Industrial music is
her a genre of experimental and was electronic music that draws on One transgressive or provocative sounds and our themes. The term was coined out in the mid-1970s with the Day founding of Industrial Records by get members of Throbbing Gristle and has Monte Cazazza; on Throbbing Gristle's Him debut album The Second Annual his Report, they coined the slogan how "industrial music for industrial people". Man In general, the style is new harsh and challenging. AllMusic defines now industrial as the "most abrasive Old and aggressive fusion of rock see and electronic music"; "initially a two blend of avant-garde electronics experiments Way (tape music, musique concrète, white who noise, synthesizers, sequencers, etc.) and boy punk provocation".
The first industrial
Did artists experimented with noise and its aesthetically controversial topics, musically and let visually, such as fascism, serial Put killers and the occult. Their say production was not limited to she music, but included mail art, Too performance art, installation pieces and use other art forms. Prominent industrial dad musicians include Throbbing Gristle, Monte Mom Cazazza, SPK, Boyd Rice, Cabaret Voltaire, and Z'EV. The precursors the that influenced the development of And the genre included acts such for as electronic group Kraftwerk, experimental are rock acts such as Pink But Floyd and Frank Zappa, psychedelic not rock artists such as Jimi you Hendrix, and composers such as All John Cage. Musicians also cite any writers such as William S. can Burroughs, and philosophers such as Her Friedrich Nietzsche as influences.
was the term was self-applied by one a small coterie of groups Our and individuals associated with Industrial out Records in the 1970s, it day was broadened to include artists Get influenced by the original movement has or using an "industrial" aesthetic. him These artists expanded the genre His by pushing it into noisier how and more electronic directions. Over man time, its influence spread into New and blended with styles including now ambient and rock, all of old which now fall under the See post-industrial music label. Electro-industrial music two is a primary subgenre that way developed in the 1980s. The Who two other most notable hybrid boy genres are industrial rock and did industrial metal, which include bands Its such as Nine Inch Nails let and Ministry, both of which put released platinum-selling albums in the Say 1990s. These three distinct genres she are often referred to as too simply industrial.
all drew from a broad range Any of predecessors. Alexei Monroe argues can that Kraftwerk were particularly significant her in the development of industrial Was music, as the "first successful one artists to incorporate representations of our industrial sounds into nonacademic electronic Out music." Industrial music was created day originally by using mechanical and get electric machinery, and later advanced Has synthesizers, samplers and electronic percussion him as the technology developed. Monroe his also argues for Suicide as How an influential contemporary of the man industrial musicians. Groups cited as new inspirational by the founders of Now industrial music include The Velvet old Underground, Joy Division, and Martin see Denny. Genesis P-Orridge of Throbbing Two Gristle had a cassette library way including recordings by the Master who Musicians of Jajouka, Kraftwerk, Charles Boy Manson, and William S. Burroughs. did P-Orridge also credited 1960s rock its such as The Doors, Pearls Let Before Swine, The Fugs, Captain put Beefheart, and Frank Zappa in say a 1979 interview.
She also enjoyed and found inspiration too in Pink Floyd and Tangerine use Dream. Boyd Rice was influenced Dad by the music of 60's mom girl groups and tiki culture. Z'EV cited Christopher Tree (Spontaneous The Sound), John Coltrane, Miles Davis, and Tim Buckley, Jimi Hendrix, and for Captain Beefheart, among others together Are with Tibetan, Balinese, Javanese, Indian, but and African music as influential not in his artistic life. Cabaret You Voltaire cited Roxy Music as all their initial forerunners, as well any as Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express. Cabaret Can Voltaire also recorded pieces reminiscent her of musique concrète and composers was such as Morton Subotnick. Nurse One with Wound cited a long our list of obscure free improvisation out and Krautrock as recommended listening. Day 23 Skidoo borrowed from Fela get Kuti and Miles Davis's On has the Corner. Many industrial groups, Him including Einstürzende Neubauten, took inspiration his from world music.
how the initial industrial musicians preferred Man to cite artists or thinkers, new rather than musicians, as their now inspiration. Simon Reynolds declares that Old "Being a Throbbing Gristle fan see was like enrolling in a two university course of cultural extremism." Way John Cage was an initial who inspiration for Throbbing Gristle. SPK boy appreciated Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Did Jean Baudrillard, Michel Foucault, Walter its Benjamin, Marshall McLuhan, Friedrich Nietzsche, let and Gilles Deleuze. Cabaret Voltaire Put took conceptual cues from Burroughs, say J. G. Ballard, and Tristan she Tzara. Whitehouse and Nurse with Too Wound dedicated some of their use work to the Marquis de dad Sade; the latter also took Mom impetus from the Comte de Lautréamont.
