Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A record producer or our music producer oversees and manages Out the sound recording and production day of a band or performer's get music, which may range from Has recording one song to recording him a lengthy concept album. A his producer has many, varying roles How during the recording process. They man may gather musical ideas for new the project, collaborate with the Now artists to select cover tunesold or original songs by the see artist/group, work with artists and Two help them to improve their way songs, lyrics or arrangements.
Coach the put singers and musicians in the say studio
The producer typically supervises She the entire process from preproduction, too through to the sound recordinguse and mixing stages, and, in Dad some cases, all the way mom to the audio mastering stage. The producer may perform these The roles themself, or help select and the engineer, and provide suggestions for to the engineer. The producer Are may also pay session musicians but and engineers and ensure that not the entire project is completed You within the record label's budget. all
A record producer or music has producer has a very broad Him role in overseeing and managing his the recording and production of how a band or performer's music. Man A producer has many roles new that may include, but are now not limited to, gathering ideas Old for the project, composing the see music for the project, selecting two songs or session musicians, proposing Way changes to the song arrangements, who coaching the artist and musicians boy in the studio, controlling the Did recording sessions, and supervising the its entire process through audio mixing let (recorded music) and, in some Put cases, to the audio masteringsay stage. Producers also often take she on a wider entrepreneurial role, Too with responsibility for the budget, use schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
Writer dad Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes Mom a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who the helps a band achieve a And certain aesthetic, or who comes for up with the perfect violin are part to complement the vocal But melody, or who insists that not a chorus should actually be you a bridge. Other times a All producer will build a complete any piece of music from the can ground up and present the Her finished product to a vocalist, was like Metro Boomin supplying Future one with readymade beats or Jack Our Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add out lyrics and melody to an day otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”Get
The artist of an album has may not be a record him producer or music producer for His his/her album. While both contribute how creatively, the official credit of man "record producer" may depend on New the record contract. Christina Aguilera, now for example, did not receive old record producer credits until many See albums into her career.
In two the 2010s, the recording industry way has three kinds of producers Who with different roles: executive producer, boy vocal producer and music producer. did Executive producers oversee project finances, Its Vocal Producers also known as let vocal arrangers oversees the vocal put production, while music producers oversee Say the creative process of recording she songs or albums.
In most too cases the music producer is Use also a competent arranger, composer, dad musician or songwriter who can mom bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making the any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, and the producer often selects or For gives suggestions to the mixing are engineer, who takes the raw but recorded tracks and edits and Not modifies them with hardware and you software tools and creates a all stereo or surround sound "mix" Any of all the individual voices can sounds and instruments, which is her in turn given further adjustment Was by a mastering engineer. The one producer will also liaise with our the recording engineer who concentrates Out on the technical aspects of day recording, whereas the executive producer get keeps an eye on the Has overall project's marketability.
Noted producer him Phil Ek described his role his as "the person who creatively How guides or directs the process man of making a record", like new a director would a movie. Now Indeed, in Bollywood music, the old designation is actually music director.see The music producer's job is Two to create, shape, and mold way a piece of music. The who scope of responsibility may be Boy one or two songs or did an artist's entire album – its in which case the producer Let will typically develop an overall put vision for the album and say how the various songs may She interrelate.
At the too beginning of record industry, the use producer role was technically limited Dad to record, in one shot, mom artists performing live. The immediate predecessors to record producers were The the artists and repertoire executives and of the late 1920s and for 1930s who oversaw the "pop" Are product and often led session but orchestras. That was the case not of Ben Selvin at Columbia You Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor all Records and Bob Haring at any Brunswick Records. By the end Can of the 1930s, the first her professional recording studios not owned was by the major companies were One established, essentially separating the roles our of A&R man and producer, out although it wouldn't be until Day the late 1940s when the get term "producer" became widely used has in the industry.
