Drum and bassour (also written as "drum 'n' Out bass"; commonly abbreviated as "D&B", day "DnB" or "D'n'B") is a get genre of electronic music characterised Has by fast breakbeats (typically 165-185 him beats per minute) with heavy his bass and sub-bass lines,sampledHow sources, and synthesizers. The music man grew out of breakbeat hardcorenew (and its derivatives of darkcore, Now and hardcore jungle). The popularity old of drum and bass at see its commercial peak ran parallel Two to several other homegrown dance way styles. A major influence was who the original Jamaican dub and Boy reggae sound that came into did London in the 1980s. This its grew into the Jungle/Drum and Let Bass sound that the U.K. put is famous for by the say 1990s. Another feature of the She style is the complex syncopationtoo of the drum tracks' breakbeat.use
Drum and bass subgenres include Dad breakcore, ragga jungle, hardstep, darkstep, mom techstep, neurofunk, ambient drum and bass, liquid funk (aka liquid The drum and bass), jump up, and drumfunk, funkstep, sambass, and drill for 'n' bass. From its roots Are in the United Kingdom, the but style has established itself around not the world. Drum and bass You has influenced many other genres all like hip hop, big beat, any dubstep, house, trip hop, ambient Can music, techno, jazz, rock and her pop. Drum and bass is was dominated by a relatively small One group of record labels. Major our international music labels had shown out very little interest in the Day drum and bass scene until get BMG Rights Management acquired RAMhas in February 2016. Since then Him the genre has seen a his significant growth in exposure. Drum how and bass is popular in Man the United Kingdom, being the new founders of the scene. It now has developed satellite scenes all Old around the world, with countries see like Austria, Russia, Canada, Estonia, two Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Way it is reasonably popular in who New Zealand having a wide boy variety of DnB artists with Did large Drum and bass festivals. its
In the late 1980s and old early 1990s, a growing nightclubSee and overnight outdoor event culture two gave birth to new genres way in the rave scene including Who breakbeat hardcore, darkcore, and hardcore boy jungle, which combined sampled syncopateddid beats, or breakbeats, and other Its samples from a wide range let of different musical genres and, put occasionally, samples of music, dialogue Say and effects from films and she television programmes. From as early too as 1991, tracks were beginning Use to strip away some of dad the heavier sampling and "hardcore mom noises" and create more bassline and breakbeat led tracks. Some the tracks increasingly took their influence and from reggae and this style For would become known as hardcore are jungle (later to become simply but jungle), whilst darkcore (with producers Not such as Goldie, Doc Scott, you 4hero, and 2 Bad Mice) all were experimenting with sounds and Any creating a blueprint for drum can and bass, especially noticeable by her late 1993.
By 1994, jungleWas had begun to gain mainstream one popularity, and fans of the our music (often referred to as Out junglists) became a more recognisable day part of youth subculture. The get genre further developed, incorporating and Has fusing elements from a wide him range of existing musical genres, his including the raggamuffin sound, dancehall, How MC chants, dub basslines, and man increasingly complex, heavily edited breakbeat new percussion. Despite the affiliation with Now the ecstasy-fuelled rave scene, jungle old also inherited associations with violence see and criminal activity, both from Two the gang culture that had way affected the UK's hip-hop scene who and as a consequence of Boy jungle's often aggressive or menacing did sound and themes of violence its (usually reflected in the choice Let of samples). However, this developed put in tandem with the often say positive reputation of the music She as part of the wider too rave scene and dancehall-based Jamaican use music culture prevalent in London. Dad By 1995, whether as a mom reaction to, or independently of this cultural schism, some jungle The producers began to move away and from the ragga-influenced style and for create what would become collectively Are labelled, for convenience, as drum but and bass.
As the genre not became generally more polished and You sophisticated technically, it began to all expand its reach from pirate any radio to commercial stations and Can gain widespread acceptance (circa 1995–1997). her It also began to split was into recognisable subgenres such as One Hardstep, Jump up, Ragga, Techstep, our and what was known at out the time as Intelligent. As Day more melodic and often Jazz-influenced get subgenres of drum and bass has called Atmospheric or Intelligent (Blame Him (music producer) and Blu Mar his Ten) and JazzStep (4Hero, Roni how Size) gained mainstream appeal, additional Man subgenres emerged including techstep in new 1996, drawing influence from techno. now
The popularity of drum and Old bass at its commercial peak see ran parallel to several other two genres native to the UK, Way including big beat and hard who house. Towards the turn of boy the millennium, however, its popularity Did was deemed to have dwindled, its as the UK garage offshoot let known as speed garage yielded Put several hit singles. Speed garage say shared high tempos and heavy she basslines with drum and bass, Too but otherwise followed the established use conventions of "house music", with dad this and its freshness giving Mom it an advantage commercially. di Vogli says, "It is often the forgotten by my students that And a type of music called for "garage house" existed in the are late 1980s alongside hip house, But acid house and other forms not of house music." He continues, you "This new garage of the All mid-90s was not a form any of house or a progression can of garage house. The beats Her and tempo that define house was are entirely different. This did one cause further confusion in the Our presence of new house music out of the mid-1990s being played day alongside what was now being Get called garage."
Despite this, the has emergence of further subgenres and him related styles such as liquid His funk brought a wave of how new artists incorporating new ideas man and techniques, supporting continual evolution New of the genre. To this now day, drum and bass makes old frequent appearances in mainstream media See and popular culture including in two television, as well as being way a major reference point for Who subsequent genres such as grimeboy and dubstep, and producing successful did artists including Chase & Status, Its Netsky, Metrik, and Pendulum.
