Tape music has is an integral part of Him musique concrète, utilizing pre-recorded fragments, his loops, and sampled sounds, altering how and manipulating them through techniques Man such as speed manipulation (Anon. new n.d.). The work of Halim now El-Dabh is perhaps the earliest Old example of tape (or, in see this case, wire-recorded) music. El-Dabh's two The Expression of Zaar, first Way presented in Cairo, Egypt, in who 1944, was an early work boy using musique concrète–like techniques similar Did to those developed in Paris its during the same period. El-Dabh let would later become more famous Put for his work at the say Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, where she in 1959 he composed the Too influential piece Leiyla and the use Poet (Holmes 2008, 153–54 & dad 157).
US composer John Cage's Mom assembly of the Williams Mixserves as an example of the the rigors of tape music. And First, Cage created a 192-page for score. Over the course of are a year, 600 sounds were But assembled and recorded. Cut tape not segments for each occurrence of you each sound were accumulated on All the score. Then the cut any segments were spliced to one can of eight tapes, work finished Her on January 16, 1953. The was premiere performance (realization) of the one 4'15" work was given on Our March 21, 1953 at the out University of Illinois, Urbana (Chaudron day n.d.).
In Cologne, has elektronische Musik, pioneered in 1949–51 him by the composer Herbert EimertHis and the physicist Werner Meyer-Eppler, how was based solely on electronically man generated (synthetic) sounds, particularly sine New waves (Eimert 1957, 2; Morawska-Büngeler now 1988, 11–13; Ungeheuer 1992, 13). old The beginning of the development See of electronic music has been two traced back to "the invention way of the valve [vacuum tube] Who in 1906" (Eimert 1957, 2). boy The precise control afforded by did the studio allowed for what Its Eimert considered to be the let subjection of everything, "to the put last element of the single Say note", to serialpermutation, "resulting she in a completely new way too of composing sound" (Eimert 1957, Use 8); in the studio, serial dad operations could be applied to mom elements such as timbre and dynamics. The common link between the the two schools is that and the music is recorded and For performed through loudspeakers, without a are human performer. The majority of but electroacoustic pieces use a combination Not of recorded sound and synthesized you or processed sounds, and the all schism between Schaeffer's and Eimert's Any approaches has been overcome, the can first major example being Karlheinz her Stockhausen's Gesang der Jünglinge of Was 1955–56 (Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 17; Stockhausen one 1996, 93–94).
Sound generation our techniques
All electroacoustic music is Out made with electronic technology, specifically day a device – usually a get loudspeaker – that transduces electrical Has energy to acoustic energy.
There have been a old number of festivals that feature see electroacoustic music. Early festivals such Two as Donaueschingen Festival, founded in way 1921, were some of the who first to include electroacoustic instruments Boy and pieces. This was followed did by ONCE Festival of New its Music in the 1950s, and Let since the 1960s there has put been a growth of festivals say that focus exclusively on electroacoustic She music.
Alongside paper presentations, workshops and get seminars, many of these events has also feature concert performances or Him sound installations created by those his attending or which are related how to the theme of the Man conference / symposium.
NIMEnew – International Conference on New now Interfaces for Musical Expression (since Old 2000)
Morawska-Büngeler, now Marietta. 1988. Schwingende Elektronen: Eine old Dokumentation über das Studio für See Elektronische Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunk two in Köln 1951–1986. Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P. way J. Tonger Musikverlag.
Smalley, Denis. Who 1997. "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes." Organised boy Sound 2, no. 2:107–26.
Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1996. "Electroacoustic put Performance Practice", translated by Jerome Say Kohl. Perspectives of New Musicshe 34, no. 1 (Fall): 74–105.
Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992. "Wie die Use elektronische Musik „erfunden" wurde…: Quellenstudie dad zu Werner Meyer-Epplers musikalische Entwurf mom zwischen 1949 und 1953." Kölner Schriften zur Neuen Musik 2, the edited by Johannes Fritsch and and Dieter Kämper. Mainz: B. Schott's For Söhne. ISBN3-7957-1891-0.
