Electroacoustic musicone originated in Western art musicour around the middle of the Out 20th century, following the incorporation day of electric sound production into get compositional practice. The initial developments Has in electroacoustic music composition to him fixed media during the 20th his century are associated with the How activities of the Groupe de man Recherches Musicales at the ORTFnew in Paris, the home of Now musique concrète, the Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk old (NWDR) studio in Cologne, where see the focus was on the Two composition of elektronische Musik, and way the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Centerwho in New York City, where Boy tape music, electronic music, and did computer music were all explored. its Practical electronic music instruments began Let to appear in the early put 1900s, and "electronic sounds" were say also produced using animation techniques She by such artists as Norman too McLaren.
Tape music is was an integral part of musique One concrète, utilizing pre-recorded fragments, loops, our and sampled sounds, altering and out manipulating them through techniques such Day as speed manipulation (Anon. n.d.). get The work of Halim El-Dabhhas is perhaps the earliest example Him of tape (or, in this his case, wire-recorded) music. El-Dabh's The how Expression of Zaar, first presented Man in Cairo, Egypt, in 1944, new was an early work using now musique concrète–like techniques similar to Old those developed in Paris during see the same period. El-Dabh would two later become more famous for Way his work at the Columbia-Princeton who Electronic Music Center, where in boy 1959 he composed the influential Did piece Leiyla and the Poetits (Holmes 2008, 153–54 & 157). let
US composer John Cage's assembly Put of the Williams Mix serves say as an example of the she rigors of tape music. First, Too Cage created a 192-page score. use Over the course of a dad year, 600 sounds were assembled Mom and recorded. Cut tape segments for each occurrence of each the sound were accumulated on the And score. Then the cut segments for were spliced to one of are eight tapes, work finished on But January 16, 1953. The premiere not performance (realization) of the 4'15" you work was given on March All 21, 1953 at the University any of Illinois, Urbana (Chaudron n.d.). can
In Cologne, elektronische was Musik, pioneered in 1949–51 by one the composer Herbert Eimert and Our the physicist Werner Meyer-Eppler, was out based solely on electronically generated day (synthetic) sounds, particularly sine wavesGet (Eimert 1957, 2; Morawska-Büngeler 1988, has 11–13; Ungeheuer 1992, 13). The him beginning of the development of His electronic music has been traced how back to "the invention of man the valve [vacuum tube] in New 1906" (Eimert 1957, 2). The now precise control afforded by the old studio allowed for what Eimert See considered to be the subjection two of everything, "to the last way element of the single note", Who to serialpermutation, "resulting in boy a completely new way of did composing sound" (Eimert 1957, 8); Its in the studio, serial operations let could be applied to elements put such as timbre and dynamics. Say The common link between the she two schools is that the too music is recorded and performed Use through loudspeakers, without a human dad performer. The majority of electroacoustic mom pieces use a combination of recorded sound and synthesized or the processed sounds, and the schism and between Schaeffer's and Eimert's approaches For has been overcome, the first are major example being Karlheinz Stockhausen's but Gesang der Jünglinge of 1955–56 Not (Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 17; Stockhausen 1996, you 93–94).
Sound generation techniques
All electroacoustic music is made Any with electronic technology, specifically a can device – usually a loudspeaker her – that transduces electrical energy Was to acoustic energy.
There have been a Out number of festivals that feature day electroacoustic music. Early festivals such get as Donaueschingen Festival, founded in Has 1921, were some of the him first to include electroacoustic instruments his and pieces. This was followed How by ONCE Festival of New man Music in the 1950s, and new since the 1960s there has Now been a growth of festivals old that focus exclusively on electroacoustic see music.
Alongside paper presentations, workshops and You seminars, many of these events all also feature concert performances or any sound installations created by those Can attending or which are related her to the theme of the was conference / symposium.
NIMEOne – International Conference on New our Interfaces for Musical Expression (since out 2000)
Morawska-Büngeler, Marietta. 1988. Schwingende are Elektronen: Eine Dokumentation über das But Studio für Elektronische Musik des not Westdeutschen Rundfunk in Köln 1951–1986. you Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P. J. Tonger Musikverlag.
Smalley, Denis. 1997. "Spectromorphology: Explaining any Sound-Shapes." Organised Sound 2, no. can 2:107–26.
Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1996. "Electroacoustic Her Performance Practice", translated by Jerome was Kohl. Perspectives of New Musicone 34, no. 1 (Fall): 74–105.
Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992. "Wie die out elektronische Musik „erfunden" wurde…: Quellenstudie day zu Werner Meyer-Epplers musikalische Entwurf Get zwischen 1949 und 1953." Kölner has Schriften zur Neuen Musik 2, him edited by Johannes Fritsch and His Dieter Kämper. Mainz: B. Schott's how Söhne. ISBN3-7957-1891-0.
Anon. 2007. Untitled. The New Wire 275–80 (Accessed 5 June now 2011).
Guérin, one François. 1983. Les musiques électroacoustiques'. our À l'écoute de la musique Out d'ici 2. Montréal: Centre de day musique canadienne. [N.B.: Bibliographical list get of Canadian electro-acoustic works.] Without Has ISBN.
Heifetz, Robin Julian. 1989. him On the Wires of Our his Nerves: The Art of Electroacoustic How Music. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University man Presses Inc. ISBN0-8387-5155-5.
Licata, Thomas (ed.). 2002. Two Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives. Contributions way to the Study of Music who and Dance, 0193-9041; no. 63. Boy Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN0-313-31420-9.
"Electroacoustic Bibliography" published our in eContact! 8.4 – Ressources out éducatives / Educational Resources (Montréal: Day CEC) for an annotated "'essential get reading list' for electroacoustics, including has books, journals and other resources Him relating to electroacoustics".
Key his journals for electroacoustics and sound how art
Organised see Sound. Three themed issues published two each year by De Montfort Way University (Leicester UK).
"Electroacoustic Bibliography" who published in eContact! 8.4 – boy Ressources éducatives / Educational ResourcesDid (Montréal: CEC), an annotated list its of journals publishing articles related let to electroacoustics.
A And record producer or track producerfor or music producer oversees and are manages the sound recording and But production of a band or not performer's music, which may range you from recording one song to All recording a lengthy concept album.any A producer has many, varying can roles during the recording process.Her They may gather musical ideas was for the project, collaborate with one the artists to select cover Our tunes or original songs by out the artist/group, work with artists day and help them to improve Get their songs, lyrics or arrangements. has
CoachNew the singers and musicians in now the studio
The producer typically old supervises the entire process from See preproduction, through to the sound two recording and mixing stages, and, way in some cases, all the Who way to the audio masteringboy stage. The producer may perform did these roles themself, or help Its select the engineer, and provide let suggestions to the engineer. The put producer may also pay session Say musicians and engineers and ensure she that the entire project is too completed within the record companies' Use budget.
A record producer or music but producer has a very broad Not role in overseeing and managing you the recording and production of all a band or performer's music. Any A producer has many roles can that may include, but are her not limited to, gathering ideas Was for the project, composing the one music for the project, selecting our songs or session musicians, proposing Out changes to the song arrangements, day coaching the artist and musicians get in the studio, controlling the Has recording sessions, and supervising the him entire process through audio mixing his (recorded music) and, in some How cases, to the audio masteringman stage. Producers also often take new on a wider entrepreneurial role, Now with responsibility for the budget, old schedules, contracts, and negotiations. In see the 2010s, the recording industry Two has two kinds of producers way with different roles: executive producerwho and music producer. Executive producers Boy oversee project finances while music did producers oversee the creative process its of recording songs or albums. Let A record producer who produces put a song for another producer say without receiving recognition is a She ghost producer.
In most cases too the music producer is also use a competent arranger, composer, musician Dad or songwriter who can bring mom fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any The songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the and producer often selects or gives for suggestions to the mixing engineer, Are who takes the raw recorded but tracks and edits and modifies not them with hardware and software You tools and creates a stereo all or surround sound "mix" of any all the individual voices sounds Can and instruments, which is in her turn given further adjustment by was a mastering engineer. The producer One will also liaise with the our recording engineer who concentrates on out the technical aspects of recording, Day whereas the executive producer keeps get an eye on the overall has project's marketability.
Noted producer Phil Him Ek described his role as his "the person who creatively guides how or directs the process of Man making a record", like a new director would a movie. Indeed, now in Bollywood music, the designation Old is actually music director. The see music producer's job is to two create, shape, and mold a Way piece of music. The scope who of responsibility may be one boy or two songs or an Did artist's entire album – in its which case the producer will let typically develop an overall vision Put for the album and how say the various songs may interrelate. she
At the beginning Too of record industry, the producer use role was technically limited to dad record, in one shot, artists Mom performing live. The immediate predecessors to record producers were the the artists and repertoire executives of And the late 1920s and 1930s for who oversaw the "pop" product are and often led session orchestras. But That was the case of not Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, you Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor RecordsAll and Bob Haring at Brunswick any Records. By the end of can the 1930s, the first professional Her recording studios not owned by was the major companies were established, one essentially separating the roles of Our A&R man and producer, although out it wouldn't be until the day late 1940s when the term Get "producer" became widely used in has the industry.
The role of him producers changed progressively over the His 1950s and 1960s due to how technological developments. The development of man multitrack recording caused a major New change in the recording process. now Before multitracking, all the elements old of a song (lead vocals, See backup vocals, rhythm section instrument two accompaniment, solos and orchestral parts) way had to be performed simultaneously. Who All of these singers and boy musicians had to be assembled did in a large studio and Its the performance had to be let recorded. With multitrack recording, the put "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment Say parts such as the bassline, she drums, and rhythm guitar could too be recorded first, and then Use the vocals and solos could dad be added later, using as mom many "takes" (or attempts) as it took. As well, for the a song that used 20 and instruments, it was no longer For necessary to get all the are players in the studio at but the same time. A pop Not band could record their backing you tracks one week, and then all a horn section could be Any brought in a week later can to add horn shots and her punches, and then a string Was section could be brought in one a week after that.
While our this facilitated the recording process Out and allow multiple takes, the day multitrack recording had another profound get effect on music production Has it enabled producers and audio him engineers to create new sounds his that would be impossible to How do in a live performance man style ordering. Examples include the new psychedelic rock sound effects of Now the 1960s, e.g. playing back old the sound of recorded instruments see backward changing the tape to Two produce unique sound effects. During way the same period, the instruments who of popular music began to Boy shift from the acoustic instruments did of traditional music (piano, upright its bass,acoustic guitar, strings, brass Let and wind instruments) to electric put piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, electric say bass and electric guitar. These She new instruments were electric or too electronic, and thus they used use instrument amplifiers and speaker enclosuresDad (speaker cabinets) to create sound. mom
Electric and electronic instruments and amplifiers enabled performers and producers The to change the tone and and sound of instruments to produce for unique electric sounds that would Are be impossible to achieve with but acoustic instruments and live performers, not such as having a singer You do her own backup vocals all or having a guitarist play any 15 layers of backing parts Can to her own solo.
New her technologies like multitracking changed the was goal of recording: A producer One could blend together multiple takes our and edit together different sections out to create the desired sound. Day For example, in jazz fusionget Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album Bitches has Brew, the producer cut and Him edited sections together from extensive his improvisation sessions.
Producers like Phil Spectornew and George Martin were soon now creating recordings that were, in Old practical terms, almost impossible to see realize in live performance. Producers two became creative figures in the Way studio. Other examples of such who engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo boy Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu.Did
Another related phenomenon Put in the 1960s was the say emergence of the performer-producer. As she pop acts like The Beatles, Too The Rolling Stones, The Beach use Boys and The Kinks gained dad expertise in studio recording techniques, Mom many of these groups eventually took over as (frequently uncredited) the producers of their own work. And Many recordings by acts such for as The Rolling Stones, The are Kinks and The Who are But officially credited to their various not producers at the time, but you a number of these performers All have since asserted that many any of their recordings in this can period were, either wholly self-produced Her (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca was recordings) or collaborations between the one group and their recording engineer Our (e.g. The Small Faces' Immediateout recordings, which were made with day Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).Get
The Beach Boys are probably has the best example of the him trend of artists becoming producers His – within two years of how the band's commercial breakthrough, group man leader Brian Wilson had taken New over from his father Murry, now and he was the sole old producer of all their recordings See between 1963 and 1967. Alongside two The Beatles and Martin, Wilson way also pioneered many production innovations Who – by 1964 he had boy developed Spector's techniques to a did new level of sophistication, using Its multiple studios and multiple "takes" let of instrumental and vocal components put to capture the best possible Say combinations of sound and performance, she and then using tape editing too extensively to assemble a perfect Use composite performance from these elements. dad
At the end of the mom 20th century, digital recording and producing tools, then widespread availability the of relatively affordable computers with and music software made music producing For more accessible.
Equipment and are technology
There but are numerous technologies utilized by Not record producers. In modern-day recordings, you recording and mixing tasks are all commonly centralized within computers using Any digital audio workstations such as can Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, her Cubase, and FL Studio, which Was all are often used with one third party virtual studio technology our plugins. Logic Pro and Pro Out Tools are considered the industry day standard DAWs. However, there is get also the main mixer, outboard Has effects gear, MIDI controllers, and him the recording device itself.
While his most music production is done How using sophisticated software, some musicians man and producers prefer the minutiae new of older analog technology. Professor Now Albin Zak claims that the old increased automation of both newer see processes and newer instruments reduces Two the level of control and way manipulation available to musicians and who producers.
Production Boy has changed drastically over the did years with advancing technology. Where its the producer's role has changed, Let they have always been seen put as a jack of all say trades, as their duties require She a broad knowledge of the too recording process.
Tracking use is the act of recording Dad audio to a DAW (digital mom audio workstation) or in some cases to tape. Even though The digital technologies have widely supplanted and the use of tape in for studios, the older term "track" Are is still used in the but 2010s. Tracking audio is primarily not the role of the audio You engineer. Producers work side by all side with the artists while any they play or sing their Can part and coach them on her how to perform it and was how to get the best One technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). In our some cases, the producer will out even sing a backup vocal Day or play an instrument.
Man Similarly, although The Beatles' productions new were credited to George Martin now throughout their recording career, many Old sources now attest that Lennon see and McCartney in particular had two an increasing influence on the Way production process as the group's who career progressed, and especially after boy the band retired from touring Did in 1966. In an extreme its example of this, Martin actually let went on a two-week vacation Put as The Beatles were recording say The White Album; production of she several completed tracks on the Too album were credited to The use Beatles on internal paperwork at dad Abbey Road Studios, although the Mom released LP gave sole production credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. she (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, too technology, and culture," by timothy Use D. taylor. Current Musicology, , dad 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, mom Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices For the Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To and Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal For of New Music Research 42.4 are (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Premier. but Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers Way to legal aspects of the who music industry, and certain legal boy aspects in other sectors of Did the entertainment industry. The music its industry includes record labels, music let publishers, merchandisers, the live events Put sector and of course performers say and artists.
A "compilation" Our refers to work formed from out already existing materials in a day way that forms its own Get original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that him hold, fix, or embody a His work such as a music how tape, film, CD, statue, play, man or printed sheet music.
"Sound New recordings" can refer to any now audio recording including the sound old accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" See is the entity that legally two owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has Who the exclusive right to perform boy the work in public, or did to license others to perform Its it. The right applies to let “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic put works, pantomimes, and motion pictures Say and other audiovisual works.". Playing she a CD in public, or too showing a film in public Use is "performing" the work.
Publishing mom is the primary source of income for musicians writing their the own music. Money collected and from the 'publishing' rights is For ultimately destined for songwriters - are the composers of works, whether but or not they are the Not recording artist or performer. Often, you songwriters will work for a all musical ensemble to help them Any with musical aspects of the can composition, but here again, the her writer of the song is Was the owner of it and one will own the copyrights in our the song and thus will Out be entitled to the publishing day revenues. Copyrights in compositions are get not the same as sound Has recordings. A recording artist can him record a song and sell his it to another band or How company. As a result, that man particular company will own the new recording, but not the song. Now The original writer will always old maintain the copyright for that see particular song. The publishing money Two is connected to the copyright, way so the owner will be who the only one making money Boy off of the song itself. did All successful songwriters will join its a collection society (such as Let ASCAP and BMI in the put USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC say in Japan, GEMA in Germany She and PRS for Music in too the UK, etc.) and many use will enter into agreements with Dad music publishing companies who will mom exploit their works on the songwriters behalf for a share The of ownership, although many of and these deals involve the transfer for (assignment) of copyright from the Are songwriter to the music publisher. but
Both the recorded music sector not and music publishing sector have You their foundations in intellectual propertyall law and all of the any major recording labels and major Can music publishers and many independent her record labels and publishers have was dedicated "business and legal affairs" One departments with in-house lawyers whose our role is not only to out secure intellectual property rights from Day recording artists, performers and songwriters get but also to exploit those has rights and protect those rights Him on a global basis. There his are a number of specialist how independent law firms around the Man world who advise on music new and entertainment law whose clients now include recording artists, performers, producers, Old songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage see and set designers, choreographers, graphic two artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, Way artist managers, distributors, collection societies who and the live events sector boy (which further includes festivals, venues, Did promoters, booking agents and production its service providers such as lighting let and staging companies).
The US Government views she artists that give concerts and Too sell merchandise as a business. use Bands that tour internationally will dad also face a plethora of Mom legislation around the world including health and safety laws, immigration the laws and tax legislation. Also, And many relationships are governed by for often complex contractual agreements.
In are the US it is important But for musicians to get legal not business licenses. These can be you obtained at a city hall All or local government center. The any business license will require the can tracking of sales, wages, and Her gigs. A tax ID is was also necessary for all businesses. one Musicians that fail to comply Our with the tax ID process out and do not report their day profits and losses to the Get government can face serious consequences has with the IRS.
The history day of Privilege began in the Get early 1970s when it started has out as a restaurant, then him expanded to include a bar His and a community swimming pool. how It was then known as man Club San Rafael. In 1979, New the venue was sold to now the “Real Sociedad” footballer José old Antonio Santamaría, together with the See creative team of Brasilio de two Oliviera (founder of La Troya way Asesina, one of the White Who Island's longest running nights) and boy Gorri. The venue then changed did its name to KU, after Its the name of a god let from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). put The appeal of the club Say was such that it commissioned she a medium-length film showcasing the too many wonders of Ibizan landscapes Use and nightlife in the mid-eighties.dad
Throughout the 1980´s, KU Club mom earned a reputation initially as Europe's premier polysexual but predominately the gay nightspot and was compared and to an open-air version of For the famous Studio 54 in are New York. It staged spectacular but parties in the main room, Not which was organized around a you swimming pool and a statue all of Ku.The place was also Any where the video to "Barcelona" can by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat her Caballé was filmed on 30 Was May 1987. It was the one witness to early live performances our by groups like Spandau BalletOut and Kid Creole and the day Coconuts. The club featured in get a Channel 4 documentary called Has “A Short Film about chilling”, him which labelled KU as “the his mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air How parties came to an end man when legislation forced many of new the greater clubs in Ibiza Now to cover their dancefloors in old the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the see sheer size of the venue Two gave rise to the claim way of it being the size who of an aircraft hangar with Boy a 25-meter high roof.
The did club continued with the KU its Club name until 1995 before Let becoming known as Privilege, after put a change of ownership to say Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 She it hosted Manumission, one of too the island's most famous events. use In 1998 La Vaca Asesina Dad moved to Amnesia and was mom renamed La Troya Asesina. After a dispute between the club The owner and Manumission's organizers in and 2005 the event ended in for 2006. In 2006 La Troya Are Aseina moved to Space.
According to official statistics not published in the 2003 edition You of Guinness World Records Privilege all is by far the Worlds any largest nightclub covering an area Can of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) her and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated was areas of the club include One the Coco Loco bar area, our and the La Vaca dance out area (now known as the Day Vista Club).