The role Him of producers changed progressively over his the 1950s and 1960s due how to technological developments. The development Man of multitrack recording caused a new major change in the recording now process. Before multitracking, all the Old elements of a song (lead see vocals, backup vocals, rhythm sectiontwo instrument accompaniment, solos and orchestral Way parts) had to be performed who simultaneously. All of these singers boy and musicians had to be Did assembled in a large studio its and the performance had to let be recorded. With multitrack recording, Put the "bed tracks" (rhythm section say accompaniment parts such as the she bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar Too could be recorded first, and use then the vocals and solos dad could be added later, using Mom as many "takes" (or attempts) as it took. As well, the for a song that used And 20 instruments, it was no for longer necessary to get all are the players in the studio But at the same time. A not pop band could record their you backing tracks one week, and All then a horn section could any be brought in a week can later to add horn shots Her and punches, and then a was string section could be brought one in a week after that. Our
Multitrack recording had another profound out effect on music production: it day enabled producers and audio engineers Get to create new sounds that has would be impossible in a him live performance style ordering. Examples His include the psychedelic rock sound how effects of the 1960s, e.g. man playing back the sound of New recorded instruments backward changing the now tape to produce unique sound old effects. During the same period, See the instruments of popular music two began to shift from the way acoustic instruments of traditional musicWho (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, boy strings, brass and wind instruments) did to electric piano, electronic organ, Its synthesizer, electric bass and electric let guitar. These new instruments were put electric or electronic, and thus Say they used instrument amplifiers and she speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to too create sound.
Electric and electronic Use instruments and amplifiers enabled performers dad and producers to change the mom tone and sound of instruments to produce unique electric sounds the that would be impossible to and achieve with acoustic instruments and For live performers, such as having are a singer do her own but backup vocals or having a Not guitarist play 15 layers of you backing parts to her own all solo.
New technologies like multitracking Any changed the goal of recording: can A producer could blend together her multiple takes and edit together Was different sections to create the one desired sound. For example, in our jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' Out album Bitches Brew, the producer day cut and edited sections together get from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like his Phil Spector and George MartinHow were soon creating recordings that man were, in practical terms, almost new impossible to realize in live Now performance. Producers became creative figures old in the studio. Other examples see of such engineers includes Joe Two Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, way and Biddu.
Another did related phenomenon in the 1960s its was the emergence of the Let performer-producer. As pop acts like put The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, say The Beach Boys and The She Kinks gained expertise in studio too recording techniques, many of these use groups eventually took over as Dad (frequently uncredited) producers of their mom own work. Many recordings by acts such as The Rolling The Stones, The Kinks and The and Who are officially credited to for their various producers at the Are time, but a number of but these performers have since asserted not that many of their recordings You in this period were, either all wholly self-produced (e.g. The Rolling any Stones' Decca recordings) or collaborations Can between the group and their her recording engineer (e.g. The Small was Faces' Immediate recordings, which were One made with Olympic Studios engineer our Glyn Johns).
The Beach Boys out are probably the best example Day of the trend of artists get becoming producers – within two has years of the band's commercial Him breakthrough, group leader Brian Wilson his had taken over from his how father Murry, and he was Man the sole producer of all new their recordings between 1963 and now 1967. Alongside The Beatles and Old Martin, Wilson also pioneered many see production innovations – by 1964 two he had developed Spector's techniques Way to a new level of who sophistication, using multiple studios and boy multiple "takes" of instrumental and Did vocal components to capture the its best possible combinations of sound let and performance, and then using Put tape editing extensively to assemble say a perfect composite performance from she these elements.
At the end Too of the 20th century, digital use recording and producing tools, then dad widespread availability of relatively affordable Mom computers with music software made music producing more accessible.
Women and Record Producing
According And to a 2018 study by for the USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, are "The ratio of male to But female producers across 300 popular not songs is 49 to 1." you
They also discovered only 2 All percent of music producers are any women. In 2019, The Recording can Academy’s Task Force on Diversity Her and Inclusion announced the "Producer was & Engineer Inclusion Initiative." This one initiative asks musicians, record labels, Our studios and others to consider out at least two women for day each producer or engineer position. Get Major artists, producers and organizations has have signed on including Lady him Gaga, Quincy Jones, Pearl Jam, His John Legend, Pharrell Williams, Pink, how Cardi B, Maroon 5 and man over 200 others.