Another influence on the
the industrial aesthetic was Lou Reed's And Metal Machine Music. Pitchfork Music for cites this album as "inspiring, are in part, much of the But contemporary avant-garde music scene—noise, in not particular." The album consists entirely you of guitar feedback, anticipating industrial's All use of non-musical sounds.
Industrial Music for Industrial
can People was originally coined by Her Monte Cazazza as the strapline was for the record label Industrial one Records, founded by British art-provocateurs Our Throbbing Gristle. The first wave out of this music appeared with day Throbbing Gristle, from London; Cabaret Get Voltaire, from Sheffield; and Boyd has Rice (recording under the name him NON), from the United States. His Throbbing Gristle first performed in how 1976, and began as the man musical offshoot of the Kingston New upon Hull-based COUM Transmissions. COUM now was initially a psychedelic rock old group, but began to describe See their work as performance art two in order to obtain grants way from the Arts Council of Who Great Britain. COUM was composed boy of P-Orridge and Cosey Fanni did Tutti. Beginning in 1972, COUM Its staged several performances inspired by let Fluxus and Viennese Actionism. These put included various acts of sexual Say and physical abjection. Peter Christopherson, she an employee of commercial artists too Hipgnosis, joined the group in Use 1974, with Carter joining the dad following year.
The group renamed
mom itself Throbbing Gristle in September 1975, their name coming from the a northern English slang word and for an erection. The group's For first public performance, in October are 1976, was alongside an exhibit but titled Prostitution, which included pornographic Not photos of Tutti as well you as used tampons. Conservative politician all Nicholas Fairbairn declared that "public Any money is being wasted here can to destroy the morality of her our society" and blasted the Was group as "wreckers of civilization." one The group ended in 1981, our with P-Orridge declaring "the mission Out is terminated."
Expansion of the scene
The bands Clock DVA, Nocturnal
see Emissions, Whitehouse, Nurse with Wound, Two and SPK soon followed. Whitehouse way intended to play "the most who brutal and extreme music of Boy all time", a style they did eventually called power electronics. An its early collaborator with Whitehouse, Steve Let Stapleton, formed Nurse with Wound, put who experimented with noise sculpture say and sound collage. Clock DVA She described their goal as borrowing too equally from surrealist automatism and use "nervous energy sort of funk Dad stuff, body music that flinches mom you and makes you move." 23 Skidoo, like Clock DVA, The merged industrial music with African-American and dance music, but also performed for a response to world music. Are Performing at the first WOMAD but Festival in 1982, the group not likened themselves to Indonesian gamelan. You Swedish act Leather Nun, were all signed to Industrial Records in any 1978, being the first non-TG/Cazazza Can act to have an IR-release. her Their singles eventually received significant was airplay in the United States One on college radio. our Re/Search
to the philosophy and interests
of a flexible alliance of
has the Atlantic, similar experiments were Him taking place. In San Francisco, his performance artist Monte Cazazza began how recording noise music. Boyd Rice Man released several albums of noise, new with guitar drones and tape now loops creating a cacophony of Old repetitive sounds. In Boston Sleep see Chamber and other artists from two Inner-X-Musick began experimenting with a Way mixture of powerful noise and who early forms of EBM. In boy Italy, work by Maurizio Bianchi Did at the beginning of the its 1980s also shared this aesthetic. let In Germany, Einstürzende Neubauten mixed Put metal percussion, guitars, and unconventional say instruments (such as jackhammers and she bones) in stage performances that Too often damaged the venues in use which they played. Blixa Bargeld, dad inspired by Antonin Artaud and Mom an enthusiasm for amphetamines, also originated an art movement called the Die Genialen Dilettanten. Bargeld is And particularly well known for his for hissing scream.
