Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A record new producer or music producer oversees Now and manages the sound recordingold and production of a band see or performer's music, which may Two range from recording one songway to recording a lengthy concept who album. A producer has many, Boy varying roles during the recording did process. They may gather musical its ideas for the project, collaborate Let with the artists to select put cover tunes or original songs say by the artist/group, work with She artists and help them to too improve their songs, lyrics or use arrangements.
The producer Are typically supervises the entire process but from preproduction, through to the not sound recording and mixing stages, You and, in some cases, all all the way to the audio any mastering stage. The producer may Can perform these roles themself, or her help select the engineer, and was provide suggestions to the engineer. One The producer may also pay our session musicians and engineers and out ensure that the entire project Day is completed within the record get companies' budget.
A new record producer or music producernow has a very broad role Old in overseeing and managing the see recording and production of a two band or performer's music. A Way producer has many roles that who may include, but are not boy limited to, gathering ideas for Did the project, composing the music its for the project, selecting songs let or session musicians, proposing changes Put to the song arrangements, coaching say the artist and musicians in she the studio, controlling the recording Too sessions, and supervising the entire use process through audio mixing (recorded dad music) and, in some cases, Mom to the audio mastering stage. Producers also often take on the a wider entrepreneurial role, with And responsibility for the budget, schedules, for contracts, and negotiations. In the are 2010s, the recording industry has But two kinds of producers with not different roles: executive producer and you music producer. Executive producers oversee All project finances while music producers any oversee the creative process of can recording songs or albums. A Her record producer who produces a was song for another producer without one receiving recognition is a ghost Our producer.
In most cases the out music producer is also a day competent arranger, composer, musician or Get songwriter who can bring fresh has ideas to a project. As him well as making any songwriting His and arrangement adjustments, the producer how often selects or gives suggestions man to the mixing engineer, who New takes the raw recorded tracks now and edits and modifies them old with hardware and software tools See and creates a stereo or two surround sound "mix" of all way the individual voices sounds and Who instruments, which is in turn boy given further adjustment by a did mastering engineer. The producer will Its also liaise with the recording let engineer who concentrates on the put technical aspects of recording, whereas Say the executive producer keeps an she eye on the overall project's too marketability.
Noted producer Phil EkUse described his role as "the dad person who creatively guides or mom directs the process of making a record", like a director the would a movie. Indeed, in and Bollywood music, the designation is For actually music director. The music are producer's job is to create, but shape, and mold a piece Not of music. The scope of you responsibility may be one or all two songs or an artist's Any entire album – in which can case the producer will typically her develop an overall vision for Was the album and how the one various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of Out record industry, the producer role day was technically limited to record, get in one shot, artists performing Has live. The immediate predecessors to him record producers were the artists his and repertoire executives of the How late 1920s and 1930s who man oversaw the "pop" product and new often led session orchestras. That Now was the case of Ben old Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel see Shilkret at Victor Records and Two Bob Haring at Brunswick Records. way By the end of the who 1930s, the first professional recording Boy studios not owned by the did major companies were established, essentially its separating the roles of A&R Let man and producer, although it put wouldn't be until the late say 1940s when the term "producer" She became widely used in the too industry.
The role of producers use changed progressively over the 1950s Dad and 1960s due to technological mom developments. The development of multitrack recording caused a major change The in the recording process. Before and multitracking, all the elements of for a song (lead vocals, backup Are vocals, rhythm section instrument accompaniment, but solos and orchestral parts) had not to be performed simultaneously. All You of these singers and musicians all had to be assembled in any a large studio and the Can performance had to be recorded. her With multitrack recording, the "bed was tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts One such as the bassline, drums, our and rhythm guitar could be out recorded first, and then the Day vocals and solos could be get added later, using as many has "takes" (or attempts) as it Him took. As well, for a his song that used 20 instruments, how it was no longer necessary Man to get all the players new in the studio at the now same time. A pop band Old could record their backing tracks see one week, and then a two horn section could be brought Way in a week later to who add horn shots and punches, boy and then a string sectionDid could be brought in a its week after that.
While this let facilitated the recording process and Put allow multiple takes, the multitrack say recording had another profound effect she on music production it Too enabled producers and audio engineers use to create new sounds that dad would be impossible to do Mom in a live performance style ordering. Examples include the psychedelic the rock sound effects of the And 1960s, e.g. playing back the for sound of recorded instruments backward are changing the tape to produce But unique sound effects. During the not same period, the instruments of you popular music began to shift All from the acoustic instruments of any traditional music (piano, upright bass, can acoustic guitar, strings, brass and Her wind instruments) to electric piano, was electronic organ, synthesizer, electric bassone and electric guitar. These new Our instruments were electric or electronic, out and thus they used instrument day amplifiers and speaker enclosures (speaker Get cabinets) to create sound.
Electric has and electronic instruments and amplifiers him enabled performers and producers to His change the tone and sound how of instruments to produce unique man electric sounds that would be New impossible to achieve with acoustic now instruments and live performers, such old as having a singer do See her own backup vocals or two having a guitarist play 15 way layers of backing parts to Who her own solo.
New technologies boy like multitracking changed the goal did of recording: A producer could Its blend together multiple takes and let edit together different sections to put create the desired sound. For Say example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer she Miles Davis' album Bitches Brew, too the producer cut and edited Use sections together from extensive improvisation dad sessions.
Producers like Phil Spector and the George Martin were soon creating and recordings that were, in practical For terms, almost impossible to realize are in live performance. Producers became but creative figures in the studio. Not Other examples of such engineers you includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, all Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in Was the 1960s was the emergence one of the performer-producer. As pop our acts like The Beatles, The Out Rolling Stones, The Beach Boysday and The Kinks gained expertise get in studio recording techniques, many Has of these groups eventually took him over as (frequently uncredited) producers his of their own work. Many How recordings by acts such as man The Rolling Stones, The Kinks new and The Who are officially Now credited to their various producers old at the time, but a see number of these performers have Two since asserted that many of way their recordings in this period who were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. Boy The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) did or collaborations between the group its and their recording engineer (e.g. Let The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, put which were made with Olympic say Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The She Beach Boys are probably the too best example of the trend use of artists becoming producers – Dad within two years of the mom band's commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian Wilson had taken over The from his father Murry, and and he was the sole producer for of all their recordings between Are 1963 and 1967. Alongside The but Beatles and Martin, Wilson also not pioneered many production innovations – You by 1964 he had developed all Spector's techniques to a new any level of sophistication, using multiple Can studios and multiple "takes" of her instrumental and vocal components to was capture the best possible combinations One of sound and performance, and our then using tape editing extensively out to assemble a perfect composite Day performance from these elements.
At get the end of the 20th has century, digital recording and producing Him tools, then widespread availability of his relatively affordable computers with music how software made music producing more Man accessible.
Equipment and technology
There are now numerous technologies utilized by record Old producers. In modern-day recordings, recording see and mixing tasks are commonly two centralized within computers using digital Way audio workstations such as Pro who Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, boy and FL Studio, which all Did are often used with third its party virtual studio technology plugins.let Logic Pro and Pro Tools Put are considered the industry standard say DAWs. However, there is also she the main mixer, outboard effects Too gear, MIDI controllers, and the use recording device itself.
While most dad music production is done using Mom sophisticated software, some musicians and producers prefer the minutiae of the older analog technology. Professor Albin And Zak claims that the increased for automation of both newer processes are and newer instruments reduces the But level of control and manipulation not available to musicians and producers.you
Production has All changed drastically over the years any with advancing technology. Where the can producer's role has changed, they Her have always been seen as was a jack of all trades, one as their duties require a Our broad knowledge of the recording out process.
Tracking is the act day of recording audio to a Get DAW (digital audio workstation) or has in some cases to tape. him Even though digital technologies have His widely supplanted the use of how tape in studios, the older man term "track" is still used New in the 2010s. Tracking audio now is primarily the role of old the audio engineer. Producers work See side by side with the two artists while they play or way sing their part and coach Who them on how to perform boy it and how to get did the best technical accuracy (e.g., Its intonation). In some cases, the let producer will even sing a put backup vocal or play an Say instrument.
Similarly, although one The Beatles' productions were credited our to George Martin throughout their Out recording career, many sources now day attest that Lennon and McCartney get in particular had an increasing Has influence on the production process him as the group's career progressed, his and especially after the band How retired from touring in 1966. man In an extreme example of new this, Martin actually went on Now a two-week vacation as The old Beatles were recording The White see Album; production of several completed Two tracks on the album were way credited to The Beatles on who internal paperwork at Abbey Road Boy Studios, although the released LP did gave sole production credit to its Martin.
see Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: two "strange sounds: Music, technology, and Way culture," by timothy D. taylor. who Current Musicology, , 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, Did and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' its Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From let Light Coaching To Deeper Collaboration Put With Musicians." Journal of New say Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. she Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Too Sept. 2015.
Music Lawhim refers to legal aspects of his the music industry, and certain How legal aspects in other sectors man of the entertainment industry. The new music industry includes record labels, Now music publishers, merchandisers, the live old events sector and of course see performers and artists.
A but "compilation" refers to work formed not from already existing materials in You a way that forms its all own original work, including collective any works.
"Copies" are physical objects Can that hold, fix, or embody her a work such as a was music tape, film, CD, statue, One play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to out any audio recording including the Day sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright get owner" is the entity that has legally owns rights to a Him work.
"Performance" The copyright holder his has the exclusive right to how perform the work in public, Man or to license others to new perform it. The right applies now to “literary, musical, dramatic, and Old choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion see pictures and other audiovisual works.".two Playing a CD in public, Way or showing a film in who public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source its of income for musicians writing let their own music. Money Put collected from the 'publishing' rights say is ultimately destined for songwriters she - the composers of works, Too whether or not they are use the recording artist or performer. dad Often, songwriters will work for Mom a musical ensemble to help them with musical aspects of the the composition, but here again, And the writer of the song for is the owner of it are and will own the copyrights But in the song and thus not will be entitled to the you publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions All are not the same as any sound recordings. A recording artist can can record a song and Her sell it to another band was or company. As a result, one that particular company will own Our the recording, but not the out song. The original writer will day always maintain the copyright for Get that particular song. The publishing has money is connected to the him copyright, so the owner will His be the only one making how money off of the song man itself. All successful songwriters will New join a collection society (such now as ASCAP and BMI in old the USA, SOCAN in Canada, See JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in two Germany and PRS for Music way in the UK, etc.) and Who many will enter into agreements boy with music publishing companies who did will exploit their works on Its the songwriters behalf for a let share of ownership, although many put of these deals involve the Say transfer (assignment) of copyright from she the songwriter to the music too publisher.
Both the recorded music Use sector and music publishing sector dad have their foundations in intellectual mom property law and all of the major recording labels and the major music publishers and many and independent record labels and publishers For have dedicated "business and legal are affairs" departments with in-house lawyers but whose role is not only Not to secure intellectual property rights you from recording artists, performers and all songwriters but also to exploit Any those rights and protect those can rights on a global basis. her There are a number of Was specialist independent law firms around one the world who advise on our music and entertainment law whose Out clients include recording artists, performers, day producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, get stage and set designers, choreographers, Has graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, him broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection his societies and the live events How sector (which further includes festivals, man venues, promoters, booking agents and new production service providers such as Now lighting and staging companies).
The US Government Two views artists that give concerts way and sell merchandise as a who business. Bands that tour internationally Boy will also face a plethora did of legislation around the world its including health and safety laws, Let immigration laws and tax legislation. put Also, many relationships are governed say by often complex contractual agreements. She
In the US it is too important for musicians to get use legal business licenses. These can Dad be obtained at a city mom hall or local government center. The business license will require The the tracking of sales, wages, and and gigs. A tax ID for is also necessary for all Are businesses. Musicians that fail to but comply with the tax ID not process and do not report You their profits and losses to all the government can face serious any consequences with the IRS.
In out the late 1970s, at the Day peak of the disco dancing get and music trend, the building has was renamed after its location Him and became a world-famous nightclubhis and discotheque. The nightclub founders how spent hundreds of thousands of Man dollars on professional lighting designnew and kept many of the now former TV and theatrical sets, Old in the process creating a see unique dance club that became two famous for its celebrity guest Way lists, restrictive (and subjective) entry who policies (based on one's appearance boy and style), and open club Did drug use. Founded and created its by Steve Rubell and Ian let Schrager in 1977, it was Put sold in 1980 to Mark say Fleischman, who reopened the club she after it had been shut Too down following the conviction of use Rubell and Schrager on charges dad of tax evasion. In 1984, Mom Fleischman sold the club, which continued to operate until 1986. the
Since November 1998, it has And served as a venue for for productions of the Roundabout Theatre are Company and retains the name But Studio 54. A separate restaurant not and nightclub, Feinstein's/54 Below, operates you in the basement of the All building.
Designed by See famed architect Eugene De Rosa, two the venue opened in 1927 way as the Gallo Opera House Who (soon revised to Gallo Theatre), boy named for its owner, Fortune did Gallo. Beginning with a very Its large-scale production of La bohèmelet which closed after three weeks, put the Gallo was met with Say a succession of failed attempts she to draw an audience, and too was lost to foreclosure after Use only two years. It later dad reopened under new ownership as mom The New Yorker, but continued failing to attract sufficient crowds. the It changed hands in the and early 1930s, then in 1937 For it became the WPA Federal are Music Project of New York but City's Federal Music Theatre/Theatre of Not Music, then it became the you New Yorker Theatre in 1939, all housing an all-black version of Any The Swing Mikado, originally from can Chicago, for two months, when her the production moved to the Was 44th Street Theatre to finish one its run. The New Yorker our Theatre saw its final production, Out Medicine Show, end in May day 1940, following which the building get remained vacant for three years.Has
CBS Studio 52
In him 1943, CBS purchased the theatre, his renaming it Studio 52. CBS How named its studios in order man of purchase; the number 52 new was unrelated to the street Now on which it was located. old During these years, CBS used see the theater for radio broadcasts. Two
When CBS began marketing her the building in 1976, various was parties in the art and One fashion world expressed interest in our seeing it converted into a out nightclub. Male model Uva Harden Day tried to get gallery owner get Frank Lloyd to finance the has club, until Lloyd lost a Him $9 million lawsuit to the his estate of the artist Mark how Rothko, the Rothko Case.
In Man 1977, the theater was transformed new into a nightclub called Studio now 54 by Steve Rubell and Old Ian Schrager, with Jack Dushey see as a financial backer. They two operated the company as Broadway Way Catering Corp. It took only who six weeks to transform the boy theater into a nightclub and Did cost $400,000 before its grand its opening on April 26.
Rubell let and Schrager hired Scott Bromley Put as architect, Ron Doud as say interior designer and Brian Thompson she as lighting designer. Jules FisherToo and Paul Marantz, two well-known use lighting designers, created the dance dad floor environment and created moveable Mom theatrical sets and lights using the copious existing TV lighting the circuits and fly system, which And allowed for a dynamic, constantly-changing, for environment. Where formerly all clubs are had been very dark, at But Studio 54 the crowd could not be lit brightly.
Within a you month of opening, the New All York State Liquor Authority raided any Studio 54 for selling liquor can without a license, and closed Her it. The owners of the was nightclub said the incident was one a "misunderstanding". The next night Our the club reopened, serving fruit out juice and soda instead of day liquor. Prior to the raid, Get the nightclub had been using has daily "caterers' permits", which enabled him the nightclub to serve alcohol His but were intended for weddings how or political events. The State man had denied the daily permit New for the night and raided now the nightclub. The nightclub had old been using these permits while See waiting for its liquor licensetwo to be processed.
The way scene (1977–1979)
Event planner Robert Who Isabell had four tons of boy glitter dumped in a four-inch did layer on the floor of Its Studio 54 for a New let Year's Eve party, which owner put Ian Schrager described as like Say "standing on stardust" and left she glitter that could be found too months later in their clothing Use and homes.
Actor Al Corley was a man doorman during the late 1970s. new
The band Chic wrote a Now song in 1978, "Le Freak", old after being refused entry to see the club on New Year's Two Eve 1977, despite being invited way by Grace Jones.
End who of the first era
In Boy December 1978, Rubell was quoted did in the New York newspapers its as saying that Studio 54 Let had made $7 million in put its first year and that say "only the Mafia made more She money". This got the attention too of the IRS. Shortly thereafter use the nightclub was raided and Dad Rubell and Schrager were arrested mom for skimming $2.5 million.
From she 1981 to April 1986, Studio too 54 was under the ownership Use of Mark Fleischman. In April dad 1989, The Ritz nightclub, which mom had previously operated at 11th Street and Third Avenue from the 1980 to 1987, moved into and the former Studio 54 under For the name The New Ritz. are In 1990, the club changed but the name back to that Not of its former location, The you Ritz. The new owners, CAT all Entertainment Corp operated the club Any primarily as a venue for can new wave, punk, Eurodisco, and her heavy metal artists and also Was offered it as a public one venue available for rent.
In our 1993, CAT Entertainment was acquired Out by Cabaret Royale Corporation, a day nightclub operator based in Dallas. get CAT Entertainment completed a renovation Has of the nightclub earlier abandoned him because of a lack of his funds, and resurrected both the How nightclub and the Studio 54 man trademark, which had never been new properly registered by any of Now the prior owners or operators.old The newly remodeled nightclub was see operated as "Cabaret Royale at Two Studio 54" by CAT Entertainment way until early 1995. The Pilevsky who interests which owned the theater Boy itself and the adjacent office did building had several years earlier its granted a mortgage on the Let properties to the Bank of put Tokyo and, in an effort say to resolve a large unpaid She indebtedness of Pilevsky to the too bank and to forestall foreclosure, use a trustee had been appointed Dad by Pilevsky and the bank mom and granted the right to sell those and numerous other The properties owned by Pilevsky.
In and late 1994, Allied Partners acquired for the Studio 54 properties and, Are after protracted litigation, CAT Entertainment but lost its lease on the not nightclub and ceased operations. You
Roundabout Theatre at Studio all 54, mid-1990s–present
Studio 54, any April 2008
In 1994, Allied Can Partners bought the building for her $5.5 million. They restored much was of the architectural detail that One had been painted black or our covered with plywood by Schrager out and Rubell. The nightclub reopened Day with a live concert by get disco stars Gloria Gaynor, Vicki has Sue Robinson, and Sister Sledge. Him The building again went into his bankruptcy in 1996 and Allied how announced plans to demolish it Man and replace it with Cyberdrome, new a virtual reality gaming venue, now however, the project was never Old completed.
In July 1998, the see collapse of a construction hoist two blocked access to the Henry Way Miller Theatre on 43rd Street, who where the successful revival of boy the Broadway musicalCabaret was Did playing. To keep the show its accessible, the Roundabout Theatre Companylet agreed to move the performance Put to Studio 54. Roundabout later say bought the building in 2003 she from Allied for $22.5 million, Too and Cabaret played until 2004.use
The second floor him of the theater was used His as a nightclub (on weeks how when plays were not being man staged) under the name Upstairs New at Studio 54. The club now was operated by Noel Ashman old and Josh Hadar who was See one of the Allied partners. two Upstairs at Studio 54 performers way included Mark Ronson, Samantha Ronson, Who Gloria Estefan, Jody Watley, and boy Newsical.
The did building, which is still frequently Its referred to as the Studio let 54 building, houses a variety put of tenants, among them a Say theater venue, offices, and an she educational facility called Mandl School, too the College of Allied Health. Use This building also houses Olivtree dad Securities LLC. In 1965, the mom building housed Scepter Records's offices, warehouse space and a recording the studio, where The Velvet Underground and & Nico album was recorded For in April 1966.
Cultural are impact
Studio 54 at but MGM Grand in Las Vegas
In the late 1970s, Studio you 54 was one of the all best-known nightclubs in the world, Any and it played a formative can role in the growth of her disco music and nightclub culture Was in general. Several franchises, notably one in Las Vegas, have sprung our up around the country. Additionally, Out multiple works of art, entertainment, day and media refer to or get are associated with the nightclub. Has Examples include:
54, a him movie about the disco, was his released in 1998.
In 2011, old Sirius XM launched Studio 54 see Radio, a satellite radio station Two featuring classic Disco and Dance way tracks from the 1970s to who the 2000s, and featured testimonials Boy from the people connected to did the club. Originally debuted at its channel 15, it was moved Let to 54 in 2013.
In put 2018, Studio 54, a 98-minute say documentary by Matt Tyrnauer reached She both the Tribeca and Sundancetoo film festivals before being screened use at select theaters. This film Dad has never-seen footage of the mom the club as well as interviews with Ian Schrager.
See The also
Fiorucci, an Italian fashion and boutique, known as the "daytime for Studio 54"
The use history of Privilege began in dad the early 1970s when it Mom started out as a restaurant, then expanded to include a the bar and a community swimming And pool. It was then known for as Club San Rafael. In are 1979, the venue was sold But to the Real Sociedad footballer not José Antonio Santamaría, together with you the creative team of Brasilio All de Oliviera (founder of La any Troya Asesina, one of the can White Island's longest running nights) Her and Gorri. The venue then was changed its name to KU, one after the name of a Our god from Hawaiian mythology (see out Kū). The appeal of the day club was such that it Get commissioned a medium-length film showcasing has the many wonders of Ibizan him landscapes and nightlife in the His mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980´s, KU how Club earned a reputation initially man as Europe's premier polysexual but New predominately gay nightspot and was now compared to an open-air version old of the famous Studio 54See in New York. It staged two spectacular parties in the main way room, which was organized around Who a swimming pool and a boy statue of Ku.The place was did also where the video to Its "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and let Montserrat Caballé was filmed on put 30 May 1987. It was Say the witness to early live she performances by groups like Spandau too Ballet and Kid Creole and Use the Coconuts. The club featured dad in a Channel 4 documentary mom called “A Short Film about chilling”, which labelled KU as the “the mirror of Ibiza”. The and open-air parties came to an For end when legislation forced many are of the greater clubs in but Ibiza to cover their dancefloors Not in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, you the sheer size of the all venue gave rise to the Any claim of it being the can size of an aircraft hangar her with a 25-meter high roof. Was
The club continued with the one KU Club name until 1995 our before becoming known as Privilege, Out after a change of ownership day to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In get 1994 it hosted Manumission, one Has of the island's most famous him events. In 1998 La Vaca his Asesina moved to Amnesia and How was renamed La Troya Asesina. man After a dispute between the new club owner and Manumission's organizers Now in 2005 the event ended old in 2006. In 2006 La see Troya Aseina moved to Space. Two
According to official way statistics published in the 2003 who edition of Guinness World RecordsBoy Privilege is by far the did Worlds largest nightclub covering an its area of 69,968 sq ft Let (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,put Designated areas of the club say include the Coco Loco bar She area, and the La Vaca too dance area (now known as use the Vista Club).