In 2019, New record producer Linda Perry was now nominated for a Grammy for old Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. See She was the first woman two in over 15 years to way be nominated for the award. Who Previous nominees include Lauren Christyboy (2004), Sheryl Crowe, Lauryn Hilldid and Janet Jackson. None have Its won the award.
In the let classical music field, Judith Shermanput has won Grammy for Producer Say of the Year, Classical, three she times and been nominated twelve too times. Wilma Cozart Fine produced Use hundreds of recordings for Mercury dad Records.
Producer Wendy Page describes mom being a record producer, "The difficulties are usually very short-lived. the Once people realize that you and can do your job, sexism For tends to lower its ugly are head. I tend to create but a happy studio 'family' where Not everyone is glad to be you there, especially the artist. Good all communication and diplomacy usually sort Any any little problems out."
Other notable women record producers
Sylvia Moy (Motown's first female Was record producer)
Gail Davies (First one female record producer on Nashville's our Music Row)
Ethel Gabriel (First Out major label record producer; 40 day year career with RCA)
Lillian get McMurry (Producer/Label owner who produced Has historically significant blues records)
Equipment him and technology
There are numerous technologies utilized How by record producers. In modern-day man recordings, recording and mixing tasks new are commonly centralized within computers Now using digital audio workstations such old as Pro Tools, Logic Pro, see Ableton, Cubase, and FL Studio, Two which all are often used way with third party virtual studio who technology plugins. Logic Pro and Boy Pro Tools are considered the did industry standard DAWs. However, there its is also the main mixer, Let outboard effects gear, MIDI controllers, put and the recording device itself. say
While most music production is She done using sophisticated software, some too musicians and producers prefer the use minutiae of older analog technology. Dad Professor Albin Zak claims that mom the increased automation of both newer processes and newer instruments The reduces the level of control and and manipulation available to musicians for and producers.
Production has changed drastically over but the years with advancing technology. not Where the producer's role has You changed, they have always been all seen as a jack of any all trades, as their duties Can require a broad knowledge of her the recording process.
Tracking is was the act of recording audio One to a DAW (digital audio our workstation) or in some cases out to tape. Even though digital Day technologies have widely supplanted the get use of tape in studios, has the older term "track" is Him still used in the 2010s. his Tracking audio is primarily the how role of the audio engineer. Man Producers work side by side new with the artists while they now play or sing their part Old and coach them on how see to perform it and how two to get the best technical Way accuracy (e.g., intonation). In some who cases, the producer will even boy sing a backup vocal or Did play an instrument.
Many artists its are also beginning to produce let and write their own music.Put
Influential record producers
NMEsay identifies some of the greatest she producers ever.
Similarly, although The man Beatles' productions were credited to New George Martin throughout their recording now career, many sources now attest old that Lennon and McCartney in See particular had an increasing influence two on the production process as way the group's career progressed, and Who especially after the band retired boy from touring in 1966. In did an extreme example of this, Its Martin actually went on a let two-week vacation as The Beatles put were recording The White Album; Say production of several completed tracks she on the album were credited too to The Beatles on internal Use paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, dad although the released LP gave mom sole production credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Man Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, new and culture," by Timothy D. now Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, see and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' two Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From Way Light Coaching To Deeper Collaboration who With Musicians." Journal of New boy Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Did Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 its Sept. 2015.
A record label, Now or record company, is a old brand or trademark associated with see the marketing of music recordingsTwo and music videos. Sometimes, a way record label is also a who publishing company that manages such Boy brands and trademarks, coordinates the did production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, its and enforcement of copyright for Let sound recordings and music videos; put also conducting talent scouting and say development of new artists ("artists She and repertoire" or "A&R"); and too maintains contracts with recording artists use and their managers. The term Dad "record label" derives from the mom circular label in the center of a vinyl record which The prominently displays the manufacturer's name, and along with other information.