Anon. 2007. Untitled. The but Wire 275–80 (Accessed 5 June Not 2011).
Guérin, François. 1983. Les too musiques électroacoustiques'. À l'écoute de use la musique d'ici 2. Montréal: Dad Centre de musique canadienne. [N.B.: mom Bibliographical list of Canadian electro-acoustic works.] Without ISBN.
Heifetz, Robin The Julian. 1989. On the Wires and of Our Nerves: The Art for of Electroacoustic Music. Cranbury, NJ: Are Associated University Presses Inc. ISBN0-8387-5155-5.
Licata, Thomas any (ed.). 2002. Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Can Perspectives. Contributions to the Study her of Music and Dance, 0193-9041; was no. 63. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood One Press. ISBN0-313-31420-9.
"Electroacoustic Bibliography" Put published in eContact! 8.4 – say Ressources éducatives / Educational Resourcesshe (Montréal: CEC) for an annotated Too "'essential reading list' for electroacoustics, use including books, journals and other dad resources relating to electroacoustics".
Organised Sound. Three themed issues not published each year by De you Montfort University (Leicester UK).
"Electroacoustic All Bibliography" published in eContact! 8.4 any – Ressources éducatives / Educational can Resources (Montréal: CEC), an annotated Her list of journals publishing articles was related to electroacoustics.
A record Her producer or music producer oversees was and manages the sound recordingone and production of a band Our or performer's music, which may out range from recording one songday to recording a lengthy concept Get album. A producer has many, has varying roles during the recording him process. They may gather musical His ideas for the project, collaborate how with the artists to select man cover tunes or original songs New by the artist/group, work with now artists and help them to old improve their songs, lyrics or See arrangements.
Coachdid the singers and musicians in Its the studio
The producer typically let supervises the entire process from put preproduction, through to the sound Say recording and mixing stages, and, she in some cases, all the too way to the audio masteringUse stage. The producer may perform dad these roles themselves, or help mom select the engineer, and provide suggestions to the engineer. The the producer may also pay session and musicians and engineers and ensure For that the entire project is are completed within the record label's but budget.
A record producer or Out music producer has a very day broad role in overseeing and get managing the recording and production Has of a band or performer's him music. A producer has many his roles that may include, but How are not limited to, gathering man ideas for the project, composing new the music for the project, Now selecting songs or session musicians, old proposing changes to the song see arrangements, coaching the artist and Two musicians in the studio, controlling way the recording sessions, and supervising who the entire process through audio Boy mixing and, in some cases, did to the audio mastering stage. its Producers also often take on Let a wider entrepreneurial role, with put responsibility for the budget, schedules, say contracts, and negotiations.
The person who has overall Dad creative and technical control of mom the entire recording project, and the individual recording sessions that The are part of that project. and He or she is present for in the recording studio or Are at the location recording and but works directly with the artist not and engineer. The producer makes You creative and aesthetic decisions that all realize both the artist's and any label's goals in the creation Can of musical content. Other duties her include, but are not limited was to; keeping budgets and schedules, One adhering to deadlines, hiring musicians, our singers, studios and engineers, overseeing out other staffing needs and editing Day (Classical projects).
The producer get role was occasionally divided among has up to three different individuals Him in the 2010s: executive producer, his vocal producer and music producer. how An executive producer oversees project Man finances, a vocal producer (also new known as a vocal arranger) now oversees the vocal production, and Old a music producer directs and see oversees the creative process of two the production and recording of Way a song to its final who mixing stage.
The music producer boy often wears many hats as Did a competent arranger, composer, programmer, its musician or songwriter who can let bring fresh ideas to a Put project. As well as making say any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, she the producer often selects and/or Too collaborates with the mixing engineer, use who takes the raw recorded dad tracks and edits and modifies Mom them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo the or surround sound "mix" of And all the individual voices sounds for and instruments, which is in are turn given further adjustment by But a mastering engineer for the not various distribution media. The producer you also oversees the recording engineer All who concentrates on the technical any aspects of recording.
