How music originated in Western art man music around the middle of new the 20th century, following the Now incorporation of electric sound production old into compositional practice. The initial see developments in electroacoustic music composition Two to fixed media during the way 20th century are associated with who the activities of the Groupe Boy de Recherches Musicales at the did ORTF in Paris, the home its of musique concrète, the Nordwestdeutscher Let Rundfunk (NWDR) studio in Cologne, put where the focus was on say the composition of elektronische Musik, She and the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music too Center in New York City, use where tape music, electronic music, Dad and computer music were all mom explored. Practical electronic music instruments began to appear in the The early 1900s, and "electronic sounds" and were also produced using animation for techniques by such artists as Are Norman McLaren. Him
Tape music is
how an integral part of musique Man concrète, utilizing pre-recorded fragments, loops, new and sampled sounds, altering and now manipulating them through techniques such Old as speed manipulation (Anon. n.d.). see The work of Halim El-Dabh two is perhaps the earliest example Way of tape (or, in this who case, wire-recorded) music. El-Dabh's The boy Expression of Zaar, first presented Did in Cairo, Egypt, in 1944, its was an early work using let musique concrète–like techniques similar to Put those developed in Paris during say the same period. El-Dabh would she later become more famous for Too his work at the Columbia-Princeton use Electronic Music Center, where in dad 1959 he composed the influential Mom piece Leiyla and the Poet (Holmes 2008, 153–54 & 157). the
US composer John Cage's assembly
And of the Williams Mix serves for as an example of the are rigors of tape music. First, But Cage created a 192-page score. not Over the course of a you year, 600 sounds were assembled All and recorded. Cut tape segments any for each occurrence of each can sound were accumulated on the Her score. Then the cut segments was were spliced to one of one eight tapes, work finished on Our January 16, 1953. The premiere out performance (realization) of the 4'15" day work was given on March Get 21, 1953 at the University has of Illinois, Urbana (Chaudron n.d.). him
In Cologne, elektronische Musik,
how pioneered in 1949–51 by the man composer Herbert Eimert and the New physicist Werner Meyer-Eppler, was based now solely on electronically generated (synthetic) old sounds, particularly sine waves (Eimert See 1957, 2; Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 11–13; two Ungeheuer 1992, 13). The beginning way of the development of electronic Who music has been traced back boy to "the invention of the did valve [vacuum tube] in 1906" Its (Eimert 1957, 2). The precise let control afforded by the studio put allowed for what Eimert considered Say to be the subjection of she everything, "to the last element too of the single note", to Use serial permutation, "resulting in a dad completely new way of composing mom sound" (Eimert 1957, 8); in the studio, serial operations could the be applied to elements such and as timbre and dynamics. The For common link between the two are schools is that the music but is recorded and performed through Not loudspeakers, without a human performer. you The majority of electroacoustic pieces all use a combination of recorded Any sound and synthesized or processed can sounds, and the schism between her Schaeffer's and Eimert's approaches has Was been overcome, the first major one example being Karlheinz Stockhausen's Gesang our der Jünglinge of 1955–56 (Morawska-Büngeler Out 1988, 17; Stockhausen 1996, 93–94). day
Sound generation techniques
get music is made with electronic Has technology, specifically a device – him usually a loudspeaker – that his transduces electrical energy to acoustic How energy.
Circuit bending is
new the creative short-circuiting of low Now voltage, battery-powered electronic audio devices old such as guitar effects, children's see toys and small synthesizers to Two create new musical instruments and way sound generators. Emphasizing spontaneity and who randomness, the techniques of circuit Boy bending have been commonly associated did with noise music, though many its more conventional contemporary musicians and Let musical groups have been known put to experiment with "bent" instruments say (Collins 2006, ).
Examples of notable
She electroacoustic works
- Milton Babbitt
too – Philomel (1964)
- Luciano Berio
use – Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) Dad (1958–59)
- Johanna Beyer – Music
mom of the Spheres (1938)
Boehmer – Aspekt (1964–66), Apocalipsis The cum figuris (1984)
- Pierre Boulez
and – Répons (1981–84)
- John Cage
for – Imaginary Landscape No. 1 Are (1939)
- Mario Davidovsky – Synchronisms
but No. 6 for Piano and not Electronic Sound (1970)
- Halim El-Dabh
You – Leiyla and the Poet all (1961)
- Karel Goeyvaerts – Nummer
any 5 met zuivere tonen (1953) Can
- Jean Michel Jarre – Deserted
her Palace (1972)
- Phil Kline –
was Unsilent Night (1992), for cassettes One in boomboxes (Midgette 2004; Boreal our Electro Acoustic Music Society announcement out 2012)
- Gottfried Michael Koenig –
Day Project 1 (1964), Project 2 get (1966)
- Alvin Lucier – I
has Am Sitting in a Room Him (1969)
- Ivo Malec – Triola,
his ou Symphonie pour moi-même (1977–78) how
- Luigi Nono – La fabbrica
Man illuminata (1964), A floresta é new jovem e cheia de vida now (1966), Contrappunto dialettico alla mente Old (1968), Como una ola de see fuerza y luz (1971–72)
two Oliveros – Sonic Meditations, "Teach Way Yourself to Fly" (1961)
who Pousseur – Scambi (1957), Trois boy Visages de Liège (1961), Paraboles-Mix Did (1972), Seize Paysages planétairesl (2000) its
- Steve Reich – Pendulum Music
let (1968), for microphones, amplifiers, speakers Put and performers
- Pierre Schaeffer –
say Cinq études de bruits (1948) she
- Karlheinz Stockhausen – Gesang der
Too Jünglinge (1955–56), Kontakte (1958–60), Mixtur use (1964), Mikrophonie I & II dad (1964 and 1965), Telemusik (1966), Mom Hymnen (1966–67), Oktophonie (1991), Cosmic Pulses (2006–2007)
- James Tenney –
the For Ann (rising) (1969)
And Varèse – Poème électronique (1958) for
- Charles Wuorinen – Time's Encomium
Electronic and electroacoustic
- Birotron (1974),
not Dave Biro
- Buchla Lightning I
you (1991) and Buchla Lightning II All (1995), Don Buchla
- Cembaphon (1951),
any Harald Bode
- Chamberlin (1946)
- Clavioline (early 1950s) and Concert
Her Clavioline (1953), Harald Bode
was Circle Machine, Bass Line Generator, one Rhythm Modulator, Bandito the Bongo Our Artist, and Electronium (1950s–60s), Raymond out Scott
- DX7 (1983), Yamaha
day (in German)
- EMS Synthi AKS
- Fairlight CMI (1978)
has (1986), Robert Grawi
- Kraakdoos /
him Cracklebox (1960s–70s), Michel Waisvisz
- Melochord (1947–49), Harald Bode
- Melodium (1938), Harald Bode
man Synthesizer (1965), Robert Moog
- Orchestron (1975), Vako Synthesizers
- Polychord (1950) and Polychord
old III (1951), Harald Bode
See Sackbut (1945), Hugh Le Caine two
- Sampler (musical instrument)
- Synclavier (1975),
way Jon Appleton, Sydney A. Alonso Who and Cameron Jones
- Telharmonium (1897),
boy Thaddeus Cahill
- Theremin (1928), Léon
- Tuttivox (1953), Harald Bode
- UPIC (1977), Iannis Xenakis and
- Warbo Formant organ (1937),
put Harald Bode
too of research and composition can Use be found around the world, dad and there are numerous conferences mom and festivals which present electroacoustic music, notably the International Computer the Music Conference, the International Conference and on New interfaces for musical For expression, the Electroacoustic Music Studies are Conference, and the Ars Electronica but Festival (Linz, Austria).
Not of national associations promote the you art form, notably the Canadian all Electroacoustic Community (CEC) in Canada, Any the Society for Electro-Acoustic Music can in the United States (SEAMUS) her in the US, the Australasian Was Computer Music Association in Australia one and New Zealand, and Sound our and Music (previously the Sonic Out Arts Network) in the UK. day The Computer Music Journal and get Organised Sound are the two Has most important peer-reviewed journals dedicated him to electroacoustic studies, while several his national associations produce print and How electronic publications.
There have been a number
Now of festivals that feature electroacoustic old music. Early festivals such as see Donaueschingen Festival, founded in 1921, Two were some of the first way to include electroacoustic instruments and who pieces. This was followed by Boy ONCE Festival of New Music did in the 1950s, and since its the 1960s there has been Let a growth of festivals that put focus exclusively on electroacoustic music. say
- Festivals focused on electroacoustic
out and symposiums
Alongside paper presentations,
Day workshops and seminars, many of get these events also feature concert has performances or sound installations created Him by those attending or which his are related to the theme how of the conference / symposium. Man
- NIME – International Conference
new on New Interfaces for Musical now Expression (since 2000)
- Anon. n.d. "Avant-Garde » Modern Composition »
let Tape Music". AllMusic.com (accessed 18 Put May 2017).
- Boreal Electro Acoustic
say Music Society announcement. 2012 
- Chaudron, André. n.d.
Too "Williams Mix" (Accessed 9 July use 2011).
- Collins, Nicolas. 2006. Handmade
dad Electronic Music: The Art of Mom Hardware Hacking. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97592-1 (pbk).
- Eimert, Herbert. 1957.
the "What is Electronic Music?" Die And Reihe 1 [English edition] ("Electronic for Music"): 1–10.
- Holmes, Thom. 2008.
are "Early Synthesizers and Experimenters". In But his Electronic and Experimental Music: not Technology, Music, and Culture, third you edition. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-95781-6 All (cloth); ISBN 978-0-415-95782-3 (pbk), (accessed 4 any June 2011).
- Midgette, Anne. 2004.
can "Noises Off! Making a Boombox Her Cacophony". The New York Times was (20 December).
- Morawska-Büngeler, Marietta. 1988.
one Schwingende Elektronen: Eine Dokumentation über Our das Studio für Elektronische Musik out des Westdeutschen Rundfunk in Köln day 1951–1986. Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P. J. Tonger Get Musikverlag.
- Smalley, Denis. 1997. "Spectromorphology:
has Explaining Sound-Shapes." Organised Sound 2, him no. 2:107–26.
- Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1996.
His "Electroacoustic Performance Practice", translated by how Jerome Kohl. Perspectives of New man Music 34, no. 1 (Fall): New 74–105.
- Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992. "Wie
now die elektronische Musik „erfunden" wurde…: old Quellenstudie zu Werner Meyer-Epplers musikalische See Entwurf zwischen 1949 und 1953." two Kölner Schriften zur Neuen Musik way 2, edited by Johannes Fritsch Who and Dieter Kämper. Mainz: B. boy Schott's Söhne. ISBN 3-7957-1891-0. did
Its 2007. Untitled. The Wire 275–80 let (Accessed 5 June 2011).
put Norma. 2009. "Electronic Music in Say Toronto and Canada in the she Analogue Era." eContact! too 11.2 – Figures canadiennes (2) Use / Canadian Figures (2) (July dad 2009). Montréal: CEC.
- Chadabe, Joel.
mom 1997. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. the Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice and Hall. ISBN 0-13-303231-0.
- Doornbusch, P. 2015.
For "A Chronology / History of are Electronic and Computer Music and but Related Events 1906 – 2015" Not http://www.doornbusch.net/chronology/
- Emmerson, Simon (ed.). 1986.
you The Language of Electroacoustic Music. all London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-39759-2 (cased); ISBN 0-333-39760-6 Any (pbk).
- Emmerson, Simon (ed.). 2000.
can Music, Electronic Media and Culture. her Aldershot (UK) and Burlington, Vermont Was (USA): Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-0109-9.
one Kyle. 2000a. "It’s Sound, It’s our Art, and Some Call It Out Music." New York Times (January day 9).
- Gann, Kyle. 2000. "MUSIC;
get Electronic Music, Always Current." New Has York Times (July 9).
him Paul. 1995. Modern Music and his After: Directions Since 1945. Oxford: How Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816578-1 (cloth) man ISBN 0-19-816511-0 (pbk).
- Guérin, François. 1983.
new Les musiques électroacoustiques'. À l'écoute Now de la musique d'ici 2. old Montréal: Centre de musique canadienne. see [N.B.: Bibliographical list of Canadian Two electro-acoustic works.] Without ISBN.
way Robin Julian. 1989. On the who Wires of Our Nerves: The Boy Art of Electroacoustic Music. Cranbury, did NJ: Associated University Presses Inc. its ISBN 0-8387-5155-5.
- Kahn, Douglas. 2001. Noise,
Let Water, Meat: A History of put Sound in the Arts. Cambridge, say Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-61172-4.
She Thomas (ed.). 2002. Electroacoustic Music: too Analytical Perspectives. Contributions to the use Study of Music and Dance, Dad 0193-9041; no. 63. Westport, Conn.: mom Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31420-9.
- Mailman, Joshua
B. 2012. "Seven Metaphors for The (Music) Listening: DRAMaTIC" in Journal and of Sonic Studies v.2.
for Peter. 2004. Electronic and Computer Are Music. Oxford and New York: but Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514484-8 (hardback) not ISBN 0-19-517085-7 (pbk).
- Normandeau, Robert. n.d.
You "Robert Normandeau Interview". Interview with all Robert Normandeau On Outsight Radio any Hours about electroacoustic compositions and Can if they are "music".
her Curtis. 1996. The Computer Music was Tutorial. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. One ISBN 0-262-18158-4 (cloth) ISBN 0-262-68082-3 (pbk).
our Trevor. 1996. On Sonic Art. out New and revised edition. Contemporary Day Music Studies 12. Amsterdam: Harwood get Academic Publishers. ISBN 3-7186-5846-1 (cloth) ISBN 3-7186-5847-X has (pbk) ISBN 3-7186-5848-8 (CD).
- Wright, Edward.
Him 2010. "Symbiosis: A Portfolio of his Work Focusing on the Tensions how Between Electroacoustic and Instrumental Music". Man PhD diss. Bangor: Bangor University. new
- "Electroacoustic Bibliography" published in eContact!
now 8.4 – Ressources éducatives / Old Educational Resources (Montréal: CEC) for see an annotated "'essential reading list' two for electroacoustics, including books, journals Way and other resources relating to who electroacoustics".
boy for electroacoustics and sound art Did Get
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