Within now the mainstream music industry, recording Old artists have traditionally been reliant see upon record labels to broaden two their consumer base, market their Way albums, and be both promoted who and heard on music streaming boy services, radio, and television. Record Did labels provide publicists, who assist its performers in gaining positive media let coverage, and arrange for their Put merchandise to be available via say stores and other media outlets. she
But an increasing number of Too artists have sought to avoid use costs and gain new audiences dad via the Internet, often with Mom the help of videos. Combined with the decline in album the sales and rapid growth in And free content available online, this for has changed the way the are industry works dramatically since the But beginning of the 21st century. not It has caused record labels you to seek new sources of All profit, in particular via "360" any deals (see below, under "new can label strategies").
Major versus Her independent record labels
Record labels was may be small, localized and one "independent" ("indie"), or they may Our be part of a large out international media group, or somewhere day in between. The Association of Get Independent Music (AIM) defines a has 'major' as "a multinational company him which (together with the companies His in its group) has more how than 5% of the world man market(s) for the sale of New records or music videos." As now of 2012, there are only old three labels that can be See referred to as "major labels" two (Universal Music Group, Sony Music way Entertainment, and Warner Music Group). Who In 2014 AIM estimated that boy the majors had a collective did global market share of some Its 65-70%.
A "sublabel" is a let label that is part of put a larger record company but Say trades under a different name. she
A label used too as a trademark or brand Use and not a company is dad called an imprint, a term mom used for the same concept in publishing. An imprint is the sometimes marketed as being a and "project", "unit", or "division" of For a record label company, even are though there is no legal but business structure associated with the Not imprint.
Record companies all and music publishers that are Any not under the control of can the big three are generally her considered to be independent (indie), Was even if they are large one corporations with complex structures. The our term indie label is sometimes Out used to refer to only day those independent labels that adhere get to independent criteria of corporate Has structure and size, and some him consider an indie label to his be almost any label that How releases non-mainstream music, regardless of man its corporate structure.
Independent labels new are often considered more artist-friendly. Now Though they may have less old financial clout, indie labels typically see offer larger artist royalty with Two 50% profit-share agreement, aka 50-50 way deal, not uncommon.
Music collectors often use the Boy term sublabel to refer to did either an imprint or a its subordinate label company (such as Let those within a group). For put example, in the 1980s and say 1990s, "4th & B'way" was She a trademarked brand owned by too Island Records Ltd. in the use UK and by a subordinate Dad branch, Island Records, Inc., in mom the United States. The center label on a 4th & The Broadway record marketed in the and United States would typically bear for a 4th & B'way logo Are and would state in the but fine print, "4th & B'way™, not an Island Records, Inc. company". You Collectors discussing labels as brands all would say that 4th & any B'way is a sublabel or Can imprint of just "Island" or her "Island Records". Similarly, collectors who was choose to treat corporations and One trademarks as equivalent might say our 4th & B'way is an out imprint and/or sublabel of both Day Island Records, Ltd. and that get company's sublabel, Island Records, Inc. has However, such definitions are complicated Him by the corporate mergers that his occurred in 1989 (when Island how was sold to PolyGram) and Man 1998 (when PolyGram merged with new Universal). Island remained registered as now corporations in both the United Old States and UK, but control see of its brands changed hands two multiple times as new companies Way were formed, diminishing the corporation's who distinction as the "parent" of boy any sublabels.
Vanity its labels are labels that bear let an imprint that gives the Put impression of an artist's ownership say or control, but in fact she represent a standard artist/label relationship. Too In such an arrangement, the use artist will control nothing more dad than the usage of the Mom name on the label, but may enjoy a greater say the in the packaging of his And or her work. An example for of such a label is are the Neutron label owned by But ABC while at Phonogram Inc.not in the UK. At one you point artist Lizzie Tear (under All contract with ABC themselves) appeared any on the imprint, but it can was devoted almost entirely to Her ABC's offerings and is still was used for their re-releases (though one Phonogram owns the masters of Our all the work issued on out the label).
However, not all day labels dedicated to particular artists Get are completely superficial in origin. has Many artists, early in their him careers, create their own labels His which are later bought out how by a bigger company. If man this is the case it New can sometimes give the artist now greater freedom than if they old were signed directly to the See big label. There are many two examples of this kind of way label, such as Nothing Records, Who owned by Trent Reznor of boy Nine Inch Nails; and Morning did Records, owned by the Cooper Its Temple Clause, who were releasing let EPs for years before the put company was bought by RCA. Say
Relationship with artists
A she label typically enters into an too exclusive recording contract with an Use artist to market the artist's dad recordings in return for royaltiesmom on the selling price of the recordings. Contracts may extend the over short or long durations, and and may or may not For refer to specific recordings. Established, are successful artists tend to be but able to renegotiate their contracts Not to get terms more favorable you to them, but Prince's much-publicized all 1994–1996 feud with Warner Bros. Any Records provides a strong counterexample,can as does Roger McGuinn's claim, her made in July 2000 before Was a US Senate committee, that one the Byrds never received any our of the royalties they had Out been promised for their biggest day hits, "Mr. Tambourine Man" and "Turn! get Turn!, Turn!".
A contract either Has provides for the artist to him deliver completed recordings to the his label, or for the label How to undertake the recording with man the artist. For artists without new a recording history, the label Now is often involved in selecting old producers, recording studios, additional musicians, see and songs to be recorded, Two and may supervise the output way of recording sessions. For established who artists, a label is usually Boy less involved in the recording did process.
The relationship between record its labels and artists can be Let a difficult one. Many artists put have had albums altered or say censored in some way by She the labels before they are too released—songs being edited, artwork or use titles being changed, etc.Dad Record labels generally do this mom because they believe that the album will sell better if The the changes are made. Often and the record label's decisions are for prudent ones from a commercial Are perspective, but this typically frustrates but the artists who feels that not their art is being diminished You or misrepresented by such actions. all
In the early days of any the recording industry, recording labels Can were absolutely necessary for the her success of any artist.was The first goal of any One new artist or band was our to get signed to a out contract as soon as possible. Day In the 1940s, 1950s, and get 1960s, many artists were so has desperate to sign a contract Him with a record company that his they sometimes ended up signing how agreements in which they sold Man the rights to their recordings new to the record label in now perpetuity. Entertainment lawyers are usually Old employed by artists to discuss see contract terms.
Through the advances two of the Internet the role Way of labels is becoming increasingly who changed, as artists are able boy to freely distribute their own Did material through web radio, peer its to peer file sharing such let as BitTorrent, and other services, Put for little or no cost say but with little financial return. she Established artists, such as Nine Too Inch Nails, whose career was use developed with major label backing, dad announced an end to their Mom major label contracts, citing that the uncooperative nature of the the recording industry with these new And trends are hurting musicians, fans for and the industry as a are whole. Nine Inch Nails later But returned to working with a not major label, admitting that they you needed the international marketing and All promotional reach that a major any label can provide. Radiohead also can cited similar motives with the Her end of their contract with was EMI when their album In one Rainbows was released as a Our "pay what you want" sales out model as an online download, day but they also returned to Get a label for a conventional has release. Research shows that record him labels still control most access His to distribution.
New label how strategies
With the advancement of man the computer and technology such New as the Internet, leading to now an increase in file sharing old and direct-to-fan digital distribution, combined See with music sales plummeting in two recent years, labels and organizations way have had to change their Who strategies and the way they boy work with artists. New types did of deals are being made Its with artists called "multiple rights" let or "360" deals with artists. put These types of pacts give Say labels rights and percentages to she artist's touring, merchandising, and endorsements. too In exchange for these rights, Use labels usually give higher advance dad payments to artists, have more mom patience with artist development, and pay higher percentages of CD the sales. These 360 deals are and most effective when the artist For is established and has a are loyal fan base. For that but reason, labels now have to Not be more relaxed with the you development of artists because longevity all is the key to these Any types of pacts. Several artists can such as Paramore, Maino, and her even Madonna have signed such Was types of deals.
A look one at an actual 360 deal our offered by Atlantic Records to Out an artist shows a variation day of the structure. Atlantic's document get offers a conventional cash advance Has to sign the artist, who him would receive a royalty for his sales after expenses were recouped. How With the release of the man artist's first album, however, the new label has an option to Now pay an additional $200,000 in old exchange for 30 percent of see the net income from all Two touring, merchandise, endorsements, and fan-club way fees. Atlantic would also have who the right to approve the Boy act's tour schedule, and the did salaries of certain tour and its merchandise sales employees hired by Let the artist. But the label put also offers the artist a say 30 percent cut of the She label's album profits—if any—which represents too an improvement from the typical use industry royalty of 15 percent.Dad
In mom the 1970s and 1980s, there was a phase of consolidation The in the record industry that and led to almost all major for labels being owned by a Are very few multinational companies. CDs but still flow through a handful not of sources, with the majority You of the sales going through all the "big three" record labels. any
Resurgence of independent labels
In the 1990s, as a her result of the widespread use was of home studios, consumer recording One technology, and the Internet, independent our labels began to become more out commonplace. Independent labels are often Day artist-owned (although not always), with get a stated intent often being has to control the quality of Him the artist's output. Independent labels his usually do not enjoy the how resources available to the "big Man three" and as such will new often lag behind them in now market shares. Often independent artists Old manage a return by recording see for a much smaller production two cost of a typical big Way label release. Sometimes they are who able to recoup their initial boy advance even with much lower Did sales numbers.
On occasion, established its artists, once their record contract let has finished, move to an Put independent label. This often gives say the combined advantage of name she recognition and more control over Too one's music along with a use larger portion of royalty profits. dad Artists such as Dolly Parton, Mom Aimee Mann, Prince, Public Enemy, BKBravo (Kua and Rafi), among the others, have done this. Historically, And companies started in this manner for have been re-absorbed into the are major labels (two examples are But American singer Frank Sinatra's Reprise not Records, which has been owned you by Warner Music Group for All some time now, and musician any Herb Alpert's A&M Records, now can owned by Universal Music Group). Her Similarly, Madonna's Maverick Records (started was by Madonna with her manager one and another partner) was to Our come under control of Warner out Music when Madonna divested herself day of controlling shares in the Get company.
Some independent labels become has successful enough that major record him companies negotiate contracts to either His distribute music for the label how or in some cases, purchase man the label completely.
On the New punk rock scene, the DIY now ethic encourages bands to self-publish old and self-distribute. This approach evolved See out of necessity around since two the early 1980s, due to way the major labels' aversion to Who signing the punk rock bands boy that spawned after the initial did wave in the mid-70s. Such Its labels have a reputation for let being fiercely uncompromising and especially put unwilling to cooperate with the Say big record labels at all. she One of the most notable too and influential labels of the Use Do-It-Yourself attitude was SST Records, dad created by the band Black mom Flag. No labels wanted to release their material, so they the simply created their own label and to release not only their For own material but the material are of many other influential underground but bands all over the country. Not Ian MacKaye's Dischord is often you cited as a model of all success in the DIY community, Any having survived for over thirty can years with less than twelve her employees at any one time. Was
With the our Internet now being a viable Out source for obtaining music, netlabelsday have emerged. Depending on the get ideals of the net label, Has music files from the artists him may be downloaded free of his charge or for a fee How that is paid via PayPalman or other online payment system. new Some of these labels also Now offer hard copy CDs in old addition to direct download. Digital see Labels are the latest version Two of a 'net' label. Whereas way 'net' labels were started as who a free site, digital labels Boy are more competition for the did major record labels.
The new century brought put the phenomenon of open-source or say open-content record label. These are She inspired by the free softwaretoo and open source movements and use the success of GNU/Linux.