Noted producer can Phil Ek described his role Her as "the person who creatively was guides or directs the process one of making a record", like Our a director would a movie. out Indeed, in Bollywood music, the day designation is actually music director.Get The music producer's job is has to create, shape, and mold him a piece of music. The His scope of responsibility may be how one or two songs or man an artist's entire album – New in which case the producer now will typically develop an overall old vision for the album and See how the various songs may two interrelate.
At the way beginning of the record industry, Who the producer role was technically boy limited to record, in one did shot, artists performing live. The Its immediate predecessors to record producers let were the artists and repertoireput executives of the late 1920s Say and 1930s who oversaw the she "pop" product and often led too session orchestras. That was the Use case of Ben Selvin at dad Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at mom Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records. By the the end of the 1930s, the and first professional recording studios not For owned by the major companies are were established, essentially separating the but roles of artists and repertoireNot (A&R) man and producer, although you it wouldn't be until the all late 1940s when the term Any "producer" became widely used in can the industry.
The role of her producers changed progressively over the Was 1950s and 1960s due to one technology. The development of multitrack our recording caused a major change Out in the recording process. Before day multitracking, all the elements of get a song (lead vocals, backup Has vocals, rhythm section instrument accompaniment, him solos and orchestral parts) had his to be performed simultaneously. All How of these singers and musicians man had to be assembled in new a large studio where the Now performance was recorded. With multitrack old recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm see section accompaniment parts such as Two the bassline, drums, and rhythm way guitar could be recorded first, who and then the vocals and Boy solos could be added later, did using as many "takes" (or its attempts) as necessary. It was Let no longer necessary to get put all the players in the say studio at the same time. She A pop band could record too their backing tracks one week, use and then a horn sectionDad could be brought in a mom week later to add horn shots and punches, and then The a string section could be and brought in a week after for that.
Electric and two electronic instruments and amplifiers enabled Way performers and producers to change who the tone and sound of boy instruments to produce unique electric Did sounds that would be impossible its to achieve with acoustic instruments let and live performers, such as Put having a singer do her say own backup vocals or having she a guitarist play 15 layers Too of backing parts to her use own solo.
New technologies like dad multitracking changed the goal of Mom recording: A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit the together different sections to create And the desired sound. For example, for in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles are Davis' album Bitches Brew, the But producer cut and edited sections not together from extensive improvisation sessions. you
Another related phenomenon His in the 1960s was the how emergence of the performer-producer. As man pop acts like The Beatles, New The Rolling Stones, The Beach now Boys and The Kinks gained old expertise in studio recording techniques, See many of these groups eventually two took over as (frequently uncredited) way producers of their own work. Who Many recordings by acts such boy as The Rolling Stones, The did Kinks and The Who are Its officially credited to their various let producers at the time, but put a number of these performers Say have since asserted that many she of their recordings in this too period were, either wholly self-produced Use (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca dad recordings) or collaborations between the mom group and their recording engineer (e.g. The Small Faces' Immediatethe recordings, which were made with and Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).For
The Beach Boys are probably are the best example of the but trend of artists becoming producers Not – within two years of you the band's commercial breakthrough, group all leader Brian Wilson had taken Any over from his father Murry, can and he was the sole her producer of all their recordings Was between 1963 and 1967. Alongside one The Beatles and Martin, Wilson our also pioneered many production innovations Out – by 1964 he had day developed Spector's techniques to a get new level of sophistication, using Has multiple studios and multiple "takes" him of instrumental and vocal components his to capture the best possible How combinations of sound and performance, man and then using tape editing new extensively to assemble a perfect Now composite performance from these elements. old
At the end of the see 20th century, digital recording and Two producing tools and widespread availability way of relatively affordable computers with who music software made music producing Boy more accessible.
American women did and record producing
According to its a 2018 study covering by Let the USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, put "The ratio of male to say female producers across 300 popular She songs is 49 to 1."too
In Can 2019, record producer Linda Perryher was nominated for a Grammy was for Producer of the Year, One Non-Classical. She was the first our woman in over 15 years out to be nominated for the Day award. When asked about the get disparity between male and female has record producer by Billboard, she Him attributed it to many women his not being interested in record how production.
