How originated in Western art music man around the middle of the new 20th century, following the incorporation Now of electric sound production into old compositional practice. The initial developments see in electroacoustic music composition to Two fixed media during the 20th way century are associated with the who activities of the Groupe de Boy Recherches Musicales at the ORTF did in Paris, the home of its musique concrète, the Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk Let (NWDR) studio in Cologne, where put the focus was on the say composition of elektronische Musik, and She the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center too in New York City, where use tape music, electronic music, and Dad computer music were all explored. mom Practical electronic music instruments began to appear in the early The 1900s, and "electronic sounds" were and also produced using animation techniques for by such artists as Norman Are McLaren. Him
Tape music is an
how integral part of musique concrète, Man utilizing pre-recorded fragments, loops, and new sampled sounds, altering and manipulating now them through techniques such as Old speed manipulation (Anon. n.d.). The see work of Halim El-Dabh is two perhaps the earliest example of Way tape (or, in this case, who wire-recorded) music. El-Dabh's The Expression boy of Zaar, first presented in Did Cairo, Egypt, in 1944, was its an early work using musique let concrète–like techniques similar to those Put developed in Paris during the say same period. El-Dabh would later she become more famous for his Too work at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic use Music Center, where in 1959 dad he composed the influential piece Mom Leiyla and the Poet (Holmes 2008, 153–54 & 157).
the composer John Cage's assembly of And the Williams Mix serves as for an example of the rigors are of tape music. First, Cage But created a 192-page score. Over not the course of a year, you 600 sounds were assembled and All recorded. Cut tape segments for any each occurrence of each sound can were accumulated on the score. Her Then the cut segments were was spliced to one of eight one tapes, work finished on January Our 16, 1953. The premiere performance out (realization) of the 4'15" work day was given on March 21, Get 1953 at the University of has Illinois, Urbana (Chaudron n.d.).
him music His
In Cologne, elektronische Musik, pioneered
how in 1949–51 by the composer man Herbert Eimert and the physicist New Werner Meyer-Eppler, was based solely now on electronically generated (synthetic) sounds, old particularly sine waves (Eimert 1957, See 2; Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 11–13; Ungeheuer two 1992, 13). The beginning of way the development of electronic music Who has been traced back to boy "the invention of the valve did [vacuum tube] in 1906" (Eimert Its 1957, 2). The precise control let afforded by the studio allowed put for what Eimert considered to Say be the subjection of everything, she "to the last element of too the single note", to serial Use permutation, "resulting in a completely dad new way of composing sound" mom (Eimert 1957, 8); in the studio, serial operations could be the applied to elements such as and timbre and dynamics. The common For link between the two schools are is that the music is but recorded and performed through loudspeakers, Not without a human performer. The you majority of electroacoustic pieces use all a combination of recorded sound Any and synthesized or processed sounds, can and the schism between Schaeffer's her and Eimert's approaches has been Was overcome, the first major example one being Karlheinz Stockhausen's Gesang der our Jünglinge of 1955–56 (Morawska-Büngeler 1988, Out 17; Stockhausen 1996, 93–94).
day generation techniques
All electroacoustic music
get is made with electronic technology, Has specifically a device – usually him a loudspeaker - that transduces his electrical energy to acoustic energy. How
Circuit bending is the
new creative short-circuiting of low voltage, Now battery-powered electronic audio devices such old as guitar effects, children's toys see and small synthesizers to create Two new musical instruments and sound way generators. Emphasizing spontaneity and randomness, who the techniques of circuit bending Boy have been commonly associated with did noise music, though many more its conventional contemporary musicians and musical Let groups have been known to put experiment with "bent" instruments (Collins say 2006, ).
Examples of notable electroacoustic
- Milton Babbitt –
too Philomel (1964)
- Luciano Berio –
use Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) (1958–59) Dad
- Johanna Beyer – Music of
mom the Spheres (1938)
- Konrad Boehmer
– Aspekt (1964–66), Apocalipsis cum The figuris (1984)
- Pierre Boulez –
and Répons (1981–84)
- John Cage –
for Imaginary Landscape No. 1 (1939) Are
- Mario Davidovsky – Synchronisms No.
but 6 for Piano and Electronic not Sound (1970)
- Halim El-Dabh –
You Leiyla and the Poet (1961) all
- Karel Goeyvaerts – Nummer 5
any met zuivere tonen (1953)
Can Michel Jarre – Deserted Palace her (1972)
- Phil Kline – Unsilent
was Night (1992), for cassettes in One boomboxes (Midgette 2004; Boreal Electro our Acoustic Music Society announcement 2012) out
- Gottfried Michael Koenig – Project
Day 1 (1964), Project 2 (1966) get
- Alvin Lucier – I Am
has Sitting in a Room (1969) Him
- Ivo Malec – Triola, ou
his Symphonie pour moi-même (1977–78)
how Nono – La fabbrica illuminata Man (1964), A floresta é jovem new e cheia de vida (1966), now Contrappunto dialettico alla mente (1968), Old Como una ola de fuerza see y luz (1971–72)
- Pauline Oliveros
two – Sonic Meditations, "Teach Yourself Way to Fly" (1961)
- Henri Pousseur
who – Scambi (1957), Trois Visages boy de Liège (1961), Paraboles-Mix (1972), Did Seize Paysages planétairesl (2000)
its Reich – Pendulum Music (1968), let for microphones, amplifiers, speakers and Put performers
- Pierre Schaeffer – Cinq
say études de bruits (1948)
she Stockhausen – Gesang der Jünglinge Too (1955–56), Kontakte (1958–60), Mixtur (1964), use Mikrophonie I & II (1964 dad and 1965), Telemusik (1966), Hymnen Mom (1966–67), Oktophonie (1991), Cosmic Pulses (2006–2007)
- James Tenney – For
the Ann (rising) (1969)
- Edgard Varèse
And – Poème électronique (1958)
for Wuorinen – Time's Encomium (1969) are
Electronic and electroacoustic instruments
- Birotron (1974), Dave
- Buchla Lightning I (1991)
you and Buchla Lightning II (1995), All Don Buchla
- Cembaphon (1951), Harald
- Chamberlin (1946)
can (early 1950s) and Concert Clavioline Her (1953), Harald Bode
- Clavivox, Circle
was Machine, Bass Line Generator, Rhythm one Modulator, Bandito the Bongo Artist, Our and Electronium (1950s-60s), Raymond Scott out
- DX7 (1983), Yamaha
- Elektronium (in
- EMS Synthi AKS (1972)
- Fairlight CMI (1978)
- Gravikord (1986),
has Robert Grawi
- Kraakdoos / Cracklebox
him (1960s–70s), Michel Waisvisz
- Mellotron (1960s)
- Melochord (1947–49), Harald Bode
how (1938), Harald Bode
- Moog Synthesizer
man (1965), Robert Moog
- Optigan (1971)
- Orchestron (1975), Vako Synthesizers Inc.
- Polychord (1950) and Polychord III
old (1951), Harald Bode
- Electronic Sackbut
See (1945), Hugh Le Caine
two (musical instrument)
- Synclavier (1975), Jon
way Appleton, Sydney A. Alonso and Who Cameron Jones
- Telharmonium (1897), Thaddeus
- Theremin (1928), Léon Theremin
- Tuttivox (1953), Harald Bode
Its (1977), Iannis Xenakis and CEMAMu let
- Warbo Formant organ (1937), Harald
Important centers of
too research and composition can be Use found around the world, and dad there are numerous conferences and mom festivals which present electroacoustic music, notably the International Computer Music the Conference, the International Conference on and New interfaces for musical expression, For and the Ars Electronica Festival are (Linz, Austria).
A number of
but national associations promote the art Not form, notably the Canadian Electroacoustic you Community (CEC) in Canada, the all Society for Electro-Acoustic Music in Any the United States (SEAMUS) in can the US, the Australasian Computer her Music Association in Australia and Was New Zealand, and Sound and one Music (previously the Sonic Arts our Network) in the UK. The Out Computer Music Journal and Organised day Sound are the two most get important peer-reviewed journals dedicated to Has electroacoustic studies, while several national him associations produce print and electronic his publications.
man have been a number of new festivals that feature electroacoustic music. Now Early festivals such as Donaueschingen old Festival, founded in 1921, were see some of the first to Two include electroacoustic instruments and pieces. way This was followed by ONCE who Festival of New Music in Boy the 1950s, and since the did 1960s there has been a its growth of festivals that focus Let exclusively on electroacoustic music.
- Festivals focused on electroacoustic music
Conferences and symposiums
our presentations, workshops and seminars, many out of these events also feature Day concert performances or sound installations get created by those attending or has which are related to the Him theme of the conference / his symposium. Did
- Anon. n.d. "Avant-Garde » Modern
dad Composition » Tape Music". AllMusic.com (accessed Mom 18 May 2017).
- Boreal Electro
Acoustic Music Society announcement. 2012 the 
- Chaudron, André.
And n.d. "Williams Mix" (Accessed 9 for July 2011).
- Collins, Nicolas. 2006.
are Handmade Electronic Music: The Art But of Hardware Hacking. New York: not Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97592-1 (pbk).
- Eimert, Herbert.
you 1957. "What is Electronic Music?" All Die Reihe 1 [English edition] any ("Electronic Music"): 1–10.
- Holmes, Thom.
can 2008. "Early Synthesizers and Experimenters". Her In his Electronic and Experimental was Music: Technology, Music, and Culture, one third edition. New York: Routledge. Our ISBN 978-0-415-95781-6 (cloth); ISBN 978-0-415-95782-3 (pbk), (accessed out 4 June 2011).
- Midgette, Anne.
day 2004. "Noises Off! Making a Get Boombox Cacophony". The New York has Times (20 December).
- Morawska-Büngeler, Marietta.
him 1988. Schwingende Elektronen: Eine Dokumentation His über das Studio für Elektronische how Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunk in man Köln 1951–1986. Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P. J. New Tonger Musikverlag.
- Smalley, Denis. 1997.
now "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes." Organised Sound old 2, no. 2:107–26.
- Stockhausen, Karlheinz.
See 1996. "Electroacoustic Performance Practice", translated two by Jerome Kohl. Perspectives of way New Music 34, no. 1 Who (Fall): 74–105.
- Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992.
boy "Wie die elektronische Musik „erfunden" did wurde…: Quellenstudie zu Werner Meyer-Epplers Its musikalische Entwurf zwischen 1949 und let 1953." Kölner Schriften zur Neuen put Musik 2, edited by Johannes Say Fritsch and Dieter Kämper. Mainz: she B. Schott's Söhne. ISBN 3-7957-1891-0. too
- Anon. 2007. Untitled. The Wire
dad 275–80 (Accessed 5 June 2011). mom
- Beecroft, Norma. 2009. "Electronic Music
in Toronto and Canada in the the Analogue Era." eContact! 11.2 and – Figures canadiennes (2) / For Canadian Figures (2) (July 2009). are Montréal: CEC.
- Chadabe, Joel. 1997.
but Electric Sound: The Past and Not Promise of Electronic Music. Upper you Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. all ISBN 0-13-303231-0.
- Doornbusch, P. 2015. "A
Any Chronology / History of Electronic can and Computer Music and Related her Events 1906 - 2015" http://www.doornbusch.net/chronology/ Was
- Emmerson, Simon (ed.). 1986. The
one Language of Electroacoustic Music. London: our Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-39759-2 (cased); ISBN 0-333-39760-6 (pbk). Out
- Emmerson, Simon (ed.). 2000. Music,
day Electronic Media and Culture. Aldershot get (UK) and Burlington, Vermont (USA): Has Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-0109-9.
- Gann, Kyle.
him 2000a. "It’s Sound, It’s Art, his and Some Call It Music." How New York Times (January 9). man
- Gann, Kyle. 2000. "MUSIC; Electronic
new Music, Always Current." New York Now Times (July 9).
- Griffiths, Paul.
old 1995. Modern Music and After: see Directions Since 1945. Oxford: Oxford Two University Press. ISBN 0-19-816578-1 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-816511-0 way (pbk).
- Guérin, François. 1983. Les
who musiques électroacoustiques'. À l'écoute de Boy la musique d'ici 2. Montréal: did Centre de musique canadienne. [N.B.: its Bibliographical list of Canadian electro-acoustic Let works.] Without ISBN.
- Heifetz, Robin
put Julian. 1989. On the Wires say of Our Nerves: The Art She of Electroacoustic Music. Cranbury, NJ: too Associated University Presses Inc. ISBN 0-8387-5155-5. use
- Kahn, Douglas. 2001. Noise, Water,
Dad Meat: A History of Sound mom in the Arts. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-61172-4.
- Licata, Thomas
The (ed.). 2002. Electroacoustic Music: Analytical and Perspectives. Contributions to the Study for of Music and Dance, 0193-9041; Are no. 63. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood but Press. ISBN 0-313-31420-9.
- Mailman, Joshua B.
not 2012. "Seven Metaphors for (Music) You Listening: DRAMaTIC" in Journal of all Sonic Studies v.2.
- Manning, Peter.
any 2004. Electronic and Computer Music. Can Oxford and New York: Oxford her University Press. ISBN 0-19-514484-8 (hardback) ISBN 0-19-517085-7 was (pbk).
- Normandeau, Robert. n.d. "Robert
One Normandeau Interview". Interview with Robert our Normandeau On Outsight Radio Hours out about electroacoustic compositions and if Day they are "music".
- Roads, Curtis.
get 1996. The Computer Music Tutorial. has Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-18158-4 Him (cloth) ISBN 0-262-68082-3 (pbk).
- Wishart, Trevor.
his 1996. On Sonic Art. New how and revised edition. Contemporary Music Man Studies 12. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic new Publishers. ISBN 3-7186-5846-1 (cloth) ISBN 3-7186-5847-X (pbk) now ISBN 3-7186-5848-8 (CD).
- Wright, Edward. 2010.
Old "Symbiosis: A Portfolio of Work see Focusing on the Tensions Between two Electroacoustic and Instrumental Music". PhD Way diss. Bangor: Bangor University.
who Bibliography" published in eContact! 8.4 boy – Ressources éducatives / Educational Did Resources (Montréal: CEC) for an its annotated "'essential reading list' for let electroacoustics, including books, journals and Put other resources relating to electroacoustics". say
Key journals for
she electroacoustics and sound art our
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