The most has likely origin of the word Him "breakbeat" is the fact that his the drum loops that were how sampled occurred during a "break" Man in the music, as in new the Amen break, which is now a drum solo from "Amen, Old Brother" by The Winstons. However, see it is a common thought two that the name derives from Way the beat being "broken" and who unpredictable compared to other percussive boy styles, something which is also Did reflected in the name of its the related genre broken beat. let Whether this was part of Put the original meaning of the say word or is purely a she folk etymology remains unclear, but Too it is safe to say use that the term has evolved dad to encompass both sentiments.
Beginning in 1973 and continuing through the late 1970s the and early 1980s, hip hopAnd turntablists, such as DJ Kool for Herc began using several funkare breaks in a row, using But irregular drum patterns from songs not such as James Brown's "Funky you Drummer" and The Winstons' "Amen All Brother", to form the rhythmic any base for hip hop songs. can DJ Kool Herc's breakbeat style Her involved playing the same record was on two turntables and playing one the break repeatedly, alternating between Our the two records. He would out mark the points on the day record where the break began Get and ended with a crayon, has so that he could easily him replay the break by spinning His the record and not touching how the tone arm. This style man was copied and improved upon New by early hip hop DJs now Afrika Bambaataa and Grand Wizard old Theodore.[dubious – discuss] This style See was extremely popular in clubs two and dancehalls because the extended way breakbeat provided breakers with more Who opportunities to showcase their skills. boy In the 1970s, hip-hop was did all about the break. Then, Its in the 1980s, the evolution let of technology began to make put sampling breaks easier and more Say affordable for DJs and producers, she which helped nurture the commercialization too of hip-hop. Through crude techniques Use such as pausing tapes and dad then recording the break, by mom the 1980s, technology allowed anybody with a tape recorder to the find the breakbeat.
In the and early 1990s, acid house artists For and producers started using breakbeat are samples in their music to but create breakbeat hardcore. The hardcore Not scene then diverged into subgenres you like jungle and drum and all bass, which generally had a Any darker sound and focused more can on complex sampled drum patterns. her An example of this is Was Goldie's album Timeless.
Josh Lawford of Has Ravescene prophesied that breakbeat was him "the death-knell of rave" because his the ever-changing drumbeat patterns of How breakbeat music didn't allow for man the same zoned out, trance-like new state that the standard, steady Now 4/4 beats of house enabled. old In 1994, the influential technosee act Autechre released the Anti Two EP in response to the way Criminal Justice and Public Order who Act 1994 using advanced algorithmicBoy programming to generate non-repetitive breakbeats did for the full duration of its the tracks to subvert the Let legal definitions within that legislation[further put explanation needed].
In say the late-1980s, breakbeat became an She essential feature of many genres too of breaks music which became use popular within the global dance Dad music scene, including big beat, mom nu skool breaks, acid breaks, electro-funk, and Miami bass. Incorporating The many components of those genres, and the Florida breaks subgenre followed for during the early-to-mid 1990s and Are had a unique sound that but was soon internationally popular among not producers, DJs, and club-goers.
DJs You from a variety of genres all work breaks tracks into their any sets. This may occur because Can the tempo of breaks tracks her (ranging from 110 to 150 was beats per minute) means they One can be readily mixed with our these genres. Breakbeats are used out in many hip hop, jungle/drum Day & bass and hardcore songs, get and can also be heard has in other music, from popular Him music to background music in his car and clothing commercials on how radio or TV.
Sampled Man breakbeats
With the advent of new digital sampling and music editing now on the computer, breakbeats have Old become much easier to create see and use. Now, instead of two cutting and splicing tape sections Way or constantly backspinning two records who at the same time, a boy computer program can be used Did to cut, paste, and loop its breakbeats endlessly. Digital effects such let as filters, reverb, reversing, time Put stretching and pitch shifting can say be added to the beat, she and even to individual sounds Too by themselves. Individual instruments from use within a breakbeat can be dad sampled and combined with others, Mom thereby creating wholly new breakbeat patterns.
