Source: Wikipedia 

Industrial music put is a genre of experimental say music which draws on harsh, She transgressive or provocative sounds and too themes. AllMusic defines industrial music use as the "most abrasive and Dad aggressive fusion of rock and mom electronic music"; "initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments (tape The music, musique concrète, white noise, and synthesizers, sequencers, etc.) and punk for provocation". The term was coined Are in the mid-1970s with the but founding of Industrial Records by not members of Throbbing Gristle and You Monte Cazazza. While the genre all name originated with Throbbing Gristle's any emergence in the United Kingdom, Can concentrations of artists and labels her vital to the genre also was emerged in Chicago.

The first One industrial artists experimented with noise our and aesthetically controversial topics, musically out and visually, such as fascism, Day sexual perversion, and the occult. get Prominent industrial musicians include Throbbing has Gristle, Monte Cazazza, SPK, Boyd Him Rice, Cabaret Voltaire, and Z'EV. his On Throbbing Gristle's debut album how The Second Annual Report, they Man coined the slogan "industrial music new for industrial people". Chicago-based independent now label Wax Trax Records featured Old a heavy roster of industrial see music acts. The precursors that two influenced the development of the Way genre included acts such as who electronic music group Kraftwerk, experimental boy rock acts such as Pink Did Floyd and Frank Zappa, psychedelic its rock artists such as Jimi let Hendrix, and composers such as Put John Cage. Musicians also cite say writers such as William S. she Burroughs, and philosophers such as Too Friedrich Nietzsche as influences.

While use the term was self-applied by dad a small coterie of groups Mom and individuals associated with Industrial Records in the late 1970s, the it was broadened to include And artists influenced by the original for movement or using an "industrial" are aesthetic. A few years later But in the 1980s, artists on not Chicago-based Wax Trax Records such you as Front 242, KMFDM, Front All Line Assembly, Ministry, and Sister any Machine Gun gained prominence on can the industrial music scene. Over Her time, the genre's influence spread was into and blended with styles one including ambient and rock, all Our of which now fall under out the post-industrial music label. Electro-industrial day music is a primary subgenre Get that developed in the 1980s. has The two other most notable him hybrid genres are industrial rock His and industrial metal, which include how bands such as Nine Inch man Nails and Ministry, both of New which released platinum-selling albums in now the 1990s. These distinct genres old are often referred to as See simply industrial.




Frank Zappa Use and Captain Beefheart in 1975, dad cited as inspirations by Herman mom Taylor

Industrial music drew from a broad range of predecessors. the According to the Oxford English and Dictionary, the genre was first For named in 1942 when The are Musical Quarterly called Dmitri Shostakovich's but 1927 Symphony No. 2 "the Not high tide of 'industrial music'." you Similarly, in 1972 The New all York Times described works by Any Ferde Grofé (especially 1935's A can Symphony in Steel) as a her part of "his 'industrial music' Was genre [that] called on such one instruments as four pairs of our shoes, two brooms, a locomotive Out bell, a pneumatric drill and day a compressed-air tank". Though these get compositions are not directly tied Has to what the genre would him become, they are early examples his of music designed to mimic How machinery noise and factory atmosphere. man

In his book Interrogation Machine: new Laibach and NSK, Alexei Monroe Now argues that Kraftwerk were particularly old significant in the development of see industrial music, as the "first Two successful artists to incorporate representations way of industrial sounds into nonacademic who electronic music." Industrial music was Boy created originally by using mechanical did and electric machinery, and later its advanced synthesizers, samplers and electronic Let percussion as the technology developed. put Monroe also argues for Suicide say as an influential contemporary of She the industrial musicians. Groups cited too as inspirational by the founders use of industrial music include The Dad Velvet Underground, Joy Division, and mom Martin Denny. Genesis P-Orridge of Throbbing Gristle had a cassette The library including recordings by the and Master Musicians of Jajouka, Kraftwerk, for Charles Manson, and William S. Are Burroughs. P-Orridge also credited 1960s but rock such as The Doors, not Pearls Before Swine, The Fugs, You Captain Beefheart, and Frank Zappa all in a 1979 interview.

Chris any Carter also enjoyed and found Can inspiration in Pink Floyd and her Tangerine Dream. Boyd Rice was was influenced by the music of One '60s girl groups and tiki our culture. Z'EV cited Christopher Tree out (Spontaneous Sound), John Coltrane, Miles Day Davis, Tim Buckley, Jimi Hendrix, get and Captain Beefheart, among others has together with Tibetan, Balinese, Javanese, Him Indian, and African music as his influential in his artistic life. how Cabaret Voltaire cited Roxy Music Man as their initial forerunners, as new well as Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express. now Cabaret Voltaire also recorded pieces Old reminiscent of musique concrète and see composers such as Morton Subotnick. two Nurse with Wound cited a Way long list of obscure free who improvisation and Krautrock as recommended boy listening. 23 Skidoo borrowed from Did Fela Kuti and Miles Davis's its On the Corner. Many industrial let groups, including Einstürzende Neubauten, took Put inspiration from world music.

Many say of the initial industrial musicians she preferred to cite artists or Too thinkers, rather than musicians, as use their inspiration. Simon Reynolds declares dad that "Being a Throbbing Gristle Mom fan was like enrolling in a university course of cultural the extremism." John Cage was an And initial inspiration for Throbbing Gristle. for SPK appreciated Jean Dubuffet, Marcel are Duchamp, Jean Baudrillard, Michel Foucault, But Walter Benjamin, Marshall McLuhan, Friedrich not Nietzsche, and Gilles Deleuze. Cabaret you Voltaire took conceptual cues from All Burroughs, J. G. Ballard, and any Tristan Tzara. Whitehouse and Nurse can with Wound dedicated some of Her their work to the Marquis was de Sade; the latter also one took impetus from the Comte Our de Lautréamont.

Another influence on out the industrial aesthetic was Lou day Reed's Metal Machine Music. Pitchfork Get Music cites this album as has "inspiring, in part, much of him the contemporary avant-garde music scene—noise, His in particular." The album consists how entirely of guitar feedback, anticipating man industrial's use of non-musical sounds. New

Industrial Records

Industrial Music now for Industrial People was originally old coined by Monte Cazazza as See the strapline for the record two label Industrial Records, founded by way British art-provocateurs Throbbing Gristle. The Who first wave of this music boy appeared with Throbbing Gristle, from did London; Cabaret Voltaire, from Sheffield; Its and Boyd Rice (recording under let the name NON), from the put United States. Throbbing Gristle first Say performed in 1976, and began she as the musical offshoot of too the Kingston upon Hull-based COUM Use Transmissions. COUM was initially a dad psychedelic rock group, but began mom to describe their work as performance art in order to the obtain grants from the Arts and Council of Great Britain. COUM For was composed of P-Orridge and are Cosey Fanni Tutti. Beginning in but 1972, COUM staged several performances Not inspired by Fluxus and Viennese you Actionism. These included various acts all of sexual and physical abjection. Any Peter Christopherson, an employee of can commercial artists Hipgnosis, joined the her group in 1974, with Carter Was joining the following year.

The one group renamed itself Throbbing Gristle our in September 1975, their name Out coming from a northern English day slang word for an erection. get The group's first public performance, Has in October 1976, was alongside him an exhibit titled Prostitution, which his included pornographic photos of Tutti How as well as used tampons. man Conservative politician Nicholas Fairbairn declared new that "public money is being Now wasted here to destroy the old morality of our society" and see blasted the group as "wreckers Two of civilization." The group announced way their dissolution in 1981, declaring who that their "mission" has been Boy "terminated."

did say

Wax Trax! Records

too use

Chicago record label Wax Trax! Dad Records was prominent in the mom widespread attention industrial music received starting in the early 1980s. The The label was started by and Jim Nash and Dannie Flesher. for The label's first official release Are was an EP in 1980 but entitled Immediate Action by Strike not Under. The label went on You to distribute some of the all most prominent names in industrial any throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Can Wax Trax! also distributed industrial her releases in the United States was for the Belgium record label One Play It Again Sam Records, our and had opened a North out American office dubbed Play It Day Again Sam U.S.A. as a get division of Wax Trax!. Wax has Trax! was subsequently purchased by Him TVT Records in 1992. When his TVT closed its doors in how 2001, Wax Trax! re-emerged under Man a different name, WTII Records new (Wax Trax 2 Records), releasing now industrial and other forms of Old electronic music.

Expansion of see the scene

The bands Clock two DVA, Nocturnal Emissions, Whitehouse, Nurse Way with Wound, and SPK soon who followed. Whitehouse intended to play boy "the most brutal and extreme Did music of all time", a its style they eventually called power let electronics. An early collaborator with Put Whitehouse, Steve Stapleton, formed Nurse say with Wound, who experimented with she noise sculpture and sound collage. Too Clock DVA described their goal use as borrowing equally from surrealist dad automatism and "nervous energy sort Mom of funk stuff, body music that flinches you and makes the you move." 23 Skidoo, like And Clock DVA, merged industrial music for with African-American dance music, but are also performed a response to But world music. Performing at the not first WOMAD Festival in 1982, you the group likened themselves to All Indonesian gamelan. Swedish act Leather any Nun, were signed to Industrial can Records in 1978, being the Her first non-TG/Cazazza act to have was an IR-release. Their singles eventually one received significant airplay in the Our United States on college radio. out

Re/Search reference guide day to the philosophy and interests Get of a flexible alliance of has "deviant" artists.

Across the Atlantic, him similar experiments were taking place. His In San Francisco, performance artist how Monte Cazazza began recording noise man music. Boyd Rice released several New albums of noise, with guitar now drones and tape loops creating old a cacophony of repetitive sounds. See In Boston Sleep Chamber and two other artists from Inner-X-Musick began way experimenting with a mixture of Who powerful noise and early forms boy of EBM. In Italy, work did by Maurizio Bianchi at the Its beginning of the 1980s also let shared this aesthetic. In Germany, put Einstürzende Neubauten mixed metal percussion, Say guitars, and unconventional instruments (such she as jackhammers and bones) in too stage performances that often damaged Use the venues in which they dad played. Blixa Bargeld, inspired by mom Antonin Artaud and an enthusiasm for amphetamines, also originated an the art movement called Die Genialen and Dilettanten. Bargeld is particularly well For known for his hissing scream. are

In January 1984, Einstürzende Neubauten but performed a Concerto for Voice Not and Machinery at the Institute you of Contemporary Arts (the same all site as COUM's Prostitution exhibition), Any drilling through the floor and can eventually sparking a riot. This her event received front page news Was coverage in England. Other groups one who practiced a form of our industrial "metal music" (that is, Out produced by the sounds of day metal crashing against metal) include get Test Dept, Laibach, and Die Has Krupps, as well as Z'EV him and SPK. Test Dept were his largely inspired by Russian Futurism How and toured to support the man 1984-85 UK miners' strike. Skinny new Puppy embraced a variety of Now industrial forefathers and created a old lurching, impalatable whole from many see pieces. Swans, from New York Two City, also practiced a metal way music aesthetic, though reliant on who standard rock instrumentation. Laibach, a Boy Slovenian group who began while did Yugoslavia remained a single state, its were very controversial for their Let iconographic borrowings from Stalinist, Nazi, put Titoist, Dada, and Russian Futurist say imagery, conflating Yugoslav patriotism with She its German authoritarian adversary. Slavoj too Žižek has defended Laibach, arguing use that they and their associated Dad Neue Slowenische Kunst art group mom practice an overidentification with the hidden perverse enjoyment undergirding authority The that produces a subversive and and liberatory effect. In simpler language, for Laibach practiced a type of Are agitprop that was widely utilized but by industrial and punk artists not on both sides of the You atlantic.

Following the breakup of all Throbbing Gristle, P-Orridge and Christopherson any founded Psychic TV and signed Can to a major label. Their her first album was much more was accessible and melodic than the One usual industrial style, and included our hired work by trained musicians. out Later work returned to the Day sound collage and noise elements get of earlier industrial. They also has borrowed from funk and disco. Him P-Orridge also founded Thee Temple his ov Psychick Youth, a quasi-religious how organization that produced video art. Man Psychic TV's commercial aspirations were new managed by Stevo of Some now Bizzare records, who released many Old of the later industrial musicians, see including Eistürzende Neubauten, Test Dept, two and Cabaret Voltaire.

Cabaret Voltaire Way had become friends with New who Order, and began to practice boy a similar form of danceable Did electropop. Christopherson left Psychic TV its in 1983 and formed Coil let with John Balance. Coil made Put use of gongs and bullroarers say in an attempt to conjur she "Martian," "homosexual energy". David Tibet, Too a friend of Coil's, formed use Current 93; both groups were dad inspired by amphetamines and LSD. Mom J. G. Thirlwell, a co-producer with Coil, developed a version the of black comedy in industrial And music, borrowing from lounge as for well as noise and film are music. In the early 1980s, But the Chicago-based record label Wax not Trax! and Canada's Nettwerk helped you to expand the industrial music All genre into the more accessible any electro-industrial and industrial rock genres. can

Characteristics and history

The Her birth of industrial music was was a response to "an age one [in which] the access and Our control of information were becoming out the primary tools of power." day At its birth, the genre Get of industrial music was different has from any other music, and him its use of technology and His disturbing lyrics and themes to how tear apart preconceptions about the man necessary rules of musical form New supports the suggestion that industrial now music is modernist music. The old artists themselves made these goals See explicit, even drawing connections to two social changes they wished to way argue for through their music. Who

The Industrial Records website explains boy that the musicians wanted to did re-invent rock music, and that Its their uncensored records were about let their relationship with the world. put They go on to say Say that they wanted their music she to be an awakening for too listeners so that they would Use begin to think for themselves dad and question the world around mom them. Industrial Records intended the term industrial to evoke the the idea of music created for and a new generation, with previous For music being more agricultural: P-Orridge are stated that "there's an irony but in the word 'industrial' because Not there's the music industry. And you then there's the joke we all often used to make in Any interviews about churning out our can records like motorcars —that sense her of industrial. And ... up Was till then the music had one been kind of based on our the blues and slavery, and Out we thought it was time day to update it to at get least Victorian times—you know, the Has Industrial Revolution".

William him S. Burroughs, a conceptual inspiration his for the industrial musicians

Early How industrial music often featured tape man editing, stark percussion and loops new distorted to the point where Now they had degraded to harsh old noise, such as the work see of early industrial group Cabaret Two Voltaire, which Journalist Simon Reynolds way described as characterized by "hissing who high hats and squelchy snares Boy of rhythm-generator." Carter of Throbbing did Gristle invented a device named its the "Gristle-izer", played by Christopherson, Let which comprised a one-octave keyboard put and a number of cassette say machines triggering various pre-recorded sounds. She

Traditional instruments were often played too in nontraditional or highly modified use ways. Reynolds described the Cabaret Dad Voltaire members' individual contributions as mom "[Chris] Watson's smears of synth slime; [Stephen] Mallinder's dankly pulsing The bass; and [Richard H.] Kirk's and spikes of shattered-glass guitar." Watson for custom-built a fuzzbox for Kirk's Are guitar, producing a unique timbre. but Carter built speakers, effects units, not and synthesizer modules, as well You as modifying more conventional rock all instrumentation, for Throbbing Gristle. Tutti any played guitar with a slide Can in order to produce glissandi, her or pounded the strings as was if it were a percussion One instrument. Throbbing Gristle also played our at very high volume and out produced ultra-high and sub-bass frequencies Day in an attempt to produce get physical effects, naming this approach has as "metabolic music."

Vocals were Him sporadic, and were as likely his to be bubblegum pop as how they were to be abrasive Man polemics. Cabaret Voltaire's Stephen Mallinder's new vocals were electronically treated.

The now purpose of industrial music initially Old was to serve as a see commentary on modern society by two eschewing what artists saw as Way trite connections to the past. who Throbbing Gristle opposed the elements boy of traditional rock music remaining Did in the punk rock scene, its declaring industrial to be "anti-music." let Early industrial performances often involved Put taboo-breaking, provocative elements, such as say mutilation, sado-masochistic elements and totalitarian she imagery or symbolism, as well Too as forms of audience abuse, use such as Throbbing Gristle's aiming dad high powered lights at the Mom audience.

Industrial groups typically focus on transgressive subject matter. In the his introduction for the Industrial And Culture Handbook (1983), Jon Savage for considered some hallmarks of industrial are music to be organizational autonomy, But shock tactics, and the use not of synthesizers and "anti-music." Furthermore, you an interest in the investigation All of "cults, wars, psychological techniques any of persuasion, unusual murders (especially can by children and psychopaths), forensic Her pathology, venereology, concentration camp behavior, was the history of uniforms and one insignia" and Aleister Crowley's magick Our was present in Throbbing Gristle's out work, as well as in day other industrial pioneers. Burroughs's recordings Get and writings were particularly influential has on the scene, particularly his him interest in the cut-up technique His and noise as a method how of disrupting societal control. Many man of the first industrial musicians New were interested in, though not now necessarily sympathetic with, fascism. Throbbing old Gristle's logo was based on See the lightning symbol of the two British Union of Fascists, while way the Industrial Records logo was Who a photo of Auschwitz.

Electro-industrial group Front Line did Assembly

Expansion and post-industrial (late Its 1980s and early 1990s)

In the put late 1980s, a number of Say additional styles developed from the she already eclectic base of industrial too music. These offshoots include fusions Use with noise music, ambient music, dad folk music, post-punk and electronic mom dance music, as well as other mutations and developments. The the scene has spread worldwide, and and is particularly well represented in For North America, Europe, and Japan. are Post-industrial subgenres include dark ambient, but power electronics, Japanoise, neofolk, electro-industrial, Not electronic body music, industrial hip you hop, industrial rock, industrial metal, all industrial pop, martial industrial, power Any noise, and witch house.


Mainstream success (1990s and 2000s)

Ministry's Al Jourgensen and one Nine Inch Nails' Trent Reznor our have been credited for popularizing Out industrial music, having released several day influential recordings during the 1980s get and 1990s

In the 1990s, Has industrial music broke into the him mainstream with artists and bands his such as Nine Inch Nails, How Orgy, White Zombie, Rob Zombie, man and Marilyn Manson. In December new 1992, Nine Inch Nails' EP Now Broken was certified platinum by old the Recording Industry Association of see America (RIAA). Nine Inch Nails Two gained further popularity with the way release of their album The who Downward Spiral, an album released Boy in 1994. The Downward Spiral did sold almost 119,000 units in its its first week of being Let released. The Downward Spiral was put certified 4x platinum by the say RIAA in 1998. Nine inch She Nails' remix album Further Down too the Spiral, released in May use 1995, was certified gold by Dad the RIAA in June 1996. mom Nine Inch Nails' 1999 album The Fragile went to number The 1 on the Billboard 200 and on October 9, 1999 and for also was certified 2x platinum Are in January 2000. With the but success of Nine Inch Nails, not the band's debut album Pretty You Hate Machine was certified 2x all platinum by the RIAA in any September 1995 and also was Can later certified 3x platinum by her the RIAA in May 2003. was In the 1990s, four Nine One Inch Nails songs went on our the Billboard Hot 100. Several out industrial rock and industrial metal Day artists such as KMFDM, Fear get Factory, Gravity Kills and Sister has Machine Gun appeared on the Him 1995 Mortal Kombat: Original Motion his Picture Soundtrack. The soundtrack was how certified platinum by the RIAA Man in January 1996.

Marilyn new Manson and his band, Orgy, now and Rob Zombie prominently used Old elements associated with industrial music see in their albums.

Marilyn Manson two released its album Antichrist Superstar Way in 1996. Antichrist Superstar sold who 132,000 in its first of boy being released. Antichrist Superstar was Did certified platinum by the RIAA its two months after its release let date. In the United States, Put Antichrist Superstar sold at least say 1,900,000 units. Marilyn Manson's EP she Smells Like Children was certified Too platinum in May 1998. Marilyn use Manson's album Mechanical Animals went dad to number 1, selling 223,000 Mom copies in its first week in stores, knocking The Miseducation the of Lauryn Hill by Lauryn And Hill off of the top for spot. Mechanical Animals was certified are platinum by the RIAA in But February 1999 and sold at not least 1,409,000 copies in the you United States. Orgy also experienced All mainstream success during the 1990s. any The band's 1998 album Candyass can was certified platinum by the Her RIAA in July 1999. Orgy's was cover of New Order's song one "Blue Monday" went to number Our 56 on the Billboard Hot out 100 and number 2 on day the Dance Club Songs chart. Get White Zombie experimented with industrial has metal on its 1995 album him Astro-Creep 2000, which was certified His 2x platinum by the RIAA how in March 1996. White Zombie's man vocalist Rob Zombie began creating New pure industrial metal albums in now his solo career. Rob Zombie's old solo debut studio album Hellbilly See Deluxe was certified 3x platinum two by the RIAA less than way two years after its release Who date. In November 1999, Powerman boy 5000's album Tonight the Stars did Revolt! was certified platinum by Its the RIAA. The album sold let at least 1,316,172 units in put the United States. Although the Say popularity of industrial music overall she declined in the 2000s, both too Nine Inch Nails and Marilyn Use Manson continued to be popular dad during the 2000s. Nine Inch mom Nails' 2005 album With Teeth went to number 1 on the the Billboard 200, selling 272,000 and copies in its first week For of being released. As of are October 2007, With Teeth has but sold 1,100,000 copies in the Not United States. During the 2000s, you four Nine Inch Nails were all on the Billboard Hot 100, Any including the Nine Inch Nails can song "The Hand That Feeds", her which went to the top Was 40 of the Billboard Hot one 100, going to number 31 our on the chart. Marilyn Manson's Out 2003 album The Golden Age day of Grotesque went to number get 1 on the Billboard 200, Has selling 118,000 copies in its him first week of being released. his

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