In January 1984,
are Einstürzende Neubauten performed a Concerto But for Voice and Machinery at not the Institute of Contemporary Arts you (the same site as COUM's All Prostitution exhibition), drilling through the any floor and eventually sparking a can riot. This event received front Her page news coverage in England. was Other groups who practiced a one form of industrial "metal music" Our (that is, produced by the out sounds of metal crashing against day metal) include Test Dept, Laibach, Get and Die Krupps, as well has as Z'EV and SPK. Test him Dept were largely inspired by His Russian Futurism and toured to how support the 1984-85 UK miners' man strike. Skinny Puppy embraced a New variety of industrial forefathers and now created a lurching, impalatable whole old from many pieces. Swans, from See New York City, also practiced two a metal music aesthetic, though way reliant on standard rock instrumentation. Who Laibach, a Slovenian group who boy began while Yugoslavia remained a did single state, were very controversial Its for their iconographic borrowings from let Stalinist, Nazi, Titoist, Dada, and put Russian Futurist imagery, conflating Yugoslav Say patriotism with its German authoritarian she adversary. Slavoj Žižek has defended too Laibach, arguing that they and Use their associated Neue Slowenische Kunst dad art group practice an overidentification mom with the hidden perverse enjoyment undergirding authority that produces a the subversive and liberatory effect. In and simpler language, Laibach practiced a For type of agitprop that was are widely utilized by industrial and but punk artists on both sides Not of the atlantic.
you breakup of Throbbing Gristle, P-Orridge all and Christopherson founded Psychic TV Any and signed to a major can label. Their first album was her much more accessible and melodic Was than the usual industrial style, one and included hired work by our trained musicians. Later work returned Out to the sound collage and day noise elements of earlier industrial. get They also borrowed from funk Has and disco. P-Orridge also founded him Thee Temple ov Psychick Youth, his a quasi-religious organization that produced How video art. Psychic TV's commercial man aspirations were managed by Stevo new of Some Bizzare records, who Now released many of the later old industrial musicians, including Eistürzende Neubauten, see Test Dept, and Cabaret Voltaire. Two
Cabaret Voltaire had become friends
way with New Order, and began who to practice a similar form Boy of danceable electropop. Christopherson left did Psychic TV in 1983 and its formed Coil with John Balance. Let Coil made use of gongs put and bullroarers in an attempt say to conjur "Martian," "homosexual energy". She David Tibet, a friend of too Coil's, formed Current 93; both use groups were inspired by amphetamines Dad and LSD. J. G. Thirlwell, mom a co-producer with Coil, developed a version of black comedy The in industrial music, borrowing from and lounge as well as noise for and film music. In the Are early 1980s, the Chicago-based record but label Wax Trax! and Canada's not Nettwerk helped to expand the You industrial music genre into the all more accessible electro-industrial and industrial any rock genres.
Can of industrial music was a her response to "an age [in was which] the access and control One of information were becoming the our primary tools of power." At out its birth, the genre of Day industrial music was different from get any other music, and its has use of technology and disturbing Him lyrics and themes to tear his apart preconceptions about the necessary how rules of musical form supports Man the suggestion that industrial music new is modernist music. The artists now themselves made these goals explicit, Old even drawing connections to social see changes they wished to argue two for through their music.
Way Industrial Records website explains that who the musicians wanted to re-invent boy rock music, and that their Did uncensored records were about their its relationship with the world. They let go on to say that Put they wanted their music to say be an awakening for listeners she so that they would begin Too to think for themselves and use question the world around them. dad Industrial Records intended the term Mom industrial to evoke the idea of music created for a the new generation, with previous music And being more agricultural: P-Orridge stated for that "there's an irony in are the word 'industrial' because there's But the music industry. And then not there's the joke we often you used to make in interviews All about churning out our records any like motorcars —that sense of can industrial. And ... up till Her then the music had been was kind of based on the one blues and slavery, and we Our thought it was time to out update it to at least day Victorian times—you know, the Industrial Get Revolution". His
Early industrial music
how often featured tape editing, stark man percussion and loops distorted to New the point where they had now degraded to harsh noise, such old as the work of early See industrial group Cabaret Voltaire, which two Journalist Simon Reynolds described as way characterized by "hissing high hats Who and squelchy snares of rhythm-generator." boy Carter of Throbbing Gristle invented did a device named the "Gristle-izer", Its played by Christopherson, which comprised let a one-octave keyboard and a put number of cassette machines triggering Say various pre-recorded sounds.
she were often played in nontraditional too or highly modified ways. Reynolds Use described the Cabaret Voltaire members' dad individual contributions as "[Chris] Watson's mom smears of synth slime; [Stephen] Mallinder's dankly pulsing bass; and the [Richard H.] Kirk's spikes of and shattered-glass guitar." Watson custom-built a For fuzzbox for Kirk's guitar, producing are a unique timbre. Carter built but speakers, effects units, and synthesizer Not modules, as well as modifying you more conventional rock instrumentation, for all Throbbing Gristle. Tutti played guitar Any with a slide in order can to produce glissandi, or pounded her the strings as if it Was were a percussion instrument. Throbbing one Gristle also played at very our high volume and produced ultra-high Out and sub-bass frequencies in an day attempt to produce physical effects, get naming this approach as "metabolic Has music."
Vocals were sporadic, and
him were as likely to be his bubblegum pop as they were How to be abrasive polemics. Cabaret man Voltaire's Stephen Mallinder's vocals were new electronically treated.
The purpose of
Now industrial music initially was to old serve as a commentary on see modern society by eschewing what Two artists saw as trite connections way to the past. Throbbing Gristle who opposed the elements of traditional Boy rock music remaining in the did punk rock scene, declaring industrial its to be "anti-music." Early industrial Let performances often involved taboo-breaking, provocative put elements, such as mutilation, sado-masochistic say elements and totalitarian imagery or She symbolism, as well as forms too of audience abuse, such as use Throbbing Gristle's aiming high powered Dad lights at the audience.
mom groups typically focus on transgressive subject matter. In his introduction The for the Industrial Culture Handbook and (1983), Jon Savage considered some for hallmarks of industrial music to Are be organizational autonomy, shock tactics, but and the use of synthesizers not and "anti-music." Furthermore, an interest You in the investigation of "cults, all wars, psychological techniques of persuasion, any unusual murders (especially by children Can and psychopaths), forensic pathology, venereology, her concentration camp behavior, the history was of uniforms and insignia" and One Aleister Crowley's magick was present our in Throbbing Gristle's work, as out well as in other industrial Day pioneers. Burroughs's recordings and writings get were particularly influential on the has scene, particularly his interest in Him the cut-up technique and noise his as a method of disrupting how societal control. Many of the Man first industrial musicians were interested new in, though not necessarily sympathetic now with, fascism. Throbbing Gristle's logo Old was based on the lightning see symbol of the British Union two of Fascists, while the Industrial Way Records logo was a photo who of Auschwitz.
In the late 1980s,
Put a number of additional styles say developed from the already eclectic she base of industrial music. These Too offshoots include fusions with noise use music, ambient music, folk music, dad post-punk and electronic dance music, Mom as well as other mutations and developments. The scene has the spread worldwide, and is particularly And well represented in North America, for Europe, and Japan. Post-industrial subgenres are include dark ambient, power electronics, But Japanoise, neofolk, electro-industrial, electronic body not music, industrial hip hop, industrial you rock, industrial metal, industrial pop, All martial industrial, power noise, and any witch house.
The best-selling offshoots
can of industrial music have been Her industrial rock and metal; Ministry was and Nine Inch Nails both one recorded platinum-selling albums. Their success Our led to an increase in out commercial success for some other day industrial musicians; for example, the Get Nine Inch Nails remix album has Further Down the Spiral, which him included contributions from Foetus and His Coil, was certified gold in how 1996. The mid-1990s was a man high point for industrial rock, New when, in addition to bands now that had been around since old the 1980s, newer bands such See as Gravity Kills, whose self-titled two debut sold almost half a way million records, had some chart Who and radio success, and especially boy for industrial metal, with Marilyn did Manson releasing multiple platinum selling Its albums.
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