not also known as chip music You or 8-bit music, is synthesized all electronic music which is made any for programmable sound generator (PSG) Can sound chips used in vintage her computers, consoles, and arcade machines. was The term also refers to One tracker format music which intentionally our sounds similar to older PSG-created out music and music that combines Day PSG sounds with modern musical get styles.
By the early 1980s,
has personal computers became less expensive Him and more accessible than they his had previously been. This led how to a proliferation of outdated Man personal computers and game consoles new that had been abandoned by now consumers as they upgraded to Old newer machines. They were in see low demand by consumers as two a whole, and not difficult Way to find, making them a who highly accessible and affordable method boy of creating sound or art. Did While it has been a its mostly underground genre, chiptune has let had periods of moderate popularity Put in the 1980s and 21st say century, and has influenced the she development of electronic dance music. Too But
A musician's chiptune setup
involving Game Boys
The terms "chip music" and
any "chiptune" refer to music made can by the sound chips found Her within early gaming systems and was microcomputers.
A waveform generator is
one a fundamental module in a Our sound synthesis system. A waveform out generator usually produces a basic day geometrical waveform with a fixed Get or variable timbre and variable has pitch. Common waveform generator configurations him usually included two or three His simple waveforms and often a how single pseudo-random-noise generator (PRNG). Available man waveforms often included pulse wave New (whose timbre can be varied now by modifying the duty cycle), old square wave (a symmetrical pulse See wave producing only odd overtones), two triangle wave (which has a way fixed timbre containing only odd Who harmonics, but is softer than boy a square wave), and sawtooth did wave (which has a bright Its raspy timbre and contains odd let and even harmonics). Two notable put examples of systems employing this Say technology comprise the Nintendo Game she Boy portable game console, and too the Commodore 64 personal computer. Use The Game Boy uses two dad pulse channels (switchable between 12.5%, mom 25%, 50% and 75% wave duty cycle), a channel for the 4-bit PCM playback, and a and pseudo-random-noise generator. The Commodore 64, For however, used the MOS Technology are SID chip which offered 3 but channels, each switchable between pulse, Not saw-tooth, triangle, and noise. Unlike you the Game Boy, the pulse all channels on the Commodore 64 Any allowed full control over wave can duty cycles. The SID was her a very technically advanced chip, Was offering many other features including one ring modulation and adjustable resonance our filters.
Due to limited number
Out of voices in those primitive day chips, one of the main get challenges is to produce rich Has polyphonic music with them. The him usual method to emulate it his is via quick arpeggios, which How is one of the most man relevant features of chiptune music new (along, of course, with its Now electronic timbres).
Some older systems
old featured a simple beeper as see their only sound output, as Two the original ZX Spectrum and way IBM PC; despite this, many who skilled programmers were able to Boy produce unexpected rich music with did this bare hardware, where the its sound is fully generated by Let the system's CPU by direct put control of the beeper.
The earliest precursors to chip
She music can be found in too the early history of computer use music. In 1951, the computers Dad CSIRAC and Ferranti Mark 1 mom were used to perform real-time synthesized digital music in public. The One of the earliest commercial and computer music albums came from for the First Philadelphia Computer Music Are Festival, held August 25, 1978, but as part of the Personal not Computing '78 show. The First You Philadelphia Computer Music Festival recordings all were published by Creative Computing any in 1979. The Global TV Can program Science International (1976–79) credited her a PDP-11/10 for the music. was
Video game origins
One began to appear with the our video game music produced during out the golden age of video Day arcade games. An early example get was the opening tune in has Tomohiro Nishikado's arcade game Gun Him Fight (1975). The first video his game to use a continuous how background soundtrack was Tomohiro Nishikado's Man 1978 release Space Invaders, which new had four simple chromatic descending now bass notes repeating in a Old loop, though it was dynamic see and interacted with the player, two increasing pace as the enemies Way descended on the player. The who first video game to feature boy continuous melodic background music was Did Rally-X, an arcade game released its by Namco in 1980, featuring let a simple tune that repeats Put continuously during gameplay. It was say also one of the earliest she games to use a digital-to-analog Too converter to produce sampled sounds. use That same year, the first dad video game to feature speech Mom synthesis was also released, Sunsoft's shoot 'em up arcade game the Stratovox.
was the late 1970s, the pioneering one electronic dance/synthpop group Yellow Magic Our Orchestra (YMO) were using computers out to produce synthesized music. Some day of their early music, including Get their 1978 self-titled debut album, has were sampling sounds from popular him arcade games such as Space His Invaders and Gun Fight. In how addition to incorporating sounds from man contemporary video games into their New music, the band would later now have a major influence on old much of the video game See and chiptune music produced during two the 8-bit and 16-bit eras. way Sega's 1982 arcade game Super Who Locomotive, for example, featured a boy chiptune cover version of YMO's did "Rydeen" (1979); several later computer Its games also covered the song, let such as Trooper Truck (1983) put by Rabbit Software as well Say as Daley Thompson's Decathlon (1984) she and Stryker's Run (1986) arranged too by Martin Galway.
Use Konami's arcade game Gyruss utilized dad five sound chips along with mom a digital-to-analog converter, which were partly used to create an the electronic rendition of J.S. Bach's and Toccata and Fugue in D For minor. In 1984, former YMO are member Haruomi Hosono released an but album produced entirely from Namco Not arcade game samples entitled Video you Game Music, an early example all of a chiptune record and Any the first video game music can album. The record featured the her work of Namco's chiptune composers: Was Toshio Kai (Pac-Man in 1980), one Nobuyuki Ohnogi (Galaga, New Rally-X our and Bosconian in 1981, and Out Pole Position in 1982), and day Yuriko Keino (Dig Dug and get Xevious in 1982).
A major advance for chip
him music was the introduction of his frequency modulation synthesis (FM synthesis), How first commercially released by Yamaha man for their digital synthesizers and new FM sound chips, which began Now appearing in arcade machines from old the early 1980s. Arcade game see composers utilizing FM synthesis at Two the time included Konami's Miki way Higashino (Gradius, Yie-Ar Kung Fu, who Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles) and Boy Sega's Hiroshi Kawaguchi (Space Harrier, did Hang-On, Out Run).
its early 1980s, significant improvements to Let personal computer game music were put made possible with the introduction say of digital FM synthesis sound. She Yamaha began manufacturing FM synth too boards for Japanese computers such use as the NEC PC-8801 and Dad PC-9801 in the early 1980s, mom and by the mid-1980s, the PC-8801 and FM-7 had built-in The FM sound. This allowed computer and game music to have greater for complexity than the simplistic beeps Are from internal speakers. These FM but synth boards produced a "warm not and pleasant sound" that musicians You such as Yuzo Koshiro and all Takeshi Abo utilized to produce any music that is still highly Can regarded within the chiptune community. her In the early 1980s, Japanese was personal computers such as the One NEC PC-88 and PC-98 featured our audio programming languages such as out Music Macro Language (MML) and Day MIDI interfaces, which were most get often used to produce video has game music. Fujitsu also released Him the FM Sound Editor software his for the FM-7 in 1985, how providing users with a user-friendly Man interface to create and edit new synthesized music.
Too widespread adoption of FM synthesis use by consoles would later be dad one of the major advances Mom of the 16-bit era, by which time 16-bit arcade machines the were using multiple FM synthesis And chips. A major chiptune composer for during this period was Yuzo are Koshiro. Despite later advances in But audio technology, he would continue not to use older PC-8801 hardware you to produce chiptune soundtracks for All series such as Streets of any Rage (1991–1994) and Etrian Odyssey can (2007–present). His soundtrack to The Her Revenge of Shinobi (1989) featured was house and progressive techno compositions one that fused electronic dance music Our with traditional Japanese music. The out soundtrack for Streets of Rage day 2 (1992) is considered "revolutionary" Get and "ahead of its time" has for its "blend of swaggering him house synths, dirty electro-funk and His trancey electronic textures that would how feel as comfortable in a man nightclub as a video game." New For the soundtrack to Streets now of Rage 3 (1994), Koshiro old created a new composition method See called the "Automated Composing System" two to produce "fast-beat techno like way jungle," resulting in innovative and Who experimental sounds generated automatically. Koshiro boy also composed chiptune soundtracks for did series such as Dragon Slayer, Its Ys, Shinobi, and ActRaiser. Another let important FM synth composer was put the late Ryu Umemoto, who Say composed chiptune soundtracks for various she visual novel and shoot 'em too up games.
SID music culture
MOS 6581 and 8580
Commodore 64 SID chips.
Later on, several demo
and groups moved to using their For own music instead of ripped are game music. In 1986, Jeroen but "Red" Kimmel studied Rob Hubbard's Not player routine and used it you for original demo songs before all writing a routine of his Any own in 1987. Hobbyists were can also writing their own dedicated her music editor software, such as Was Chris Hülsbeck's Soundmonitor which was one released as a type-in listing our in a 1986 issue of Out the German C-64 magazine 64'er. day
The practice of SID music
get composition has continued seamlessly until Has this day in conjunction with him the Commodore 64 demoscene. The his High Voltage SID Collection, a How comprehensive archive of SID music, man contains over 40,000 pieces of new SID music.
Commodore Amiga (1985), with
see its wavetable and sample-based sound Two synthesis, distanced the concept of way microcomputer music away from plain who chip-synthesized sounds. Amiga tracker music Boy software, beginning from Karsten Obarski's did Ultimate Soundtracker (1987), inspired great its numbers of computer enthusiasts to Let create computer music. As an put offshoot of the burgeoning tracker say music culture, a type of She tracker music reminiscent of Commodore too 64 SID music was born. use This type of music came Dad to be called "chiptunes".
mom examples of tracker chiptunes date back to 1989 and are The attributed to the demoscene musicians and 4mat, Baroque, TDK, Turtle and for Duz. Tracker chiptunes are based Are on very short looped waveforms but which are modulated by tracker not effects such as arpeggio, vibrato, You and portamento.
Musicians like Random
all Voice later included the technique any of rapidly repeating series of Can offset waveforms in order to her fully emulate one single SID was instrument with trackers.
One amount of sample data made our tracker chiptunes far more space-efficient out than most other types of Day tracker music, which made them get appealing to size-limited demoscene demos has and crack intros. Tracker chiptunes Him have also been commonly used his in other warez scene executables how such as keygens.
Man term "chiptune" is also used new to cover chip music using now actual chip-based synthesis, but some Old sources, such as the Amiga see Music Preservation project, still define two a chiptune specifically as a Way small tracker module.
who the mainstream music world
boy heyday of chiptune music was Did the 1980s. The earliest commercial its chiptune records produced entirely from let sampling arcade game sounds have Put existed since the mid-1980s, an say early example being Haruomi Hosono's she Video Game Music in 1984. Too Though entirely chiptune records were use uncommon at the time, many dad mainstream musicians in the pop Mom rock, hip hop and electronic music genres were sampling arcade the game sounds and bleeps during And the golden age of video for arcade games (late 1970s to are mid-1980s), as early as Yellow But Magic Orchestra's "Computer Game" in not 1978. Buckner & Garcia's "Pac-Man you Fever" and the album of All the same name were major any hits in 1982. Arcade game can sounds were one of the Her foundational elements of the electro was music genre, which in turn one inspired many other electronic dance Our music genres such as techno out and house music, which were day sometimes referred to as "bleep Get music". Space Invaders inspired Player has One's "Space Invaders" (1979), which him in turn provided the bassline His for Jesse Saunders' "On and how On" (1984), the first Chicago man house track. Warp's record "Testone" New (1990) by Sweet Exorcist sampled now video game sounds from Yellow old Magic Orchestra's "Computer Game" and See defined Sheffield's bleep techno scene two in the early 1990s.
After the 1980s,
mom however, chiptune music began declining in popularity. Since then, up the until the 2000s, chip music and was rarely performed live and For the songs were nearly exclusively are spread as executable programs and but other computer file formats. Some Not of the earliest examples of you record label releases of pure all chip music can be found Any in the late 1990s. Chiptune can music began gaining popularity again her towards the end of the Was 1990s. The first electroclash record, one I-F's "Space Invaders Are Smoking our Grass" (1997), has been described Out as "burbling electro in a day vocodered homage to Atari-era hi-jinks". get
By the mid-2000s, 8-bit chip
Has music began making a comeback him in mainstream pop music, when his it was used by acts How such as Beck (for example, man the 2005 song "Girl"), The new Killers (for example, the 2004 Now song "On Top"), No Doubt old with the song "Running", and see particularly The Postal Service in Two many of their songs. The way low-quality digital PCM styling of who early game music composers such Boy as Hiroshi Kawaguchi also began did gaining popularity. In 2003, the its J-pop girl group Perfume, along Let with producer Yasutaka Nakata, began put producing music combining chiptunes with say synthpop and electro house; their She breakthrough came in 2007 with too Game, which led to other use Japanese female artists using a Dad similar electronic style, including Aira mom Mitsuki, immi, Mizca, SAWA, Saori@destiny, and Sweet Vacation. Electro house The producer Deadmau5 started his career and in the late 1990s, with for a chiptune and demoscene movements-influenced Are sound. Three self-released compilations Project but 56, deadmau5 Circa 1998–2002 and not A Little Oblique were finished You in 2006.
In 2007, the
all notable, entirely chiptune album 8-Bit any Operators: The Music of Kraftwerk Can was released on major mainstream her label Astralwerks/EMI Records, which included was several prominent and noted chipmusicians, One including Nanoloop creator Oliver Wittchow, our and LittleSoundDJ creator Johan Kotlinski out who appears as the artist Day Role Model. Kraftwerk founding member get Ralf Hütter personally selected the has tracks. A vinyl 12-inch single Him version was released on February his 24, 2007 as a precursor how to the full-length CD, and Man reached as high as number new 17 on the Billboard magazine now Hot Dance Singles Sales Chart. Old In March 2007, the CD see release reached as high as two number 1 on the CMJ Way RPM (North American college Electronic) who charts. Edinburgh born electronic musician boy Unicorn Kid has helped further Did popularize chiptune, especially with the its song 'True Love Fantasy' and let other songs from the EP Put 'Tidal Rave' being played on say late night radio, including on she BBC Radio 1, where he Too played live on the Festive use Festival 2011. In Canada, Eightcubed dad and Crystal Castles helped the Mom popularity further via the Toronto underground club scene and created the a lasting impression with the And music video "Heart Invaders" debuting for on MuchMusic in 2008 are and the single "Alice Practice" But hitting 29th on NME "150 not Best Tracks of the Past you 15 Years".
During the late
All 2000s, a new wave of any chiptune culture took place, boosted can by the release of software Her such as LittleSoundDJ for the was Game Boy. This new culture one has much more emphasis on Our live performances and record releases out than the demoscene and tracker day culture, of which the new Get artists are often only distantly has aware. In recent years, 8-bit him chiptune sounds, or "video game His beats", have been used by how a number of mainstream pop man artists. Examples include artists such New as Kesha (most notably in now "Tik Tok", the best-selling single old of 2010), 50 Cent with See the hit single "Ayo Technology", two Robyn, Snoop Dogg, Eminem (for way example, "Hellbound"), Nelly Furtado, and Who Timbaland (see Timbaland plagiarism controversy). boy The influence of video game did sounds can also be heard Its in contemporary British electronica music let by artists such as Dizzee put Rascal and Kieran Hebden, as Say well as in heavy metal she bands such as DragonForce. Grime too music in particular samples sawtooth Use wave sounds from video games dad which were popular in East mom London. Dubstep producers have also been influenced by video game the chiptunes, particularly the work of and Yuzo Koshiro. In 2010, a For BBC article stated that the are "sights and sounds of old-school but games" (naming Frogger and Donkey Not Kong as examples) are "now you becoming a part of mainstream all music and culture." Complextro pioneer Any Porter Robinson has also cited can video game sounds, or chiptunes, her as an influence on his Was style of music along with one 1980s analog synth music.
tracker loaded onto a Game
did chip scene is far from its dead with "compos" being held, Let groups releasing music disks and put with the cracktro/demo scene. New say tracker tools are making chip She sounds available to less techy too musicians. The NES platform has use the MidiNES, a cartridge that Dad turns the system into a mom full blown hardware MIDI controlled synthesizer. Recently, for the Commodore The 64, the Mssiah has been and released, which is very similar for to the MidiNES, but with Are greater parameter controls, sequencing, analog but drum emulation, and limited sample not playback. The Commodore PET has You the open-source PetSynth software, which all uses the PET's 6522 chip any for sound, allows the computer Can to be played like a her piano keyboard, and features many was effects. On the DOS platform, One Fast Tracker is one of our the most famous chiptune makers out because of the ability to Day create hand-drawn samples with the get mouse. Chiptune artist Pixelh8 has has also designed music software such Him as Music Tech for the his Game Boy and the Pro how Performer for the Game Boy Man Advance and Nintendo DS which new turn both machines into real now time synthesizers.
Chip music has
Old returned to 21st century gaming, see either in full chip music two style or using chip samples Way in the music. Popular games who that features chiptune elements in boy their soundtracks include Mega Man Did Battle Network, Super Meat Boy, its VVVVVV, Super Hexagon, Fez, Shovel let Knight, and Undertale. Furthermore, the Put Electronic Frontier Foundation in December say 2010 used a faux 8-bit she game with an 8-bit sound Too track by crashfaster to demonstrate use its notable legal achievements for dad that year.
On March 16,
Mom 2012 the Smithsonian American Art Museum's "The Art of Video the Games" exhibit opened featuring a And chipmusic soundtrack at the entrance for by artists 8 Bit Weapon are & ComputeHer. 8 Bit Weapon But also created a track called not "The art of Video Games you Anthem" for the exhibit as All well.
In September 2015, the
any first music compilation based on can Domo (NHK), Domo Loves Chiptune, Her was released on iTunes, Amazon, was and all major music streaming one services. The compilation features top Our artists in the Chiptune genre out such Anamanaguchi and Disasterpeace. Domo day Loves Chiptune also features the Get first Chiptune remix of the has Domo theme song by Mystery him Mansion. The New York City His chiptune scene was also the how subject of a documentary called man Reformat the Planet by 2 New Player Productions. This film was now an official selection at the old 2008 South by Southwest.
See have been a number of two television segments featuring chiptunes and way chip music artists in the Who past few years. On April boy 11, 2005, 8 Bit Weapon did played their songs "Bombs Away" Its and "Gameboy Rocker" on G4's let Attack of the Show live put broadcast Episode #5058.
Say as a parody of Masterpiece she Theatre, the first four episodes too of Boing Boing Video's SPAMasterpiece Use Theater opened with a chiptune dad remix of Jean-Joseph Mouret's "Rondeau: mom Fanfare" (1735) by Hamhocks Buttermilk Johnson.
Another chipmusic feature included
the little-scale, Dot.AY, Ten Thousand Free and Men & Their Families and For Jim Cuomo on the ABC are Australia television series Good Game. but
Not tarina – modit soivat yhä" you (PDF). Skrolli magazine: 37. September all 15, 2014. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
Any Friedman, Ian. "Top 5 Chiptune can Artists". DJZ.com. Archived from the her original on June 20, 2014. Was Retrieved March 13, 2012.
one Phelps, P. "A Modern Implementation our of Chiptune Synthesis" (PDF). Retrieved Out 2009-09-21.
- Diaz & Driscoll.
day "Endless loop: A brief history get of chiptunes". Transformative Works and Has Cultures. Retrieved 9 September 2016. him
- Vice: Music Made On
his Game Boys Is a Much How Bigger Deal Than You'd Think man
- Waugh, I (1985) Commodore
new 64 Music: Making Music with Now Your Micro. Sunshine Books.
old Fildes, Jonathan (2008-06-17). "17 June see 2008: 'Oldest' computer music unveiled". Two BBC News. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
way First Philadelphia Computer Music Festival who
- Science International (What Will
Boy They Think Of Next)
- Karen Collins (2008),
its From Pac-Man to pop music: Let interactive audio in games and put new media, Ashgate, p. 2, ISBN 0-7546-6200-4 say
- ^ Gaming's Most Important
She Evolutions Archived June 15, 2011, too at the Wayback Machine., GamesRadar use
- Collins, Karen (2008). Game
Dad sound: an introduction to the mom history, theory, and practice of video game music and sound The design. MIT Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-262-03378-X. and Retrieved June 12, 2011.
for "Computer rock music gaining fans". Are Sarasota Journal: 8. August 18, but 1980. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
not David Toop (March 1996), "A-Z You Of Electro", The Wire (145), all retrieved 2011-05-29
- Daniel Robson
any (February 29, 2008). "YMCK takes Can 'chiptune' revolution major". The Japan her Times. Retrieved 2011-06-11.
was David F. (June 2012). "Game One Music Roots: Yellow Magic Orchestra". our 1UP.com. Retrieved 6 August 2012. out
- Super Locomotive at the
Day Killer List of Videogames
get Collins, Karen (2008). Game sound: has an introduction to the history, Him theory, and practice of video his game music and sound design. how MIT Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-262-03378-X. Retrieved Man June 12, 2011.
new Haruomi Hosono – Video Game now Music at Discogs (list of Old releases)
- Carlo Savorelli. "Xevious".
see Hardcore Gaming 101. p. 2. Retrieved two 2011-06-11.
- "Video Game Music".
Way VGMdb. Retrieved September 6, 2011. who
- ^ Collins, Karen (2008).
boy Game sound: an introduction to Did the history, theory, and practice its of video game music and let sound design. MIT Press. pp. 10–1. Put ISBN 0-262-03378-X. Retrieved June 12, 2011. say
- Barnholt, Ray (June 2012).
she "The Magic of FM Synth". Too 1UP.com. Retrieved 6 August 2012. use
- ^ John Szczepaniak. "Retro
dad Japanese Computers: Gaming's Final Frontier". Mom Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 2011-03-29. Reprinted from Retro Gamer (67), the 2009
- Shimazu, Takehito (1994).
And "The History of Electronic and for Computer Music in Japan: Significant are Composers and Their Works". Leonardo But Music Journal. MIT Press. 4: not 102–106 . doi:10.2307/1513190. Retrieved 9 you July 2012.
- "FM Sound
All Editor V1.0". Oh!FM. Archived from any the original on November 9, can 2007. Retrieved September 2, 2012. Her
- ^ Santos, Wayne (December
was 2006). "Songs & Sounds In one The 21st Century". GameAxis Unwired. Our SPH Magazines (40): 39. ISSN 0219-872X. out Retrieved 2011-08-05.
- Chris Greening
day & Don Kotowski (February 2011). Get "Interview with Yuzo Koshiro". Square has Enix Music Online. Retrieved 2011-06-20. him
- Yuzo Koshiro at AllGame
- RocketBaby (October 1999). "Interview
how with Yuzo Koshiro". Square Enix man Music Online. Retrieved 8 August New 2011.
- McNeilly, Joe (April
now 19, 2010). "Game music of old the day: Streets of Rage See 2". GamesRadar. Retrieved 28 July two 2012.
- Davis, Jeff. "Interview
way with Yuzo Koshiro". Gaming Intelligence Who Agency. Archived from the original boy on October 7, 2011. Retrieved did August 6, 2011.
Its Ken (February 5, 2008). "Interview: let Yuzo Koshiro". Sega-16. Archived from put the original on September 21, Say 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2011. she
- Audi. "A Dragon's Journey:
too Ryu Umemoto in Europe". Hardcore Use Gaming 101. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
dad "Kimmel, Jeroen "Red": Red Hubbard mom (C-64 demo)". Noname.c64.org. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
- "Hülsbeck, Chris: Soundmonitor 1.0
the (C-64 program)". Noname.c64.org. Retrieved 2010-07-09. and
- High Voltage SID Collection
For FAQ Archived July 22, 2012, are at the Wayback Machine.
but "Amiga Music Preservation FAQ". Amp.dascene.net. Not 2006-06-17. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
you Knowles, Jamillah (June 9, 2010). all "How computer games are creating Any new art and music". BBC. can Retrieved August 27, 2011.
her "Pac-Man Fever". Time Magazine. Was April 5, 1982. Retrieved October one 15, 2009.
Columbia/CBS Records' Pac-Man
our Fever...was No. 9 on the Out Billboard Hot 100 last week. day
- David Toop (2000). Rap
get attack 3: African rap to Has global hip hop, Issue 3 him (3rd ed.). Serpent's Tail. p. 129. his ISBN 1-85242-627-6. Retrieved 2011-06-06.
How AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
man Saunders – On And On". new Discogs. Retrieved 23 May 2012. Now
- Church, Terry (Feb 9,
old 2010). "Black History Month: Jesse see Saunders and house music". beat Two portal. Retrieved 16 October 2011. way
- Bracelin, Jason (May 22,
who 2007). "House music finds a Boy home". Las Vegas Review-Journal. p. 1E. did Retrieved 23 May 2012.
its native of Chicago, where house Let was first popularized, Saunders is put credited for producing and releasing say the first house single, "On She and On", on his own too Jes Say Records label.
use Dan Sicko & Bill Brewster Dad (2010), Techno Rebels (2nd ed.), mom Wayne State University Press, p. 76, ISBN 0-8143-3438-5, retrieved 2011-05-28
The Anders "Goto80": Chip music timeline". and Chipflip.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
for Lynskey (March 22, 2002), "Out Are with the old, in with but the older", Guardian.co.uk, archived from not the original on February 16, You 2011
- Shaw, Jeff (May
all 25, 2006). "Music of the any 8-bit variety makes a comeback". Can Niagara Gazette. Archived from the her original on July 12, 2012. was Retrieved 7 May 2012.
One Daniel Robson (March 6, our 2012). "Japan's chiptune heroes". Nintendo out Gamer. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- ^ "Perfume
get Interview" (in Japanese). bounce.com. 2008-02-07. has Archived from the original on Him 2008-12-09. Retrieved 2009-06-02. (English translation) his
- "Perfume～サマソニの快挙！！" (in Japanese). All
how About テクノポップ.
- SectionZ (August
Man 20, 2007). "SectionZ Electronic Music new Community". Archived from the original now on December 20, 2007. Retrieved Old May 9, 2012.
see (nanoloop.com) (retrieved November 21, 2011) two
- LittleSoundDJ Archived February 7,
Way 2016, at the Wayback Machine. who littlesounddj.com (retrieved November 20, 2011) boy
- Hot Dance
Did Singles Sales Pocket Calculator Allmusic.com its (charts-awards/billboard-singles) retrieved September 20, 2011 let
- www.hypnote.com Archived April 2,
Put 2012, at the Wayback Machine. say pdf of RPM issue #1008 she chart(8-Bit Operators at #21 – Too high position #1)Retrieved September 20, use 2011
- google.com Archived April
dad 1, 2016, at the Wayback Mom Machine. search:north "american college electronic rpm charts 2007 8 bit the 8bit operators" Retrieved September 20, And 2011
- Dan Swan (Director)
for (6 January 2008). Heart Invaders are (Television). London.
- 150 Best
But Tracks Of The Past 15 not Years | NME.COM
you Alex. (2007) The Sound of All Playing: A Study into the any Music and Culture of Chiptunes can [Bachelor of Music Technology thesis]. Her South Brisbane: Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith was University.
- Miklewski, Michael (October
one 20, 2011). "Music in Video Our Games: From 8-bit to Symphonies". out The Bottom Line. Frostburg State day University. Archived from the original Get on December 14, 2013. Retrieved has 18 June 2012.
him "Robyn: Body Talk, Pt. 2". His Puls Music. 2010-09-10. Retrieved 2015-08-23. how (Translation)
- "IFPI publishes Digital
man Music Report 2011".
New John (July 4, 2008). "Back now to the future: Yellow Magic old Orchestra helped usher in electronica See – and they may just two have invented hip-hop, too". The way Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2011. Who
- Alex de Jong, Marc
boy Schuilenburg (2006). Mediapolis: popular culture did and the city. 010 Publishers. Its p. 106. ISBN 90-6450-628-0. Retrieved July 30, let 2011.
- Lawrence, Eddy (11
put January 2011). "Ikonika interview: Producer Say and DJ, Ikonika had an she incredible 2010". Time Out. Retrieved too 5 August 2011.
Use Under the Influence: Ikonika". Self-Titled dad Magazine. April 21, 2010. Retrieved mom 5 August 2011.
Eddy (18 January 2011). "Ikonika the interview: Dubstep has taken the and world by storm over the For past 12 months". Time Out. are Retrieved 6 August 2011.
but Hurt, Edd (June 28, 2012). Not "Electro wunderkind and self-described 'complextro' you Porter Robinson recognizes no technological all constraints". Nashville Scene. Retrieved 28 Any July 2012.
- Album on
can NES Cartridge, Synth on GameBoy, her Create Digital Music Published July Was 4, 2007.
- Pixelh8 Music
one Tech Pro Performer Brings Live our Performance to Game Boy, Create Out Digital Music. Published March 24, day 2008.
- Metro.co.uk, GameCentral for
get (2015-12-14). "Game review: Undertale proves Has looks aren't everything". Metro. Retrieved him 2017-07-27.
- Hamilton, Kirk. "The
his Shovel Knight Soundtrack Is So How Good". Kotaku. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
man EFF 2010: Year in 8bit new | Please Donate
- "Domo Loves Chiptune". YouTube.
old Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- "Everybody Loves
see Chiptune & So Do We". Two The Orchard (company). Retrieved 2015-10-19. way
-  Archived December 7,
who 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Boy
- "G4 – Attack of
did the Show – Episode History". its G4tv.com. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
Let Music: 8 Bit Weapon". YouTube. put 2007-01-15. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
say Boing tv (October 2, 2008). She "John Hodgman in BBtv's SPAMasterpiece too Theater (comedy)". YouTube. Retrieved September use 10, 2016.
- Boing Boing
Dad tv (October 10, 2008). "John mom Hodgman in BBtv's SPAMasterpiece Theater, Vol II". YouTube. Retrieved September The 10, 2016.
- Boing Boing
and tv (October 28, 2008). "John for Hodgman in BBtv's SPAMasterpiece Theater, Are Vol III". YouTube. Retrieved September but 10, 2016.
- Boing Boing
not tv (October 28, 2008). "John You Hodgman in SPAMasterpiece Theater, Vol all IV (BBtv)". YouTube. Retrieved September any 10, 2016.
- Jardin, Xeni
Can (October 1, 2008). "John Hodgman her in BBtv's SPAMasterpiece Theater". Boing was Boing Video. Boing Boing. Archived One from the original on September our 19, 2016. Retrieved September 10, out 2016.
- Jardin, Xeni (October
Day 10, 2008). "John Hodgman in get BBtv's SPAMasterpiece Theater, Vol II: has "Wuthering Wire Transfers."". Boing Boing Him Video. Boing Boing. Retrieved September his 10, 2016.
- Jardin, Xeni
how (October 28, 2008). "John Hodgman Man in BBtv's SPAMasterpiece Theater, Vol new III: THE STOMATOLOGIST". Boing Boing now Video. Boing Boing. Retrieved September Old 10, 2016.
- Jardin, Xeni
see (November 4, 2008). "John Hodgman two in BBtv's SPAMasterpiece Theater, Vol Way IV: V1V4 M3X1CO". Boing Boing who Video. Boing Boing. Retrieved September boy 10, 2016.
- "Chiptunes". Good
Did Game Stories. ABC Australia. April its 6, 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-16. let
use | ||Wikimedia Commons has media |dad related to Chiptune. Mom
Would you like to be a member of the jurypanel for the Official Global DJ Rankings List?
Would you like to help crowdsource data for the site? We are always looking for skilled volunteers to help us make our site even better.
Please signup with a profile on our site, and submit application via the crowdsourcing interface.
ONLINE DJ MAGAZINE
ONLINE DJ MAGAZINE