who is a genre of electronic boy music created by club DJs Did and music producers in Chicago its in the early 1980s. Early let house music was generally characterized Put by repetitive 4/4 beats, rhythms say mainly provided by drum machines, she off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized Too basslines. While house displayed several use characteristics similar to disco music, dad which preceded and influenced it, Mom as both were DJ and record producer-created dance music, house the was more electronic and minimalistic. And The mechanical, repetitive rhythm of for house was more important than are the song itself; indeed, many But house songs were instrumental, with not no vocals, or if there you was singing, the typically female All singer would not be well-known, any or there would be no can words.
House music developed in
Her Chicago's underground dance club culture was in the early 1980s, as one DJs from the gay subculture Our began altering the pop-like disco out dance tracks to give them day a more mechanical beat and Get deeper basslines. As well, these has DJs began to mix synth him pop, dub reggae, rap and His even jazz into their tracks. how It was pioneered by Chicago man DJ/record producer Frankie Knuckles, the New Chicago acid-house electronic music group now Phuture, the Tennessee DJ/producer Mr. old Fingers, and US-born, UK-based singer See Kym Mazelle. and was associated two with African-American and gay subcultures. way House music quickly spread to Who other American cities such as boy Detroit, New York City, Baltimore, did and Newark – all of Its which developed their own regional let scenes. In the mid-to-late 1980s, put house music became popular in Say Europe as well as major she cities in South America, and too Australia.
Early house music had
Use commercial success in Europe, with dad songs such as "Pump Up mom The Volume" by MARRS (1987), "Theme from S'Express" by S'Express the (1988) and "Doctorin' the House" and by Coldcut (1988) climbing the For pop charts. Since the early are to mid-1990s, house music has but been infused into mainstream pop Not and dance music worldwide. In you the late 1980s, many local all Chicago house music artists suddenly Any found themselves presented with major can label deals. House music proved her to be a commercially successful Was genre and a more mainstream one pop-based variation grew increasingly popular. our House music in the 2010s, Out while keeping several of these day core elements, notably the prominent get kick drum on every beat, Has varies widely in style and him influence, ranging from the soulful his and atmospheric deep house to How the more minimalistic microhouse. House man music has also fused with new several other genres creating fusion Now subgenres, such as euro house, old tech house, electro house and see jump house. One subgenre, acid Two house, was based around the way squelchy, deep electronic tones created who by Roland's TB-303 bassline machine. Boy
Artists and groups such as
did Madonna, Janet Jackson, Paula Abdul, its CeCe Peniston, Bananarama, Robin S., Let Steps, Kylie Minogue, Björk, and put C+C Music Factory all incorporated say the genre into their work She in the 1990s and beyond. After enjoying significant success use in the early to mid-1990s, Dad house music grew even larger mom during the second wave of progressive house (1999–2001). The genre The has remained popular and fused and into other popular subgenres, for for example, ghetto house, deep house Are and tech house. As of but 2016, house music remains popular not in both clubs and in You the mainstream pop scene while all retaining a foothold on underground any scenes across the globe. In Can the late 1990s to the her 2010s, progressive house artists/performers such was as Daft Punk, Basement Jaxx, One and House of 909 brought our new attention to house. out
use is created by DJs and dad record producers, often with contributions Mom from other performers on synthesizer and other electronic instruments. The the song structure of house music And songs typically involves an intro, for a chorus, various verse sections, are a midsection and an outro. But Some songs do not have not a verse, taking a vocal you part from the chorus and All repeating the same cycle. The any drum beat is one of can the more important elements within Her the genre and is almost was always provided by an electronic one drum machine, usually Roland's TR-808 Our or TR-909, rather than by out a human drummer playing drumkit. day The drum beats of house Get are "four on the floor", has with bass drums played on him every beat and they usually His feature off-beat drum machine hi-hat how sounds. House music is often man based on bass-heavy loops or New basslines produced by a synthesizer now and/or from samples of disco old or funk songs. One subgenre, See acid house, was based around two the squelchy, deep electronic tones way created by Roland's TB-303 bassline Who synth. The tempo of most boy house songs is between 118 did and 135 beats per minute Its (bpm).
Influences and precursors
let disco songs incorporated sounds produced put with synthesizers and electronic drum Say machines, and some compositions were she entirely electronic; examples include Giorgio too Moroder's late 1970s productions such Use as Donna Summer's hit single dad "I Feel Love" from 1977, mom Cerrone's "Supernature" (1977), Yellow Magic Orchestra's synth-disco-pop productions from Yellow the Magic Orchestra (1978), Solid State and Survivor (1979), and several early For 1980s disco-pop productions by the are Hi-NRG groups Lime and Trans-X. but
Soul music and disco influenced
Not house music. As well, the you audio mixing and editing techniques all earlier explored by disco, garage Any music and post-disco DJs, record can producers, and audio engineers such her as Walter Gibbons, Tom Moulton, Was Jim Burgess, Larry Levan, Ron one Hardy, M & M, and our others was important. These artists Out produced longer, more repetitive, and day percussive arrangements of existing disco get recordings. Early house producers such Has as Frankie Knuckles created similar him compositions from scratch, using samplers, his synthesizers, sequencers, and drum machines. How
The electronic instrumentation and minimal
man arrangement of Charanjit Singh's Synthesizing: new Ten Ragas to a Disco Now Beat (1982), an album of old Indian ragas performed in a see disco style, anticipated the sounds Two of acid house music, but way it is not known to who have had any influence on Boy the genre prior to the did album's rediscovery in the 21st its century.
Rachel Cain, co-founder of
Let an influential Trax Records, was put previously involved in the burgeoning say punk scene and cites industrial She and post-punk record store Wax too Trax! Records as an important use connection between the ever-changing underground Dad sounds of Chicago. As most mom proto-house DJs were primarily stuck to playing their conventional ensemble The and playlist of dance records, and Frankie Knuckles and Ron Hardy, for two influential pioneers of house Are music, were known for their but unusual and non-mainstream playlists and not mixing. The former, credited as You "the Godfather of House", worked all primarily with early disco music any with a hint of new Can and different music (whether it her was post-punk or post-disco) but was still enjoying a variety of One music, while the latter produced our unconventional DIY mixtapes which he out later played straight-on in the Day music club Music Box, boiling get with raw energy. Marshall Jefferson, has who would later appear with Him the Chicago house classic "Move his Your Body (The House-Music Anthem)", how (originally released on Chicago-based Trax Man Records) got involved in house new music after hearing Ron Hardy's now music in Muzic Box.