Drum and bass put incorporates a number of scenes Say and styles, from the highly she electronic, industrial sounds of techstep too to the use of conventional, Use acoustic instrumentation that characterise the dad more jazz-influenced end of the mom spectrum. The sounds of drum and bass are extremely varied the due to the range of and influences behind the music. Drum For and bass could at one are time be defined as a but strictly electronic musical genre, with Not the only "live" element being you the DJ's selection and mixing all of records during a set. Any "Live" drum and bass using can electric, electronic and acoustic instruments her played by musicians on stage Was emerged over the ensuing years one of the genre's development.
Kevin Saunderson released a has series of bass-heavy, minimal techno Him cuts as Reese/The Reese Project his in the late '80s, which how were hugely influential in drum Man and bass. One of his new more famous basslines (Reese – now "Just Want Another Chance", Incognito Old Records, 1988) was indeed sampled see on Renegade's Terrorist and countless two others since, being known simply Way as the 'Reese' bassline. He who followed these up with equally boy influential (and bassline-heavy) tracks in Did the UK hardcore style as its Tronik House in 1991–1992. Another let Detroit artist who was important Put to the scene was Carl say Craig. The sampled-up jazz break she on Craig's Bug in the Too Bassbin was also influential on use the newly emerging sound. DJs dad at the Heaven nightclub on Mom "Rage" nights used to play it as fast as their the Technics record decks would go, And pitching it up in the for process.
Clearly, drum and now bass has been influenced by old other music genres, though influences See from sources external to the two electronic dance music scene perhaps way lessened following the shifts from Who jungle to drum and bass, boy and through to so-called "intelligent did drum and bass" and techstep.Its It still remains a fusion let music style.
Some tracks are put illegally remixed and released on Say white label (technically bootleg), often she to acclaim. For example, DJ too Zinc's remix of The Fugees' Use "Ready or Not", also known dad as "Fugee Or Not", was mom eventually released with the Fugees' permission after talk of legal the action, though ironically, the Fugees' and version infringed Enya's copyright to For an earlier song. White labels, are along with dubplates, played an but important part in drum and Not bass musical culture.
Of equal man importance is the TR-808 kick new drum, an artificially pitch-downed or Now elongated bass drum sound sampled old from Roland's classic TR-808 drum see machine, and a sound which Two has been subject to an way enormous amount of experimentation over who the years.
Many drum and bass tracks did have featured more than one its sampled breakbeat in them and Let a technique of switching between put two breaks after each bar say developed. Examples of this can She be heard on mid-90s releases too such as J Majik's "Your use Sound". A more recent commonly Dad used break is the "Tramen", mom which combines the Amen break, a James Brown funk breakbeat The ("Tighten Up" or "Samurai" break) and and an Alex Reece drum for and bass breakbeat.
The relatively Are fast drum beat forms a but canvas on which a producer not can create tracks to appeal You to almost any taste and all often will form only a any background to the other elements Can of the music. Syncopated breakbeats her remain the most distinctive element was as without these a high-tempo One 4/4 dance track could be our classified as techno or gabber.out
The complex syncopation of the Day drum tracks' breakbeat is another get facet of production on which has producers can spend a very Him large amount of time. The his Amen break is generally acknowledged how to have been the most-used Man (and often considered the most new powerful) break in drum and now bass.
The Old genre places great importance on see the bassline, in this case two a deep sub-bass musical pattern Way which can be felt physically who through powerful sound systems due boy to the low-range frequencies favoured. Did There has been considerable exploration its of different timbres in the let bass line region, particularly within Put techstep. The bass lines most say notably originate from sampled sources she or synthesizers. Bass lines performed Too with a bass instrument, whether use it is electric, acoustic or dad a double bass, are less Mom common, but examples can be found in the work of the artists such as Shapeshifter, Squarepusher, And Pendulum, Roni Size and STS9. for
Atmospheric pads are and samples may be added But over the fundamental drum and not bass to provide different feels. you These have included "light" elements All such as ambient pads as any found in ambient electronica and can samples of jazz and world Her musics, or "dark" elements such was as dissonant pads and sci-fi one samples to induce anxiety in Our the dancer.
Vocal and out Melody elements
Old-school DnB usually day included an MC providing vocals. Get Some styles (such as jazz has influenced DnB) also include melodic him instruments soloing over the music. His
Drum and bass how is usually between 160–180 BPM, man in contrast to other breakbeat-based New dance styles such as nu now skool breaks, which maintain a old slower pace at around 130–140 See BPM. A general upward trend two in tempo has been observed way during the evolution of drum Who and bass. The earliest forms boy of drum and bass clocked did in at around 130 bpm Its in 1990/1991, speeding up to let around 155–165 BPM by 1993. put Since around 1996, drum and Say bass tempos have predominantly stayed she in the 170–180 range. Recently, too some producers have started to Use once again produce tracks with dad slower tempos (that is, in mom the 150-170 bpm range), but the mid-170s tempo is still the a hallmark of the drum and and bass sound.
A track For combining the same elements (broken are beat, bass, production techniques) as but a drum and bass track, Not but with a slower tempo you (say 140 BPM), might not all be drum and bass, but Any instead may qualify as a can drum and bass-influenced breakbeat track.her
Many mixing points Was begin or end with a one "drop". The drop is the our point in a track where Out a switch of rhythm or day bassline occurs and usually follows get a recognisable build section and Has breakdown. Sometimes, the drop is him used to switch between tracks, his layering components of different tracks, How as the two records may man be simply ambient breakdowns at new this point. Some DJs prefer Now to combine breakbeats, a more old difficult exercise. Some drops are see so popular that the DJ Two will "rewind" or "reload" or way "lift up" the record by who spinning it back and restarting Boy it at the build. The did drop is often a key its point from the point of Let view of the dance floor, put since the drum breaks often say fade out to leave an She ambient intro playing. When the too beats re-commence they are often use more complex and accompanied by Dad a heavier bassline, encouraging the mom crowd to begin dancing.