Publishers as labels
In the mom mid-2000s, some music publishing companies began undertaking the work traditionally The done by labels. The publisher and Sony/ATV Music, for example, leveraged for its connections within the Sony Are family to produce, record, distribute, but and promote Elliott Yamin's debut not album under a dormant Sony-owned You imprint, rather than waiting for all a deal with a proper any label.
Record labels are her often under the control of was a corporate umbrella organization called One a "music group". A music our group is typically owned by out an international conglomerate "holding company", Day which often has non-music divisions get as well. A music group has controls and consists of music Him publishing companies, record (sound recording) his manufacturers, record distributors, and record how labels. Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, Man and labels) may also constitute new a "record group" which is, now in turn, controlled by a Old music group. The constituent companies see in a music group or two record group are sometimes marketed Way as being "divisions" of the who group.
From 1988 to 1999, boy there were six major record Did labels, known as the Big its Six:
PolyGram was merged use into UMG in 1999, leaving dad the rest to be known Mom as the Big Five.
In 2004, Sony and BMG the agreed to a joint venture And to create the Sony BMGfor label (which would be renamed are Sony Music Entertainment after a But 2008 merger). In 2007, the not four remaining companies—known as the you Big Four—controlled about 70% of All the world music market, and any about 80% of the United can States music market.
In 2012, Her the major divisions of EMIwas were sold off separately by one owner Citigroup: most of EMI's Our recorded music division was absorbed out into UMG; EMI Music Publishing day was absorbed into Sony/ATV Music Get Publishing; finally, EMI's Parlophone and has Virgin Classics labels were absorbed him into Warner Music Group in His July 2013. This left the how so-called Big Three labels:
Privilege you Ibiza originally known as Ku all Club (1979–95) is the "world's Any largest nightclub" according to the can Guinness Book of Records, also her defined as a Superclub with Was a capacity of 10,000 people. one It is located in close our proximity to the village of Out San Rafael, Ibiza, Spain less day than one kilometre (0.6 miles) get from the nightclub Amnesia.
The history of Privilege began see in the early 1970s when Two it started out as a way restaurant, then expanded to include who a bar and a community Boy swimming pool. It was then did known as Club San Rafael.its In 1979, the venue was Let sold to the Real Sociedadput footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together say with the creative team of She Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of too La Troya Asesina, one of use the White Island's longest running Dad nights) and Gorri. The venue mom then changed its name to KU, after the name of The a god from Hawaiian mythology and (see Kū). The appeal of for the club was such that Are it commissioned a medium-length film but showcasing the many wonders of not Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in You the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980´s,all KU Club earned a reputation any initially as Europe's premier polysexualCan but predominately gay nightspot and her was compared to an open-air was version of the famous Studio One 54 in New York. It our staged spectacular parties in the out main room, which was organized Day around a swimming pool and get a statue of Ku.The place has was also where the video Him to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercuryhis and Montserrat Caballé was filmed how on 30 May 1987. It Man was the witness to early new live performances by groups like now Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole Old and the Coconuts. The club see featured in a Channel 4two documentary called “A Short Film Way about chilling”, which labelled KU who as “the mirror of Ibiza”.boy The open-air parties came to Did an end when legislation forced its many of the greater clubs let in Ibiza to cover their Put dancefloors in the early 1990s. say Nevertheless, the sheer size of she the venue gave rise to Too the claim of it being use the size of an aircraft dad hangar with a 25-meter high Mom roof.
The club continued with the KU Club name until the 1995 before becoming known as And Privilege, after a change of for ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.are In 1994 it hosted Manumission, But one of the island's most not famous events. In 1998 La you Vaca Asesina moved to AmnesiaAll and was renamed La Troya any Asesina. After a dispute between can the club owner and Manumission's Her organizers in 2005 the event was ended in 2006. In 2006 one La Troya Aseina moved to Our Space.
According to out official statistics published in the day 2003 edition of Guinness World Get Records Privilege is by far has the Worlds largest nightclub covering him an area of 69,968 sq His ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 how clubbers, Designated areas of the man club include the Coco Loco New bar area, and the La now Vaca dance area (now known old as the Vista Club).