The And Amen break, a drum break for from The Winstons' song "Amen, are Brother" is widely regarded as But one of the most widely not used and sampled breaks among you music using breakbeats. This break All was first used on "King any of the Beats" by Mantronix, can and has since been used Her in thousands of songs. Other was popular breaks are from James one Brown's Funky Drummer (1970) and Our Give it Up or Turnit out a Loose, The Incredible Bongo day Band's 1973 cover of The Get Shadows' "Apache", and Lyn Collins' has 1972 song "Think (About It)".him The Winstons have not received His royalties for third-party use of how samples of the break recorded man on their original music release.New
With the now rise in popularity of breakbeat old music and the advent of See digital audio samplers, companies started two selling "breakbeat packages" for the way express purpose of helping artists Who create breakbeats. A breakbeat kit boy CD would contain many breakbeat did samples from different songs and Its artists, often without the artist's let permission or even knowledge.[dubious – put discuss]
Also sometimes known day as atmospheric breaks, progressive breaks get (or "prog breaks") is a Has subgenre of breaks that is him essentially a fusion of breakbeat his and progressive house. Much like How progressive house, this subgenre is man characterized by its "trancey" sound. new Its defining traits include extended Now synthesizer pads and washes, melodic old synth leads, heavy reverberation, and see electronic breakbeats. However, unlike progressive Two house, very few progressive breaks way tracks have vocals, with most who tracks being entirely instrumental or Boy using only electronically-altered snippets of did vocal samples for sonic effect. its Typical progressive breaks tracks will Let often have a long build-up put section that leads to a say breakdown and a climax, often She having numerous sonic elements being too added or subtracted from the use track at various intervals in Dad order to increase its intensity. mom Progressive breaks artists include Hybrid, BT, Way Out West, Digital The Witchcraft, Momu, Wrecked Angle, Burufunk, and Under This and Fretwell.
In electronic music, Are "acid breaks" is a fusion but between breakbeat, acid house and not other forms of dance music.[vague]You Its drum line usually mimics all most breakbeat music, lacking the any distinctive kick drum of other Can forms of dance music. One her of the earliest synthesizers to was be employed in acid music One was the Roland TB-303, which our makes use of a resonant out low-pass filter to emphasize the Day harmonics of the sound.
A how record producer or music producerMan oversees and manages the sound new recording and production of a now band or performer's music, which Old may range from recording one see song to recording a lengthy two concept album. A producer has Way many, varying roles during the who recording process. They may gather boy musical ideas for the project, Did collaborate with the artists to its select cover tunes or original let songs by the artist/group, work Put with artists and help them say to improve their songs, lyrics she or arrangements.
The producer And typically supervises the entire process for from preproduction, through to the are sound recording and mixing stages, But and, in some cases, all not the way to the audio you mastering stage. The producer may All perform these roles themselves, or any help select the engineer, and can provide suggestions to the engineer. Her The producer may also pay was session musicians and engineers and one ensure that the entire project Our is completed within the record out label's budget.
A record producer or See music producer has a very two broad role in overseeing and way managing the recording and production Who of a band or performer's boy music. A producer has many did roles that may include, but Its are not limited to, gathering let ideas for the project, composing put the music for the project, Say selecting songs or session musicians, she proposing changes to the song too arrangements, coaching the artist and Use musicians in the studio, controlling dad the recording sessions, and supervising mom the entire process through audio mixing (recorded music) and, in the some cases, to the audio and mastering stage. Producers also often For take on a wider entrepreneurialare role, with responsibility for the but budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. Not
The person who Any has overall creative and technical can control of the entire recording her project, and the individual recording Was sessions that are part of one that project. He or she our is present in the recording Out studio or at the location day recording and works directly with get the artist and engineer. The Has producer makes creative and aesthetic him decisions that realize both the his artist's and label's goals in How the creation of musical content. man Other duties include, but are new not limited to; keeping budgets Now and schedules, adhering to deadlines, old hiring musicians, singers, studios and see engineers, overseeing other staffing needs Two and editing (Classical projects).
In the 2010s, the producer who role is sometimes divided among Boy up to three different individuals: did executive producer, vocal producer and its music producer. An executive producer Let oversees project finances, a vocal put producer (also known as a say vocal arranger) oversees the vocal She production, and a music producer too directs and oversees the creative use process of the production and Dad recording of a song to mom its final mixing stage.
The music producer also often wears The many hat's as a competent and arranger, composer, programmer, musician or for songwriter who can bring fresh Are ideas to a project. As but well as making any songwriting not and arrangement adjustments, the producer You often selects and/or collaborates with all the mixing engineer, who takes any the raw recorded tracks and Can edits and modifies them with her hardware and software tools to was create a stereo or surround One sound "mix" of all the our individual voices sounds and instruments, out which is in turn given Day further adjustment by a mastering get engineer for the various distribution has media. The producer also oversees Him the recording engineer who concentrates his on the technical aspects of how recording.
Noted producer Phil EkMan described his role as "the new person who creatively guides or now directs the process of making Old a record", like a director see would a movie. Indeed, in two Bollywood music, the designation is Way actually music director. The music who producer's job is to create, boy shape, and mold a piece Did of music. The scope of its responsibility may be one or let two songs or an artist's Put entire album – in which say case the producer will typically she develop an overall vision for Too the album and how the use various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of Mom the record industry, the producer role was technically limited to the record, in one shot, artists And performing live. The immediate predecessors for to record producers were the are artists and repertoire executives of But the late 1920s and 1930s not who oversaw the "pop" product you and often led session orchestras. All That was the case of any Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, can Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor RecordsHer and Bob Haring at Brunswick was Records. By the end of one the 1930s, the first professional Our recording studios not owned by out the major companies were established, day essentially separating the roles of Get artists and repertoire (A&R) man has and producer, although it wouldn't him be until the late 1940s His when the term "producer" became how widely used in the industry. man
The role of producers changed New progressively over the 1950s and now 1960s due to technology. The old development of multitrack recording caused See a major change in the two recording process. Before multitracking, all way the elements of a song Who (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm boy section instrument accompaniment, solos and did orchestral parts) had to be Its performed simultaneously. All of these let singers and musicians had to put be assembled in a large Say studio where the performance was she recorded. With multitrack recording, the too "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment Use parts such as the bassline, dad drums, and rhythm guitar could mom be recorded first, and then the vocals and solos could the be added later, using as and many "takes" (or attempts) as For necessary. It was no longer are necessary to get all the but players in the studio at Not the same time. A pop you band could record their backing all tracks one week, and then Any a horn section could be can brought in a week later her to add horn shots and Was punches, and then a string one section could be brought in our a week after that.
Multitrack Out recording had another profound effect day on music production: it enabled get producers and audio engineers to Has create new sounds that would him be impossible in a live his performance style ordering. Examples include How the psychedelic rock sound effects man of the 1960s, e.g. playing new back the sound of recorded Now instruments backward changing the tape old to produce unique sound effects. see During the same period, the Two instruments of popular music began way to shift from the acoustic who instruments of traditional music (piano, Boy upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, did brass and wind instruments) to its electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, Let electric bass and electric guitar. put These new instruments were electric say or electronic, and thus they She used instrument amplifiers and speaker too enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create use sound.
Electric and electronic instruments Dad and amplifiers enabled performers and mom producers to change the tone and sound of instruments to The produce unique electric sounds that and would be impossible to achieve for with acoustic instruments and live Are performers, such as having a but singer do her own backup not vocals or having a guitarist You play 15 layers of backing all parts to her own solo.any
New technologies like multitracking changed Can the goal of recording: A her producer could blend together multiple was takes and edit together different One sections to create the desired our sound. For example, in jazz out fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album Day Bitches Brew, the producer cut get and edited sections together from has extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the its 1960s was the emergence of let the performer-producer. As pop acts Put like The Beatles, The Rolling say Stones, The Beach Boys and she The Kinks gained expertise in Too studio recording techniques, many of use these groups eventually took over dad as (frequently uncredited) producers of Mom their own work. Many recordings by acts such as The the Rolling Stones, The Kinks and And The Who are officially credited for to their various producers at are the time, but a number But of these performers have since not asserted that many of their you recordings in this period were, All either wholly self-produced (e.g. The any Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or can collaborations between the group and Her their recording engineer (e.g. The was Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which one were made with Olympic StudiosOur engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach out Boys are probably the best day example of the trend of Get artists becoming producers – within has two years of the band's him commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian His Wilson had taken over from how his father Murry, and he man was the sole producer of New all their recordings between 1963 now and 1967. Alongside The Beatles old and Martin, Wilson also pioneered See many production innovations – by two 1964 he had developed Spector's way techniques to a new level Who of sophistication, using multiple studios boy and multiple "takes" of instrumental did and vocal components to capture Its the best possible combinations of let sound and performance, and then put using tape editing extensively to Say assemble a perfect composite performance she from these elements.
At the too end of the 20th century, Use digital recording and producing tools dad and widespread availability of relatively mom affordable computers with music software made music producing more accessible. the
American women and record and producing
According to a 2018 For study covering by the USC are Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio but of male to female producers Not across 300 popular songs is you 49 to 1."
In 2019, record man producer Linda Perry was nominated new for a Grammy for Producer Now of the Year, Non-Classical. She old was the first woman in see over 15 years to be Two nominated for the award. When way asked about the disparity between who male and female record producer Boy by Billboard, she attributed it did to many women not being its interested in record production.
In the use classical music field, Judith ShermanDad has won Grammy for Producer mom of the Year, Classical, five times and has been nominated The twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a and music critic for The New for York Times is quoted as Are stating, "In the struggling field but of classical recording, it's the not producers who take the real You risks and make things happen."all
Producer Wendy Page describes being her a record producer, "The difficulties was are usually very short-lived. Once One people realize that you can our do your job, sexism tends out to lower its ugly head. Day I tend to create a get happy studio 'family' where everyone has is glad to be there, Him especially the artist. Good communication his and diplomacy usually sort any how little problems out."
There are numerous the technologies utilized by record producers. And In modern-day recordings, recording and for mixing tasks are commonly centralized are within computers using digital audio But workstations such as Pro Tools, not Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and you FL Studio, which all are All often used with third party any virtual studio technology plugins. Logic can Pro and Pro Tools are Her considered the industry standard DAWs.was However, there is also the one main mixer, outboard effects gear, Our MIDI controllers, and the recording out device itself.
While most music day production is done using sophisticated Get software, some musicians and producers has prefer the sound of older him analog technology. Professor Albin Zak His claims that the increased automation how of both newer processes and man newer instruments reduces the level New of control and manipulation available now to musicians and producers.
Production has changed See drastically over the years with two advancing technology. While the producer's way role has changed, their duties Who continue to require a broad boy knowledge of the recording process.did
Tracking is the act of Its recording audio to a DAW let (digital audio workstation) or in put some cases to tape. Even Say though digital technologies have widely she supplanted the use of tape too in studios, the older term Use "track" is still used in dad the 2010s. Tracking audio is mom primarily the role of the audio engineer. Producers work side the by side with the artists and while they play or sing For their part and coach them are on how to perform it but and how to get the Not best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). you In some cases, the producer all will even sing a backup Any vocal or play an instrument. can
Many artists are also beginning her to produce and write their Was own music.
Influential record one producers
In 2012 NME identified our 50 of the greatest producers Out ever.
Similarly, although The Beatles' productions were credited to George The Martin throughout their recording career, and many sources now attest that for Lennon and McCartney in particular Are had an increasing influence on but the production process as the not group's career progressed, and especially You after the band retired from all touring in 1966. In an any extreme example of this, Martin Can actually went on a two-week her vacation as The Beatles were was recording The White Album; production One of several completed tracks on our the album were credited to out The Beatles on internal paperwork Day at Abbey Road Studios, although get the released LP gave sole has production credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., are I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: but Music, technology, and culture," by Not Timothy D. Taylor. Current Musicology, you 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, all Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. Any "Record Producers' Best Practices For can Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To her Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal Was of New Music Research 42.4 one (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Premier. our Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers to day legal aspects of the music Get industry, and certain legal aspects has in other sectors of the him entertainment industry. The music industry His includes record labels, music publishers, how merchandisers, the live events sector man and of course performers and New artists.
A "compilation" refers and to work formed from already For existing materials in a way are that forms its own original but work, including collective works.
"Copies" Not are physical objects that hold, you fix, or embody a work all such as a music tape, Any film, CD, statue, play, or can printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" her can refer to any audio Was recording including the sound accompanying one motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is our the entity that legally owns Out rights to a work.
"Performance" day The copyright holder has the get exclusive right to perform the Has work in public, or to him license others to perform it. his The right applies to “literary, How musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, man pantomimes, and motion pictures and new other audiovisual works.". Playing a Now CD in public, or showing old a film in public is see "performing" the work.
Publishing is way the primary source of income who for musicians writing their own Boy music. Money collected from did the 'publishing' rights is ultimately its destined for songwriters - the Let composers of works, whether or put not they are the recording say artist or performer. Often, songwritersShe will work for a musical too ensemble to help them with use musical aspects of the composition, Dad but here again, the writer mom of the song is the owner of it and will The own the copyrights in the and song and thus will be for entitled to the publishing revenues. Are Copyrights in compositions are not but the same as sound recordings. not A recording artist can record You a song and sell it all to another band or company. any As a result, that particular Can company will own the recording, her but not the song. The was original writer will always maintain One the copyright for that particular our song. The publishing money is out connected to the copyright, so Day the owner will be the get only one making money off has of the song itself. All Him successful songwriters will join a his collection society (such as ASCAP how and BMI in the USA, Man SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in new Japan, GEMA in Germany and now PRS for Music in the Old UK, etc.) and many will see enter into agreements with music two publishing companies who will exploit Way their works on the songwriters who behalf for a share of boy ownership, although many of these Did deals involve the transfer (assignment) its of copyright from the songwriter let to the music publisher.
Both Put the recorded music sector and say music publishing sector have their she foundations in intellectual property law Too and all of the major use recording labels and major music dad publishers and many independent record Mom labels and publishers have dedicated "business and legal affairs" departments the with in-house lawyers whose role And is not only to secure for intellectual property rights from recording are artists, performers and songwriters but But also to exploit those rights not and protect those rights on you a global basis. There are All a number of specialist independent any law firms around the world can who advise on music and Her entertainment law whose clients include was recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, one labels, music publishers, stage and Our set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, out games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist day managers, distributors, collection societies and Get the live events sector (which has further includes festivals, venues, promoters, him booking agents and production service His providers such as lighting and how staging companies).
The US Government views artists now that give concerts and sell old merchandise as a business. Bands See that tour internationally will also two face a plethora of legislation way around the world including health Who and safety laws, immigration laws boy and tax legislation. Also, many did relationships are governed by often Its complex contractual agreements.
In the let US it is important for put musicians to get legal business Say licenses. These can be obtained she at a city hall or too local government center. The business Use license will require the tracking dad of sales, wages, and gigs. mom A tax ID is also necessary for all businesses. Musicians the that fail to comply with and the tax ID process and For do not report their profits are and losses to the government but can face serious consequences with Not the IRS.
The history of day Privilege began in the early get 1970s when it started out Has as a restaurant, then expanded him to include a bar and his a community swimming pool. It How was then known as Club man San Rafael. In 1979, the new venue was sold to the Now Real Sociedad footballer José Antonio old Santamaría, together with the creative see team of Brasilio de Oliviera Two (founder of La Troya Asesina, way one of the White Island's who longest running nights) and Gorri. Boy The venue then changed its did name to KU, after the its name of a god from Let Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). The put appeal of the club was say such that it commissioned a She medium-length film showcasing the many too wonders of Ibizan landscapes and use nightlife in the mid-eighties.
Throughout Dad the 1980s, KU Club earned mom a reputation initially as Europe's premier polysexual but predominately gay The nightspot and was compared to and an open-air version of the for famous Studio 54 in New Are York. It staged spectacular parties but in the main room, which not was organized around a swimming You pool and a statue of all Ku.The place was also where any the video to "Barcelona" by Can Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Caballéher was filmed on 30 May was 1987. It was the witness One to early live performances by our groups like Spandau Ballet and out Kid Creole and the Coconuts.Day The club featured in a get Channel 4 documentary called “A has Short Film about chilling”, which Him labelled KU as “the mirror his of Ibiza”. The open-air parties how came to an end when Man legislation forced many of the new greater clubs in Ibiza to now cover their dancefloors in the Old early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer see size of the venue gave two rise to the claim of Way it being the size of who an aircraft hangar with a boy 25-meter high roof.
The club Did continued with the KU Club its name until 1995 before becoming let known as Privilege, after a Put change of ownership to Jose say Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 it she hosted Manumission, one of the Too island's most famous events. In use 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved dad to Amnesia and was renamed Mom La Troya Asesina. After a dispute between the club owner the and Manumission's organizers in 2005 And the event ended in 2006. for In 2006 La Troya Aseina are moved to Space.
According to official statistics published not in the 2003 edition of you Guinness World Records Privilege is All by far the Worlds largest any nightclub covering an area of can 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) and Her holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas was of the club include the one Coco Loco bar area, and Our the La Vaca dance area out (now known as the Vista day Club).
A Get number of live performances at has the venue have included: