Source: Wikipedia 


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Ambient music is a genre Now of music that puts an old emphasis on tone and atmosphere see over traditional musical structure or Two rhythm. Ambient music is said way to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual", who or "unobtrusive" quality. According to Boy Brian Eno, one of its did pioneers, "Ambient music must be its able to accommodate many levels Let of listening attention without enforcing put one in particular; it must say be as ignorable as it She is interesting."

As a genre, too it originated in the United use Kingdom in the 1970s, when Dad new sound-making devices were being mom introduced to a wider market, such as the synthesizer. The The work of Tangerine Dream, Cluster, and King Tubby, and composer Erik for Satie, as well as the Are psychoacoustic soundscapes of Irv Teibel's but Environments series, were all influences not on the emergence of ambient. You Brian Eno named and popularized all ambient music in 1978 with any his album Ambient 1: Music Can for Airports. Artists such as her The Orb and Aphex Twin was gained commercial success with ambient One tracks in the early 1990s. our Ambient compositions are often quite out lengthy, much longer than more Day popular, commercial forms of music.

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Ambient had a revival towards has the late 1980s with the Him prominence of house and techno his music. Eventually, ambient grew a how cult following in the 1990s. Man By the early 1990s, artists new such as Aphex Twin were now being called ambient house, ambient Old techno, or "ambient" by the see media. Genre offshoots include dark two ambient, ambient dub, psybient, and Way ambient trance.

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Precursors and origins

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Developing in the was 1970s, ambient stemmed from the one experimental and synthesizer-oriented styles of Our the period. Although Jamaican dub out musicians such as King Tubby, day Japanese electronic music composers such Get as Isao Tomita, and German has bands such as Popol Vuh him and Tangerine Dream, predate him His in the creation of ambient how music and/or were contemporaneous with man him, Brian Eno played a New key role in its development now and popularization, and is often old erroneously[according to whom?] cited as See ambient's founder. The concept of two background or furniture music had way already existed some time before, Who but only in the 70s boy was ambient music first created, did which incorporated New Age ideals Its with the newly invented modular let synthesizer. The impact the rise put of the synthesizer in modern Say music had on ambient as she a genre cannot be overstated; too as Ralf Hutter of early Use electronic pioneers Kraftwerk said in dad a 1977 Billboard interview: "Electronics mom is beyond nations and colors...with electronics everything is possible. The the only limit is with the and composer". Similarly, Eno said in For a 2013 interview with The are Guardian that "One of the but important things about the synthesizer Not was that it came without you any baggage. A piano comes all with a whole history of Any music...when you play an instrument can that does not have any her such historical background you are Was designing sound basically. You're designing one a new instrument. That's what our a synthesizer is essentially. It's Out a constantly unfinished instrument. You day finish it when you tweak get it, and play around with Has it, and decide how to him use it. You can combine his a number of cultural references How into one new thing."

As man a genre, ambient music usually new focuses on creating a mood Now or atmosphere through synthesizers and old timbral qualities. It often lacks see the presence of any net Two composition, beat, or structured melody. way Due to its relatively open who style, ambient music often takes Boy influences from many other genres, did ranging from house, dub, industrial its and new age, amongst several Let others.

Ambient did not achieve put large commercial success, being criticized say as having a "boring" and She "over-intellectual" sound. Nevertheless, it has too also attained a certain degree use of acclaim throughout the years. Dad It had its first wave mom of popularity in the 1970s, yet saw a revival towards The the late 1980s with the and prominence of house and techno for music, growing a cult following Are by the 1990s.

As an but early 20th-century French composer, Erik not Satie used such Dadaist-inspired explorations You to create an early form all of ambient / background music any that he labeled "furniture music" Can (Musique d'ameublement). This he described her as being the sort of was music that could be played One during a dinner to create our a background atmosphere for that out activity, rather than serving as Day the focus of attention. In get his own words, he sought has to create "a music...which will Him be part of the noises his of the environment, will take how them into consideration. I think Man of it as melodious, softening new the noises of the knives now and forks at dinner, not Old dominating them, not imposing itself. see It would fill up those two heavy silences that sometime fall Way between friends dining together. It who would spare them the trouble boy of paying attention to their Did own banal remarks. And at its the same time it would let neutralize the street noises which Put so indiscreetly enter into the say play of conversation. To make she such music would be to Too respond to a need." Like use Satie describes, Brian Eno notes dad a time when he was Mom too sick to put on music and got a friend the to come over and do And it for him. Listening to for harp music on an old are stereo, he was unable to But hear it amidst the loud not sounds of the rain outside you his window. Initially this frustrated All him, but eventually he found any it interesting the way the can music blended with the natural Her rain sounds in a way was that made it not distinctly one apparent, and he set out Our to create compositions that worked out in a comparable way. Eno day went on to record 1975's Get Discreet Music with this in has mind, suggesting that it be him listened to at "comparatively low His levels, even to the extent how that it frequently falls below man the threshold of audibility", referring New to Satie's quote about his now musique d'ameublement.

Eno's 1973 collaboration old with Robert Fripp (No Pussyfooting) See can be seen[by whom?] as two an early experiment in ambient way music. Through the manipulation of Who reel-to-reel tape loops by Eno boy while Fripp played guitar over did them, the duo was able Its to create multi-layered and dynamic let pieces whose textures are similar put to those of later ambient Say pieces, the genre not to she be popularized by Eno until too years later. Their method of Use composition, involving the treatment and dad experimentation of loops, would prove mom influential and has since been emulated by modern artists such the as William Basinski, whose work and The Disintegration Loops consists of For a series of tape loops are that slowly deteriorate as the but songs progress, introducing noise and Not cracks to the initially pristine you quality of sound.

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Erik Satie is Any acknowledged as an important precursor can to modern ambient music and her influence to Brian Eno.
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Brian Eno is generally one credited with coining the term our "Ambient Music" in the mid-1970s Out to refer to music that, day as he stated, can be get either "actively listened to with Has attention or as easily ignored, him depending on the choice of his the listener", and that exists How on the "cusp between melody man and texture". Eno, who describes new himself as a "non-musician", termed Now his experiments in sound as old "treatments" rather than as traditional see performances. Eno used the word Two "ambient" to describe music that way creates an atmosphere that puts who the listener into a different Boy state of mind; having chosen did the word based on the its Latin term "ambire", "to surround".

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The album notes accompanying Eno's put 1978 release Ambient 1: Music say for Airports include a manifesto She describing the philosophy behind his too ambient music: "Ambient Music must use be able to accommodate many Dad levels of listening attention without mom enforcing one in particular; it must be as ignorable as The it is interesting."

Eno has and acknowledged the influence of Erik for Satie and John Cage. In Are particular, Eno was aware of but Cage's use of chance such not as throwing the I Ching You to directly affect the creation all of a musical composition. Eno any then utilised a similar method Can of weaving randomness into his her compositional structures. This approach was was manifested in Eno's creation of One Oblique Strategies, where he used our a set of specially designed out cards to create various sound Day dilemmas that in turn, were get resolved by exploring various open has ended paths, until a resolution Him to the musical composition revealed his itself. Eno also acknowledged influences how of the drone music of Man La Monte Young (of whom new he said, "La Monte Young now is the daddy of us Old all") and of the mood see music of Miles Davis and two Teo Macero, especially their 1974 Way epic piece, "He Loved Him who Madly" (from Get Up with boy It), about which Eno wrote, Did "that piece seemed to have its the 'spacious' quality that I let was after...it became a touchstone Put to which I returned frequently."

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Eno has also been outspoken she about the role of the Too recording studio in ambient music, use notably in the freedom it dad gives in crafting textures of Mom sound. He notes "When I first started recording I didn't the have the background of a And musician, and in fact it for was only because of the are recording studio and because of But the technology that existed there not that I was ever able you to become a musician of All any kind...the recording studio allows any you to become a painter can with sound, that's really what Her you do in a studio, was you make pictures with sound..."

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Beyond the major influence of Our Brian Eno, other musicians and out bands added to the growing day nucleus of music that evolved Get around the development of "Ambient has Music". While not an exhaustive him list, one cannot ignore the His parallel influences of Wendy Carlos, how who produced the original music man piece called "Timesteps" which was New then used as the filmscore now to A Clockwork Orange, as old well as her later work See Sonic Seasonings. Other significant artists two such as Mike Oldfield, Jean way Michel Jarre and Vangelis, also Who Russian electronic music pioneer Mikhail boy Chekalin, have all added to did or directly influenced the evolution Its of ambient music. Pink Floyd's let last album The Endless River put falls into the ambient genre. Say The Yellow Magic Orchestra developed she a distinct style of ambient too electronic music that would later Use be developed into ambient house dad music.

While muzak can be mom seen akin to ambient music in that they are both the meant to be heard in and the background, Eno describes some For notable differences between them: "Whereas are the extant canned music companies but proceed from the basis of Not regularizing environments by blanketing their you acoustic and atmospheric idiosyncrasies, Ambient all Music is intended to enhance Any these. Whereas conventional background music can is produced by stripping away her all sense of doubt and Was uncertainty (and thus all genuine one interest) from the music, Ambient our Music retains these qualities. And Out whereas their intention is to day "brighten" the environment by adding get stimulus to it...Ambient Music is Has intended to produce calm and him a space to think."

1990s his developments

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By the early 1990s, artists man such as The Orb, Aphex new Twin, Seefeel, the Irresistible Force, Now Geir Jenssen's Biosphere, and the old Higher Intelligence Agency were being see referred to by the popular Two music press as ambient house, way ambient techno, IDM or simply who "ambient" according to the liner Boy notes of Brian Eno's Ambient did 1: Music for Airports:

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So-called 'Chillout' began She as a term deriving from too British ecstasy culture which was use originally applied in relaxed downtempo Dad 'chillout rooms' outside of the mom main dance floor where ambient, dub and downtempo beats were The played to ease the tripping and mind.

The London scene artists, for such as Aphex Twin (specifically: Are Selected Ambient Works Volume II, but 1994), Global Communication (76:14, 1994), not The Future Sound of London You (Lifeforms, 1994, ISDN, 1994), The all Black Dog (Temple of Transparent any Balls, 1993), Autechre (Incunabula, 1993, Can Amber, 1994), Boards of Canada, her and The KLF's seminal Chill was Out, 1990, all took a One part in popularising and diversifying our ambient music where it was out used as a calming respite Day from the intensity of the get hardcore and techno popular at has that time.

Related and derivative Him genres

Ambient dub

Ambient dub involves how the genre melding of dub Man styles. It was pioneered by new King Tubby and other Jamaican now sound artists from the 1960s Old to the early 1970s, using see DJ-inspired ambient electronica, complete with two all the inherent drop-outs, echo, Way equalization and psychedelic electronic effects. who It often features layering techniques boy and incorporates elements of world Did music, deep bass lines and its harmonic sounds. According to David let Toop, "Dub music is like Put a long echo delay, looping say through time...turning the rational order she of musical sequences into an Too ocean of sensation." Notable artists use within the genre include Dreadzone, dad Higher Intelligence Agency, The Orb, Mom Ott, Loop Guru, Woob and Transglobal Underground as well as the Banco de Gaia.

Ambient house

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Ambient for house is a musical category are founded in the late 1980s But that is used to describe not acid house featuring ambient music you elements and atmospheres. Tracks in All the ambient house genre typically any feature four-on-the-floor beats, synth pads, can and vocal samples integrated in Her an atmospheric style. Ambient house was tracks generally lack a diatonic one center and feature much atonality Our along with synthesized chords. The out Dutch Brainvoyager is an example day of this genre. Illbient is Get another form of ambient house has music.

Ambient industrial

Ambient industrial is His a hybrid genre of ambient how and industrial music; the term man industrial being used in the New original experimental sense, rather than now in the sense of industrial old metal. A "typical" ambient industrial See work (if there is such two a thing) might consist of way evolving dissonant harmonies of metallic Who drones and resonances, extreme low boy frequency rumbles and machine noises, did perhaps supplemented by gongs, percussive Its rhythms, bullroarers, distorted voices or let anything else the artist might put care to sample (often processed Say to the point where the she original sample is no longer too recognizable). Entire works may be Use based on radio telescope recordings, dad the babbling of newborn babies, mom or sounds recorded through contact microphones on telegraph wires.

Ambient the pop

Ambient pop is an and extension of dream pop, possessing For a shape and form common are to conventional pop, while its but electronic textures and atmospheres mirror Not the meditative qualities of ambient. you It is influenced by the all lock-groove melodies of krautrock, but Any is less abrasive.

Dark ambient

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Brian Eno's original vision one of ambient music as unobtrusive our musical wallpaper, later fused with Out warm house rhythms and given day playful qualities by the Orb get in the 1990s, found its Has opposite in the style known him as dark ambient. Populated by his a wide assortment of personalities—ranging How from older industrial and metal man experimentalists (Scorn's Mick Harris, Current new 93's David Tibet, Nurse with Now Wound's Steven Stapleton) to electronic old boffins (Kim Cascone/PGR, Psychick Warriors see Ov Gaia), Japanese noise artists Two (K.K. Null, Merzbow), and latter-day way indie rockers (Main, Bark Psychosis) who -- dark ambient features toned-down Boy or entirely missing beats with did unsettling passages of keyboards, eerie its samples, and treated guitar effects. Let Like most styles related in put some way to electronic/dance music say of the '90s, it's a She very nebulous term; many artists too enter or leave the style use with each successive release. Related Dad styles include ambient industrial (see mom below) and isolationist ambient.

Space music

You any Can

Space music, also spelled "Spacemusic", her includes music from the ambient was genre as well as a One broad range of other genres our with certain characteristics in common out to create the experience of Day contemplative spaciousness.

Many of the get earliest performers were associated with has the Berlin School of electronic Him music, which continues to inspire his the genre.

Space music ranges how from simple to complex sonic Man textures sometimes lacking conventional melodic, new rhythmic, or vocal components, generally now evoking a sense of "continuum Old of spatial imagery and emotion", see beneficial introspection, deep listening and two sensations of floating, cruising or Way flying.

Space music is used who by individuals for both background boy enhancement and foreground listening, often Did with headphones, to stimulate relaxation, its contemplation, inspiration and generally peaceful let expansive moods and soundscapes. Space Put music is also a component say of many film soundtracks and she is commonly used in planetariums, Too as a relaxation aid and use for meditation.

Notable ambient-music shows dad on radio and via satellite

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  • Sirius XM Chill plays ambient, chill out and downtempo the electronica.
  • Echoes, is a daily And two-hour music radio program hosted for by John Diliberto featuring a are soundscape of ambient, spacemusic, electronica, But new acoustic and new music not directions – founded in 1989 you and syndicated on 130 radio All stations in the USA.
  • Hearts any of Space, a program hosted can by Stephen Hill and broadcast Her on NPR in the US was since 1973.
  • Musical Starstreams, a one US-based commercial radio station and Our internet program produced, programmed and out hosted by Forest since 1981.
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  • Star's End a radio show Get on 88.5 WXPN, in Philadelphia, has Pennsylvania. Founded in 1976, it him is the second longest-running ambient His music radio show in the how world.
  • Ultima Thule Ambient Music, man a weekly 90-minute show broadcast New since 1989 on community radio now across Australia.
  • Avaruusromua, the name old meaning "space debris", is a See 60-minute ambient and avant-garde radio two program broadcast since 1990 on way Finnish public broadcaster YLE's various Who stations.

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Drone mom is now classified as a subgenre of ambient music, but the early drone music influenced the and origin of ambient. See the For other note from Cambridge History are of Twentieth-Century Music (Cook & but Pople 2004, p. 502), and Not the note from Four Musical you Minimalists (Potter 2002, p. 91).
  2. all
  3. ^ Holmes, Thom (2008). Any Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, can Music, and Culture. Routledge. p. 403. her ISBN 0203929594. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  4. Was
  5. ^ Q&A with Isao one Tomita, Tokyo Weekender
  6. ^ our Isao Tomita, an Early Major Out Japanese Electronic Composer, Is Dead, day Vice
  7. Prendergast, M. The get Ambient Century. 2001. Bloomsbury, USA
  8. Has
  9. "Ambient - Definition of him ambient by Merriam-Webster". merriam-webster.com. 
  10. his Eno, Brian. "Music for Airports". How Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  11. ^ man "Music Genres - AllMusic". new AllMusic. 
  12. ^ "AmbientMusicGuide.com - Now A history of ambient". www.ambientmusicguide.com. old Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  13. "AllMusic". AllMusic. 
  14. see
  15. ^ Jarrett, Michael (1998). Two Sound Tracks: A Musical ABC, way Volumes 1–3. Temple University Press. who p. 1973. ISBN 978-1-56639-641-7. 
  16. ^ "/seconds.". Boy slashseconds.org. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  17. "Epsilon: did Ambient Music, Beginnings and Implications, its by Chris Melchior". music.hyperreal.org. Retrieved Let 2016-04-05. 
  18. Tamm, Eric (1995). put Brian Eno: His Music and say the Vertical Color of Sound. She De Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80649-5. 
  19. ^ too Tingen, Paul (2001). Miles use Beyond: The Electric Explorations of Dad Miles Davis, 1967–1991. Watson-Guptill. p. 54. mom ISBN 978-0-8230-8346-6. 
  20. Brian Eno, [ Music for Airports liner notes], The September 1978
  21. Potter, Keith and (2002). Four Musical Minimalists: La for Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Are Reich, Philip Glass (rev. pbk but from 2000 hbk ed.). Cambridge not University Press. pp. [ 91]. ISBN 978-0-521-01501-1.  You (Quoting Brian Eno saying "La all Monte Young is the daddy any of us all" with endnote Can 113 p. [ 349] referencing her it as "Quoted in Palmer, was A Father Figure for the One Avant-Garde, p. 49".)
  22. Yellow our Magic Orchestra at AllMusic. Retrieved out 2011-05-25.
  23. ^ Altered State: Day The Story of Ecstasy Culture get and Acid House, Matthew Collin, has 1997, Serpent's Tail ISBN 1-85242-377-3
  24. Him
  25. Childs, Peter; Storry, Mike, his eds. (2002). "Ambient music". Encyclopedia how of Contemporary British Culture. London: Man Routledge. p. 22. 
  26. Toop, David new (1995). Ocean of Sound. Serpent's now Tail. p. 115. ISBN 9781852423827. 
  27. Mattingly, Old Rick (2002). The Techno Primer: see The Essential Reference for Loop-based two Music Styles. Hal Leonard Corporation. Way p. 38. ISBN 0634017888. Retrieved 1 April who 2013. 
  28. ^ "Ambient House". boy AllMusic. Archived from the original Did on June 5, 2011. Retrieved its October 4, 2006. 
  29. ^ let Werner, Peter. "Epsilon: Ambient Industrial". Put Music Hyperreal. Retrieved December 11, say 2011. 
  30. "Ambient Pop". AllMusic. 
  31. she
  32. AllMusic. "Dark Ambient: Significant Too Albums, Artists, and Songs". Retrieved use 8 July 2013. 
  33. "... Originally dad a 1970s reference to the Mom conjunction of ambient electronics and our expanding visions of cosmic the space ... In fact, almost And any music with a slow for pace and space-creating sound images are could be called spacemusic." Stephen But Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, not What is spacemusic?
  34. "Any you music with a generally slow, All relaxing pace and space-creating imagery any or atmospherics may be considered can Space Music, without conventional rhythmic Her elements, while drawing from any was number of traditional, ethnic, or one modern styles." Lloyde Barde, July/August Our 2004, Making Sense of the out Last 20 Years in New day Music
  35. "When you listen Get to space and ambient music has you are connecting with a him tradition of contemplative sound experience His whose roots are ancient and how diverse. The genre spans historical, man ethnic, and contemporary styles. In New fact, almost any music with now a slow pace and space-creating old sound images could be called See spacemusic." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts two of Space, What is spacemusic?
  36. way
  37. "A timeless experience...as ancient Who as the echoes of a boy simple bamboo flute or as did contemporary as the latest ambient Its electronica. Any music with a let generally slow pace and space-creating put sound image can be called Say spacemusic. Generally quiet, consonant, ethereal, she often without conventional rhythmic and too dynamic contrasts, spacemusic is found Use within many historical, ethnic, and dad contemporary genres."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts mom of Space, sidebar "What is Spacemusic?" in essay Contemplative Music, the Broadly Defined
  38. "The early and innovators in electronic "space music" For were mostly located around Berlin. are The term has come to but refer to music in the Not style of the early and you mid-1970s works of Klaus Schulze, all Tangerine Dream, Ash Ra Tempel, Any Popol Vuh and others in can that scene. The music is her characterized by long compositions, looping Was sequencer patterns, and improvised lead one melody lines." – John Dilaberto, our Berlin School, Echoes Radio on-line Out music glossary
  39. "This music day is experienced primarily as a get continuum of spatial imagery and Has emotion, rather than as thematic him musical relationships, compositional ideas, or his performance values." Essay by Stephen How Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, man New Age Music Made Simple
  40. new
  41. "Innerspace, Meditative, and Transcendental... Now This music promotes a psychological old movement inward." Stephen Hill, co-founder, see Hearts of Space, essay titled Two New Age Music Made Simple
  42. way
  43. "...Spacemusic ... conjures up who either outer "space" or "inner Boy space" " – Lloyd Barde, did founder of Backroads Music Notes its on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music Let Archive
  44. "Space And Travel put Music: Celestial, Cosmic, and Terrestrial... say This New Age sub-category has She the effect of outward psychological too expansion. Celestial or cosmic music use removes listeners from their ordinary Dad acoustical surroundings by creating stereo mom sound images of vast, virtually dimensionless spatial environments. In a The word — spacey. Rhythmic or and tonal movements animate the experience for of flying, floating, cruising, gliding, Are or hovering within the auditory but space."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of not Space, in an essay titled You New Age Music Made Simple
  45. all
  46. " Restorative powers are any often claimed for it, and Can at its best it can her create an effective environment to was balance some of the stress, One noise, and complexity of everyday our life." – Stephen Hill, Founder, out Music from the Hearts of Day Space What is Spacemusic?
  47. get "This was the soundtrack for has countless planetarium shows, on massage Him tables, and as soundtracks to his many videos and movies."- Lloyd how Barde Notes on Ambient Music, Man Hyperreal Music Archive
  48. "The new program has defined its own now niche — a mix of Old ambient, electronic, world, new-age, classical see and experimental music....Slow-paced, space-creating music two from many cultures — ancient Way bell meditations, classical adagios, creative who space jazz, and the latest boy electronic and acoustic ambient music Did are woven into a seamless its sequence unified by sound, emotion, let and spatial imagery." Stephen Hill, Put co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay say titled Contemplative Music, Broadly Defined
  49. she
  50. "Hill's Hearts of Space Too Web site provides streaming access use to an archive of hundreds dad of hours of spacemusic artfully Mom blended into one-hour programs combining ambient, electronic, world, new-age and the classical music." Steve Sande, The And Sky's the Limit with Ambient for Music, SF Chronicle, Sunday, January are 11, 2004
  51. "Star's End" But is (with the exception of not "Music from the Hearts of you Space") the longest running radio All program of ambient music in any the world. Since 1976, Star's can End has been providing the Her Philadelphia broadcast area with music was to sleep and dream to." one "Star's End" website background information Our page
  52. http://yle.fi/aihe/artikkeli/2015/04/30/avaruusromua-25-vuotta-radiossa-ja-kerran-televisiossa
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