The most Him likely origin of the word his "breakbeat" is the fact that how the drum loops that were Man sampled occurred during a "break" new in the music, as in now the Amen break, which is Old a drum solo from "Amen, see Brother" by The Winstons. However, two it is a common thought Way that the name derives from who the beat being "broken" and boy unpredictable compared to other percussive Did styles, something which is also its reflected in the name of let the related genre broken beat. Put Whether this was part of say the original meaning of the she word or is purely a Too folk etymology remains unclear, but use it is safe to say dad that the term has evolved Mom to encompass both sentiments.
Beginning in 1973 and the continuing through the late 1970s And and early 1980s, hip hopfor turntablists, such as DJ Kool are Herc began using several funkBut breaks in a row, using not irregular drum patterns from songs you such as James Brown's "Funky All Drummer" and The Winstons' "Amen any Brother", to form the rhythmic can base for hip hop songs. Her DJ Kool Herc's breakbeat style was involved playing the same record one on two turntables and playing Our the break repeatedly, alternating between out the two records. Grandmaster Flashday perfected this idea with what Get he called the "quick-mix theory": has he would mark the points him on the record where the His break began and ended with how a crayon, so that he man could easily replay the break New by spinning the record and now not touching the tone arm.old This style was copied and See improved upon by early hip two hop DJs Afrika Bambaataa and way Grand Wizard Theodore.[dubious – discuss]Who This style was extremely popular boy in clubs and dancehalls because did the extended breakbeat provided breakersIts with more opportunities to showcase let their skills. In the 1970s, put hip-hop was all about the Say break. Then, in the 1980s, she the evolution of technology began too to make sampling breaks easier Use and more affordable for DJs dad and producers, which helped nurture mom the commercialization of hip-hop. Through crude techniques such as pausing the tapes and then recording the and break, by the 1980s, technology For allowed anybody with a tape are recorder to find the breakbeat.but
In the early 1990s, acid Not house artists and producers started you using breakbeat samples in their all music to create breakbeat hardcore.Any The hardcore scene then diverged can into subgenres like jungle and her drum and bass, which generally Was had a darker sound and one focused more on complex sampled our drum patterns. An example of Out this is Goldie's album Timeless. day
Josh How Lawford of Ravescene prophesied that man breakbeat was "the death-knell of new rave" because the ever-changing drumbeat Now patterns of breakbeat music didn't old allow for the same zoned see out, trance-like state that the Two standard, steady 4/4 beats of way house enabled. In 1994, the who influential techno act Autechre released Boy the Anti EP in response did to the Criminal Justice and its Public Order Act 1994 using Let advanced algorithmic programming to generate put non-repetitive breakbeats for the full say duration of the tracks to She subvert the legal definitions within too that legislation[further explanation needed].
In the late-1980s, breakbeat Dad became an essential feature of mom many genres of breaks music which became popular within the The global dance music scene, including and big beat, nu skool breaks, for acid breaks, electro-funk, and Miami Are bass. Incorporating many components of but those genres, the Florida breaksnot subgenre followed during the early-to-mid You 1990s and had a unique all sound that was soon internationally any popular among producers, DJs, and Can club-goers.
DJs from a variety her of genres work breaks tracks was into their sets. This may One occur because the tempo of our breaks tracks (ranging from 110 out to 150 beats per minute) Day means they can be readily get mixed with these genres. Breakbeats has are used in many hip Him hop, jungle/drum & bass and his hardcore songs, and can also how be heard in other music, Man from popular music to background new music in car and clothing now commercials on radio or TV.Old
With the see advent of digital sampling and two music editing on the computer, Way breakbeats have become much easier who to create and use. Now, boy instead of cutting and splicing Did tape sections or constantly backspinning its two records at the same let time, a computer program can Put be used to cut, paste, say and loop breakbeats endlessly. Digital she effects such as filters, reverb, Too reversing, time stretching and pitch use shifting can be added to dad the beat, and even to Mom individual sounds by themselves. Individual instruments from within a breakbeat the can be sampled and combined And with others, thereby creating wholly for new breakbeat patterns.
The Amen break, a not drum break from The Winstons' you song "Amen, Brother" is widely All regarded as one of the any most widely used and sampled can breaks among music using breakbeats.Her This break was first used was on "King of the Beats" one by Mantronix, and has since Our been used in thousands of out songs. Other popular breaks are day from James Brown's Funky DrummerGet (1970) and Give it Up has or Turnit a Loose, The him Incredible Bongo Band's 1973 cover His of The Shadows' "Apache", and how Lyn Collins' 1972 song "Think man (About It)". The Winstons have New not received royalties for third-party now use of samples of the old break recorded on their original See music release.
With the rise in popularity way of breakbeat music and the Who advent of digital audio samplers, boy companies started selling "breakbeat packages" did for the express purpose of Its helping artists create breakbeats. A let breakbeat kit CD would contain put many breakbeat samples from different Say songs and artists, often without she the artist's permission or even too knowledge.
Also sometimes known his as atmospheric breaks, progressive breaks How (or "prog breaks") is a man subgenre of breaks that is new essentially a fusion of breakbeat Now and progressive house. Much like old progressive house, this subgenre is see characterized by its "trancey" sound. Two Its defining traits include extended way synthesizer pads and washes, melodic who synth leads, heavy reverberation, and Boy electronic breakbeats. However, unlike progressive did house, very few progressive breaks its tracks have vocals, with most Let tracks being entirely instrumental or put using only electronically-altered snippets of say vocal samples for sonic effect. She Typical progressive breaks tracks will too often have a long build-up use section that leads to a Dad breakdown and a climax, often mom having numerous sonic elements being added or subtracted from the The track at various intervals in and order to increase its intensity. for Progressive breaks artists include Hybrid, Are BT, Way Out West, Digital but Witchcraft, Momu, Wrecked Angle, Burufunk, not Under This and Fretwell.
In electronic music, all "acid breaks" is a fusion any between breakbeat, acid house and Can other forms of dance music.[vague]her Its drum line usually mimics was most breakbeat music, lacking the One distinctive kick drum of other our forms of dance music. One out of the earliest synthesizers to Day be employed in acid music get was the Roland TB-303, which has makes use of a resonant Him low-pass filter to emphasize the his harmonics of the sound.
A record producerDid or music producer oversees and its manages the sound recording and let production of a band or Put performer's music, which may range say from recording one song to she recording a lengthy concept album.Too A producer has many, varying use roles during the recording process.dad They may gather musical ideas Mom for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover the tunes or original songs by And the artist/group, work with artists for and help them to improve are their songs, lyrics or arrangements. But
Coach the can singers and musicians in the Her studio
The producer typically supervises was the entire process from preproduction, one through to the sound recordingOur and mixing stages, and, in out some cases, all the way day to the audio mastering stage. Get The producer may perform these has roles themselves, or help select him the engineer, and provide suggestions His to the engineer. The producer how may also pay session musicians man and engineers and ensure that New the entire project is completed now within the record label's budget. old
A Say record producer or music producershe has a very broad role too in overseeing and managing the Use recording and production of a dad band or performer's music. A mom producer has many roles that may include, but are not the limited to, gathering ideas for and the project, composing the music For for the project, selecting songs are or session musicians, proposing changes but to the song arrangements, coaching Not the artist and musicians in you the studio, controlling the recording all sessions, and supervising the entire Any process through audio mixing and, can in some cases, to the her audio mastering stage. Producers also Was often take on a wider one entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for our the budget, schedules, contracts, and Out negotiations.
The person Has who has overall creative and him technical control of the entire his recording project, and the individual How recording sessions that are part man of that project. He or new she is present in the Now recording studio or at the old location recording and works directly see with the artist and engineer. Two The producer makes creative and way aesthetic decisions that realize both who the artist's and label's goals Boy in the creation of musical did content. Other duties include, but its are not limited to; keeping Let budgets and schedules, adhering to put deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios say and engineers, overseeing other staffing She needs and editing (Classical projects). too
In the 2010s, the use producer role is sometimes divided Dad among up to three different mom individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive The producer oversees project finances, a and vocal producer (also known as for a vocal arranger) oversees the Are vocal production, and a music but producer directs and oversees the not creative process of the production You and recording of a song all to its final mixing stage. any
The music producer often wears Can many hats as a competent her arranger, composer, programmer, musician or was songwriter who can bring fresh One ideas to a project. As our well as making any songwriting out and arrangement adjustments, the producer Day often selects and/or collaborates with get the mixing engineer, who takes has the raw recorded tracks and Him edits and modifies them with his hardware and software tools to how create a stereo or surround Man sound "mix" of all the new individual voices sounds and instruments, now which is in turn given Old further adjustment by a mastering see engineer for the various distribution two media. The producer also oversees Way the recording engineer who concentrates who on the technical aspects of boy recording.
Noted producer Phil EkDid described his role as "the its person who creatively guides or let directs the process of making Put a record", like a director say would a movie. Indeed, in she Bollywood music, the designation is Too actually music director. The music use producer's job is to create, dad shape, and mold a piece Mom of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or the two songs or an artist's And entire album – in which for case the producer will typically are develop an overall vision for But the album and how the not various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of All the record industry, the producer any role was technically limited to can record, in one shot, artists Her performing live. The immediate predecessors was to record producers were the one artists and repertoire executives of Our the late 1920s and 1930s out who oversaw the "pop" product day and often led session orchestras. Get That was the case of has Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, him Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor RecordsHis and Bob Haring at Brunswick how Records. By the end of man the 1930s, the first professional New recording studios not owned by now the major companies were established, old essentially separating the roles of See artists and repertoire (A&R) man two and producer, although it wouldn't way be until the late 1940s Who when the term "producer" became boy widely used in the industry. did
The role of producers changed Its progressively over the 1950s and let 1960s due to technology. The put development of multitrack recording caused Say a major change in the she recording process. Before multitracking, all too the elements of a song Use (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm dad section instrument accompaniment, solos and mom orchestral parts) had to be performed simultaneously. All of these the singers and musicians had to and be assembled in a large For studio where the performance was are recorded. With multitrack recording, the but "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment Not parts such as the bassline, you drums, and rhythm guitar could all be recorded first, and then Any the vocals and solos could can be added later, using as her many "takes" (or attempts) as Was necessary. It was no longer one necessary to get all the our players in the studio at Out the same time. A pop day band could record their backing get tracks one week, and then Has a horn section could be him brought in a week later his to add horn shots and How punches, and then a string man section could be brought in new a week after that.
Multitrack Now recording had another profound effect old on music production: it enabled see producers and audio engineers to Two create new sounds that would way be impossible in a live who performance style ordering. Examples include Boy the psychedelic rock sound effects did of the 1960s, e.g. playing its back the sound of recorded Let instruments backward changing the tape put to produce unique sound effects. say During the same period, the She instruments of popular music began too to shift from the acoustic use instruments of traditional music (piano, Dad upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, mom brass and wind instruments) to electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, The electric bass and electric guitar. and These new instruments were electric for or electronic, and thus they Are used instrument amplifiers and speaker but enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create not sound.
Electric and electronic instruments You and amplifiers enabled performers and all producers to change the tone any and sound of instruments to Can produce unique electric sounds that her would be impossible to achieve was with acoustic instruments and live One performers, such as having a our singer do her own backup out vocals or having a guitarist Day play 15 layers of backing get parts to her own solo.has
New technologies like multitracking changed Him the goal of recording: A his producer could blend together multiple how takes and edit together different Man sections to create the desired new sound. For example, in jazz now fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album Old Bitches Brew, the producer cut see and edited sections together from two extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the 1960s was the emergence of the the performer-producer. As pop acts And like The Beatles, The Rolling for Stones, The Beach Boys and are The Kinks gained expertise in But studio recording techniques, many of not these groups eventually took over you as (frequently uncredited) producers of All their own work. Many recordings any by acts such as The can Rolling Stones, The Kinks and Her The Who are officially credited was to their various producers at one the time, but a number Our of these performers have since out asserted that many of their day recordings in this period were, Get either wholly self-produced (e.g. The has Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or him collaborations between the group and His their recording engineer (e.g. The how Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which man were made with Olympic StudiosNew engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach now Boys are probably the best old example of the trend of See artists becoming producers – within two two years of the band's way commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian Who Wilson had taken over from boy his father Murry, and he did was the sole producer of Its all their recordings between 1963 let and 1967. Alongside The Beatles put and Martin, Wilson also pioneered Say many production innovations – by she 1964 he had developed Spector's too techniques to a new level Use of sophistication, using multiple studios dad and multiple "takes" of instrumental mom and vocal components to capture the best possible combinations of the sound and performance, and then and using tape editing extensively to For assemble a perfect composite performance are from these elements.
At the but end of the 20th century, Not digital recording and producing tools you and widespread availability of relatively all affordable computers with music software Any made music producing more accessible. can
American women and record her producing
According to a 2018 Was study covering by the USC one Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio our of male to female producers Out across 300 popular songs is day 49 to 1."
In 2019, record did producer Linda Perry was nominated its for a Grammy for Producer Let of the Year, Non-Classical. She put was the first woman in say over 15 years to be She nominated for the award. When too asked about the disparity between use male and female record producer Dad by Billboard, she attributed it mom to many women not being interested in record production.
In the not classical music field, Judith ShermanYou has won Grammy for Producer all of the Year, Classical, five any times and has been nominated Can twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a her music critic for The New was York Times is quoted as One stating, "In the struggling field our of classical recording, it's the out producers who take the real Day risks and make things happen."get
Producer Wendy Page describes being his a record producer, "The difficulties how are usually very short-lived. Once Man people realize that you can new do your job, sexism tends now to lower its ugly head. Old I tend to create a see happy studio 'family' where everyone two is glad to be there, Way especially the artist. Good communication who and diplomacy usually sort any boy little problems out."
There are numerous technologies utilized Her by record producers. In modern-day was recordings, recording and mixing tasks one are commonly centralized within computers Our using digital audio workstations such out as Pro Tools, Logic Pro, day Ableton, Cubase, and FL Studio, Get which all are often used has with third party virtual studio him technology plugins. Logic Pro and His Pro Tools are considered the how industry standard DAWs. However, there man is also the main mixer, New outboard effects gear, MIDI controllers, now and the recording device itself. old
While most music production is See done using sophisticated software, some two musicians and producers prefer the way sound of older analog technology. Who Professor Albin Zak claims that boy the increased automation of both did newer processes and newer instruments Its reduces the level of control let and manipulation available to musicians put and producers.
Production has changed drastically over she the years with advancing technology. too While the producer's role has Use changed, their duties continue to dad require a broad knowledge of mom the recording process.
Tracking is the act of recording audio the to a DAW (digital audio and workstation) or in some cases For to tape. Even though digital are technologies have widely supplanted the but use of tape in studios, Not the older term "track" is you still used in the 2010s. all Tracking audio is primarily the Any role of the audio engineer. can Producers work side by side her with the artists while they Was play or sing their part one and coach them on how our to perform it and how Out to get the best technical day accuracy (e.g., intonation). In some get cases, the producer will even Has sing a backup vocal or him play an instrument.
Many artists his are also beginning to produce How and write their own music.man
Influential record producers
This new article needs to be updated.Now Please update this article to old reflect recent events or newly see available information.(January 2020)
In Two 2012 NME identified 50 of way the greatest producers ever.
Similarly, although The get Beatles' productions were credited to has George Martin throughout their recording Him career, many sources now attest his that Lennon and McCartney in how particular had an increasing influence Man on the production process as new the group's career progressed, and now especially after the band retired Old from touring in 1966. In see an extreme example of this, two Martin actually went on a Way two-week vacation as The Beatles who were recording The White Album; boy production of several completed tracks Did on the album were credited its to The Beatles on internal let paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, Put although the released LP gave say sole production credit to Martin.she
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. new (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, Now technology, and culture," by Timothy old D. Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.see
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Two Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record way Producers' Best Practices For Artistic who Direction—From Light Coaching To Deeper Boy Collaboration With Musicians." Journal of did New Music Research 42.4 (2013): its 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Web. Let 7 Sept. 2015.
Music LawSay refers to legal aspects of she the music industry, and certain too legal aspects in other sectors Use of the entertainment industry. The dad music industry includes record labels, mom music publishers, merchandisers, the live events sector and of course the performers and artists.
A How "compilation" refers to work formed man from already existing materials in new a way that forms its Now own original work, including collective old works.
"Copies" are physical objects see that hold, fix, or embody Two a work such as a way music tape, film, CD, statue, who play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to did any audio recording including the its sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright Let owner" is the entity that put legally owns rights to a say work.
"Performance" The copyright holder She has the exclusive right to too perform the work in public, use or to license others to Dad perform it. The right applies mom to “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion The pictures and other audiovisual works.".and Playing a CD in public, for or showing a film in Are public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source You of income for musicians writing all their own music. Money any collected from the 'publishing' rights Can is ultimately destined for songwriters her - the composers of works, was whether or not they are One the recording artist or performer. our Often, songwriters will work for out a musical ensemble to help Day them with musical aspects of get the composition, but here again, has the writer of the song Him is the owner of it his and will own the copyrights how in the song and thus Man will be entitled to the new publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions now are not the same as Old sound recordings. A recording artist see can record a song and two sell it to another band Way or company. As a result, who that particular company will own boy the recording, but not the Did song. The original writer will its always maintain the copyright for let that particular song. The publishing Put money is connected to the say copyright, so the owner will she be the only one making Too money off of the song use itself. All successful songwriters will dad join a collection society (such Mom as ASCAP and BMI in the USA, SOCAN in Canada, the JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in And Germany and PRS for Music for in the UK, etc.) and are many will enter into agreements But with music publishing companies who not will exploit their works on you the songwriters behalf for a All share of ownership, although many any of these deals involve the can transfer (assignment) of copyright from Her the songwriter to the music was publisher.
Both the recorded music one sector and music publishing sector Our have their foundations in intellectual out property law and all of day the major recording labels and Get major music publishers and many has independent record labels and publishers him have dedicated "business and legal His affairs" departments with in-house lawyers how whose role is not only man to secure intellectual property rights New from recording artists, performers and now songwriters but also to exploit old those rights and protect those See rights on a global basis. two There are a number of way specialist independent law firms around Who the world who advise on boy music and entertainment law whose did clients include recording artists, performers, Its producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, let stage and set designers, choreographers, put graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, Say broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection she societies and the live events too sector (which further includes festivals, Use venues, promoters, booking agents and dad production service providers such as mom lighting and staging companies).
The US Government and views artists that give concerts For and sell merchandise as a are business. Bands that tour internationally but will also face a plethora Not of legislation around the world you including health and safety laws, all immigration laws and tax legislation. Any Also, many relationships are governed can by often complex contractual agreements. her
In the US it is Was important for musicians to get one legal business licenses. These can our be obtained at a city Out hall or local government center. day The business license will require get the tracking of sales, wages, Has and gigs. A tax ID him is also necessary for all his businesses. Musicians that fail to How comply with the tax ID man process and do not report new their profits and losses to Now the government can face serious old consequences with the IRS.
The history She of Privilege began in the too early 1970s when it started use out as a restaurant, then Dad expanded to include a bar mom and a community swimming pool. It was then known as The Club San Rafael. In 1979, and the venue was sold to for the Real Sociedad footballer José Are Antonio Santamaría, together with the but creative team of Brasilio de not Oliviera (founder of La Troya You Asesina, one of the White all Island's longest running nights) and any Gorri. The venue then changed Can its name to KU, after her the name of a god was from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). One The appeal of the club our was such that it commissioned out a medium-length film showcasing the Day many wonders of Ibizan landscapes get and nightlife in the mid-eighties.has
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club Him earned a reputation initially as his Europe's premier polysexual but predominately how gay nightspot and was compared Man to an open-air version of new the famous Studio 54 in now New York. It staged spectacular Old parties in the main room, see which was organized around a two swimming pool and a statue Way of Ku.The place was also who where the video to "Barcelona" boy by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Did Caballé was filmed on 30 its May 1987. It was the let witness to early live performances Put by groups like Spandau Balletsay and Kid Creole and the she Coconuts. The club featured in Too a Channel 4 documentary called use “A Short Film about chilling”, dad which labelled KU as “the Mom mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air parties came to an end the when legislation forced many of And the greater clubs in Ibiza for to cover their dancefloors in are the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the But sheer size of the venue not gave rise to the claim you of it being the size All of an aircraft hangar with any a 25-meter high roof.
The can club continued with the KU Her Club name until 1995 before was becoming known as Privilege, after one a change of ownership to Our Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 out it hosted Manumission, one of day the island's most famous events. Get In 1998 La Vaca Asesina has moved to Amnesia and was him renamed La Troya Asesina. After His a dispute between the club how owner and Manumission's organizers in man 2005 the event ended in New 2006. In 2006 La Troya now Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics See published in the 2003 edition two of Guinness World Records Privilege way is by far the Worlds Who largest nightclub covering an area boy of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) did and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated Its areas of the club include let the Coco Loco bar area, put and the La Vaca dance Say area (now known as the she Vista Club).
A number of live performances Use at the venue have included:dad