"I wasn’t even into dance
see music before I went to two the Music Box," he laughs. Way "I was into rock and who roll. We would get drunk boy and listen to rock and Did roll. We didn’t give a its f***, we were like 'Disco let Sucks!' and all that. I Put hated dance music 'cos I say couldn't dance. I thought dance she music was kind of wimpy, Too until I heard it at use like Music Box volume."
not the early 1980s, Chicago radio you jocks The Hot Mix 5, All and club DJs Ron Hardy any and Frankie Knuckles played a can range of styles of dance Her music, including older disco records was (mostly Philly disco and Salsoul one tracks), electro funk tracks by Our artists such as Afrika Bambaataa, out newer Italo disco, B-Boy hip day hop music by Man Parrish, Get Jellybean Benitez, Arthur Baker, and has John Robie, and electronic pop him music by Kraftwerk and Yellow His Magic Orchestra. Some DJs made how and played their own edits man of their favorite songs on New reel-to-reel tape, and sometimes mixed now in electronic effects, drum machines, old synthesizers and other rhythmic electronic See instrumentation. The African-American DJ Frankie two Knuckles would use basslines and way rhythm section parts from vintage Who disco and R&B songs, mix boy them with parts from modern did synthpop songs and transform them Its into innovative house music tracks. let DJ Ron Hardy, an African-American put producer and DJ who spun Say at the Music Box club, she used the same approaches as too Knuckles, collaging parts from vintage Use and new songs to make dad new tracks. However, whereas Knuckle's mom house tracks had an overall positive mood, Hardy's tracks had the more of an edge and and faster, more energetic tempos, designed For to rev up the dancers are in the club.
him electronic dance song "On and his On", produced in 1984 by How Chicago DJ Jesse Saunders and man co-written by Vince Lawrence, had new elements that became staples of Now the early house sound, such old as the Roland TB-303 bass see synthesizer and minimal vocals as Two well as a Roland (specifically way TR-808) drum machine and Korg who (specifically Poly-61) synthesizer. It also Boy utilized the bassline from Player did One's disco record "Space Invaders" its (1979). "On and On" is Let sometimes cited as the 'first put house record', though other examples say from around that time, such She as J.M. Silk's "Music is too the Key" (1985), have also use been cited.
Starting in 1984,
Dad some of these DJs, inspired mom by Jesse Saunders' success with "On and On", tried their The hand at producing and releasing and original compositions. These compositions used for newly affordable electronic instruments to Are emulate not just Saunders' song, but but the edited, enhanced styles not of disco and other dance You music they already favored. These all homegrown productions were played on any Chicago-area radio and in local Can discothèques catering mainly to African-American her and gay audiences. By 1985, was although the exact origins of One the term are debated, "house our music" encompassed these locally produced out recordings. Subgenres of house, including Day deep house and acid house, get quickly emerged and gained traction. has
Deep house's origins can
Put be traced to Chicago producer say Mr Fingers's relatively jazzy, soulful she recordings "Mystery of Love" (1985) Too and "Can You Feel It?" use (1986). According to author Richie dad Unterberger, it moved house music Mom away from its "posthuman tendencies back towards the lush" soulful the sound of early disco music. And
Acid house arose from Chicago
for artists' experiments with the squelchy are Roland TB-303 bass synthesizer, and But the style's origins on vinyl not is generally cited as Phuture's you "Acid Tracks" (1987). Phuture, a All group founded by Nathan "DJ any Pierre" Jones, Earl "Spanky" Smith can Jr., and Herbert "Herb J" Her Jackson, is credited with having was been the first to use one the TB-303 in the house Our music context. The group's 12-minute out "Acid Tracks" was recorded to day tape and was played by Get DJ Ron Hardy at the has Music Box, where Hardy was him resident DJ. Hardy once played His it four times over the how course of an evening until man the crowd responded favorably. The New track also utilized a Roland now TR-707 drum machine.
old of house tracks by pioneering See Chicago DJs such as Hardy two and Lil Louis, local dance way music record shops such as Who Importes, State Street Records, Loop boy Records, Gramaphone Records and the did popular Hot Mix 5 shows Its on radio station WBMX-FM helped let popularize house music in Chicago. put Later, visiting DJs & producers Say from Detroit fell into the she genre. Trax Records and DJ too International Records, Chicago labels with Use wider distribution, helped popularize house dad music inside and outside of mom Chicago. One 1986 house tune called "Move Your Body" by the Marshall Jefferson, taken from the and appropriately titled "The House Music For Anthem" EP, became a big are hit in Chicago and eventually but worldwide. By 1986, UK labels Not were releasing house music by you Chicago acts, and by 1987 all house tracks by Chicago DJs Any and producers were appearing on can and topping the UK music her chart. By this time, house Was music released by Chicago-based labels one was considered a must-play in our clubs.
Origins of the term
music pioneers Alan King, Robert
Williams and Derrick Carter.
One 2009 book states
him the term "house music" originated his from a Chicago club called How The Warehouse, which existed from man 1977 to 1983. Clubbers to new The Warehouse were primarily black, Now who came to dance to old music played by the club's see resident DJ Frankie Knuckles, whom Two fans refer to as the way "godfather of house". Frankie began who the trend of splicing together Boy different records when he found did that the records he had its weren't long enough to satisfy Let his audience of dancers. He put would use tape and a say knife to accomplish this. After She the Warehouse closed in 1983, too the crowds went to Knuckles' use new club, The Power Plant. Dad
In the Channel 4 documentary
mom Pump Up The Volume, Knuckles remarks that the first time The he heard the term "house and music" was upon seeing "we for play house music" on a Are sign in the window of but a bar on Chicago's South not Side. One of the people You in the car with him all joked, "you know, that's the any kind of music you play Can down at the Warehouse!", and her then everybody laughed. South-Side Chicago was DJ Leonard "Remix" Roy, in One self-published statements, claims he put our such a sign in a out tavern window because it was Day where he played music that get one might find in one's has home; in his case, it Him referred to his mother's soul his & disco records, which he how worked into his sets.
Man Jackmaster Funk was quoted as new saying "In 1982, I was now DJing at a club called Old The Playground and there was see this kid named Leonard 'Remix' two Roy who was a DJ Way at a rival club called who The Rink. He came over boy to my club one night, Did and into the DJ booth its and said to me, 'I've let got the gimmick that's gonna Put take all the people out say of your club and into she mine – it's called House Too music.' Now, where he got use that name from or what dad made him think of it Mom I don't know, so the answer lies with him."
the E.'s 1985 recording "It's House" And may also have helped to for define this new form of are electronic music. However, Chip E. But himself lends credence to the not Knuckles association, claiming the name you came from methods of labeling All records at the Importes Etc. any record store, where he worked can in the early 1980s: bins Her of music that DJ Knuckles was played at the Warehouse nightclub one were labelled in the store Our "As Heard At The Warehouse", out which was shortened to simply day "House". Patrons later asked for Get new music for the bins, has which Chip E. implies was him a demand the shop tried His to meet by stocking newer how local club hits. In a man 1986 interview, when Rocky Jones, New the club DJ who ran now the D.J. International record label, old was asked about the "house" See moniker, he did not mention two Importes Etc., Frankie Knuckles, or way the Warehouse by name. However, Who he agreed that "house" was boy a regional catch-all term for did dance music, and that it Its was once synonymous with older let disco music, before it became put a way to refer to Say "new" dance music.
she a.k.a. "Mr. Fingers", claims that too the term "house" became popular Use due to many of the dad early DJs creating music in mom their own home studios using synthesizers and drum machines, such the as the Roland TR-808 programmable and drum machine, TR-909, and the For TB 303 bassline synth. These are synthesizers were used to create but a house subgenre called acid Not house. Juan Atkins, an originator you of Detroit techno music, claims all the term "house" reflected the Any exclusive association of particular tracks can with particular clubs and DJs; her those records helped differentiate the Was clubs and DJs, and thus one were considered to be their our "house" records. In an effort Out to maintain such exclusives, the day DJs were inspired to create get their own "house" records.
House lyrics contained political
him messages for people who were his considered to be outcasts, especially How African-Americans and the gay subculture. man As well, house music lyrics new had positive messages encouraging unity Now and calling for people of old all ethnic groups and backgrounds see to come together. The house Two music dance scene was one way of the most integrated and who progressive spaces in the 1980s; Boy gays, blacks, and other minority did groups were able to dance its together in a positive environment. Let Frankie Knuckles once said that put the Warehouse club in Chicago say was like "church for people She who have fallen from grace". too House record producer Marshall Jefferson use compared it to "old-time religion Dad in the way that people mom just get happy and screamin'". Deep house lyrics also contained The messages calling for equality for and the black community. However, not for all house music songs had Are vocals, and in some cases, but the vocals were wordless, as not the most important element in You house was the beat and all rhythm. This contrasts sharply with any pop music, which forefronts the Can vocal melody and the song her lyrics.
Regional scenes (1980s–1990s)
was sound: 1986–1989
our is an offshoot of Chicago out house music which developed in Day the early-mid 1980s. One of get the earliest hits was "Big has Fun" by Inner City. Detroit Him techno developed as the DJ his The Electrifying Mojo did his how radio program, which fused eclectic Man sounds into the signature Detroit new techno sound. This sound, also now influenced by European electronica (Kraftwerk, Old Art of Noise), Japanese synthpop see (Yellow Magic Orchestra), early B-boy two (breakdancing) Hip-Hop (Man Parrish, Soul Way Sonic Force) and Italo disco who (Doctor's Cat, Ris, Klein M.B.O.), boy was further pioneered by Juan Did Atkins, Derrick May, and Kevin its Saunderson, known as the Belleville let Three.
Derrick May a.k.a.
for "MAYDAY" and Thomas Barnett released are "Nude Photo" in 1987 on But May's label "Transmat Records", which not helped start the Detroit techno you music scene. This record was All played on Chicago's Hot Mix any 5 Radio DJ mix show can and in Chicago clubs. Her A year later, Transmat released was "Strings of Life". Transmat Records one also released such as Our 1988's "Wiggin". As well, Derrick out May had releases on day Kool Kat Records and many Get remixes for underground and mainstream has recording artists. Kevin Saunderson's company him KMS Records contributed many releases His that were as much house how music as they were techno. man These tracks were well received New in Chicago and played on now Chicago radio and in clubs.
Blake Baxter's 1986 recording,
See "When we Used to Play two / Work your Body", 1987's way "Bounce Your Body to the Who Box" and "Force Field", "The boy Sound / How to Play did our Music" and "the Groove Its that Won't Stop" and a let remix of "Grooving Without a put Doubt". In 1988, as house Say music became more popular among she general audiences, Kevin Saunderson's group too Inner City with Paris Gray Use released the 1988 hits "Big dad Fun" and "Good Life", which mom eventually were picked up by Virgin Records. Each EP / the 12 inch single sported remixes by and Mike "Hitman" Wilson and Steve For "Silk" Hurley of Chicago and are Derrick "Mayday" May and Juan but Atkins of Detroit. In 1989, Not KMS had another hit release you of "Rock to the Beat" all which was a theme in Any Chicago dance clubs.
can 1986–early 1990s Was
With house music already important
one in the 1980s dance club our scene, eventually house penetrated the Out UK pop charts. London DJ day “Evil” Eddie Richards spun at get dance parties as resident at Has the Clink Street club. Richards' him approach to house focuses on his the deep basslines. Nicknamed the How UK's "Godfather of House”, he man and Clink co-residents Kid Batchelor new and Mr. C played a Now key role in early UK old house. House first charted in see the UK in Wolverhampton following Two on from the success of way the Northern Soul scene. who The record generally credited as Boy the first house hit in did the UK was Farley "Jackmaster" its Funk's "Love Can't Turn Around", Let which reached #10 in the put UK singles chart in September say 1986.
but January 1987, Chicago DJ/artist Steve not "Silk" Hurley's "Jack Your Body" You reached number one in the all UK, showing it was possible any for house music to achieve Can crossover success in the pop her charts. The same month also was saw Raze enter the top One 20 with "Jack the Groove", our and several further house hits out reached the top ten that Day year. Stock Aitken Waterman (SAW) get expensively-produced productions for Mel and has Kim, including the number-one hit Him "Respectable", added elements of house his to their previous Europop sound. how SAW session group Mirage scored Man top-ten hits with "Jack Mix new II" and "Jack Mix IV", now medleys of previous electro and Old Europop hits rearranged in a see house music style. Key labels two in the rise of house Way music in the UK included: who
- Jack Trax, which specialized
boy in licensing US club hits Did for the British market (and its released an influential series of let compilation albums)
- Rhythm King, which
Put was set up as a say hip hop label but also she issued house records
- Jive Records'
Too Club Records imprint
use March 1987, the UK tour dad of influential US DJs such Mom as Knuckles, Jefferson, Fingers Inc. (Heard) and Adonis, on the the DJ International Tour boosted house's And popularity in the UK. Following for the number-one success of MARRS' are "Pump Up The Volume" in But October, in 1987 to 1989, not UK acts such as The you Beatmasters, Krush, Coldcut, Yazz, Bomb All The Bass, S-Express, and Italy's any Black Box opened the doors can to house music success on Her the UK charts. Early British was house music quickly set itself one apart from the original Chicago Our house sound. Many of the out early hits were based on day sample montage, and unlike the Get US soulful vocals, in UK has house, rap was often used him for vocals (far more than His in the US), and how humor and wit was an man important element. New
US-born singer Kym Mazelle
(born 1960), who moved to
the UK, has been called
the "First Lady of House
way best-selling British single of 1988 Who was an acid house record, boy the Coldcut-produced "The Only Way did Is Up" by Yazz. One Its of the early club anthems, let "Promised Land" by Joe Smooth, put was covered and charted within Say a week by UK band she The Style Council. Europeans embraced too house, and began booking important Use American house DJs to play dad at the big clubs, such mom as Ministry of Sound, whose resident, Justin Berkmann brought in the US pioneer Larry Levan. In and the late 1980s, American-born singer For Kym Mazelle relocated to London are to sign a recording contract but with EMI Records and her Not first album Brilliant! in 1989, you which was based on house all music. Mazelle's single "Wait!" featuring Any Robert Howard became an one can of the first international house her hits.
The house music club
Was scene in cities such as one Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Wolverhampton and our London were provided with dance Out tracks by many underground Pirate day Radio stations. Club DJs also get brought in new house styles, Has which helped bolster this music him genre. The earliest UK house his and techno record labels such How as Warp Records and Network man Records (otherwise known as Kool new Kat records) helped introduce American Now and later Italian dance music old to Britain. These labels also see promoted UK dance music acts. Two By the end of the way 1980s, UK DJs Jenö, Thomas, who Markie and Garth moved to Boy San Francisco, and called their did group the Wicked Crew. The its Wicked Crew's dance sound transmitted Let UK styles to the US, put which helped to trigger the say birth of the US west She coast's rave scene.
too also being developed by DJs use and record producers in the Dad booming dance club scene in mom Ibiza. While no house artists or labels came from this The tiny island at the time, and mixing experiments and innovations done for by Ibiza DJs helped to Are influence the house style. By but the mid-1980s a distinct Balearic not mix of house was discernible. You Several influential clubs in Ibiza, all such as Amnesia, with DJ any Alfredo at the decks, were Can playing a mix of rock, her pop, disco and house. These was clubs, fuelled by their distinctive One sound and copious consumption of our the club drug Ecstasy (MDMA), out began to influence the British Day scene. By late 1987, DJs get such as Trevor Fung, Paul has Oakenfold and Danny Rampling were Him bringing the Ibiza sound to his key UK clubs such as how the Haçienda in Manchester. Ibiza Man influences also spread to DJs new working London clubs such as now Shoom in Southwark, Heaven, Future Old and Spectrum.
In the U.S.,
see house music developed into more two sophisticated sound, moving beyond the Way rudimentary drum machine loops and who short samples that had characterized boy early US house. In Chicago, Did Marshall Jefferson formed the house its group Ten City with Byron let Burke, Byron Stingily & Herb Put Lawson (from "Intensity"). New York say City–based performers such as Mateo she & Matos and Blaze had Too slickly produced disco-infused house tracks. use In Detroit a proto-techno music dad sound began to emerge with Mom the DJ recordings and mixes of Juan Atkins, Derrick May the and Kevin Saunderson.
And former member of Cybotron, released for "No UFOs" as Model 500 are in 1985, which became a But regional hit. Atkins follow this not by dozens of tracks on you Transmat, Metroplex and Fragile. One All of the most unusual songs any was "Strings of Life" by can Derrick May (under the name Her Rhythim Is Rhythim), a darker, was more intellectual strain of house. one "Techno-Scratch" was released by the Our Knights Of The Turntable in out 1984 which had a similar day techno sound to Cybotron. The Get manager of the Factory nightclub has and co-owner of the Haçienda, him Tony Wilson, also promoted acid His house culture on his weekly how TV show. The UK midlands man also embraced the late 1980s New house scene with illegal parties now and raves and more legal old dance clubs such as The See Hummingbird.
US: late 1980s–early 1990s
New York City where the
did Paradise Garage
nightclub was located
Back in America
let the scene had still not put progressed beyond a small number Say of clubs in Chicago, Detroit, she Newark and New York City. too Newark-area DJ Tony Humphries was Use influenced the sounds of disco dad pioneer David Mancuso, the host mom of the disco-era's underground gay subculture loft parties. Humphries played the his mixes in Newark NJ's and Club Zanzibar, where he developed For his signature "Jersey Sound", which are mixed a soulful element with but a rawer edge. Many independent Not Chicago-based record labels were also you getting their artists on the all dance charts. Detroit DJ Terrence Any Parker uses his advanced turntablism can skills and his focus on her precision to blend hip hop Was music DJing styles, such as one rhythmic scratching, in his house our mixes. Fellow Detroit spinner DJ Out Minx is a notable woman day house DJ. Her records on get her Women on Wax label Has blend Parker-influenced turntablism precision with him a funky style.
his UK, any house song released How by a Chicago-based label was man routinely considered a "must-play" at new UK house music clubs. Paradise Now Garage in New York City old was still a top club see in the house era, just Two as it had been during way the disco age. The emergence who of Todd Terry, a pioneer Boy of the genre, demonstrated the did continuum from the underground disco its approach which moved to a Let new house sound. Terry's cover put of Class Action's "Weekend" (mixed say by Larry Levan) shows how She Terry drew on newer hip-hop too influences, such as the quicker use sampling and the more rugged Dad basslines.
In the late 1980s,
mom Nu Groove Records launched and nurtured the careers of Rheji The Burrell & Rhano Burrell, collectively and known as Burrell (after a for brief stay on Virgin America Are via Timmy Regisford and Frank but Mendez). Nu Groove also had not a stable of other NYC You underground scene DJs. The Burrell's all created the "New York Underground" any sound of house, and they Can did 30+ releases on this her label featuring this sound. In was the 2010s, Nu Groove Record One releases like the Burrells' enjoy our a cult status among "crate out diggers" and DJs. Mint-condition vinyl Day records by the Burrells from get the 1980s can fetch high has prices.
By the late 1980s,
Him house DJing and production had his moved to the US's west how coast, particularly to San Francisco, Man Oakland, Los Angeles, Fresno, San new Diego and Seattle. Los Angeles now saw am explosion of underground Old raves, where DJs mixed dance see tracks. L.A. DJs Marques Wyatt two and Billy Long spun at Way Jewel's Catch One. In 1989, who the L.A.-based, former EBN-OZN singer/rapper boy Robert Ozn started indie house Did label One Voice Records. Ozn its released the Mike "Hitman" Wilson let remix of Dada Nada's "Haunted Put House", which garnered club and say mix show radio play in she Chicago, Detroit and New York Too as well as in the use U.K. and France. The record dad went up to number five Mom on the Billboard Club Chart, marking it as the first the house record by a white And (Caucasian) artist to chart in for the U.S. Dada Nada, the are moniker for Ozn's solo act, But did his first releases in not 1990, using a jazz-based Deep you House style. The Frankie Knuckles All and David Morales remix of any Dada Nada's "Deep Love" (One can Voice Records in the US, Her Polydor in the UK), featuring was Ozn's lush, crooning vocals and one jazzy improvisational solos by muted Our trumpet, underscored Deep House's progression out into a genre that integrated day jazz and pop songwriting and Get song forms (unlike acid house has and techno).
In the early
him 1990s, house music became more His popular in the US. Pop how singer Madonna's house-infused 1990 single man "Vogue" became an international hit New single and topped the US now charts. The single is credited old as helping to bring house See music to the US mainstream. two The gospel/R&B-influenced "Time Passes On" way in 1993 (Strictly Rhythm), then Who later, "Follow Me" received radio boy airplay and club plays Another did U.S. hit which received radio Its play was the single "Time let for the Perculator" by Cajmere, put which became the prototype for Say the emerging ghetto house subgenre. she Cajmere started the Cajual and too Relief labels (amongst others). By Use the early 1990s, artists of dad note included Cajmere (under that mom name as well as Green Velvet and as producer for the Dajae), DJ Sneak, and Glenn and Underground. The 1990s saw new For Chicago house artists emerge, such are as DJ Funk, who operates but a Chicago house record label Not called Dance Mania. Ghetto house you and acid house were other all house music styles that started Any in Chicago.
Was Britain, further experiments in the one genre boosted its appeal. House our and rave clubs such as Out Lakota and Cream emerged across day Britain, hosting house and dance get scene events. The 'chilling out' Has concept developed in Britain with him ambient house albums such as his The KLF's Chill Out and How Analogue Bubblebath by Aphex Twin. man The Godskitchen superclub brand also new began in the midst of Now the early 90's rave scene. old After initially hosting small nights see in Cambridge and Northampton, the Two associated events scaled up in way Milton Keynes, Birmingham and Leeds. who A new indie dance scene Boy also emerged in the 90's. did In New York, bands such its as Deee-Lite furthered house's international Let influence. Two distinctive tracks from put this era were the Orb's say "Little Fluffy Clouds" (with a She distinctive vocal sample from Rickie too Lee Jones) and the Happy use Mondays' "Wrote for Luck" ("WFL") Dad which was transformed into a mom dance hit by Vince Clarke.
In England, one of the
The few licensed venues was The and Eclipse, which attracted people from for up and down the country Are as it was open until but the early hours. Due to not the lack of licensed, legal You dance event venues, house music all promoters began organising illegal events any in unused warehouses, aeroplane hangars Can and in the countryside. The her Criminal Justice and Public Order was Act 1994 was a government One attempt to ban large rave our dance events featuring music with out "repetitive beats", due to law Day enforcement allegations that these events get were associated with illegal club has drugs. There were a number Him of "Kill the Bill" demonstrations his by rave and electronic dance how music fans. The Spiral Tribe Man dance event at Castle Morten new was the last of these now illegal raves, as the bill, Old which became law, in November see 1994, made unauthorised house music two dance events illegal in the Way UK. Despite the new law, who the music continued to grow boy and change, as typified by Did Leftfield with "Release the Pressure", its which introduced dub and reggae let into the house sound. Leftfield's Put prior releases, such as "Not say Forgotten" released in 1990 on she Sheffield's Outer Rhythm records used Too a more typical sound.
use new generation of clubs such dad as Liverpool's Cream and the Mom Ministry of Sound were opened to provide a venue for the more commercial house sounds. Major And record companies began to open for "superclubs" promoting their own groups are and acts. These superclubs entered But into sponsorship deals initially with not fast food, soft drink, and you clothing companies. Flyers in clubs All in Ibiza often sported many any corporate logos from sponsors. A can new subgenre, Chicago hard house, Her was developed by DJs such was as Bad Boy Bill, DJ one Lynnwood, and DJ Irene, Richard Our "Humpty" Vission, mixing elements of out Chicago house, funky house and day hard house. Additionally, producers such Get as George Centeno, Darren Ramirez, has and Martin O. Cairo developed him the Los Angeles Hard House His sound. Similar to gabber or how hardcore techno from the Netherlands, man this was associated with the New "rebel", underground club subculture of now the time. These three producers old introduced new production approaches and See sounds in late 20th century two became more prominent and widely way used during first decade of Who the 21st century.
boy end of the 1990s and did into the 2000s (decade), French Its DJ/producers such as Daft Punk, let Stardust, Cassius, St. Germain and put DJ Falcon began producing a Say new sound in Paris' club she scene. Together, they laid the too groundwork for what would be Use known as the French house dad movement. They combined the harder-edged-yet-soulful mom philosophy of Chicago house with the melodies of obscure funk the records. As well, by using and state-of-the-art digital production techniques blended For with the retro sound of are old-school analog synthesizers, they created but a new sound and style Not which influenced house music around you the world.
Chicago Mayor Richard M.
can Daley proclaimed August 10, 2005 her to be "House Unity Day" Was in Chicago, in celebration of one the "21st anniversary of house our music" (actually the 21st anniversary Out of the founding of Trax day Records, an independent Chicago-based house get label). The proclamation recognized Chicago Has as the original home of him house music and that the his music's original creators "were inspired How by the love of their man city, with the dream that new someday their music would spread Now a message of peace and old unity throughout the world". DJs see such as Frankie Knuckles, Marshall Two Jefferson, Paul Johnson and Mickey way Oliver celebrated the proclamation at who the Summer Dance Series, an Boy event organized by Chicago's Department did of Cultural Affairs.
its during this decade that vocal Let house became firmly established, both put in the underground and as say part of the pop market, She and labels such as Defected too Records, Roule and Om were use at the forefront of championing Dad the emerging sound. In the mom mid-2000s, fusion genres such as electro house and fidget house The emerged. This fusion is and apparent in the crossover of for musical styles by artists such Are as Dennis Ferrer and Booka but Shade, with the former's production not style having evolved from the You New York soulful house scene all and the latter's roots in any techno. Numerous live performance events Can dedicated to house music were her founded during the course of was the decade, including Shambhala Music One Festival and major industry sponsored our events like Miami's Winter Music out Conference. The genre even gained Day popularity through events like Creamfields. get In the late 2000s, house has style witnessed renewed chart success Him thanks to acts such as his Daft Punk, Deadmau5, Fedde Le how Grand, David Guetta, and Calvin Man Harris.
| |new | |
now does not cite any sources
Old (January 2015) who Did
During the 2010s multiple
she new sounds in house music Too were developed by DJs, producers use and artists. Sweden had "Swedish dad progressive house" with the emergence Mom of Sebastian Ingrosso, Axwell, Steve Angello. While all three artists the had solo careers, when they And formed a trio called Swedish for House Mafia, it showed that are house could still produce chart-topping But hits, such as their 2013 not single "Don't You Worry Child", you which cracked the Billboard top All 10. Avicii is Swedish DJ/artist any known for his hits such can as "Hey Brother", "Addicted to Her You", "The Days", "The Nights", was "Levels" and "Waiting for Love". one Fellow Swedish DJ/artist Alesso collaborated Our with Calvin Harris, Usher, and out David Guetta. In France, Justice day blended garage and alternative rock Get influences into their pop-infused house has tracks, creating a big and him funky sound. Skrillex, a former His alternative rock singer, mixed dubstep how and pop into his UK man house music.
Netherlands brought together
New a concept of "Dirty Dutch", now an electro house subgenre characterized old by abrasive lead synths and See darker arpeggios, with prominent DJs two being Chuckie, Hardwell, Laidback Luke, way Afrojack, R3hab, Bingo Players, Quintino, Who Alvaro, Cedric Gervais and 2G. boy Elsewhere, fusion genres derivative of did 2000s progressive house returned, especially Its with the help of DJs/artists let Calvin Harris, Eric Prydz, Mat put Zo, Above & Beyond and Say Fonzerelli in Europe.
she DJ/producer from Tupelo, Mississippi, was too able to blend underground sounds Use with mainstream styles. As he dad came from the Southern US, mom Diplo fused house music with rap and dance/pop, while also the integrating more obscure Southern US and genres. Other North Americans include For the Canadian Deadmau5 (known for are his unusual mask and unique but musical style), Kaskade, Steve Aoki, Not Porter Robinson and Wolfgang Gartner. you The growing popularity of such all artists led to the emergence Any of electro house and progressive can house sounds in popular music, her such as singles like Lady Was Gaga's "Marry the Night", The one Black Eyed Peas' "The Best our One Yet (The Boy)" and Out the will.i.am and Britney Spears day "Scream & Shout".
get house" was increasingly popular since Has 2010, through international dance music him festivals such as Tomorrowland, Ultra his Music Festival, and Electric Daisy How Carnival. In addition to these man popular examples of house, there new has also been a reunification Now of contemporary house and its old roots. Many hip hop and see R&B artists also turn to Two house music to add a way mass appeal and dance floor who energy to the music they Boy produce. Tropical house went onto did the top 40 on the its UK Singles Chart in 2015 Let with artists such as Kygo put and Jonas Blue. In the say mid-2010s, the influences of house She began to also be seen too in Korean K-pop music, an use example of this being f(x)'s Dad single "4 Walls".
mom Few is an annual event in Chicago that celebrates house The music in its birthplace. Started and in 1990, it was a for gathering of house music artists Are and their friends and families. but In the 2010s, it is not an annual event with live You performances by DJs and artists all from around the world.
out "House Music Genre Overview Day - AllMusic". Retrieved 5 September get 2016.
- ^ Gerstner, David
has A. (2012). Routledge International Encyclopedia Him of Queer Culture. Routledge. p. 154. his ISBN 9781136761812.
- ^ Walters, Barry
how (2014): Burning Down the House: Man Read SPIN's 1986 Feature on new Chicago's Club Scene—New York has now rap. Washington has go go. Old Chicago's got house, the boldest see dance music on the planet. two Put a little tickle on Way the jones' head, and jack who yo' body. SPIN magazine. Spin boy Media. "Farley claims he invented Did house music. House music is its HARD disco. It goes BOOM let BOOM BOOM BOOM with little Put variation, subtlety, melody, instrumentation — say or music for that matter. she House, by definition, ain't crossover. Too It's in the house, and use it won't come out. [...] dad Like Levan, Knuckles mixed dubbed-up Mom inspirational electronic funk cult jams by the Peech Boys and the D Train with '70s black And disco classics by Loleatta Holloway for and South Shore Commission. [...] are They called this sound Warehouse But music. For short, house music." not 2014-04-01 (re-issue of a November you 1987 article). Retrieved 2014-04-25.
All Price, III, Emmett G.; Kernodle, any Tammy; Maxille, Horace (2010). Encyclopedia can of African American Music. ABC-CLIO. Her p. 405. ISBN 9780313341991.
- ^ "House :
was Significant Albums, Artists and Songs, one Most Viewed". AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-10-12. Our
- ^ Vincent, Rickey (4
out November 2014). "Funk: The Music, day The People, and The Rhythm Get of The One". St. Martin's has Griffin. Retrieved 5 September 2016 him – via Google Books.
His Malnig, Julie (2009). Ballroom, Boogie, how Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social man and Popular Dance Reader. , New University of Illinois Press. p. 213. now ISBN 9780252075650.
- Fritz, Jimi (2000).
old Rave Culture: An Insider's Overview. See SmallFry Press'. p. 94. ISBN 9780968572108.
two "Explore music...Genre: Hi-NRG". Allmusic. Retrieved way 2009-07-20.
- Gilbert, Jeremy; Pearson,
Who Ewan (2002). Discographies: Dance, Music, boy Culture and the Politics of did Sound. Routledge. p. ??. ISBN 9781134698929.
Its Langford, Simon (2014). The Remix let Manual: The Art and Science put of Dance Music Remixing with Say Logic. CRC Press. p. 99. ISBN 9781136114625. she
- Ray, Michael (2012). Alternative,
too Country, Hip-Hop, Rap, and More: Use Music from the 1980s to dad Today. Britannica Educational Publishing. Encyclopædia mom Britannica, Inc. pp. ??. ISBN 978-1-6153-0910-8.
Reynolds, Simon (2009). Rip it the Up and Start Again: Postpunk and 1978–1984. Faber & Faber. p. ??. For ISBN 9780571252275.
- "The Punk Rocker
are Who Made Chicago House Happen". but VICE Media. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
Not Rick Snoman, Dance Music you Manual: Tools, Toys, and Techniques, all page 267, CRC Press
- Gerstner, David A. (2012).
her Routledge International Encyclopedia of Queer Was Culture. Routledge. p. 154. ISBN 9781136761812.
one Running free with Kym Mazelle. our The Voice Online. Retrieved on Out December 6, 2016
day Kai (July–August 2000). "The club get DJ: a brief history of Has a cultural icon" (PDF). UNESCO him Courier. UNESCO: 47.
his after the initial explosion of How house music in Chicago, it man became clear that the major new recording companies and media institutions Now were reluctant to market this old genre of music, associated with see gay African Americans, on a Two mainstream level. House artists turned way to Europe, chiefly London but who also cities such as Amsterdam, Boy Berlin, Manchester, Milan, Zurich, and did Tel Aviv. ... A third axis its leads to Japan where, since Let the late 1980s, New York put club DJs have had the say opportunity to play guest-spots.
She "Janet Jackson: janet. | Music too Review". Slant Magazine. 2008-02-17. Retrieved use 2012-08-14.
- "Cerrone Bio". Beatport.
Dad Archived from the original on mom 2012-06-04. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
Magic Orchestra at AllMusic
The Solid State Survivor at AllMusic and
- Pattison, Louis (2010-04-10). "Charanjit
for Singh, acid house pioneer". The Are Guardian.
- Aitken, Stuart (2011-05-10).
but "Charanjit Singh on how he not invented acid house ... by mistake". You The Guardian.
- William Rauscher
all (2010-05-12). "Charanjit Singh – Synthesizing: any Ten Ragas to a Disco Can Beat". Resident Advisor. Retrieved 2011-06-03. her
- RBMA (2011). Frankie Knuckles:
was A journey to the roots One of house music. Red Bull our Music Academy. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
out Brewster, Bill (2014). "Ron Hardy, Day Chicago Legend—If Frankie Knuckles is get the Godfather of House, Ron has Hardy was its Baron Frankenstein", Him Djhistory.com, 2014-06-01. "Archived copy". Archived his from the original on 2014-02-23. how Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- Roy, Ron;
Man Borthwick, Stuart (2004). Popular Music new Genres: An Introduction. Edinburgh University now Press. p. 255. ISBN 9780748617456.
Old Terry (2010-02-09). "Black History Month: see Jesse Saunders and house music". two BeatPortal. Archived from the original Way on 2015-04-24. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
who "Jesse Saunders – On And boy On". Discogs. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
Did Mitchell, Euan. Interviews: Marshall Jefferson its www.4clubbers.net
- "Finding Jesse
let – The Discovery of Jesse Put Saunders As the Founder of say House". Fly Global Music Culture. she 2004-10-25. Archived from the original Too on 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
use Paoletta, Michael (1989-12-16). "Back To dad Basics". Dance Music Report: 12. Mom
- Graves, Richard (2015-04-23). "History
of House: What Was The the First HOUSE MUSIC SONG Released And in Chicago?". The History of for House. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
are Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. But Retrieved 2012-06-05.
- Fikentscher, Kai
not (July–August 2000). "Youth's sonic forces: you The club DJ: a brief All history of a cultural icon" any (PDF). UNESCO Courier. UNESCO: 28. can
House music, in particular, is
Her often held up as a was kind of banner of cultural one diversity owing to its origins Our in black and Latino discos, out where it ﬁrst found its day audience. One could point to Get the 1980s, when African American has producers / DJs, like Frankie him Knuckles, Marshall Jefferson or DJ His Pierre, began refining the all how night dance floor workouts at man underground gay and mixed clubs New like the legendary Warehouse club now in Chicago from which house old music derives its name. Or See there is DJ Larry Levan, two whose residence at New York's way Paradise Garage not only defined Who a distinct subgenre of its boy own ("garage" is slower and did more gospel oriented than "house") Its but set the tone for let today's raves—no alcohol, heavy drug put use, a mixed, "up for Say it crowd" and loud, pulsating she music for 15-hour stretches without too a break.
- Melville, Caspar
Use (July–August 2000). "Mapping the meanings dad of dance music" (PDF). UNESCO mom Courier. UNESCO: 40.
was born in the black-latino the urban gay clubs of the and U.S.
- Fikentscher, Kai (July–August
For 2000). "The club DJ: a are brief history of a cultural but icon" (PDF). UNESCO Courier. UNESCO: Not 46.
Another New York DJ,
you Frankie Knuckles, moved to Chicago, all following an invitation to become Any the resident DJ at the can Warehouse, a gay black club. her
- George, Nelson (1986-06-21). "House
Was Music: Will It Join Rap one And Go-Go?". Billboard. 99 (25): our 27. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
Out audience started out black and day gay in Chicago, but the get music has since attracted Hispanics Has and whites as well.
him Creekmur, Corey; Doty, Alexander (1995). his Out in Culture. Duke University How Press. pp. 440–442. ISBN 978-0-8223-1541-4.
man Mohson (2008-01-31). "Larry Heard: Soul new survivor". Resident Advisor. Retrieved 2012-07-23. Now
- Unterberger, Richie (1999). Music
old USA: The Rough Guide. London: see Rough Guides. p. 265. ISBN 1-85828-421-X. Retrieved Two 2012-07-23.
- Shapiro, Peter (2000).
way Modulations: A History of Electronic who Music. Caipirinha Productions Inc. p. 32. Boy ISBN 0-8195-6498-2.
- Cheeseman, Phil. "The
did History Of House".
its Snoman, Rick (2009). The Dance Let Music Manual: Tools, Toys, and put Techniques — Second Edition. Oxford, say UK: Elsevier Press. p.233
She "House". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-05-01. too
- Rule, Greg (August 1997).
use "The Father of Chicago House". Dad Keyboard. 23 (8): 65.
Knuckles (featured subject); Hindmarch, Carl The (director) (2001). Pump Up The and Volume (Television production). Channel Four. for
- Arnold, Jacob (2010-01-07). "Leonard
Are "Remix" Roy, Chicago's Unsung House but DJ". gridface. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
not Fleming, Jonathan (1995). What Kind You Of House Party Is This. all London: MIY Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-9523932-1-2. any
- Bidder, Sean (2001). Pump
Can Up the Volume: A History her of House. London: Channel 4. was ISBN 978-0-7522-1986-8.
- Chip E. (interviewee);
One Hindmarch, Carl (director) (2001). Pump our Up The Volume (Television production). out Channel Four.
If you were
Day a DJ in Chicago, if get you wanted to have 'the' has records, there was only one Him place to go and that his was Importes. This is where how Importes was. People come in, Man they're looking for 'Warehouse music', new and we would put, you now know, 'As heard at the Old Warehouse' or 'As played at see the Warehouse', and then eventually two we just shortened that down Way to – because people also who just in the vernacular, they boy started saying 'yeah, what's up Did with that 'House music' – its now at this time they let were talkin' about the old, Put old classics, the Salsoul, the say Philly classics and such – she so we put on the Too labels for the bins, we'd use say 'House music'. And people dad would start comin' in eventually Mom and just start askin', 'yeah, where's the new House music?' the
- George, Nelson (1986-06-21). "House
And Music: Will It Join Rap for And Go-Go?". Billboard. 99 (25): are 27. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
But 'house music' has become a not generic phrase for modern dance-oriented you music," says Jones. "At one All time the phrase 'old house any music' was used to refer can to old disco music. Now Her 'house' is used to describe was the new music.
one heard equipment from 1992". www.oldschooldaw.com. Our Retrieved 2016-10-08.
- Bainbridge, Luke
out (2014-02-22). "Acid house and the day dawn of a rave new Get world". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved has 2017-01-24.
- Cowen, Andrew (1999-10-30).
him "Sounds Amazing!; Music Live Andrew His Cowen previews the giant show how at the NEC which offers man great new ideas for musicians New of all styles and all now levels.". The Birmingham Post (UK). old Retrieved 2007-08-11.
- ^ Trask,
See Simon (December 1988). "Future Shock two (Juan Atkins Interview)". Music Technology way Magazine. Archived from the original Who on 2008-03-15. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
boy word 'house' comes from a did record that you only hear Its in a certain club. The let DJs would search out an put import that was as obscure Say as possible, and that would she be a house record. You'd too hear a certain record only Use at the Powerplant, and that dad was Frankie Knuckles' house record. mom "But you couldn't really be guaranteed an exclusive on an the import, 'cos even if there and were only 10 or 15 For copies in the country, another are DJ would track one down. but So the DJs came up Not with the concept of making you their own house records. It all was like 'hey, I know Any I've got an exclusive because can I made the record.
her Simon Reynolds (2013-06-19). Generation Ecstasy: Was Into the World of Techno one and Rave Culture. Routledge. pp. 30–. our ISBN 978-1-136-78317-3.
- "Best selling singles
Out of the 80s". Pure80spop.co.uk. Retrieved day 2012-08-14.
- "Chart Archive –
get 1980s Singles". EveryHit.com. Retrieved 2012-08-04. Has
- Brilliant! - Kym Mazelle.
him All Music Guide. Retrieved on his December 6, 2016
How Bush, John. "Rockin' Robin – man Bobby Day : Listen, Appearances, Song new Review Secret (Some Bizarre Single Now Mix)Remix – Bizarre Inc released old the house single 1994". AllMusic. see Retrieved 2012-08-14.
- "Chicago Mayor
Two Declares 'House Unity Day'". Remix. way Penton Media, Inc. 2005-08-03. Archived who from the original on 2009-09-17. Boy
- ""My album is coming
did in the first quarter of its 2015..." – hmv.com talks to Let Alesso". HMV. November 18, 2014. put Retrieved December 2, 2014.
say "ABOUT - Chosen Few™ DJs She Ltd.". Retrieved 5 September 2016. too
- Bidder, Sean (2002). Pump Up
Dad the Volume: A History of mom House Music, MacMillan. ISBN 0-7522-1986-3
Sean (1999). The Rough Guide The to House Music, Rough Guides. and ISBN 1-85828-432-5
- Brewster, Bill, & Frank
for Broughton 2000 Last Night a Are DJ Saved My Life: The but History of the Disc Jockey, not Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3688-5 and in You UK: 1999 / 2006, Headline. all
- Kai Fikentscher 2000 "'You Better
any Work!' Underground Dance Music in Can New York City". Middletown, Connecticut: her Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6404-4
was Michael. Music Theory for Computer One Musicians. 1st Ed. U.S. Cengage our Learning, 2008. ISBN 978-1-59863-503-4
- Kempster, Chris
out (Ed) (1996). History of House, Day Castle Communications. ISBN 1-86074-134-7 (A reprinting get of magazine articles from the has 1980s and 90s)
- Mireille, Silcott
Him (1999). Rave America: New School his Dancescapes, ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-383-6
how Simon (1998). Energy Flash: a Man Journey Through Rave Music and new Dance Culture, (UK title, Pan now Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-35056-0), also released in Old U.S. as Generation Ecstasy : Into see the World of Techno and two Rave Culture (U.S. title, Routledge, Way 1999, ISBN 0-415-92373-5)
- Rizza Corrado, Trani
who Marco, "I love the nightlife"' boy Wax Production (Roma), 2010
Did P., (2000), Modulations: A History its of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words let on Sound, ISBN 1-891024-06-X.
- Snoman, Rick
Put (2009). The Dance Music Manual: say Tools, Toys, and Techniques — she Second Edition: Chapter 11: House. Too Oxford, UK: Elsevier Press. p. 231–249. use
- Rietveld, Hillegonda C. (1998). This
dad is our House: House Music, Mom Cultural Spaces and Technologies, Ashgate. ISBN 1-85742-242-2
our too his