DJ on the right is
Not referred to as scrubbing, is you a DJ and turntablist technique all of moving a vinyl record Any back and forth on a can turntable to produce percussive or her rhythmic sounds. A crossfader on Was a DJ mixer may be one used to fade between two our records simultaneously.
While scratching is
Out most associated with hip hop day music, where it emerged in get the mid-1970s, from the 1990s Has it has been used in him some styles of rap rock, his rap metal and nu metal. How Within hip hop culture, scratching man is one of the measures new of a DJ's skills. DJs Now compete in scratching competitions at old the DMC World DJ Championship see and IDA (International DJ Association, Two formerly known as ITF (International way Turntablist Federation). At scratching competitions, who DJs can use only scratch-oriented Boy gear (turntables, DJ mixer, digital did vinyl systems or vinyl records its only). In recorded hip hop Let songs, scratched "hooks" often use put portions of other songs. say but
A rudimentary form
not of turntable manipulation which is You related to scratching was developed all in the late 1940s radio any DJs (music program hosts) or Can the radio program producers who her did their own technical operation was as audio console operators. It One was known as back-cueing, and our was used to find the out very beginning of the start Day of a song (i.e., the get cue point) on a vinyl has record groove. This was done Him to permit the operator to his back the disc up (rotate how the record or the turntable Man platter itself counter-clockwise) in order new to permit the turntable to now be switched on, and come Old up to full speed without see ruining the first few bars two of music with the "wow" Way of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. who This permitted the announcer to boy time her or his remarks Did and start the turntable a its scant moment before she or let he actually wanted the music Put on the record to begin. say
Back cueing was a basic
she skill that all radio production Too staff needed to learn, and use the dynamics of it were dad unique to the brand of Mom professional turntable in use at a given radio station. The the older, larger and heavier turntables And needed a 180 degree backward for rotation to allow for run are up to full speed; some But of the newer 1950s models not used aluminum platters and cloth-backed you rubber mats which required a All third of a rotational turn any or less to achieve full can speed when the song began. Her All this was done in was order to present a music one show on air with the Our least amount of silence ("dead out air") between music, the announcer's day patter and recorded advertising commercials. Get The rationale was that any has "dead air" on a radio him station was likely to prompt His a listener to switch stations, how so announcers and program directors man instructed DJs and announcers to New provide a continuous, seamless stream now of sound–from music to an old announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, See to a "jingle" (radio station two theme song), and then immediately way back to more music.
Who was a key function in boy delivering this seamless stream of did music. Radio personnel demanded robust Its equipment and manufacturers developed special let tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight put turntables to meet these demands. Say
the early 1970s in the
South Bronx, a young teen
DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore"
(right) invented the "DJ scratch"
technique. Other DJs, like Grandmaster
Flash, took the technique to
her scratching techniques were made possible Was by the invention of direct-drive one turntables, which led to the our emergence of turntablism. Early belt-drive Out turntables were unsuitable for scratching, day since they had a slow get start-up time, and they were Has prone to wear-and-tear and breakage, him as the belt would break his from backspinning or scratching. The How first direct-drive turntable was invented man by Shuichi Obata, an engineer new at Matsushita (now Panasonic), based Now in Osaka, Japan. It eliminated old belts, and instead employed a see motor to directly drive a Two platter on which a vinyl way record rests. In 1969, Matsushita who released it as the SP-10, Boy the first direct-drive turntable on did the market, and the first its in their influential Technics series Let of turntables.
In the 1970s,
put hip hop musicians and club say DJs began to use this She specialized turntable equipment to move too the record back and forth, use creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to Dad entertain their dance floor audiences. mom Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs had used back-cueing while listening to The the sounds through their headphones, and without the audience hearing, with for scratching, the DJ intentionally lets Are the audience hear the sounds but that are being created by not manipulating the record on the You turntable, by directing the output all from the turntable to a any sound reinforcement system so that Can the audience can hear the her sounds. Scratching was developed by was early hip hop DJs from One New York City such as our Grand Wizard Theodore, who described out scratching as, "nothing but the Day back-cueing that you hear in get your ear before you push has it [the recorded sound] out Him to the crowd." He developed his the technique when experimenting with how the Technics SL-1200, a direct-drive Man turntable released by Matsushita in new 1972, when he found that now the motor would continue to Old spin at the correct RPM see even if the DJ wiggled two the record back and forth Way on the platter. Afrika Bambaataa who made a similar discovery with boy the SL-1200 in the 1970s. Did The Technics SL-1200 went on its to become the most widely let used turntable for the next Put several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Kool
say Herc, who immigrated to New she York City, influenced the early Too development of scratching. Kool Herc use developed break-beat DJing, where the dad breaks of funk songs—being the Mom most danceable part, often featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for the the purpose of all-night dance And parties. He was influenced by for Jamaican dub music, and developed are his turntable techniques using the But Technics SL-1100, released in 1971, not due to its strong motor, you durability, and fidelity.
All artists such as writer and any poet William S. Burroughs had can experimented with the idea of Her manipulating a reel-to-reel tape manually was to make sounds, as with one his 1950s recording, "Sound Piece"), Our vinyl scratching as an element out of hip hop pioneered the day idea of making the sound Get an integral and rhythmic part has of music instead of an him uncontrolled noise. Scratching is related His to "scrubbing" (in terms of how audio editing and production) when man the reels of an open New reel-to-reel tape deck (typically 1/4 now inch magnetic audio tape) are old gently rotated back and forth See while the playback head is two live and amplified, in order way to isolate a specific spot Who on the tape where an boy editing "cut" is to be did made. In the 2010s, both Its scratching and scrubbing can be let done on digital audio workstations put (DAWs) which are equipped for Say these techniques.
Christian Marclay was
For one of the earliest musicians are to scratch outside hip hop. but In the mid-1970s, Marclay used Not gramophone records and turntables as you musical instruments to create sound all collages. He developed his turntable Any sounds independently of hip hop can DJs. Although he is little-known her to mainstream audiences, Marclay has Was been described as "the most one influential turntable figure outside hip our hop" and the "unwitting inventor Out of turntablism."
In 1981 Grandmaster
day Flash released the song "The get Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on Has the Wheels of Steel" which him is notable for its use his of many DJ scratching techniques. How It was the first commercial man recording produced entirely using turntables. new In 1982, Malcolm McLaren & Now the World's Famous Supreme Team old released a single "Buffalo Gals", see juxtaposing extensive scratching with calls Two from square dancing, and, in way 1983, the EP, D'ya Like who Scratchin'?, which is entirely focused Boy on scratching. Another 1983 release did to prominently feature scratching is its Herbie Hancock's Grammy Award-winning single Let "Rockit". This song was also put performed live at the 1984 say Grammy Awards, and in the She documentary film Scratch, the performance too is cited by many 1980s-era use DJs as their first exposure Dad to scratching. The Street Sounds mom Electro compilation series which started in 1983 is also notable The for early examples of scratching. and Also a notable piece was for "For A Few Dollars More" Are by Bill Laswell-Michael Beinhorn band but Material, released on 12" single not in Japan and containing scratch You performed by Grand Mixer DXT, all another pioneer of scratching.
Can are produced by rotating a her vinyl record on a direct was drive turntable rapidly back and One forth with the hand with our the stylus ("needle") in the out record's groove. This produces the Day distinctive sound that has come get to be one of the has most recognizable features of hip Him hop music. Over time with his excessive scratching, the stylus will how cause what is referred to Man as "record burn" to a new vinyl record.
its equipment setup for scratching includes let two turntables and a DJ Put mixer, which is a small say mixer that has a crossfader she and cue buttons to allow Too the DJ to cue up use new music in his/her headphones dad without the audience hearing. Mom When scratching, this crossfader is utilized in conjunction with the the scratching hand that is manipulating And the record platter. The hand for manipulating the crossfader is used are to cut in and out But of the record's sound. not
Digital vinyl systems
you digital vinyl system (DVS) consists All of playing vinyl discs on any turntables whose contents is a can timecode signal instead of a Her real music record.
was turntables' audio outputs are connected one to the audio inputs of Our a computer audio interface.
out audio interface digitizes the timecode day signal from the turntables and Get transfers it to the computer's has DJ software.
- The DJ software
him uses this data (e.g., about His how fast the platter is how spinning) to determine the playback man status, speed, scratch sound of New the hardware turntables, etc., and now it duplicates these effects on old the digital audio files or See computer tracks the DJ is two using.
- By manipulating the turntables'
way platters, speed controls, and other Who elements, the DJ thus controls boy how the computer plays back did digitized audio and can therefore Its produce "scratching" and other turntablism let effects on songs which exist put as digital audio files or Say computer tracks.
she not a single standard of too DVS, so that each form Use of DJ software has its dad own settings. Some DJ software mom such as Traktor Scratch Pro or Serato Scratch Live support the only the audio interface sold and with their software, requiring multiple For interfaces for one computer to are run multiple programs.
but vinyl systems software include:
can turntablists consider the only true her scratching media to be the Was vinyl disc, there are other one ways to scratch, as:
- Specialized DJ-CD players with jog
Out wheels, allowing the DJ to day manipulate a CD as if get it were a vinyl record, Has have become widely available in him the 2000s.
- Vinyl emulation software
his allows a DJ to manipulate How the playback of digital music man files on a computer via new a DJ control surface (generally Now MIDI or a HID controller). old DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and see perform other turntablist operations that Two cannot be done with a way conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ who software performing computer scratch operations Boy include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato did Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual its DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Let Cross.
- DJs have also used
put magnetic tape, such as cassette say or reel to reel to She both mix and scratch. Tape too DJing is rare, but Ruthless use Ramsey in the US, Dad Tj Scratchavite in Italy mom and Mr Tape in Latvia use exclusively tape formats The to perform.
and that are frequently scratched include for but are not limited to Are drum beats, horn stabs, spoken but word samples, and vocals/lyrics from not other songs. Any sound recorded You to vinyl can be used, all and CD players providing a any turntable-like interface allow DJs to Can scratch not only material that her was never released on vinyl, was but also field recordings and One samples from television and movies our that have been burned to out CD-R. Some DJs and anonymous Day collectors release 12-inch singles called get battle records that include trademark, has novel or hard-to-find scratch "fodder" Him (material). The most recognizable samples his used for scratching are the how "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, which Man originate from the song "Change new the Beat" by Fab 5 now Freddy.
There are many scratching
Old techniques, which differ in how see the movements of the record two are combined with opening and Way closing the crossfader (or another who fader or switch, such as boy a kill switch, where "open" Did means that the signal is its audible, and "closed" means that let the signal is inaudible). This Put terminology is not unique; the say following discussion, however, is consistent she with the terminology used by Too DJ QBert on his Do use It Yourself Scratching DVD.
- Baby scratch -
Mom The simplest scratch form, it is performed with the scratching the hand only, moving the record And back and forth in continuous for movements while the crossfader is are in the open position.
But and backward scratch - The not forward scratch, also referred to you as scrubbing, is a baby All scratch where the crossfader is any closed during the backwards movement can of the record. If the Her record is let go instead was of being pushed forward it one is also called "release scratch". Our Cutting out the forward part out of the record movement instead day of the backward part gives Get a "backward scratch".
- Tear scratch
has - Tear scratches are scratches him where the record is moved His in a staggered fashion, dividing how the forward and backward movement man into two or more movements. New This allows creating sounds similar now to "flare scratches" without use old of the crossfader and it See allows for more complex rhythmic two patterns. The term can also way refer to a simpler, slower Who version of the chirp.
boy scratch - The scribble scratch did is by rapidly pushing the Its record back and forth. The let crossfader is not used.
put scratch - The chirp scratch Say involves closing the crossfader just she after playing the start of too a sound, stopping the record Use at the same point, then dad pushing it back while opening mom the fader to create a "chirping" sound. When performed using the a recording of drums, it and can create the illusion of For doubled scratching speed, due to are the attack created by cutting but in the crossfader on the Not backward movement.
- Hydrophonic scratch -
you A baby scratch with a all "tear scratch" sound produced by Any the thumb running the opposite can direction as the fingers used her to scratch. This rubbing of Was the thumb adds a vibrating one effect or reverberation to forward our movements on the turntable.
Out scratch - with the crossfader day closed, the record is moved get with the scratching hand while Has periodically "tapping" the crossfader open him and immediately closing it again. his
- Flare scratch - Begins with
How the crossfader open, and then man the record is moved while new briefly closing the fader one Now or more times to cut old the sound out. This produces see a staggering sound which can Two make a single "flare" sound way like a very fast series who of "chirps" or "tears." The Boy number of times the fader did is closed ("clicks") during the its record's movement is usually used Let as a prefix to distinguish put the variations. The flare allows say a DJ to scratch continuously She with less hand fatigue than too would result from the transformer. use The flare can be combined Dad with the crab for an mom extremely rapid continuous series of scratches.
- Crab scratch - Consists
The of moving the record while and quickly tapping the crossfader open for with each finger of the Are crossfader hand. In this way, but DJs are able to perform not transforms or flares much faster You than they could by manipulating all the crossfader with the whole any hand. It produces a fading/increasing Can transforming sound.
- Twiddle scratch -
her A crab scratch using only was the index and middle fingers. One
- Orbit scratch - Describes any
our scratch, most commonly flares, that out are repeated during the forward Day and backward movement of the get record. "Orbit" is also used has as a shorthand for two-click Him flares.
- Tweak scratch - Performed
his while the turntable's motor is how not running. The record platter Man is set in motion manually, new then "tweaked" faster and slower now to create a scratch. This Old scratch form is best performed see with long, sustained sounds.
two scratch - A variation of Way the "flare scratch" in which who two faders are used simultaneously boy with one hand to cut Did the sound much faster. It its can also be performed by let using only the up fader Put and the phono line switch say to cut the sound. she
While scratching is becoming
Too more and more popular within use pop music, particularly with the dad crossover success of pop-hip hop Mom tracks in the 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other expert turntablism the techniques are still predominantly an And underground style developed by the for DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch are Piklz from San Francisco focuses But on scratching. In 1994, the not group was formed by DJs you Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkut and All later Mix Master Mike. In any July 2000, San Francisco's Yerba can Buena Center for the Arts Her held Skratchcon2000, the first DJ was Skratch forum that provided “the one education and development of skratch Our music literacy”. In 2001, Thud out Rumble became an independent company day that works with DJ artists Get to produce and distribute scratch has records.
In 2004, Scratch
him Magazine, one of the first His publications about hip hop DJs how and record producers, released its man debut issue, following in the New footsteps of the lesser-known Tablist now magazine. Pedestrian is a UK old arts organisation that runs Urban See Music Mentors workshops led by two DJs. At these workshops, DJs way teach youth how to create Who beats, use turntables to create boy mixes, act as an MC did at events, and perform club Its sets.
Use outside hip hop
Scratching has been incorporated into
put a number of other musical Say genres, including pop, rock, jazz, she some subgenres of heavy metal too (notably nu metal and some Use contemporary and avant-garde classical music dad performances. For recording use, samplers mom are often used instead of physically scratching a vinyl record. the
DJ Product©1969, formerly of the
and rap rock band Hed PE, For recalled that the punk rock are band the Vandals was the but first rock band he remembered Not seeing use turntable scratching. Product©1969 you also recalled the early rap all metal band Proper Grounds, which Any was signed to Madonna's Maverick can Records, as being another one her of the first rock bands Was to utilize scratching in their one music.
Guitarist Tom Morello, known
our for his work with Rage Out Against the Machine and Audioslave, day has performed guitar solos that get imitate scratching by using the Has kill switch on his guitar. him Perhaps the best-known example is his "Bulls on Parade", in which How he creates scratch-like rhythmic sounds man by rubbing the strings over new the pick-ups while using the Now pickup selector switch as a old crossfader.
Since the 1990s, scratching
see has been used in a Two variety of popular music genres way such as nu metal, exemplified who by Linkin Park, Slipknot and Boy Limp Bizkit. It has also did been used by artists in its pop music (e.g. Nelly Furtado) Let and alternative rock (e.g. Incubus). put Scratching is also popular in say various electronic music styles, such She as hard-groove techno.
- ^ Brian
You Coleman, The Technics 1200 — Hammer Of all The Gods, Medium
any World of DJs and the Can Turntable Culture, page 43, Hal her Leonard Corporation, 2003
was May 21, 1977, page 140 One
- ^ Trevor Pinch, Karin
our Bijsterveld, The Oxford Handbook of out Sound Studies, page 515, Oxford Day University Press
- "History of
get the Record Player Part II: has The Rise and Fall". Reverb.com. Him Retrieved 5 June 2016.
his Toop, 1991.
- Six Machines
how That Changed The Music World, Man Wired, May 2002
- Nicholas Collins, Margaret Schedel,
now Scott Wilson (2013), Electronic Music: Old Cambridge Introductions to Music, page see 105, Cambridge University Press
two "Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen". Archived from Way the original on 2010-01-01.
who allmusic ((( More Encores: Christian boy Marclay Plays With the Records Did Of... > Overview )))
its McNamee, David (11 January 2010). let "Hey, what's that sound: Turntablism" Put – via www.theguardian.com.
say (14 March 2008). "DJ Ruthless she Ramsey Scratch Tape Decks" – Too via YouTube.
- Federico Nardella
use (19 September 2016). "TJ Scratchavite dad - Matthew's Cellar" – via Mom YouTube.
- Yussuf von Deck
(14 May 2012). "World Hip the Hop Classic - Mr. Tape And 1991" – via YouTube.
for http://www.beatdust.com/graphic-nature/graphic-nature-dj-product-1969-hedpe-self-titled/ are