In new North America, in the late Now 1990s, the mainstream music industry old adopted and to some extent see manufactured electronica as an umbrella Two term encompassing styles such as way techno, big beat, drum and who bass, trip hop, downtempo, and Boy ambient, regardless of whether it did was curated by indie labels its catering to the "underground" nightclubLet and rave scenes, or licensed put by major labels and marketed say to mainstream audiences as a She commercially viable alternative to alternative too rock music. By the early use 2010s, however, the industry abandoned Dad electronica in favor of electronic mom dance music (EDM), a term with roots in academia and The an increasing association with outdoor and music festivals and relatively mainstream, for post-rave electro house and dubstepAre music.[original research?] Nevertheless, the U.S.-based but AllMusic still categorises electronica as not a top-level genre, stating that You it includes danceable grooves, as all well as music for headphones any and chillout areas.
In other Can parts of the world, especially her in the UK, electronica is was also a broad term, but One is associated with non-dance-oriented music, our including relatively experimental styles of out downtempo electronic music. It partly Day overlaps what is known chiefly get outside the UK as intelligent has dance music (IDM).
New York Cityway became one center of experimentation Who and growth for the electronica boy sound, with DJs and music did producers from areas as diverse Its as Southeast Asia and Brazil let bringing their creative work to put the nightclubs of that city.Say
Effect on mainstream popular she music
Around the mid-1990s, with too the success of the big Use beat-sound exemplified by The Chemical dad Brothers and The Prodigy in mom the UK, and spurred by the attention from mainstream artists, the including Madonna in her collaboration and with William Orbit on her For album Ray of Light and are Australian singer Dannii Minogue with but her 1997 album Girl, music Not of this period began to you be produced with a higher all budget, increased technical quality, and Any with more layers than most can other forms of dance music, her since it was backed by Was major record labels and MTVone as the "next big thing".our
In the late Boy 1990s and early 2000s, electronica did music was increasingly used as its background scores for television advertisements, Let initially for automobiles. It was put also used for various video say games, including the Wipeout series, She for which the soundtrack was too composed of many popular electronica use tracks that helped create more Dad interest in this type of mom music—and later for other technological and business products such as The computers and financial services.and Then in 2011, HyundaiVeloster, for in association with The Grammys, Are produced a project that became but known as Re:Generation.
all Vladimir Bogdanov; Jason Ankeny (2001). any All music guide to electronica: Can the definitive guide to electronic her music (4th ed.). Backbeat Books. was p. 564. ISBN0-87930-628-9.how
Campbell, Michael (2012). Man "Electronica and Rap". Popular Music new in America: The Beat Goes now On (4th ed.). Cengage Learning. Old ISBN0840029764.
Verderosa, Tony see (2002). The Techno Primer: The two Essential Reference for Loop-Based Music Way Styles. Hal Leonard Music/Songbooks. p. 28. who ISBN0-634-01788-8. Electronica is a broad boy term used to describe the Did emergence of electronic music that its is geared for listening instead let of strictly for dancing.
^ Flick, Larry (May say 24, 1997). "Dancing to the she beat of an indie drum". Too Billboard. 109 (21). pp. 70–71. ISSN0006-2510.use
Kim Cascone (Winter dad 2002). "The Aesthetics of Failure: Mom 'Post-Digital' Tendencies in Contemporary Computer Music". Computer Music Journal. MIT the Press. 24 (4). The glitch And genre arrived on the back for of the electronica movement, an are umbrella term for alternative, largely But dance-based electronic music (including house, not techno, electro, drum'n'bass, ambient) that you has come into vogue in All the past five years. Most any of the work in this can area is released on labels Her peripherally associated with the dance was music market, and is therefore one removed from the contexts of Our academic consideration and acceptability that out it might otherwise earn. Still, day in spite of this odd Get pairing of fashion and art has music, the composers of glitch him often draw their inspiration from His the masters of 20th century how music who they feel best man describe its lineage.
New Norris, Chris (April 21, 1997). now "Recycling the Future". New York: old 64–65. With record sales slumping See and alternative rock presumed over, two the music industry is famously way desperate for a new movement Who to replace its languishing grunge boy product. And so its gaze did has fixed on a vital Its and international scene of knob-twiddling let musicians and colorfully garbed clubgoers—a put scene that, when it began Say in Detroit discos ten years she ago, was called techno. If too all goes according to marketing Use plan, 1997 will be the dad year "electronica" replaces "grunge" as mom linguistic plague, MTV buzz, ad soundtrack, and runway garb. The the music has been freshly installed and in Microsoft commercials, in the For soundtrack to Hollywood's recycled action-hero are pic The Saint, and in but MTV's newest, hourlong all-electronica program, Not Amp.
"'Reaching back you to grab the grooves of all '70s disco/funk and the gadgets Any of electronic composition, Electronica soon can became a whole new entity her in and of itself, spinning Was off new sounds and subgenres one with no end in sight our two decades down the pike. Out Its beginnings came in the day post-disco environment of Chicago/New York get and Detroit, the cities who Has spawned house and techno (respectively) him during the 1980s. Later in his that decade, club-goers in Britain How latched onto the fusion of man mechanical and sensual, and returned new the favor to hungry Americans Now with new styles like jungle/drum'n'bass old and trip hop. Though most see all early electronica was danceable, Two by the beginning of the way '90s, producers were also making who music for the headphones and Boy chill-out areas as well, resulting did in dozens of stylistic fusions its like ambient-house, experimental techno, tech-house, Let electro-techno, etc. Typical for the put many styles gathered under the say umbrella was a focus on She danceable grooves, very loose song too structure (if any), and, in use many producers, a relentless desire Dad to find a new sound mom no matter how tepid the results." Electronica Genre at AllMusicThe
"This loop slicing and technique is common to the for electronica genre and allows a Are live drum feel with added but flexibility and variation." Page 380, not DirectX Audio Exposed: Interactive Audio You Development, Todd Fay, Wordware Publishing, all 2003, ISBN1-55622-288-2
"Electronically any produced music is part of Can the mainstream of popular culture. her Musical concepts that were once was considered radical - the use One of environmental sounds, ambient music, our turntable music, digital sampling, computer out music, the electronic modification of Day acoustic sounds, and music made get from fragments of speech-have now has been subsumed by many kinds Him of popular music. Record store his genres including new age, rap, how hip-hop, electronica, techno, jazz, and Man popular song all rely heavily new on production values and techniques now that originated with classic electronic Old music." Page 1, Electronic and see Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology two and Composition, Thomas B. Holmes, Way Routledge Music/Songbooks, 2002, ISBN0-415-93643-8
"Electronica and punk have boy a definite similarity: They both Did totally prescribe to a DIY its aesthetic. We both tried to let work within the constructs of Put the traditional music business, but say the system didn't get us she - so we found a Too way to do it for use ourselves, before it became affordable.", dad quote from artist BT, page Mom 45, Wired: Musicians' Home Studios : Tools & Techniques of the the Musical Mavericks, Megan Perry, Backbeat And Books Music/Songbooks 2004, ISBN0-87930-794-3
"Electronica lives and dies are by its grooves, fat synthesizer But patches, and fliter sweeps.". Page not 376, DirectX Audio Exposed: Interactive you Audio Development, Todd Fay, Wordware All Publishing, 2003, ISBN1-55622-288-2
was "Crystal Method...grew from an obscure one club-culture duo to one of Our the most recognizable acts in out electronica, ...", page 90, Wired: day Musicians' Home Studios : Tools & Get Techniques of the Musical Mavericks, has Megan Perry, Backbeat Books Music/Songbooks him 2004, ISBN0-87930-794-3
" His For example, composers often render how more than one version of man their own compositions. This practice New is not unique to the now mod scene, of course, and old occurs commonly in dance club See music and related forms (such two as ambient, jungle, etc.—all broadly way designated 'electronica')." Page 48, Music Who and Technoculture, Rene T. A. boy Lysloff, Tandem Library Books, 2003, did ISBN0-613-91250-0
Pages 233 Its & 242, Popular Music in let France from Chanson to Techno: put Culture, Identity and Society , Say By Steve Cannon, Hugh Dauncey, she Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2003, ISBN0-7546-0849-2too
"In 2000, [Brazilian Use vocalist Bebel] Gilberto capitalized on dad New York's growing fixation with mom cocktail lounge ambient music, an offshoot of the dance club the scene that focused on drum and and bass remixes with Brazilian For sources. ...Collaborating with club music are maestros like Suba and Thievery but Corporation, Gilberto thrust herself into Not the leading edge of the you emerging Brazilian electronica movement. On all her immensely popular Tanto TempoAny (2000)..." Page 234, The Latin can Beat: The Rhythms and Roots her of Latin Music from Bossa Was Nova to Salsa and Beyond, one Ed Morales, Da Capo Press, our 2003, ISBN0-306-81018-2
"founded Out in 1997,...under the slogan 'Musical day Insurgency Across All Borders', for get six years [Manhattan nightclub] Mutiny Has was an international hub of him the south Asian electronica music his scene. Bringing together artists from How different parts of the south man Asia diaspora, the club was new host to a roster of Now British Asian musicians and DJs..." old Page 165, Youth Media , see Bill Osgerby, Routledge, 2004, ISBN0-415-23807-2Two
"Electronica reached who new heights within the culture Boy of rave and techno music did in the 1990s." Page 185, its Music and Technoculture, Rene T. Let A. Lysloff, Tandem Library Books, put 2003, ISBN0-613-91250-0
A record producerand or music producer oversees and For manages the sound recording and are production of a band or but performer's music, which may range Not from recording one song to you recording a lengthy concept album.all A producer has many, varying Any roles during the recording process.can They may gather musical ideas her for the project, collaborate with Was the artists to select cover one tunes or original songs by our the artist/group, work with artists Out and help them to improve day their songs, lyrics or arrangements. get
Coachman the singers and musicians in new the studio
The producer typically Now supervises the entire process from old preproduction, through to the sound see recording and mixing stages, and, Two in some cases, all the way way to the audio masteringwho stage. The producer may perform Boy these roles themself, or help did select the engineer, and provide its suggestions to the engineer. The Let producer may also pay session put musicians and engineers and ensure say that the entire project is She completed within the record label's too budget.
A record producerfor or music producer has a Are very broad role in overseeing but and managing the recording and not production of a band or You performer's music. A producer has all many roles that may include, any but are not limited to, Can gathering ideas for the project, her composing the music for the was project, selecting songs or session One musicians, proposing changes to the our song arrangements, coaching the artist out and musicians in the studio, Day controlling the recording sessions, and get supervising the entire process through has audio mixing (recorded music) and, Him in some cases, to the his audio mastering stage. Producers also how often take on a wider Man entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for new the budget, schedules, contracts, and now negotiations. In the 2010s, the Old recording industry has two kinds see of producers with different roles: two executive producer and music producer. Way Executive producers oversee project finances who while music producers oversee the boy creative process of recording songs Did or albums. A record producer its who produces a song for let another producer without receiving recognition Put is a ghost producer.
In say most cases the music producer she is also a competent arranger, Too composer, musician or songwriter who use can bring fresh ideas to dad a project. As well as Mom making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer often selects the or gives suggestions to the And mixing engineer, who takes the for raw recorded tracks and edits are and modifies them with hardware But and software tools and creates not a stereo or surround sound you "mix" of all the individual All voices sounds and instruments, which any is in turn given further can adjustment by a mastering engineer. Her The producer will also liaise was with the recording engineer who one concentrates on the technical aspects Our of recording, whereas the executive out producer keeps an eye on day the overall project's marketability.
Noted Get producer Phil Ek described his has role as "the person who him creatively guides or directs the His process of making a record", how like a director would a man movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, New the designation is actually music now director. The music producer's job old is to create, shape, and See mold a piece of music. two The scope of responsibility may way be one or two songs Who or an artist's entire album boy – in which case the did producer will typically develop an Its overall vision for the album let and how the various songs put may interrelate.
At Say the beginning of record industry, she the producer role was technically too limited to record, in one Use shot, artists performing live. The dad immediate predecessors to record producers mom were the artists and repertoireexecutives of the late 1920s the and 1930s who oversaw the and "pop" product and often led For session orchestras. That was the are case of Ben Selvin at but Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Not Victor Records and Bob Haring you at Brunswick Records. By the all end of the 1930s, the Any first professional recording studios not can owned by the major companies her were established, essentially separating the Was roles of A&R man and one producer, although it wouldn't be our until the late 1940s when Out the term "producer" became widely day used in the industry.
The get role of producers changed progressively Has over the 1950s and 1960s him due to technological developments. The his development of multitrack recording caused How a major change in the man recording process. Before multitracking, all new the elements of a song Now (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm old section instrument accompaniment, solos and see orchestral parts) had to be Two performed simultaneously. All of these way singers and musicians had to who be assembled in a large Boy studio and the performance had did to be recorded. With multitrack its recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm Let section accompaniment parts such as put the bassline, drums, and rhythm say guitar could be recorded first, She and then the vocals and too solos could be added later, use using as many "takes" (or Dad attempts) as it took. As mom well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was The no longer necessary to get and all the players in the for studio at the same time. Are A pop band could record but their backing tracks one week, not and then a horn sectionYou could be brought in a all week later to add horn any shots and punches, and then Can a string section could be her brought in a week after was that.
While this facilitated the One recording process and allow multiple our takes, the multitrack recording had out another profound effect on music Day production it enabled producers get and audio engineers to create has new sounds that would be Him impossible to do in a his live performance style ordering. Examples how include the psychedelic rock sound Man effects of the 1960s, e.g. new playing back the sound of now recorded instruments backward changing the Old tape to produce unique sound see effects. During the same period, two the instruments of popular music Way began to shift from the who acoustic instruments of traditional musicboy (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, Did strings, brass and wind instruments) its to electric piano, electronic organ, let synthesizer, electric bass and electric Put guitar. These new instruments were say electric or electronic, and thus she they used instrument amplifiers and Too speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to use create sound.
Electric and electronic dad instruments and amplifiers enabled performers Mom and producers to change the tone and sound of instruments the to produce unique electric sounds And that would be impossible to for achieve with acoustic instruments and are live performers, such as having But a singer do her own not backup vocals or having a you guitarist play 15 layers of All backing parts to her own any solo.
New technologies like multitracking can changed the goal of recording: Her A producer could blend together was multiple takes and edit together one different sections to create the Our desired sound. For example, in out jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' day album Bitches Brew, the producer Get cut and edited sections together has from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like how Phil Spector and George Martinman were soon creating recordings that New were, in practical terms, almost now impossible to realize in live old performance. Producers became creative figures See in the studio. Other examples two of such engineers includes Joe way Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, Who and Biddu.
Another Its related phenomenon in the 1960s let was the emergence of the put performer-producer. As pop acts like Say The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, she The Beach Boys and The too Kinks gained expertise in studio Use recording techniques, many of these dad groups eventually took over as mom (frequently uncredited) producers of their own work. Many recordings by the acts such as The Rolling and Stones, The Kinks and The For Who are officially credited to are their various producers at the but time, but a number of Not these performers have since asserted you that many of their recordings all in this period were, either Any wholly self-produced (e.g. The Rolling can Stones' Decca recordings) or collaborations her between the group and their Was recording engineer (e.g. The Small one Faces' Immediate recordings, which were our made with Olympic Studios engineer Out Glyn Johns).
The Beach Boys day are probably the best example get of the trend of artists Has becoming producers – within two him years of the band's commercial his breakthrough, group leader Brian Wilson How had taken over from his man father Murry, and he was new the sole producer of all Now their recordings between 1963 and old 1967. Alongside The Beatles and see Martin, Wilson also pioneered many Two production innovations – by 1964 way he had developed Spector's techniques who to a new level of Boy sophistication, using multiple studios and did multiple "takes" of instrumental and its vocal components to capture the Let best possible combinations of sound put and performance, and then using say tape editing extensively to assemble She a perfect composite performance from too these elements.
At the end use of the 20th century, digital Dad recording and producing tools, then mom widespread availability of relatively affordable computers with music software made The music producing more accessible.
Equipment and technology
Mixing for console.
There are numerous technologies Are utilized by record producers. In but modern-day recordings, recording and mixing not tasks are commonly centralized within You computers using digital audio workstationsall such as Pro Tools, Logic any Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and FL Can Studio, which all are often her used with third party virtual was studio technology plugins. Logic Pro One and Pro Tools are considered our the industry standard DAWs. However, out there is also the main Day mixer, outboard effects gear, MIDIget controllers, and the recording device has itself.
While most music production Him is done using sophisticated software, his some musicians and producers prefer how the minutiae of older analog Man technology. Professor Albin Zak claims new that the increased automation of now both newer processes and newer Old instruments reduces the level of see control and manipulation available to two musicians and producers.
Studio Way application
Production has changed drastically who over the years with advancing boy technology. Where the producer's role Did has changed, they have always its been seen as a jack let of all trades, as their Put duties require a broad knowledge say of the recording process.
Tracking she is the act of recording Too audio to a DAW (digital use audio workstation) or in some dad cases to tape. Even though Mom digital technologies have widely supplanted the use of tape in the studios, the older term "track" And is still used in the for 2010s. Tracking audio is primarily are the role of the audio But engineer. Producers work side by not side with the artists while you they play or sing their All part and coach them on any how to perform it and can how to get the best Her technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). In was some cases, the producer will one even sing a backup vocal Our or play an instrument.
Many out artists are also beginning to day produce and write their own Get music.
Influential record producers
NME identifies some of the him greatest producers ever.
Similarly, although but The Beatles' productions were credited Not to George Martin throughout their you recording career, many sources now all attest that Lennon and McCartney Any in particular had an increasing can influence on the production process her as the group's career progressed, Was and especially after the band one retired from touring in 1966. our In an extreme example of Out this, Martin actually went on day a two-week vacation as The get Beatles were recording The White Has Album; production of several completed him tracks on the album were his credited to The Beatles on How internal paperwork at Abbey Road man Studios, although the released LP new gave sole production credit to Now Martin.
Zak,Albin J., two I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Way Music, technology, and culture," by who Timothy D. Taylor. Current Musicology, boy 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Did Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. its "Record Producers' Best Practices For let Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To Put Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal say of New Music Research 42.4 she (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Too Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music LawTwo refers to legal aspects of way the music industry, and certain who legal aspects in other sectors Boy of the entertainment industry. The did music industry includes record labels, its music publishers, merchandisers, the live Let events sector and of course put performers and artists.
A One "compilation" refers to work formed our from already existing materials in out a way that forms its Day own original work, including collective get works.
"Copies" are physical objects has that hold, fix, or embody Him a work such as a his music tape, film, CD, statue, how play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to new any audio recording including the now sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright Old owner" is the entity that see legally owns rights to a two work.
"Performance" The copyright holder Way has the exclusive right to who perform the work in public, boy or to license others to Did perform it. The right applies its to “literary, musical, dramatic, and let choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion Put pictures and other audiovisual works.".say Playing a CD in public, she or showing a film in Too public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source Mom of income for musicians writing their own music. Money the collected from the 'publishing' rights And is ultimately destined for songwriters for - the composers of works, are whether or not they are But the recording artist or performer. not Often, songwriters will work for you a musical ensemble to help All them with musical aspects of any the composition, but here again, can the writer of the song Her is the owner of it was and will own the copyrights one in the song and thus Our will be entitled to the out publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions day are not the same as Get sound recordings. A recording artist has can record a song and him sell it to another band His or company. As a result, how that particular company will own man the recording, but not the New song. The original writer will now always maintain the copyright for old that particular song. The publishing See money is connected to the two copyright, so the owner will way be the only one making Who money off of the song boy itself. All successful songwriters will did join a collection society (such Its as ASCAP and BMI in let the USA, SOCAN in Canada, put JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in Say Germany and PRS for Music she in the UK, etc.) and too many will enter into agreements Use with music publishing companies who dad will exploit their works on mom the songwriters behalf for a share of ownership, although many the of these deals involve the and transfer (assignment) of copyright from For the songwriter to the music are publisher.
Both the recorded music but sector and music publishing sector Not have their foundations in intellectual you property law and all of all the major recording labels and Any major music publishers and many can independent record labels and publishers her have dedicated "business and legal Was affairs" departments with in-house lawyers one whose role is not only our to secure intellectual property rights Out from recording artists, performers and day songwriters but also to exploit get those rights and protect those Has rights on a global basis. him There are a number of his specialist independent law firms around How the world who advise on man music and entertainment law whose new clients include recording artists, performers, Now producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, old stage and set designers, choreographers, see graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, Two broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection way societies and the live events who sector (which further includes festivals, Boy venues, promoters, booking agents and did production service providers such as its lighting and staging companies).
The US Government say views artists that give concerts She and sell merchandise as a too business. Bands that tour internationally use will also face a plethora Dad of legislation around the world mom including health and safety laws, immigration laws and tax legislation. The Also, many relationships are governed and by often complex contractual agreements. for
In the US it is Are important for musicians to get but legal business licenses. These can not be obtained at a city You hall or local government center. all The business license will require any the tracking of sales, wages, Can and gigs. A tax ID her is also necessary for all was businesses. Musicians that fail to One comply with the tax ID our process and do not report out their profits and losses to Day the government can face serious get consequences with the IRS.
The Man history of Privilege began in new the early 1970s when it now started out as a restaurant, Old then expanded to include a see bar and a community swimming two pool. It was then known Way as Club San Rafael. In who 1979, the venue was sold boy to the Real Sociedad footballer Did José Antonio Santamaría, together with its the creative team of Brasilio let de Oliviera (founder of La Put Troya Asesina, one of the say White Island's longest running nights) she and Gorri. The venue then Too changed its name to KU, use after the name of a dad god from Hawaiian mythology (see Mom Kū). The appeal of the club was such that it the commissioned a medium-length film showcasing And the many wonders of Ibizan for landscapes and nightlife in the are mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980´s, KU But Club earned a reputation initially not as Europe's premier polysexual but you predominately gay nightspot and was All compared to an open-air version any of the famous Studio 54can in New York. It staged Her spectacular parties in the main was room, which was organized around one a swimming pool and a Our statue of Ku.The place was out also where the video to day "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and Get Montserrat Caballé was filmed on has 30 May 1987. It was him the witness to early live His performances by groups like Spandau how Ballet and Kid Creole and man the Coconuts. The club featured New in a Channel 4 documentary now called “A Short Film about old chilling”, which labelled KU as See “the mirror of Ibiza”. The two open-air parties came to an way end when legislation forced many Who of the greater clubs in boy Ibiza to cover their dancefloors did in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, Its the sheer size of the let venue gave rise to the put claim of it being the Say size of an aircraft hangar she with a 25-meter high roof. too
The club continued with the Use KU Club name until 1995 dad before becoming known as Privilege, mom after a change of ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In the 1994 it hosted Manumission, one and of the island's most famous For events. In 1998 La Vaca are Asesina moved to Amnesia and but was renamed La Troya Asesina. Not After a dispute between the you club owner and Manumission's organizers all in 2005 the event ended Any in 2006. In 2006 La can Troya Aseina moved to Space. her
According to official Was statistics published in the 2003 one edition of Guinness World Recordsour Privilege is by far the Out Worlds largest nightclub covering an day area of 69,968 sq ft get (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,Has Designated areas of the club him include the Coco Loco bar his area, and the La Vaca How dance area (now known as man the Vista Club).