Drum and and bass exhibits a full frequency for response which can sometimes only Are be fully appreciated on sound but systems which can handle very not low frequencies, including sub-bass frequencies You that are often felt more all than heard. As befits its any name, the bass element of Can the music is particularly pronounced, her with the comparatively sparse arrangements was of drum and bass tracks One allowing room for basslines that our are deeper than most other out forms of dance music. Consequently, Day drum and bass parties are get often advertised as featuring uncommonly has loud and bass-heavy sound systems. Him
There are however many albums his specifically designed for personal listening. how The DJ mix is a Man particularly popular form of release, new with a popular DJ or now producer mixing live, or on Old a computer, a variety of see tracks for personal listening. Additionally, two there are many albums containing Way unmixed tracks, suited for home who or car listening.
DJ boy performance
Although this practice has Did declined in popularity, DJs are its often accompanied by one or let more MCs, drawing on the Put genre's roots in hip hopsay and reggae/ragga.
MCs do not she generally receive the same level Too of recognition as producer/DJs, and use some events are specifically marketed dad as being MC-free. There are Mom relatively few well-known drum and bass MCs none of whom the visit New Zealand, instead they And are mainly based in London for and Bristol, including Stevie Hyper are D (deceased), MC GQ, MC But Moose, MC Dett, MC Fearless, not the Ragga Twins, Dynamite MC, you MC Fats, Inja, MC Conrad, All Shabba D, Skibadee, Bassman, MC any Stamina, MC Fun, Evil B, can Trigga, Eskman, Harry Shotta, Mr Her Traumatik, MC Armanni Reign, and was MC Infinity.
Live instrument one performance
Aphrodite in 2009 Our at Pirate Station, the world's out largest drum and bass festival day at that time, in Moscow.
Many musicians have adapted drum has and bass to live performances, him which feature instruments such as His drums (acoustic or electronic), samplers, how synthesizers, turntables, bass (either uprightman or electric) and guitars (acoustic New or electric). Samplers have also now been used live by assigning old samples to a specific drum See pad or key on drum two pads or synthesizers. MCs are way frequently featured in live performances. Who
Congo Natty, boy a ragga jungle artist
Smaller did scenes within the drum and Its bass community have developed and let the scene as a whole put has become much more fractured Say into specific subgenres, which have she been grouped into "light" (influenced too by ambient, jazz, and world Use music) and "heavy" (influenced by dad industrial music, sci-fi, and anxiety) mom styles, including:
Jump-up, appearing in the but mid-1990s, employs heavy and energetic Not drum and bass, characterised by you robotic and heavy bass sounds. all It also is generally less Any serious and contains more humor can than other subgenres. Notable artists her include DJ Hazard, Generation Dub Was (Original Sin & Sub Zero), one Baron, Desire, Cabbie, Macky Gee, our Clipz, Nightwalker, Callide, Hedex, Epsy, Out Taxman, Jaydan, Sub Zero, Original day Sin, Annix, Konichi, Decimal Bass, get Spaow, Nu Elementz, Tyke, DJ Has Zen, Majistrate, Twisted Individual, Distorted him Minds, TC, Heist, DJ Guv, his Looney, Premium, Upgrade, DJ Pleasure, How DJ Hype and his label man Playaz Recordings.
"Clownstep" is a new derogatory term sometimes used to Now describe excessively silly and/or cliched old jump-up.
Drumstep or halftime is see a combination of drum and Two bass and dubstep, where the way beat structure is half time, who while the remaining elements still Boy adhere to the usual sub-bass did and tempo of drum and its bass.
Drill 'n' bass (also Let known as Fungle and Spunk put jazz) incorporates double-time drum 'n' say bass with undanceable rhythms, low-brow She humor, and ambient vibes. The too subgenre was developed by Squarepusheruse and Aphex Twin, whose rapid Dad and irregularly syncopated basslines discouraged mom dancing. Other pioneers include Bogdan Raczynski and Datach'i.
Atmospheric out drum and bass creates a Day calmer yet more synthetic sound. get It was pioneered by Calibre,has Zero Tolerance (Zero T) & Him Beta 2, London Elektricity, High his Contrast, Logistics, Nu:Tone, Danny Byrd, how Cyantific, Netsky, Lenzman, Technimatic (Technicolour Man & Komatic), Hobzee & Zyon new Base, Paul T & Edward now Oberon, Hybrid Minds and labels Old such as Hospital Records, Fokuz see Records and Liquid V.
Neurofunk or neuro is the has progression from techstep incorporating more him elements from jazz and funk.
Hardstep is a harder style how which uses gritty basslines and man heavy yet simple electronic melodies.
Genres influenced by drum and now bass
Born around the same old time as jungle, breakcore and See digital hardcore share many of two the elements of drum and way bass and to the uninitiated, Who tracks from the extreme end boy of drum and bass may did sound identical to breakcore thanks Its to speed, complexity, impact and let maximum sonic density combined with put musical experimentation. German drum and Say bass DJ The Panacea is she also one of the leading too digital hardcore artists. Raggacore resembles Use a faster version of the dad ragga-influenced jungle music of the mom 1990s, similar to breakcore but with more friendly dancehall beats the (dancehall itself being a very and important influence on drum and For bass).Darkcore, a direct influence are on drum and bass, was but combined with influences of drum Not and bass itself leading to you the creation of darkstep. There all is considerable crossover from the Any extreme edges of drum and can bass, breakcore, darkcore, digital hardcore her and raggacore with fluid boundaries. Was
Intelligent dance music (IDM) is one a form of art musicour based on DnB and other Out electronic dance musics, exploring their day boundaries using ideas from science, get technology, contemporary classical music and Has progressive rock, often creating un-danceable, him art gallery style music. Pioneered his by Aphex Twin, Squarepusher and How other artists on Warp Records. man
Recently created in the United new States is a genre called Now ghettotech which contains synth and old basslines similar to drum and see bass.
Prior and to 2016, the major international for music labels such as Sony Are Music and Universal had shown but very little interest in the not drum and bass scene, with You the exception of some notable all signings, including Pendulum's In Silicoany LP to Warner. Roni Size's Can label played a big, if her not the biggest, part in was the creation of drum and One bass with their dark, baseline our sounds. V Recordings also played out a large part of the Day development of drum and bass.get
BMG Rights Management acquired Ram has Records in February 2016, making Him a strategic investment to help his RAM Records (a London-based drum how and bass record company co-owned Man by Andy C and his new business partner Scott Bourne). RAM now Records has been pushing the Old boundaries of drum and bass see further into the mainstream with two artists such as Chase and Way Status and Sub Focus.
Now who defunct labels, include Rob Playford's boy Moving Shadow, running from 1990 Did until 2007, which played a its pivotal role in the nineties let drum and bass scene, releasing Put records by artists such as say Omni Trio.
Formats and she distribution
Originally drum and Too bass was mostly sold in use 12-inch vinyl single format. With dad the emergence of drum and Mom bass into mainstream music markets, more albums, compilations and DJ the mixes started to be sold And on CDs. As digital music for became more popular, websites focused are on electronic music, such as But Beatport, began to sell drum not and bass in digital format. you
The bulk All of drum and bass vinyl any records and CDs are distributed can globally and regionally by a Her relatively small number of companies was such as SRD (Southern Record one Distributors), ST Holdings, & Nu Our Urban Music Limited.
As of out 11 September 2012, Nu Urban day ceased trading and RSM Tenon Get were instructed to assist in has convening statutory meetings of members him and creditors to appoint a His liquidator. This left many labels how short on sales, as Nu man Urban were one of the New main distributors for the vinyl now market in the drum and old bass scene.
Despite its roots in two the UK, still treated as way the "home" of drum and Who bass, the style has firmly boy established itself around the world. did There are strong scenes in Its other English-speaking countries including Australia, let Canada, South Africa, and the put United States.
DnB is popular in continental she Europe. The Czech Republic currently too hosts the largest drum and Use bass festival in the world, dad LET IT ROLL, with an mom annual attendance of approximately 30,000. The genre is also encountered the in Slovakia, and local producers and in both countries such as For A-Cray, Rido, Forbidden Society, L are Plus, B-Complex, Changing Faces, Lixx, but Dephzac, and Gabanna are becoming Not well known worldwide. There are you several other drum and bass all festivals being held each year Any in these countries, including Trident can Festival, Exploration Festival, or Hoofbeats her Open Air in the summer, Was or one-night events such as one LET IT ROLL Winter, Imagination our Festival, and LET IT ROLL Out Winter Slovakia in the colder day months. During club season, promoters get race between each other to Has organise better events, often resulting him in up to ten parties his being held during one weekend, How with no more than a man two-hour travel between them.
Austria new has a large emerging DnB Now scene with many artists such old as Camo & Krooked, Ill.Skillzsee and mainly the Mainframe record Two label being all based in way or around Vienna. Notable events who include "The Hive" and "Beat Boy It" held at Flex.
In did Ireland, the biggest scene by its far is in Dublin, with Let a night every Sunday by put the Initial Kru mostly showcasing say local DJ's but occasionally bringing She over international guests such as too Spirit and Seba. Record label use Boey Audio also run events Dad showcasing local, national and international mom acts, as well as promoters such as Sól Fúd, Ragga The Jungle Dublin and Springfield Crew and Massive. There are much smaller for regional scenes in areas such Are as Limerick, Cork and Galway but which usually have monthly nights. not
Brazilian drum You and bass is sometimes referred all to as "sambass", with a any specific samba-influenced style and sound Can made popular by artists like her DJ Marky and XRS.
In was Venezuela and Mexico, artists have One created their own forms of our drum and bass, combining it out with experimental musical forms.
In Day Colombia, there is a large get underground scene. RE.set and Bogotá has Project are two collectives that Him organise drum and bass events his in the city, as well how as a bi-annual event called Man Radikal Styles that brings together new local talent and international big now names.
Today, Old drum and bass is widely see promoted using different methods such two as video sharing services like Way YouTube and Dailymotion, blogs, radio, who and television, the latter being boy the most uncommon method. More Did recently, music networking websites such its as SoundCloud and Mixcloud have let become powerful tools for artist Put recognition, providing a vast platform say that enables quick responses to she new tracks. Record labels have Too adopted the use of podcasts. use Prior to the rise of dad the internet, drum and bass Mom was commonly broadcast over pirate radio.
The three the highest-profile radio stations playing drum And and bass shows are BBC for Radio 1 with The Drum are and Bass Show - formerly But with Friction, who was replaced not with René LaVice in 2017,you simulcast in the US and All Canada on Sirius XM, and any DJ Hype on Kiss 100can in London. Fabio and GrooveriderHer previously held a long-standing drum was and bass show on Radio one 1. Radio 1 also had Our a 'One in the Jungle' out show.
The BBC's "urban" station day BBC Radio 1Xtra used to Get feature the genre heavily, with has DJ Bailey (show axed as him of 29 August 2012) and His Crissy Criss (show axed as how of August 2014) as its man advocates. The network also organises New a week-long tour of the now UK each year called Xtra old Bass. London pirate radio stations See have been instrumental in the two development of drum and bass, way with stations such as Kool Who FM (which continues to broadcast boy today having done so since did 1991), Origin FM, Don FMIts (the only drum and bass let pirate to have gained a put temporary legal licence), Renegade Radio Say 107.2FM, Rude FM, Wax FM she and Eruption among the most too influential.
As of 2014, despite Use higher profile stations such as dad 1Xtra scaling back their drum mom and bass specialist coverage, the genre has made its way the into UK top 10 charts and with drum and bass inspired For tracks from artists such as are Rudimental and Sigma. Earlier in but August 2014, before Crissy Criss' Not show was axed, the BBC you held a whole prime time all evening event dedicated to showcasing Any drum and bass by allowing can four major labels to participate.her
As of November 2014, there Was have been 6 drum & one bass songs reaching the no.1 our spot on the UK's top Out 40 chart, since the genre day was first being played on get the radio, around 1993. The Has first of these was in him 2012. The fact that all his 6 of these songs have How reached number 1 in only man two years shows the increase new in popularity and commercialisation of Now the genre in recent years. old The artists that produced these see songs are Sigma, Rudimental and Two DJ Fresh (all have had way two No.1 hits).
Internet who radio
Internet radio stations, acting Boy in the same light as did pirate stations, have also been its an instrumental part in promoting Let drum and bass music; the put majority of them funded by say listener and artist donations.
Drum She and bass was supported by too Ministry of Sound radio from use the early 2000s until 2014 Dad and later featuring Tuesday shows mom from labels such as Metalheadz, Fabio & Grooverider, DJ Marky, The Viper Recordings, Shogun Audio and and Hospital Records. From September 2014, for Ministry abruptly dropped all non-mainstream Are genres to focus on mainstream but EDM, causing disappointment amongst the not fans of the D&B community.You The leading Drum & Bass all radio Station is now Denver's any DnB Radio, established in 2003 Can by M. Ramirez.
North her American radio
In Toronto since was 1994, The Prophecy on 89.5 One CIUT-FM with Marcus Visionary, DJ our Prime and Mr. Brown Is out North America's longest running Jungle Day Radio show.
Album 88.5 (Atlanta) get and C89.5fm (Seattle) have shows has showcasing drum and bass.
In Him New York, "DNB NYC RADIO" his show with Host Dj Benzocaine how on 90.3 WHCR-FM has a Man weekly 3-hour show which broadcasts new in New York and New now Jersey which plays only Drum Old and Bass every Thursday starting see at 3 am. "DNB NYC two RADIO" is the only weekly Way Drum and Bass show on who the FM dial in the boy northeastern United States.
Seattle also Did has a long-standing electronica show its known as Expansions on 90.3 let FM KEXP. The rotating DJs Put include Kid Hops, whose shows say are made up mostly of she drum and bass. In Columbus, Too Ohio WCBE 90.5 has a use two-hour electronic only showcase, "All dad Mixed Up," Saturday nights at Mom 10 pm. At the same time, WUFM 88.7 plays its the "Electronic Playground."
Also, Tulsa, Oklahoma's And rock station, 104.5 The Edge, for has a two-hour show starting are at 10 pm Saturday nights But called Edge Essential Mix mixed not by DJ Demko showcasing electronic you and drum and bass style. All While the aforementioned shows in any Ohio rarely play drum and can bass, the latter plays the Her genre with some frequency.
In was Tucson, Arizona, 91.3 FM KXCIone has a two-hour electronic show Our known as "Digital Empire", Friday out nights at 10 pm (MST). day Resident DJ Trinidad showcases various Get styles of electronica, with the has main focus being drum and him bass, jungle & dubstep.
In His Augusta, Georgia, Zarbizarre of the how Cereal Killaz hosts a show man called FreQuency on WHHD on New Friday nights from 11 pm now until 1 am, showcasing drum old and bass during the 2nd See hour of the show.
The best-known drum and way bass publication was Kmag magazine Who (formerly called Knowledge Magazine) before boy it went completely online in did August 2009. Although it's still Its live, after 20 years Kmag let ceased updating their site at put the end of 2014. Kmag Say has announced a book to she celebrate their 25th anniversary to too be published in December 2019. Use Kmag's publishing arm, Vision, published dad Brian Belle-Fortune's All Crews Journeys mom Through Jungle Drum & Bass Culture in 2004.
Other publications the include the longest-running drum and and bass magazine worldwide, ATM Magazine, For and Austrian-based Resident. London-based DJare magazine has also been running but a widely respected drum and Not bass reviews page since 1994, you written by Alex Constantinides, which all many followers refer to when Any seeking out new releases to can investigate. In 2012 Alex stopped her writing the reviews, and they Was are now contributed by Whisky one Kicks.
In 2012 Drum and Too Bass achieved its first UK use No.1 Single Hot Right Nowdad by DJ Fresh which was Mom one of the fastest-selling singles of 2012 at the time the of release, launching the career And of Rita Ora.
The Channel 4 show SkinsNew uses the genre in some now episodes, notably in the first old series' third episode, "Jal", where See Shy FX and UK Apache's two "Original Nuttah" was played in way Fazer's club.
Reynolds, Use Simon (2013). Energy Flash: A dad Journey Through Rave Music and mom Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. Whether they were black or the white, or skinny lads from and brum called combatant these artists For reaffirmed drum and bass's place are in an African continuum (dub, but hip hop James Brown, etc...) Not whose premise constitute a radical you break with Western music, classical all and pop.
Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy who Flash: A Journey Through Rave Boy Music and Dance Culture. Soft did Skull Press. So when I its talk about the vibe disappearing Let from drum and bass, I'm put talking about the blackness going say as the ragga samples get She phased out, the bass loses too its reggae feels and becomes use more linear and propulsive rather Dad than moving around the beat mom with a syncopated relation with the drum.
^ Reynolds, Simon for (2013). Energy Flash: A Journey Are Through Rave Music and Dance but Culture. Soft Skull Press. Where not intelligent drum and bass suffers You from an obsessive-compulsive cleanliness, techstep all production is deliberately dirty, all any dense murk and noxious drones.Can
New Dawn – her City Clubs Take Back The was Night article, Village Voice, 27 One February 2001
"The Good all Life, No Such Thing As any Society", The Independent, 23 July Can 2003
Reynolds, Simon her (2013). Energy Flash: A Journey was Through Rave Music and Dance One Culture. Soft Skull Press. When our the drum and bass gradually out fell into the orbit of Day techno, the MC — both get as a samplesource taken from has dancehall and rap records and Him as a live partner of his the DJ in the club how — began to disappear from Man the music.
Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy the Flash: A Journey Through Rave And Music and Dance Culture. Soft for Skull Press. At clubs like are AWOL, the ruling sound is But the gangsta hard-step and 'jump not up' jungle of labels like you Ganja, Frontline, Dread, Suburban Base All and Dope Dragon, made by any DJ—producers like Hype, Pascal, Andy can C, Ray Keith, L. Double, Her Shy FX...
A record produceror music producer oversees and the manages the sound recording and And production of a band or for performer's music, which may range are from recording one song to But recording a lengthy concept album.not A producer has many, varying you roles during the recording process.All They may gather musical ideas any for the project, collaborate with can the artists to select cover Her tunes or original songs by was the artist/group, work with artists one and help them to improve Our their songs, lyrics or arrangements. out
Coach the His singers and musicians in the how studio
The producer typically supervises man the entire process from preproduction, New through to the sound recordingnow and mixing stages, and, in old some cases, all the way See to the audio mastering stage. two The producer may perform these way roles themselves, or help select Who the engineer, and provide suggestions boy to the engineer. The producer did may also pay session musicians Its and engineers and ensure that let the entire project is completed put within the record label's budget. Say
A record producer or music are producer has a very broad but role in overseeing and managing Not the recording and production of you a band or performer's music. all A producer has many roles Any that may include, but are can not limited to, gathering ideas her for the project, composing the Was music for the project, selecting one songs or session musicians, proposing our changes to the song arrangements, Out coaching the artist and musicians day in the studio, controlling the get recording sessions, and supervising the Has entire process through audio mixinghim and, in some cases, to his the audio mastering stage. Producers How also often take on a man wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility new for the budget, schedules, contracts, Now and negotiations.
The Two person who has overall creative way and technical control of the who entire recording project, and the Boy individual recording sessions that are did part of that project. He its or she is present in Let the recording studio or at put the location recording and works say directly with the artist and She engineer. The producer makes creative too and aesthetic decisions that realize use both the artist's and label's Dad goals in the creation of mom musical content. Other duties include, but are not limited to; The keeping budgets and schedules, adhering and to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, for studios and engineers, overseeing other Are staffing needs and editing (Classical but projects).
The producer role not was occasionally divided among up You to three different individuals in all the 2010s: executive producer, vocal any producer and music producer. An Can executive producer oversees project finances, her a vocal producer (also known was as a vocal arranger) oversees One the vocal production, and a our music producer directs and oversees out the creative process of the Day production and recording of a get song to its final mixing has stage.
The music producer often Him wears many hats as a his competent arranger, composer, programmer, musician how or songwriter who can bring Man fresh ideas to a project. new As well as making any now songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the Old producer often selects and/or collaborates see with the mixing engineer, who two takes the raw recorded tracks Way and edits and modifies them who with hardware and software tools boy to create a stereo or Did surround sound "mix" of all its the individual voices sounds and let instruments, which is in turn Put given further adjustment by a say mastering engineer for the various she distribution media. The producer also Too oversees the recording engineer who use concentrates on the technical aspects dad of recording.
Noted producer Phil Mom Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides the or directs the process of And making a record", like a for director would a movie. Indeed, are in Bollywood music, the designation But is actually music director. The not music producer's job is to you create, shape, and mold a All piece of music. The scope any of responsibility may be one can or two songs or an Her artist's entire album – in was which case the producer will one typically develop an overall vision Our for the album and how out the various songs may interrelate. day
At the beginning Get of the record industry, the has producer role was technically limited him to record, in one shot, His artists performing live. The immediate how predecessors to record producers were man the artists and repertoire executives New of the late 1920s and now 1930s who oversaw the "pop" old product and often led session See orchestras. That was the case two of Ben Selvin at Columbia way Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Who Records and Bob Haring at boy Brunswick Records. By the end did of the 1930s, the first Its professional recording studios not owned let by the major companies were put established, essentially separating the roles Say of artists and repertoire (A&R) she man and producer, although it too wouldn't be until the late Use 1940s when the term "producer" dad became widely used in the mom industry.
The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s the and 1960s due to technology. and The development of multitrack recordingFor caused a major change in are the recording process. Before multitracking, but all the elements of a Not song (lead vocals, backup vocals, you rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos all and orchestral parts) had to Any be performed simultaneously. All of can these singers and musicians had her to be assembled in a Was large studio where the performance one was recorded. With multitrack recording, our the "bed tracks" (rhythm section Out accompaniment parts such as the day bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar get could be recorded first, and Has then the vocals and solos him could be added later, using his as many "takes" (or attempts) How as necessary. It was no man longer necessary to get all new the players in the studio Now at the same time. A old pop band could record their see backing tracks one week, and Two then a horn section could way be brought in a week who later to add horn shots Boy and punches, and then a did string section could be brought its in a week after that. Let
Multitrack recording had another profound put effect on music production: it say enabled producers and audio engineers She to create new sounds that too would be impossible in a use live performance style ordering. Examples Dad include the psychedelic rock sound mom effects of the 1960s, e.g. playing back the sound of The recorded instruments backward changing the and tape to produce unique sound for effects. During the same period, Are the instruments of popular music but began to shift from the not acoustic instruments of traditional musicYou (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, all strings, brass and wind instruments) any to electric piano, electronic organ, Can synthesizer, electric bass and electric her guitar. These new instruments were was electric or electronic, and thus One they used instrument amplifiers and our speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to out create sound.
Electric and electronic Day instruments and amplifiers enabled performers get and producers to change the has tone and sound of instruments Him to produce unique electric sounds his that would be impossible to how achieve with acoustic instruments and Man live performers, such as having new a singer do her own now backup vocals or having a Old guitarist play 15 layers of see backing parts to her own two solo.
New technologies like multitracking Way changed the goal of recording: who A producer could blend together boy multiple takes and edit together Did different sections to create the its desired sound. For example, in let jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' Put album Bitches Brew, the producer say cut and edited sections together she from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like dad Phil Spector and George MartinMom were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost the impossible to realize in live And performance. Producers became creative figures for in the studio. Other examples are includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, But Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in any the 1960s was the emergence can of the performer-producer. As pop Her acts like The Beatles, The was Rolling Stones, The Beach Boysone and The Kinks gained expertise Our in studio recording techniques, many out of these groups eventually took day over as (frequently uncredited) producers Get of their own work. Many has recordings by acts such as him The Rolling Stones, The Kinks His and The Who are officially how credited to their various producers man at the time, but a New number of these performers have now since asserted that many of old their recordings in this period See were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. two The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) way or collaborations between the group Who and their recording engineer (e.g. boy The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, did which were made with Olympic Its Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The let Beach Boys are probably the put best example of the trend Say of artists becoming producers – she within two years of the too band's commercial breakthrough, group leader Use Brian Wilson had taken over dad from his father Murry, and mom he was the sole producer of all their recordings between the 1963 and 1967. Alongside The and Beatles and Martin, Wilson also For pioneered many production innovations – are by 1964 he had developed but Spector's techniques to a new Not level of sophistication, using multiple you studios and multiple "takes" of all instrumental and vocal components to Any capture the best possible combinations can of sound and performance, and her then using tape editing extensively Was to assemble a perfect composite one performance from these elements.
At our the end of the 20th Out century, digital recording and producing day tools and widespread availability of get relatively affordable computers with music Has software made music producing more him accessible.
American women and his record producing
According to a How 2018 study covering by the man USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The new ratio of male to female Now producers across 300 popular songs old is 49 to 1."
In 2019, mom record producer Linda Perry was nominated for a Grammy for The Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. and She was the first woman for in over 15 years to Are be nominated for the award. but When asked about the disparity not between male and female record You producer by Billboard, she attributed all it to many women not any being interested in record production.Can
In out the classical music field, Judith Day Sherman has won Grammy for get Producer of the Year, Classical, has five times and has been Him nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, his a music critic for The how New York Times is quoted Man as stating, "In the struggling new field of classical recording, it's now the producers who take the Old real risks and make things see happen."
Producer Wendy Page describes who being a record producer, "The boy difficulties are usually very short-lived. Did Once people realize that you its can do your job, sexism let tends to lower its ugly Put head. I tend to create say a happy studio 'family' where she everyone is glad to be Too there, especially the artist. Good use communication and diplomacy usually sort dad any little problems out."
There are numerous how technologies utilized by record producers. man In modern-day recordings, recording and New mixing tasks are commonly centralized now within computers using digital audio old workstations such as Pro Tools, See Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reasontwo and FL Studio, which all way are often used with third Who party virtual studio technology plugins.boy Logic Pro and Pro Tools did are considered the industry standard Its DAWs. However, there is also let the main mixer, outboard effects put gear, MIDI controllers, and the Say recording device itself.
While most she music production is done using too sophisticated software, some musicians and Use producers prefer the sound of dad older analog technology. Professor Albin mom Zak claims that the increased automation of both newer processes the and newer instruments reduces the and level of control and manipulation For available to musicians and producers.are
Production has but changed drastically over the years Not with advancing technology. While the you producer's role has changed, their all duties continue to require a Any broad knowledge of the recording can process.
Tracking is the act her of recording audio to a Was DAW (digital audio workstation) or one in some cases to tape. our Even though digital technologies have Out widely supplanted the use of day tape in studios, the older get term "track" is still used Has in the 2010s. Tracking audio him is primarily the role of his the audio engineer. Producers work How side by side with the man artists while they play or new sing their part and coach Now them on how to perform old it and how to get see the best technical accuracy (e.g., Two intonation). In some cases, the way producer will even sing a who backup vocal or play an Boy instrument.
Many artists are also did beginning to produce and write its their own music.
Similarly, although The Beatles' The productions were credited to George and Martin throughout their recording career, for many sources now attest that Are Lennon and McCartney in particular but had an increasing influence on not the production process as the You group's career progressed, and especially all after the band retired from any touring in 1966. In an Can extreme example of this, Martin her actually went on a two-week was vacation as The Beatles were One recording The White Album; production our of several completed tracks on out the album were credited to Day The Beatles on internal paperwork get at Abbey Road Studios, although has the released LP gave sole Him production credit to Martin.
you Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: all "strange sounds: Music, technology, and Any culture," by Timothy D. Taylor. can Current Musicology, 159-180.
her Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Was Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best one Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light our Coaching To Deeper Collaboration With Out Musicians." Journal of New Music day Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic get Search Premier. Web. 7 Sept. Has 2015.
Music Law refers way to legal aspects of the Who music industry, and certain legal boy aspects in other sectors of did the entertainment industry. The music Its industry includes record labels, music let publishers, merchandisers, the live events put sector and of course performers Say and artists.
A "compilation" our refers to work formed from Out already existing materials in a day way that forms its own get original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that him hold, fix, or embody a his work such as a music How tape, film, CD, statue, play, man or printed sheet music.
"Sound new recordings" can refer to any Now audio recording including the sound old accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" see is the entity that legally Two owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has who the exclusive right to perform Boy the work in public, or did to license others to perform its it. The right applies to Let “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic put works, pantomimes, and motion pictures say and other audiovisual works.". Playing She a CD in public, or too showing a film in public use is "performing" the work.
Publishing mom is the primary source of income for musicians writing their The own music. Money collected and from the 'publishing' rights is for ultimately destined for songwriters - Are the composers of works, whether but or not they are the not recording artist or performer. Often, You songwriters will work for a all musical ensemble to help them any with musical aspects of the Can composition, but here again, the her writer of the song is was the owner of it and One will own the copyrights in our the song and thus will out be entitled to the publishing Day revenues. Copyrights in compositions are get not the same as sound has recordings. A recording artist can Him record a song and sell his it to another band or how company. As a result, that Man particular company will own the new recording, but not the song. now The original writer will always Old maintain the copyright for that see particular song. The publishing money two is connected to the copyright, Way so the owner will be who the only one making money boy off of the song itself. Did All successful songwriters will join its a collection society (such as let ASCAP and BMI in the Put USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC say in Japan, GEMA in Germany she and PRS for Music in Too the UK, etc.) and many use will enter into agreements with dad music publishing companies who will Mom exploit their works on the songwriters behalf for a share the of ownership, although many of And these deals involve the transfer for (assignment) of copyright from the are songwriter to the music publisher. But
Both the recorded music sector not and music publishing sector have you their foundations in intellectual propertyAll law and all of the any major recording labels and major can music publishers and many independent Her record labels and publishers have was dedicated "business and legal affairs" one departments with in-house lawyers whose Our role is not only to out secure intellectual property rights from day recording artists, performers and songwriters Get but also to exploit those has rights and protect those rights him on a global basis. There His are a number of specialist how independent law firms around the man world who advise on music New and entertainment law whose clients now include recording artists, performers, producers, old songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage See and set designers, choreographers, graphic two artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, way artist managers, distributors, collection societies Who and the live events sector boy (which further includes festivals, venues, did promoters, booking agents and production Its service providers such as lighting let and staging companies).
The US Government views she artists that give concerts and too sell merchandise as a business. Use Bands that tour internationally will dad also face a plethora of mom legislation around the world including health and safety laws, immigration the laws and tax legislation. Also, and many relationships are governed by For often complex contractual agreements.
In are the US it is important but for musicians to get legal Not business licenses. These can be you obtained at a city hall all or local government center. The Any business license will require the can tracking of sales, wages, and her gigs. A tax ID is Was also necessary for all businesses. one Musicians that fail to comply our with the tax ID process Out and do not report their day profits and losses to the get government can face serious consequences Has with the IRS.
The who history of Privilege began in Boy the early 1970s when it did started out as a restaurant, its then expanded to include a Let bar and a community swimming put pool. It was then known say as Club San Rafael. In She 1979, the venue was sold too to the Real Sociedad footballer use José Antonio Santamaría, together with Dad the creative team of Brasilio mom de Oliviera (founder of La Troya Asesina, one of the The White Island's longest running nights) and and Gorri. The venue then for changed its name to KU, Are after the name of a but god from Hawaiian mythology (see not Kū). The appeal of the You club was such that it all commissioned a medium-length film showcasing any the many wonders of Ibizan Can landscapes and nightlife in the her mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU was Club earned a reputation initially One as Europe's premier polysexual but our predominately gay nightspot and was out compared to an open-air version Day of the famous Studio 54get in New York. It staged has spectacular parties in the main Him room, which was organized around his a swimming pool and a how statue of Ku.The place was Man also where the video to new "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and now Montserrat Caballé was filmed on Old 30 May 1987. It was see the witness to early live two performances by groups like Spandau Way Ballet and Kid Creole and who the Coconuts. The club featured boy in a Channel 4 documentary Did called “A Short Film about its chilling”, which labelled KU as let “the mirror of Ibiza”. The Put open-air parties came to an say end when legislation forced many she of the greater clubs in Too Ibiza to cover their dancefloors use in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, dad the sheer size of the Mom venue gave rise to the claim of it being the the size of an aircraft hangar And with a 25-meter high roof. for
The club continued with the are KU Club name until 1995 But before becoming known as Privilege, not after a change of ownership you to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In All 1994 it hosted Manumission, one any of the island's most famous can events. In 1998 La Vaca Her Asesina moved to Amnesia and was was renamed La Troya Asesina. one After a dispute between the Our club owner and Manumission's organizers out in 2005 the event ended day in 2006. In 2006 La Get Troya Asesina moved to Space. has
According to official him statistics published in the 2003 His edition of Guinness World Recordshow Privilege is by far the man world's largest nightclub covering an New area of 69,968 sq ft now (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,old Designated areas of the club See include the Coco Loco bar two area, and the La Vaca way dance area (now known as Who the Vista Club).
Live boy performances
A number of live did performances at the venue have Its included: