines, hiring musicians, Its singers, studios and engineers, overseeing let other staffing needs and editing put (Classical projects).
In the Say 2010s, the producer role is she sometimes divided among up to too three different individuals: executive producer, Use vocal producer and music producer. dad An executive producer oversees project mom finances, a vocal producer (also known as a vocal arranger) the oversees the vocal production, and and a music producer directs and For oversees the creative process of are the production and recording of but a song to its final Not mixing stage.
The music producer you often wears many hats as all a competent arranger, composer, programmer, Any musician or songwriter who can can bring fresh ideas to a her project. As well as making Was any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, one the producer often selects and/or our collaborates with the mixing engineer, Out who takes the raw recorded day tracks and edits and modifies get them with hardware and software Has tools to create a stereo him or surround sound "mix" of his all the individual voices sounds How and instruments, which is in man turn given further adjustment by new a mastering engineer for the Now various distribution media. The producer old also oversees the recording engineer see who concentrates on the technical Two aspects of recording.
Noted producer way Phil Ek described his role who as "the person who creatively Boy guides or directs the process did of making a record", like its a director would a movie. Let Indeed, in Bollywood music, the put designation is actually music director.say The music producer's job is She to create, shape, and mold too a piece of music. The use scope of responsibility may be Dad one or two songs or mom an artist's entire album – in which case the producer The will typically develop an overall and vision for the album and for how the various songs may Are interrelate.
At the but beginning of the record industry, not the producer role was technically You limited to record, in one all shot, artists performing live. The any immediate predecessors to record producers Can were the artists and repertoireher executives of the late 1920s was and 1930s who oversaw the One "pop" product and often led our session orchestras. That was the out case of Ben Selvin at Day Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at get Victor Records and Bob Haring has at Brunswick Records. By the Him end of the 1930s, the his first professional recording studios not how owned by the major companies Man were established, essentially separating the new roles of artists and repertoirenow (A&R) man and producer, although Old it wouldn't be until the see late 1940s when the term two "producer" became widely used in Way the industry.
The role of who producers changed progressively over the boy 1950s and 1960s due to Did technology. The development of multitrack its recording caused a major change let in the recording process. Before Put multitracking, all the elements of say a song (lead vocals, backup she vocals, rhythm section instrument accompaniment, Too solos and orchestral parts) had use to be performed simultaneously. All dad of these singers and musicians Mom had to be assembled in a large studio where the the performance was recorded. With multitrack And recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm for section accompaniment parts such as are the bassline, drums, and rhythm But guitar could be recorded first, not and then the vocals and you solos could be added later, All using as many "takes" (or any attempts) as necessary. It was can no longer necessary to get Her all the players in the was studio at the same time. one A pop band could record Our their backing tracks one week, out and then a horn sectionday could be brought in a Get week later to add horn has shots and punches, and then him a string section could be His brought in a week after how that.
Electric and are electronic instruments and amplifiers enabled but performers and producers to change Not the tone and sound of you instruments to produce unique electric all sounds that would be impossible Any to achieve with acoustic instruments can and live performers, such as her having a singer do her Was own backup vocals or having one a guitarist play 15 layers our of backing parts to her Out own solo.
New technologies like day multitracking changed the goal of get recording: A producer could blend Has together multiple takes and edit him together different sections to create his the desired sound. For example, How in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles man Davis' album Bitches Brew, the new producer cut and edited sections Now together from extensive improvisation sessions. old
Another related phenomenon use in the 1960s was the Dad emergence of the performer-producer. As mom pop acts like The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Beach The Boys and The Kinks gained and expertise in studio recording techniques, for many of these groups eventually Are took over as (frequently uncredited) but producers of their own work. not Many recordings by acts such You as The Rolling Stones, The all Kinks and The Who are any officially credited to their various Can producers at the time, but her a number of these performers was have since asserted that many One of their recordings in this our period were, either wholly self-produced out (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca Day recordings) or collaborations between the get group and their recording engineer has (e.g. The Small Faces' ImmediateHim recordings, which were made with his Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).how
The Beach Boys are probably Man the best example of the new trend of artists becoming producers now – within two years of Old the band's commercial breakthrough, group see leader Brian Wilson had taken two over from his father Murry, Way and he was the sole who producer of all their recordings boy between 1963 and 1967. Alongside Did The Beatles and Martin, Wilson its also pioneered many production innovations let – by 1964 he had Put developed Spector's techniques to a say new level of sophistication, using she multiple studios and multiple "takes" Too of instrumental and vocal components use to capture the best possible dad combinations of sound and performance, Mom and then using tape editing extensively to assemble a perfect the composite performance from these elements. And
At the end of the for 20th century, digital recording and are producing tools and widespread availability But of relatively affordable computers with not music software made music producing you more accessible.
American women All and record producing
According to any a 2018 study covering by can the USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, Her "The ratio of male to was female producers across 300 popular one songs is 49 to 1."Our
In way 2019, record producer Linda PerryWho was nominated for a Grammy boy for Producer of the Year, did Non-Classical. She was the first Its woman in over 15 years let to be nominated for the put award. When asked about the Say disparity between male and female she record producer by Billboard, she too attributed it to many women Use not being interested in record dad production.
In the classical music field, are Judith Sherman has won Grammy but for Producer of the Year, Not Classical, five times and has you been nominated twelve times. Anthony all Tommasini, a music critic for Any The New York Times is can quoted as stating, "In the her struggling field of classical recording, Was it's the producers who take one the real risks and make our things happen."
Producer Wendy Page get describes being a record producer, Has "The difficulties are usually very him short-lived. Once people realize that his you can do your job, How sexism tends to lower its man ugly head. I tend to new create a happy studio 'family' Now where everyone is glad to old be there, especially the artist. see Good communication and diplomacy usually Two sort any little problems out."way
There all are numerous technologies utilized by any record producers. In modern-day recordings, Can recording and mixing tasks are her commonly centralized within computers using was digital audio workstations such as One Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, our Cubase, and FL Studio, which out all are often used with Day third party virtual studio technology get plugins. Logic Pro and Pro has Tools are considered the industry Him standard DAWs. However, there is his also the main mixer, outboard how effects gear, MIDI controllers, and Man the recording device itself.
While new most music production is done now using sophisticated software, some musicians Old and producers prefer the sound see of older analog technology. Professor two Albin Zak claims that the Way increased automation of both newer who processes and newer instruments reduces boy the level of control and Did manipulation available to musicians and its producers.
Production let has changed drastically over the Put years with advancing technology. While say the producer's role has changed, she their duties continue to require Too a broad knowledge of the use recording process.
Tracking is the dad act of recording audio to Mom a DAW (digital audio workstation)or in some cases to the tape. Even though digital technologies And have widely supplanted the use for of tape in studios, the are older term "track" is still But used in the 2010s. Tracking not audio is primarily the role you of the audio engineer. Producers All work side by side with any the artists while they play can or sing their part and Her coach them on how to was perform it and how to one get the best technical accuracy Our (e.g., intonation). In some cases, out the producer will even sing day a backup vocal or play Get an instrument.
Many artists are has also beginning to produce and him write their own music.
Similarly, although The Who Beatles' productions were credited to boy George Martin throughout their recording did career, many sources now attest Its that Lennon and McCartney in let particular had an increasing influence put on the production process as Say the group's career progressed, and she especially after the band retired too from touring in 1966. In Use an extreme example of this, dad Martin actually went on a mom two-week vacation as The Beatles were recording The White Album; the production of several completed tracks and on the album were credited For to The Beatles on internal are paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, but although the released LP gave Not sole production credit to Martin.you
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. say (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, she technology, and culture," by Timothy Too D. Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.use
Pras, Amandine, Caroline dad Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Mom Producers' Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To Deeper the Collaboration With Musicians." Journal of And New Music Research 42.4 (2013): for 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Web. are 7 Sept. 2015.
A record not label, or record company, is You a brand or trademark associated all with the marketing of music any recordings and music videos. Sometimes, Can a record label is also her a publishing company that manages was such brands and trademarks, coordinates One the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, our promotion, and enforcement of copyrightout for sound recordings and music Day videos, while also conducting talent get scouting and development of new has artists ("artists and repertoire" or Him "A&R"), and maintaining contracts with his recording artists and their managers. how The term "record label" derives Man from the circular label in new the center of a vinyl now record which prominently displays the Old manufacturer's name, along with other see information. Within the mainstream music two industry, recording artists have traditionally Way been reliant upon record labels who to broaden their consumer base, boy market their albums, and be Did both promoted and heard on its music streaming services, radio, and let television. Record labels also provide Put publicists, who assist performers in say gaining positive media coverage, and she arrange for their merchandise to Too be available via stores and use other media outlets.
Record labels are often under Its the control of a corporate let umbrella organization called a "music put group". A music group is Say usually owned by an international she conglomerate "holding company", which often too has non-music divisions as well. Use A music group controls and dad consists of music publishing companies, mom record (sound recording) manufacturers, record distributors, and record labels. Record the companies (manufacturers, distributors, and labels) and may also constitute a "record For group" which is, in turn, are controlled by a music group. but The constituent companies in a Not music group or record group you are sometimes marketed as being all "divisions" of the group.
From Any 1988 to 1999, there were can six major record labels, known her as the Big Six:Was
PolyGram was merged into him UMG in 1999, leaving the his rest to be known as How the Big Five.
In man 2004, Sony and BMG agreed new to a joint venture to Now create the Sony BMG label old (which would be renamed Sony see Music Entertainment after a 2008 Two merger). In 2007, the four way remaining companies—known as the Big who Four—controlled about 70% of the Boy world music market, and about did 80% of the United States its music market.
In 2012, the Let major divisions of EMI were put sold off separately by owner say Citigroup: most of EMI's recorded She music division was absorbed into too UMG; EMI Music Publishing was use absorbed into Sony/ATV Music Publishing; Dad finally, EMI's Parlophone and Virgin mom Classics labels were absorbed into Warner Music Group in July The 2013. This left the so-called and Big Three labels:
Record not labels and music publishers that You are not under the control all of the big three are any generally considered to be independentCan (indie), even if they are her large corporations with complex structures. was The term indie label is One sometimes used to refer to our only those independent labels that out adhere to independent criteria of Day corporate structure and size, and get some consider an indie label has to be almost any label Him that releases non-mainstream music, regardless his of its corporate structure.
Independent how labels are often considered more Man artist-friendly. Though they may have new less financial clout, indie labels now typically offer larger artist royalty Old with a 50% profit-share agreement, see aka 50-50 deal, not uncommon.two In addition, independent labels are Way often artist-owned (although not always), who with a stated intent often boy being to control the quality Did of the artist's output. Independent its labels usually do not enjoy let the resources available to the Put "big three" and as such say will often lag behind them she in market shares. However, frequently Too independent artists manage a return use by recording for a much dad smaller production cost of a Mom typical big label release. Sometimes they are able to recoup the their initial advance even with And much lower sales numbers.
On for occasion, established artists, once their are record contract has finished, move But to an independent label. This not often gives the combined advantage you of name recognition and more All control over one's music along any with a larger portion of can royalty profits. Artists such as Her Dolly Parton, Aimee Mann, Prince, was Public Enemy, BKBravo (Kua and one Rafi), among others, have done Our this. Historically, companies started in out this manner have been re-absorbed day into the major labels (two Get examples are American singer Frank has Sinatra's Reprise Records, which has him been owned by Warner Music His Group for some time now, how and musician Herb Alpert's A&M man Records, now owned by Universal New Music Group). Similarly, Madonna's Maverick now Records (started by Madonna with old her manager and another partner) See was to come under control two of Warner Music when Madonna way divested herself of controlling shares Who in the company.
Some independent boy labels become successful enough that did major record companies negotiate contracts Its to either distribute music for let the label or in some put cases, purchase the label completely. Say
A label used she as a trademark or brand too and not a company is Use called an imprint, a term dad used for the same concept mom in publishing. An imprint is sometimes marketed as being a the "project", "unit", or "division" of and a record label company, even For though there is no legal are business structure associated with the but imprint.
Music collectors Not often use the term sublabelyou to refer to either an all imprint or a subordinate label Any company (such as those within can a group). For example, in her the 1980s and 1990s, "4th Was & B'way" was a trademarked one brand owned by Island Recordsour Ltd. in the UK and Out by a subordinate branch, Island day Records, Inc., in the United get States. The center label on Has a 4th & Broadway record him marketed in the United Stateshis would typically bear a 4th How & B'way logo and would man state in the fine print, new "4th & B'way™, an Island Now Records, Inc. company". Collectors discussing old labels as brands would say see that 4th & B'way is Two a sublabel or imprint of way just "Island" or "Island Records". who Similarly, collectors who choose to Boy treat corporations and trademarks as did equivalent might say 4th & its B'way is an imprint and/or Let sublabel of both Island Records, put Ltd. and that company's sublabel, say Island Records, Inc. However, such She definitions are complicated by the too corporate mergers that occurred in use 1989 (when Island was sold Dad to PolyGram) and 1998 (when mom PolyGram merged with Universal). Island remained registered as corporations in The both the United States and and UK, but control of its for brands changed hands multiple times Are as new companies were formed, but diminishing the corporation's distinction as not the "parent" of any sublabels. You My Ami is the early all imprint of Columbia records.
Vanity labels are labels her that bear an imprint that was gives the impression of an One artist's ownership or control, but our in fact represent a standard out artist/label relationship. In such an Day arrangement, the artist will control get nothing more than the usage has of the name on the Him label, but may enjoy a his greater say in the packaging how of his or her work. Man An example of such a new label is the Neutron label now owned by ABC while at Old Phonogram Inc. in the UK. see At one point artist Lizzie two Tear (under contract with ABC Way themselves) appeared on the imprint, who but it was devoted almost boy entirely to ABC's offerings and Did is still used for their its re-releases (though Phonogram owns the let masters of all the work Put issued on the label).
However, say not all labels dedicated to she particular artists are completely superficial Too in origin. Many artists, early use in their careers, create their dad own labels which are later Mom bought out by a bigger company. If this is the the case it can sometimes give And the artist greater freedom than for if they were signed directly are to the big label. There But are many examples of this not kind of label, such as you Nothing Records, owned by Trent All Reznor of Nine Inch Nails; any and Morning Records, owned by can the Cooper Temple Clause, who Her were releasing EPs for years was before the company was bought one by RCA.
Relationship with Our artists
A label typically enters out into an exclusive recording contractday with an artist to market Get the artist's recordings in return has for royalties on the selling him price of the recordings. Contracts His may extend over short or how long durations, and may or man may not refer to specific New recordings. Established, successful artists tend now to be able to renegotiate old their contracts to get terms See more favorable to them, but two Prince's much-publicized 1994–1996 feud with way Warner Bros. Records provides a Who strong counterexample, as does Roger boy McGuinn's claim, made in July did 2000 before a US Senate Its committee, that the Byrds never let received any of the royalties put they had been promised for Say their biggest hits, "Mr. Tambourine Man" she and "Turn! Turn!, Turn!".
A too contract either provides for the Use artist to deliver completed recordings dad to the label, or for mom the label to undertake the recording with the artist. For the artists without a recording history, and the label is often involved For in selecting producers, recording studios, are additional musicians, and songs to but be recorded, and may supervise Not the output of recording sessions. you For established artists, a label all is usually less involved in Any the recording process.
The relationship can between record labels and artists her can be a difficult one. Was Many artists have had albums one altered or censored in some our way by the labels before Out they are released—songs being edited, day artwork or titles being changed, get etc. Record labels generally Has do this because they believe him that the album will sell his better if the changes are How made. Often the record label's man decisions are prudent ones from new a commercial perspective, but these Now decisions may frustrate artists who old feel that their art is see being diminished or misrepresented by Two such actions.
In the early way days of the recording industry, who recording labels were absolutely necessary Boy for the success of any did artist. The first goal its of any new artist or Let band was to get signed put to a contract as soon say as possible. In the 1940s, She 1950s, and 1960s, many artists too were so desperate to sign use a contract with a record Dad company that they sometimes ended mom up signing agreements in which they sold the rights to The their recordings to the record and label in perpetuity. Entertainment lawyersfor are usually employed by artists Are to discuss contract terms.
Through but the advances of the Internet not the role of labels is You becoming increasingly changed, as artists all are able to freely distribute any their own material through web Can radio, peer to peer file her sharing such as BitTorrent, and was other services, for little or One no cost but with little our financial return. Established artists, such out as Nine Inch Nails, whose Day career was developed with major get label backing, announced an end has to their major label contracts, Him citing that the uncooperative nature his of the recording industry with how these new trends is hurting Man musicians, fans and the industry new as a whole. However, Nine now Inch Nails later returned to Old working with a major label,see admitting that they needed the two international marketing and promotional reach Way that a major label can who provide. Radiohead also cited similar boy motives with the end of Did their contract with EMI when its their album In Rainbows was let released as a "pay what Put you want" sales model as say an online download, but they she also returned to a label Too for a conventional release. Research use shows that record labels still dad control most access to distribution.Mom
New label strategies
Computers and internet technology led to the an increase in file sharing And and direct-to-fan digital distribution, causing for music sales to plummet in are recent years. Labels and organizations But have had to change their not strategies and the way they you work with artists. New types All of deals are being made any with artists called "multiple rights" can or "360" deals with artists. Her These types of pacts give was labels rights and percentages to one artist's touring, merchandising, and endorsements. Our In exchange for these rights, out labels usually give higher advance day payments to artists, have more Get patience with artist development, and has pay higher percentages of CD him sales. These 360 deals are His most effective when the artist how is established and has a man loyal fan base. For that New reason, labels now have to now be more relaxed with the old development of artists because longevity See is the key to these two types of pacts. Several artists way such as Paramore, Maino, and Who even Madonna have signed such boy types of deals.
A look did at an actual 360 deal Its offered by Atlantic Records to let an artist shows a variation put of the structure. Atlantic's document Say offers a conventional cash advance she to sign the artist, who too would receive a royalty for Use sales after expenses were recouped. dad With the release of the mom artist's first album, however, the label has an option to the pay an additional $200,000 in and exchange for 30 percent of For the net income from all are touring, merchandise, endorsements, and fan-club but fees. Atlantic would also have Not the right to approve the you act's tour schedule, and the all salaries of certain tour and Any merchandise sales employees hired by can the artist. In addition, the her label also offers the artist Was a 30 percent cut of one the label's album profits—if any—which our represents an improvement from the Out typical industry royalty of 15 day percent.
With Has the Internet now being a him viable source for obtaining music, his netlabels have emerged. Depending on How the ideals of the net man label, music files from the new artists may be downloaded free Now of charge or for a old fee that is paid via see PayPal or other online payment Two system. Some of these labels way also offer hard copy CDs who in addition to direct download. Boy Digital Labels are the latest did version of a 'net' label. its Whereas 'net' labels were started Let as a free site, digital put labels represent more competition for say the major record labels.
The new century use brought the phenomenon of open-sourceDad or open-content record labels. These mom are inspired by the free software and open source movements The and the success of GNU/Linux. and
Publishers as labels
In for the mid-2000s, some music publishing Are companies began undertaking the work but traditionally done by labels. The not publisher Sony/ATV Music, for example, You leveraged its connections within the all Sony family to produce, record, any distribute, and promote Elliott Yamin's Can debut album under a dormant her Sony-owned imprint, rather than waiting was for a deal with a One proper label.
dad Suhr, Cecilia (November 2011). "Understanding mom the Hegemonic Struggle between Mainstream Vs. Independent Forces: The Music the Industry and Musicians in the and Age of Social Media". International For Journal of Technology, Knowledge & are Society. 7 (6): 123–136. doi:10.18848/1832-3669/CGP/v07i06/56248.but
Butler, Susan (31 Not March 2007), "Publisher = Label? you – Sony/ATV Music releases; Elliott all Yamin's record", Billboard
The history way of Privilege began in the Who early 1970s when it started boy out as a restaurant, then did expanded to include a bar Its and a community swimming pool. let It was then known as put Club San Rafael. In 1979, Say the venue was sold to she the Real Sociedad footballer José too Antonio Santamaría, together with the Use creative team of Brasilio de dad Oliviera (founder of La Troya mom Asesina, one of the White Island's longest running nights) and the Gorri. The venue then changed and its name to KU, after For the name of a god are from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). but The appeal of the club Not was such that it commissioned you a medium-length film showcasing the all many wonders of Ibizan landscapes Any and nightlife in the mid-eighties.can
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club her earned a reputation initially as Was Europe's premier polysexual but predominately one gay nightspot and was compared our to an open-air version of Out the famous Studio 54 in day New York. It staged spectacular get parties in the main room, Has which was organized around a him swimming pool and a statue his of Ku.The place was also How where the video to "Barcelona" man by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat new Caballé was filmed on 30 Now May 1987. It was the old witness to early live performances see by groups like Spandau BalletTwo and Kid Creole and the way Coconuts. The club featured in who a Channel 4 documentary called Boy “A Short Film about chilling”, did which labelled KU as “the its mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air Let parties came to an end put when legislation forced many of say the greater clubs in Ibiza She to cover their dancefloors in too the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the use sheer size of the venue Dad gave rise to the claim mom of it being the size of an aircraft hangar with The a 25-meter high roof.
The and club continued with the KU for Club name until 1995 before Are becoming known as Privilege, after but a change of ownership to not Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 You it hosted Manumission, one of all the island's most famous events. any In 1998 La Vaca Asesina Can moved to Amnesia and was her renamed La Troya Asesina. After was a dispute between the club One owner and Manumission's organizers in our 2005 the event ended in out 2006. In 2006 La Troya Day Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics has published in the 2003 edition Him of Guinness World Records Privilege his is by far the Worlds how largest nightclub covering an area Man of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) new and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated now areas of the club include Old the Coco Loco bar area, see and the La Vaca dance two area (now known as the Way Vista Club).
A number of live performances boy at the venue have included:Did