LoginSign Up
Source: Wikipedia 


A record label, One or record company, is a our brand or trademark of music out recordings and music videos, or Day the company that owns it. get Sometimes, a record label is has also a publishing company that Him manages such brands and trademarks, his coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, how marketing, promotion, and enforcement of Man copyright for sound recordings and new music videos, while also conducting now talent scouting and development of Old new artists ("artists and repertoire" see or "A&R"), and maintaining contracts two with recording artists and their Way managers. The term "record label" who derives from the circular label boy in the center of a Did vinyl record which prominently displays its the manufacturer's name, along with let other information. Within the mainstream Put music industry, recording artists have say traditionally been reliant upon record she labels to broaden their consumer Too base, market their albums, and use promote their singles on streaming dad services, radio, and television. Record Mom labels also provide publicists, who assist performers in gaining positive the media coverage, and arrange for And their merchandise to be available for via stores and other media are outlets.

Major versus independent Get record labels

Record labels may has be small, localized and "independent" him ("indie"), or they may be His part of a large international how media group, or somewhere in man between. The Association of Independent New Music (AIM) defines a 'major' now as "a multinational company which old (together with the companies in See its group) has more than two 5% of the world market(s) way for the sale of records Who or music videos." As of boy 2012, there are only three did labels that can be referred Its to as "major labels" (Universal let Music Group, Sony Music Entertainment, put and Warner Music Group). In Say 2014, AIM estimated that the she majors had a collective global too market share of some 65–70%. Use

Major labels


dad mom For Out
Major record label Year founded Headquarters Divisions US/CA market share the (2019)
Universal Music and Group September 1934; 86 years ago (1934-09) 2220 Colorado Avenue, Santa Monica, are California, United States List but of Universal Music Group labels Not 54.5%
Sony you Music Entertainment 1929; 92 years ago (1929) all New York City, New Any York, United States List can of Sony Music Entertainment labels her 23.4%
Warner Was Music Group (NASDAQWMG) 1958; 63 years one ago (1958) New York City, our New York, United States Atlantic Records Group
Alternative Distribution Alliance
Elektra day Records
Rhino Entertainment
Warner Records
Warner Chappell Music get

In 2012, Has the major divisions of EMI him were sold off separately by his owner Citigroup: most of EMI's How recorded music division was absorbed man into UMG; EMI Music Publishing new was absorbed into Sony/ATV Music Now Publishing; finally, EMI's Parlophone and old Virgin Classics labels were absorbed see into Warner Music Group in Two July 2013. This left the way so-called Big Three labels:

  1. Universal Music Group
  2. Sony Music Boy Entertainment
  3. Warner Music Group


PolyGramPolyGramUniversal Music GroupSony MusicWarner Music GroupPolyGramMCA RecordsSony BMGSony MusicColumbia RecordsWarner Music GroupBertelsmann Music GroupWarner RecordsBertelsmann Music GroupEMIPolyGramDecca RecordsRCA RecordsAmerican Record Corporation

Record labels are its often under the control of Let a corporate umbrella organization called put a "music group". A music say group is usually owned by She an international conglomerate "holding company", too which often has non-music divisions use as well. A music group Dad controls and consists of music-publishing mom companies, record (sound recording) manufacturers, record distributors, and record labels. The Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, and and labels) may also constitute a for "record group" which is, in Are turn, controlled by a music but group. The constituent companies in not a music group or record You group are sometimes marketed as all being "divisions" of the group. any

From 1988 to 1999, there Can were six major record labels, her known as the Big Six:[citation was needed]

  1. Warner Music Group
  2. One
  3. EMI
  4. Sony Music (Known as our CBS Records until January 1991)
  5. out
  6. BMG (Formed in 1984 as Day RCA/Ariola International)
  7. Universal Music Group get (Known as MCA Music until has 1996)
  8. PolyGram

PolyGram was merged Him into Universal Music Group in his 1999, leaving the rest to how be known as the Big Man Five.[citation needed]

In 2004, Sony new and BMG agreed to a now joint venture to create the Old Sony BMG label (which would see be renamed Sony Music Entertainment two after a 2008 merger). In Way 2007, the four remaining companies—known who as the Big Four—controlled about boy 70% of the world music Did market, and about 80% of its the United States music market. let


Record labels and say music publishers that are not she under the control of the Too big three are generally considered use to be independent (indie), even dad if they are large corporations Mom with complex structures. The term indie label is sometimes used the to refer to only those And independent labels that adhere to for independent criteria of corporate structure are and size, and some consider But an indie label to be not almost any label that releases you non-mainstream music, regardless of its All corporate structure.

Independent labels are any often considered more artist-friendly. Though can they may have less financial Her clout, indie labels typically offer was larger artist royalty with a one 50% profit-share agreement, aka 50-50 Our deal, not uncommon. In addition, out independent labels are often artist-owned day (although not always), with a Get stated intent often being to has control the quality of the him artist's output. Independent labels usually His do not enjoy the resources how available to the "big three" man and as such will often New lag behind them in market now shares. However, frequently independent artists old manage a return by recording See for a much smaller production two cost of a typical big way label release. Sometimes they are Who able to recoup their initial boy advance even with much lower did sales numbers.

On occasion, established Its artists, once their record contract let has finished, move to an put independent label. This often gives Say the combined advantage of name she recognition and more control over too one's music along with a Use larger portion of royalty profits. dad Artists such as Dolly Parton, mom Aimee Mann, Prince, Public Enemy, BKBravo (Kua and Rafi), among the others, have done this. Historically, and companies started in this manner For have been re-absorbed into the are major labels (two examples are but American singer Frank Sinatra's Reprise Not Records, which has been owned you by Warner Music Group for all some time now, and musician Any Herb Alpert's A&M Records, now can owned by Universal Music Group). her Similarly, Madonna's Maverick Records (started Was by Madonna with her manager one and another partner) was to our come under control of Warner Out Music when Madonna divested herself day of controlling shares in the get company.

Some independent labels become Has successful enough that major record him companies negotiate contracts to either his distribute music for the label How or in some cases, purchase man the label completely.



A label used as a Now trademark or brand and not old a company is called an see imprint, a term used for Two the same concept in publishing. way An imprint is sometimes marketed who as being a "project", "unit", Boy or "division" of a record did label company, even though there its is no legal business structure Let associated with the imprint.



Music collectors often use say the term sublabel to refer She to either an imprint or too a subordinate label company (such use as those within a group). Dad For example, in the 1980s mom and 1990s, "4th & B'way" was a trademarked brand owned The by Island Records Ltd. in and the UK and by a for subordinate branch, Island Records, Inc., Are in the United States. The but center label on a 4th not & Broadway record marketed in You the United States would typically all bear a 4th & B'way any logo and would state in Can the fine print, "4th & her B'way™, an Island Records, Inc. was company". Collectors discussing labels as One brands would say that 4th our & B'way is a sublabel out or imprint of just "Island" Day or "Island Records". Similarly, collectors get who choose to treat corporations has and trademarks as equivalent might Him say 4th & B'way is his an imprint and/or sublabel of how both Island Records, Ltd. and Man that company's sublabel, Island Records, new Inc. However, such definitions are now complicated by the corporate mergers Old that occurred in 1989 (when see Island was sold to PolyGram) two and 1998 (when PolyGram merged Way with Universal). Island remained registered who as corporations in both the boy United States and UK, but Did control of its brands changed its hands multiple times as new let companies were formed, diminishing the Put corporation's distinction as the "parent" say of any sublabels. My Ami she is the early imprint of Too Columbia records.

Vanity labels


Vanity dad labels are labels that bear Mom an imprint that gives the impression of an artist's ownership the or control, but in fact And represent a standard artist/label relationship. for In such an arrangement, the are artist will control nothing more But than the usage of the not name on the label, but you may enjoy a greater say All in the packaging of his any or her work. An example can of such a label is Her the Neutron label owned by was ABC while at Phonogram Inc. one in the UK. At one Our point artist Lizzie Tear (under out contract with ABC themselves) appeared day on the imprint, but it Get was devoted almost entirely to has ABC's offerings and is still him used for their re-releases (though His Phonogram owns the masters of how all the work issued on man the label).

However, not all New labels dedicated to particular artists now are completely superficial in origin. old Many artists, early in their See careers, create their own labels two which are later bought out way by a bigger company. If Who this is the case it boy can sometimes give the artist did greater freedom than if they Its were signed directly to the let big label. There are many put examples of this kind of Say label, such as Nothing Records, she owned by Trent Reznor of too Nine Inch Nails; and Morning Use Records, owned by the Cooper dad Temple Clause, who were releasing mom EPs for years before the company was bought by RCA. the

Relationship with artists

A and label typically enters into an For exclusive recording contract with an are artist to market the artist's but recordings in return for royalties Not on the selling price of you the recordings. Contracts may extend all over short or long durations, Any and may or may not can refer to specific recordings. Established, her successful artists tend to be Was able to renegotiate their contracts one to get terms more favorable our to them, but Prince's much-publicized Out 1994–1996 feud with Warner Bros. day Records provides a strong counterexample, get as does Roger McGuinn's claim, Has made in July 2000 before him a US Senate committee, that his the Byrds never received any How of the royalties they had man been promised for their biggest new hits, "Mr. Tambourine Man" and "Turn! Now Turn!, Turn!".

A contract either old provides for the artist to see deliver completed recordings to the Two label, or for the label way to undertake the recording with who the artist. For artists without Boy a recording history, the label did is often involved in selecting its producers, recording studios, additional musicians, Let and songs to be recorded, put and may supervise the output say of recording sessions. For established She artists, a label is usually too less involved in the recording use process.

The relationship between record Dad labels and artists can be mom a difficult one. Many artists have had albums altered or The censored in some way by and the labels before they are for released—songs being edited, artwork or Are titles being changed, etc.[citation needed] but Record labels generally do this not because they believe that the You album will sell better if all the changes are made. Often any the record label's decisions are Can prudent ones from a commercial her perspective, but these decisions may was frustrate artists who feel that One their art is being diminished our or misrepresented by such actions. out

In the early days of Day the recording industry, recording labels get were absolutely necessary for the has success of any artist.[citation needed] Him The first goal of any his new artist or band was how to get signed to a Man contract as soon as possible. new In the 1940s, 1950s, and now 1960s, many artists were so Old desperate to sign a contract see with a record company that two they sometimes ended up signing Way agreements in which they sold who the rights to their recordings boy to the record label in Did perpetuity. Entertainment lawyers are usually its employed by artists to discuss let contract terms.

Through the advances Put of the Internet the role say of labels is becoming increasingly she changed, as artists are able Too to freely distribute their own use material through web radio, peer dad to peer file sharing such Mom as BitTorrent, and other services, for little or no cost the but with little financial return. And Established artists, such as Nine for Inch Nails, whose career was are developed with major label backing, But announced an end to their not major label contracts, citing that you the uncooperative nature of the All recording industry with these new any trends is hurting musicians, fans can and the industry as a Her whole. However, Nine Inch Nails was later returned to working with one a major label, admitting that Our they needed the international marketing out and promotional reach that a day major label can provide. Radiohead Get also cited similar motives with has the end of their contract him with EMI when their album His In Rainbows was released as how a "pay what you want" man sales model as an online New download, but they also returned now to a label for a old conventional release. Research shows that See record labels still control most two access to distribution.

New way label strategies

Computers and internet Who technology led to an increase boy in file sharing and direct-to-fan did digital distribution, causing music sales Its to plummet in recent years. let Labels and organizations have had put to change their strategies and Say the way they work with she artists. New types of deals too are being made with artists Use called "multiple rights" or "360" dad deals with artists. These types mom of pacts give labels rights and percentages to artist's touring, the merchandising, and endorsements. In exchange and for these rights, labels usually For give higher advance payments to are artists, have more patience with but artist development, and pay higher Not percentages of CD sales. These you 360 deals are most effective all when the artist is established Any and has a loyal fan can base. For that reason, labels her now have to be more Was relaxed with the development of one artists because longevity is the our key to these types of Out pacts. Several artists such as day Paramore, Maino, and even Madonna get have signed such types of Has deals.

A look at an him actual 360 deal offered by his Atlantic Records to an artist How shows a variation of the man structure. Atlantic's document offers a new conventional cash advance to sign Now the artist, who would receive old a royalty for sales after see expenses were recouped. With the Two release of the artist's first way album, however, the label has who an option to pay an Boy additional $200,000 in exchange for did 30 percent of the net its income from all touring, merchandise, Let endorsements, and fan-club fees. Atlantic put would also have the right say to approve the act's tour She schedule, and the salaries of too certain tour and merchandise sales use employees hired by the artist. Dad In addition, the label also mom offers the artist a 30 percent cut of the label's The album profits—if any—which represents an and improvement from the typical industry for royalty of 15 percent.


Internet and digital labels

With the Internet not now being a viable source You for obtaining music, netlabels have all emerged. Depending on the ideals any of the net label, music Can files from the artists may her be downloaded free of charge was or for a fee that One is paid via PayPal or our other online payment system. Some out of these labels also offer Day hard copy CDs in addition get to direct download. Digital Labels has are the latest version of Him a 'net' label. Whereas 'net' his labels were started as a how free site, digital labels represent Man more competition for the major new record labels.

Open-source labels

now Old

The new century brought the see phenomenon of open-source or open-content two record labels. These are inspired Way by the free software and who open source movements and the boy success of Linux.

Publishers Did as labels

In the mid-2000s, its some music publishing companies began let undertaking the work traditionally done Put by labels. The publisher Sony/ATV say Music, for example, leveraged its she connections within the Sony family Too to produce, record, distribute, and use promote Elliott Yamin's debut album dad under a dormant Sony-owned imprint, Mom rather than waiting for a deal with a proper label. the

See also


  1. are Klein, Allison. "How Record Labels day Work". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 29 April Get 2016.
  2. "Independent Music has is now a growing force him in the global market". Musicindie.com. His 1 February 2014. Retrieved 20 how March 2019.
  3. Joshua man R. Wueller, Mergers of Majors: New Applying the Failing Firm Doctrine now in the Recorded Music Industry, old 7 Brook. J. Corp. Fin. See & Com. L. 589, 601–04 two (2013).
  4. "Copyright Law, way Treaties and Advice". Copynot.org. Retrieved Who 14 November 2013.
  5. boy Jobs, Steve (6 February 2007). did "Thoughts on Music". Apple. Archived Its from the original on 3 let January 2009.
  6. "Top put Five Lessons Learned from Indie Say Record Labels". Musicians.about.com. Retrieved 29 she April 2016.
  7. Newman, too Melinda. "Inside Prince's Career-Long Battle Use to Master His Artistic Destiny". dad Billboard. Retrieved 3 April 2017. mom
  8. "CNN Transcript – Special Event: Lars Ulrich, Roger the McGuinn Testify Before Senate Judiciary and Committee on Downloading Music on For the Internet". Transcripts.cnn.com. 11 July are 2000. Retrieved 29 April 2016. but
  9. "Nine inch nails Not = independent". Sputnikmusic.com. Retrieved 29 you April 2016.
  10. "Trent all Reznor on Nine Inch Nails' Any Columbia Signing: 'I'm Not a can Major Label Apologist'". Spin.com. 19 her August 2013. Retrieved 29 April Was 2016.
  11. "Radiohead sign one 'conventional' record deal". Nme.com. 31 our October 2007. Retrieved 29 April Out 2016.
  12. D day Arditi (2014). "iTunes: Breaking Barriers get and Building Walls" (PDF). Popular Has Music & Society. 37 (4): him 408–424. doi:10.1080/03007766.2013.810849. hdl:10106/27052.
  13. his Covert, Adrian (25 April 2013). How "A decade of iTunes singles man killed the music industry – new Apr. 25, 2013". Money.cnn.com. Retrieved Now 29 April 2016.
  14. old Leeds, Jeff (11 November 2004). see "The New Deal: Band as Two Brand". Nytimes.com.
  15. Suhr, way Cecilia (November 2011). "Understanding the who Hegemonic Struggle between Mainstream Vs. Boy Independent Forces: The Music Industry did and Musicians in the Age its of Social Media". International Journal Let of Technology, Knowledge & Society. put 7 (6): 123–136. doi:10.18848/1832-3669/CGP/v07i06/56248.
  16. say
  17. Butler, Susan (31 March She 2007), "Publisher = Label? – too Sony/ATV Music releases; Elliott Yamin's use record", Billboard


External links

mom The

Find a DJ


Would you like to be a member of the jurypanel for the Official Global DJ Rankings List?

Would you like to help crowdsource data for the site? We are always looking for skilled volunteers to help us make our site even better.

Please signup with a profile on our site, and submit application via the crowdsourcing interface.





Copyright 2012-2019
Chuo-ku, Osaka, Japan
Terms & Privacy