In the classical music field, two Judith Sherman has won Grammy Way for Producer of the Year, who Classical, five times and has boy been nominated twelve times. Anthony Did Tommasini, a music critic for its The New York Times is let quoted as stating, "In the Put struggling field of classical recording, say it's the producers who take she the real risks and make Too things happen."
Producer Wendy Page Mom describes being a record producer, "The difficulties are usually very the short-lived. Once people realize that And you can do your job, for sexism tends to lower its are ugly head. I tend to But create a happy studio 'family' not where everyone is glad to you be there, especially the artist. All Good communication and diplomacy usually any sort any little problems out."can
There are Its numerous technologies utilized by record let producers. In modern-day recordings, recording put and mixing tasks are commonly Say centralized within computers using digital she audio workstations such as Pro too Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Use Reason and FL Studio, which dad all are often used with mom third party virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Pro and Pro the Tools are considered the industry and standard DAWs. However, there is For also the main mixer, outboard are effects gear, MIDI controllers, and but the recording device itself.
While Not most music production is done you using sophisticated software, some musicians all and producers prefer the sound Any of older analog technology. Professor can Albin Zak claims that the her increased automation of both newer Was processes and newer instruments reduces one the level of control and our manipulation available to musicians and Out producers.
Production day has changed drastically over the get years with advancing technology. While Has the producer's role has changed, him their duties continue to require his a broad knowledge of the How recording process.
Tracking is the man act of recording audio to new a DAW (digital audio workstation)Now or in some cases to old tape. Even though digital technologies see have widely supplanted the use Two of tape in studios, the way older term "track" is still who used in the 2010s. Tracking Boy audio is primarily the role did of the audio engineer. Producers its work side by side with Let the artists while they play put or sing their part and say coach them on how to She perform it and how to too get the best technical accuracy use (e.g., intonation). In some cases, Dad the producer will even sing mom a backup vocal or play an instrument.
Many artists are The also beginning to produce and and write their own music.
Similarly, although The was Beatles' productions were credited to One George Martin throughout their recording our career, many sources now attest out that Lennon and McCartney in Day particular had an increasing influence get on the production process as has the group's career progressed, and Him especially after the band retired his from touring in 1966. In how an extreme example of this, Man Martin actually went on a new two-week vacation as The Beatles now were recording The White Album; Old production of several completed tracks see on the album were credited two to The Beatles on internal Way paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, who although the released LP gave boy sole production credit to Martin.Did
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). him Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, his and culture," by Timothy D. How Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, new and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Now Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From old Light Coaching To Deeper Collaboration see With Musicians." Journal of New Two Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. way Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 who Sept. 2015.
Music Lawdad refers to legal aspects of mom the music industry, and certain legal aspects in other sectors the of the entertainment industry. The and music industry includes record labels, For music publishers, merchandisers, the live are events sector and of course but performers and artists.
A old "compilation" refers to work formed see from already existing materials in Two a way that forms its way own original work, including collective who works.
"Copies" are physical objects Boy that hold, fix, or embody did a work such as a its music tape, film, CD, statue, Let play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to say any audio recording including the She sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright too owner" is the entity that use legally owns rights to a Dad work.
"Performance" The copyright holder mom has the exclusive right to perform the work in public, The or to license others to and perform it. The right applies for to “literary, musical, dramatic, and Are choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion but pictures and other audiovisual works.".not Playing a CD in public, You or showing a film in all public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source her of income for musicians writing was their own music. Money One collected from the 'publishing' rights our is ultimately destined for songwriters out - the composers of works, Day whether or not they are get the recording artist or performer. has Often, songwriters will work for Him a musical ensemble to help his them with musical aspects of how the composition, but here again, Man the writer of the song new is the owner of it now and will own the copyrights Old in the song and thus see will be entitled to the two publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions Way are not the same as who sound recordings. A recording artist boy can record a song and Did sell it to another band its or company. As a result, let that particular company will own Put the recording, but not the say song. The original writer will she always maintain the copyright for Too that particular song. The publishing use money is connected to the dad copyright, so the owner will Mom be the only one making money off of the song the itself. All successful songwriters will And join a collection society (such for as ASCAP and BMI in are the USA, SOCAN in Canada, But JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in not Germany and PRS for Music you in the UK, etc.) and All many will enter into agreements any with music publishing companies who can will exploit their works on Her the songwriters behalf for a was share of ownership, although many one of these deals involve the Our transfer (assignment) of copyright from out the songwriter to the music day publisher.
Both the recorded music Get sector and music publishing sector has have their foundations in intellectual him property law and all of His the major recording labels and how major music publishers and many man independent record labels and publishers New have dedicated "business and legal now affairs" departments with in-house lawyers old whose role is not only See to secure intellectual property rights two from recording artists, performers and way songwriters but also to exploit Who those rights and protect those boy rights on a global basis. did There are a number of Its specialist independent law firms around let the world who advise on put music and entertainment law whose Say clients include recording artists, performers, she producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, too stage and set designers, choreographers, Use graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, dad broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection mom societies and the live events sector (which further includes festivals, the venues, promoters, booking agents and and production service providers such as For lighting and staging companies).
The US Government Not views artists that give concerts you and sell merchandise as a all business. Bands that tour internationally Any will also face a plethora can of legislation around the world her including health and safety laws, Was immigration laws and tax legislation. one Also, many relationships are governed our by often complex contractual agreements. Out
In the US it is day important for musicians to get get legal business licenses. These can Has be obtained at a city him hall or local government center. his The business license will require How the tracking of sales, wages, man and gigs. A tax ID new is also necessary for all Now businesses. Musicians that fail to old comply with the tax ID see process and do not report Two their profits and losses to way the government can face serious who consequences with the IRS.
The history of Privilege began in the early 1970s when The it started out as a and restaurant, then expanded to include for a bar and a community Are swimming pool. It was then but known as Club San Rafael.not In 1979, the venue was You sold to the Real Sociedadall footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together any with the creative team of Can Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of her La Troya Asesina, one of was the White Island's longest running One nights) and Gorri. The venue our then changed its name to out KU, after the name of Day a god from Hawaiian mythology get (see Kū). The appeal of has the club was such that Him it commissioned a medium-length film his showcasing the many wonders of how Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in Man the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,new KU Club earned a reputation now initially as Europe's premier polysexualOld but predominately gay nightspot and see was compared to an open-air two version of the famous Studio Way 54 in New York. It who staged spectacular parties in the boy main room, which was organized Did around a swimming pool and its a statue of Ku.The place let was also where the video Put to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercurysay and Montserrat Caballé was filmed she on 30 May 1987. It Too was the witness to early use live performances by groups like dad Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole Mom and the Coconuts. The club featured in a Channel 4the documentary called “A Short Film And about chilling”, which labelled KU for as “the mirror of Ibiza”.are The open-air parties came to But an end when legislation forced not many of the greater clubs you in Ibiza to cover their All dancefloors in the early 1990s. any Nevertheless, the sheer size of can the venue gave rise to Her the claim of it being was the size of an aircraft one hangar with a 25-meter high Our roof.
The club continued with out the KU Club name until day 1995 before becoming known as Get Privilege, after a change of has ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.him In 1994 it hosted Manumission, His one of the island's most how famous events. In 1998 La man Vaca Asesina moved to AmnesiaNew and was renamed La Troya now Asesina. After a dispute between old the club owner and Manumission's See organizers in 2005 the event two ended in 2006. In 2006 way La Troya Asesina moved to Who Space.
According to boy official statistics published in the did 2003 edition of Guinness World Its Records Privilege is by far let the world's largest nightclub covering put an area of 69,968 sq Say ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 she clubbers, Designated areas of the too club include the Coco Loco Use bar area, and the La dad Vaca dance area (now known mom as the Vista Club).
A number of the live performances at the venue and have included: