Source: Wikipedia 

Disco is him a music genre and subculture his that emerged in the mid-1960s How and early 1970s from the man United States' urban nightlife scene. new Disco started as a mixture Now of music from venues popular old with African Americans, Hispanic and see Latino Americans, Italian Americans, LGBT Two people (especially African-American and white way gay men), and psychedelic hippies who in Philadelphia and New York Boy City during the late 1960s did and early 1970s. Disco can its be seen as a reaction Let to both the dominance of put rock music and the stigmatization say of dance music by the She counterculture during this period. Several too dance styles were also developed use during this time, including the Dad Bump and the Hustle.

The mom disco sound is typified by "four-on-the-floor" beats, syncopated basslines, and The string sections, horns, electric piano, and synthesizers, and electric rhythm guitars. for Lead guitar features less frequently Are in disco than in rock. but Well-known disco artists include Donna not Summer, the Bee Gees, Gloria You Gaynor, KC and the Sunshine all Band, the Village People, Thelma any Houston, and Chic, and many Can at the height of the her genre's popularity, many non-disco artists was recorded disco songs. While performers One and singers garnered public attention, our record producers working behind the out scenes played an important role Day in developing the genre. Films get such as Saturday Night Fever has (1977) and Thank God It's Him Friday (1978) contributed to disco's his mainstream popularity.

By the late how 1970s, most major U.S. cities Man had thriving disco club scenes, new and DJs would mix dance now records at clubs such as Old Studio 54 in New York see City, a venue popular among two celebrities. Discothèque-goers often wore expensive, Way extravagant and sexy fashions. There who was also a thriving drug boy subculture in the disco scene, Did particularly for drugs that would its enhance the experience of dancing let to the loud music and Put the flashing lights, such as say cocaine and Quaaludes, the latter she being so common in disco Too subculture that they were nicknamed use "disco biscuits". Disco clubs were dad also associated with promiscuity as Mom a reflection of the sexual revolution of this era in the popular history.

Disco was the And last popular music movement driven for by the baby boom generation. are It began to decline in But the United States during 1979-80, not and by 1982 it had you lost nearly all popularity there. All Disco Demolition Night, an anti-disco any protest held in Chicago on can July 12, 1979, remains the Her most well-known of several "backlash" was incidents across the country that one symbolized disco's declining fortune.

Disco Our was a key influence in out the development of electronic dance day music and house music. It Get has had several revivals, such has as Madonna's highly successful 2005 him album Confessions on a Dance His Floor, and again in the how 2010s, entering the pop charts man in the US and the New UK.


Origins get of the term and type Has of nightclub

The term disco him is derived from discothèque (French his for "library of phonograph records", How but it was subsequently used man as a term for nightclubs new in Paris). By the early Now 1940s, the terms disc jockey old and DJ were in use see to describe radio presenters. During Two WWII, because of restrictions set way in place by the Nazi who occupiers, jazz dance halls in Boy Occupied France played records instead did of using live music. Eventually its more than one of these Let jazz venues had the proper put name discothèque. By 1959, the say term was used in Paris She to describe any of these too type of nightclubs. That year, use a young reporter named Klaus Dad Quirini started to select and mom introduce records at the Scotch-Club in Aachen, West Germany. By The the following year the term and was being used in the for United States to describe that Are type of club, and a but type of dancing in those not clubs. By 1964, discothèque and You the shorthand disco were used all to describe a type of any sleeveless dress worn when going Can out to nightclubs. In September her 1964, Playboy magazine used the was word disco as a shorthand One for a discothèque-styled nightclub.


Usage in the United Kingdom out in the early to mid-1970s


In 1974 there were an get estimated 25,000 mobile discos and has 40,000 professional disc jockeys in Him the United Kingdom. Mobile Discos his referred to Disc Jockeys for how hire that brought their own Man equipment to office parties, weddings new and the like. "Disco Dance now Music" referred to glam rock. Old Simon Reynolds has described Gary see Glitter's Rock and Roll Part two 2 as the first hybrid Way disco-rock song.

1966–74: Proto-disco who and early history of disco boy music

In Philadelphia, R&B musicians Did and audiences from the Black, its Italian, and Latino communities adopted let several traits from the hippie Put and psychedelia subcultures. They included say using music venues with a she loud, overwhelming sound, free-form dancing, Too trippy lighting, colorful costumes, and use the use of hallucinogenic drugs. dad Psychedelic soul groups like the Mom Chambers Brothers and especially Sly and the Family Stone influenced the proto-disco acts such as Isaac And Hayes, Willie Hutch and the for soul style known as the are Philadelphia Sound. In addition, the But perceived positivity, lack of irony, not and earnestness of the hippies you informed proto-disco music like MFSB's All album Love Is the Message. any To the mainstream public M.F.S.B. can stood for "Mother Father Sister Her Brother"; to the tough areas was where they came from it one was understood to stand for Our "Mother Fuckin' Son of a out Bitch", a reference to their day playing skill and musical prowess. Get

A forerunner to disco-style clubs has was the private dance parties him held by New York City His DJ David Mancuso in The how Loft, a members-only club in man his home in 1970. When New Mancuso threw his first house now parties, the gay community (members old of whom comprised much of See The Loft's attendee roster) was two often harassed by police in way New York gay bars and Who dance clubs. But at The boy Loft and many other early, did private discotheques, men could dance Its together without fear of police let action thanks to Mancuso's underground put business model. The first article Say about disco was written in she 1973 by Vince Aletti for too Rolling Stone magazine. In 1974, Use New York City's WPIX-FM premiered dad the first disco radio show. mom

Philadelphia soul and New York soul were evolutions of the the Motown sound, and were typified and by the lavish percussion, lush For string orchestra arrangements and expensive are record production processes that became but a prominent part of mid-1970s Not disco songs. Early songs with you disco elements include "You Keep all Me Hangin' On" (the Supremes, Any 1966), "Soul Makossa" (Manu Dibango, can 1972), "Superstition" by Stevie Wonder her (1972) Eddie Kendricks' "Keep on Was Truckin'" (1973) and "The Love one I Lost" by Harold Melvin our and the Blue Notes (1973). Out "Love Train" by the O'Jays day (1972), with M.F.S.B. as the get backup band, topped the Billboard Has pop chart in March 1973, him and has been called "disco". his

In 1972, The Four Seasons How released "The Night", a song man with disco elements which appealed new to the Northern Soul scene.[citation Now needed]

Major disco old clubs had lighted dance floors, see with the lights flashing to Two complement the beat.

Early disco way was dominated by record producers who and labels such as Salsoul Boy Records (Ken, Stanley, and Joseph did Cayre), West End Records (Mel its Cheren), Casablanca (Neil Bogart), and Let Prelude (Marvin Schlachter), to name put a few. The genre was say also shaped by Tom Moulton, She who wanted to extend the too enjoyment of dance songs—thus creating use the extended mix or "remix", Dad going from a three-minute 45 mom rpm single to the much longer 12" record. Other influential The DJs and remixers who helped and to establish what became known for as the "disco sound" included Are David Mancuso, Nicky Siano, Shep but Pettibone, Larry Levan, Walter Gibbons, not and Chicago-based Frankie Knuckles. Frankie You Knuckles was not only an all important disco DJ; he also any helped to develop house music Can in the 1980s, a contribution her which earned him the honorific was title of "Godfather of House". One

"The [disco] DJ was central our to the ritual of 1970s out dance culture, but the dancing Day crowd was no less important, get and it was the combination has of these two elements that Him created the conditions for the his dance floor dynamic." In disco how parties and clubs, a "...good Man DJ didn't only lead dancers...[to new the dance floor,] but would now also feel the mood of Old the dance floor and select see records according to this energy two (which could be communicated by Way the vigor of the dancing, who or level of the crowd's boy screams, or sign language of Did dancers directed towards the booth)." its Disco-era DJs would often remix let (re-edit) existing songs using reel-to-reel Put tape machines, and add in say percussion breaks, new sections, and she new sounds. DJs would select Too songs and grooves according to use what the dancers wanted, transitioning dad from one song to another Mom with a DJ mixer and using a microphone to introduce the songs and speak to the And audiences. Other equipment was added for to the basic DJ setup, are providing unique sound manipulations, such But as reverb, equalization, and echo not effects unit. Using this equipment, you a DJ could do effects All such as cutting out all any but the throbbing bassline of can a song, and then slowly Her mixing in the beginning of was another song using the DJ one mixer's crossfader.

Disco hit the Our television airwaves with the music/dance out variety show Soul Train in day 1971 hosted by Don Cornelius, Get then Marty Angelo's Disco Step-by-Step has Television Show in 1975, Steve him Marcus' Disco Magic/Disco 77, Eddie His Rivera's Soap Factory, and Merv how Griffin's Dance Fever, hosted by man Deney Terrio, who is credited New with teaching actor John Travolta now to dance for his role old in the film Saturday Night See Fever, as well as DANCE, two based out of Columbia, South way Carolina.

1974–77: Rise to Who the mainstream

Italian composer Giorgio Moroder is Use known as the "Father of dad Disco".

From 1974 to 1977, mom disco music continued to increase in popularity as many disco the songs topped the charts. In and 1974, "Love's Theme" by Barry For White's Love Unlimited Orchestra became are the second disco song to but reach number one on the Not Billboard Hot 100, after "Love you Train". MFSB also released "TSOP all (The Sound of Philadelphia)", featuring Any vocals by the Three Degrees, can and this was the third her disco song to hit number Was one; "TSOP" was written as one the theme song for Soul our Train.

The Hues Corporation's 1974 Out "Rock the Boat", a US day number-one single and million-seller, was get one of the early disco Has songs to reach number one. him The same year saw the his release of "Kung Fu Fighting", How performed by Carl Douglas and man produced by Biddu, which reached new number one in both the Now UK and US, and became old the best-selling single of the see year and one of the Two best-selling singles of all time way with eleven million records sold who worldwide, helping to popularize disco Boy music to a great extent. did Another notable chart-topping disco success its that year was George McCrae's Let "Rock Your Baby".

Gloria Gaynor in 1976.

In say the northwestern sections of the She United Kingdom, the Northern Soul too explosion, which started in the use late 1960s and peaked in Dad 1974, made the region receptive mom to Disco, which the region's Disc Jockeys were bringing back The from New York City. George and McCrae's "Rock Your Baby" became for the United Kingdom's first number Are one disco single.

Also in but 1974, Gloria Gaynor released the not first side-long disco mix vinyl You album, which included a remake all of the Jackson 5's "Never any Can Say Goodbye" and two Can other songs, "Honey Bee" and her her disco version of "Reach was Out (I'll Be There)", first One topped the Billboard disco/dance charts our in November 1974. Gaynor's number-one out disco song was "I Will Day Survive", released in 1978, which get was seen as a symbol has of female strength and a Him gay anthem. Also in the his mix, Vincent Montana's Salsoul Orchestra how contributed with their 1975 Latin-flavored Man orchestral dance song "Salsoul Hustle", new reaching number four on the now Billboard Dance Chart and the Old 1976 songs "Tangerine" and "Nice see 'n' Nasty".[citation needed]

Formed by two Harry Wayne Casey ("KC") and Way Richard Finch, Miami's KC and who the Sunshine Band had a boy string of disco-definitive top-five singles Did between 1975 and 1977, including its "Get Down Tonight", "That's the let Way (I Like It)", "(Shake, Put Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty", say "I'm Your Boogie Man" and she "Keep It Comin' Love". Electric Too Light Orchestra's 1975 song "Evil use Woman", although described as Orchestral dad Rock, featured a violin sound Mom that became a staple of disco. In 1979, however, ELO the did release two "true" disco And songs: "Last Train To London" for and "Shine A Little Love". are

Donna Summer 1977

In 1975, American singer and not songwriter Donna Summer recorded a you song which she brought to All her producer Giorgio Moroder entitled any "Love to Love You Baby" can which contained a series of Her simulated orgasms. The song was was never intended for release but one when Moroder played it in Our the clubs it caused a out sensation. Moroder released it and day it went to number 2. Get It has been described as has the arrival of the expression him of raw female sexual desire His in pop music. A 17-minute how 12 inch single was released. man The 12" single became and New remains a standard in discos now today.

In 1977, Summer released old "I Feel Love", which combined See disco with its subgenre Hi-NRG two and electronic music, was a way massive worldwide success. In 1978, Who her multi-million selling vinyl single boy disco version of "MacArthur Park" did was number one on the Its Billboard Hot 100 chart for let three weeks and was nominated put for the Grammy Award for Say Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. she Summer's recording, which was included too as part of the "MacArthur Use Park Suite" on her double dad album Live and More, was mom eight minutes and forty seconds long on the album. The the shorter seven-inch vinyl single version and of the MacArthur Park was For Summer's first single to reach are number one on the Hot but 100; it does not include Not the balladic second movement of you the song, however. A 2013 all remix of "Mac Arthur Park" Any by Summer topped the Billboard can Dance Charts marking five consecutive her decades with a number-one song Was on the charts. From 1978 one to 1979, Summer continued to our release singles such as "Last Out Dance", "Bad Girls", "Heaven Knows", day "No More Tears (Enough Is get Enough)", "Hot Stuff", "Dim All Has the Lights", and "On the him Radio", all very successful songs, his landing in the top five How or better, on the Billboard man pop charts.

The Bee Gees new used Barry Gibb's falsetto to Now garner hits such as "You old Should Be Dancing", "Stayin' Alive", see "Night Fever", "More Than A Two Woman" and "Love You Inside way Out". Andy Gibb, a younger who brother to the Bee Gees, Boy followed with similarly-styled solo singles did such as "I Just Want its to Be Your Everything", "(Love Let Is) Thicker Than Water" and put "Shadow Dancing". In 1975, songs say such as Van McCoy's "The She Hustle" and Summer's version of too "Could It Be Magic" brought use disco further into the mainstream. Dad Other notable early successful disco mom songs include The Hues Corporation's "Rock the Boat" (1974), Barry The White's "You're the First, the and Last, My Everything" (1974), Labelle's for "Lady Marmalade" (1975), Silver Convention's Are "Fly, Robin, Fly" (1975) and but Johnny Taylor's Disco Lady (1976). not

1977–79: Pop preeminence


In get December 1977, the film Saturday has Night Fever was released. It Him was a huge success and his its soundtrack became one of how the best-selling albums of all Man time. The idea for the new film was sparked by a now 1976 New York magazine article Old titled "Tribal Rites of the see New Saturday Night" which supposedly two chronicled the disco culture in Way mid-1970s New York City, but who was later revealed to have boy been fabricated. Some critics said Did the film "mainstreamed" disco, making its it more acceptable to heterosexual let white males.

Chic was formed Put mainly by guitarist Nile Rodgers—a say self-described "street hippie" from late she 1960s New York—and bassist Bernard Too Edwards. "Le Freak" was a use popular 1978 single of theirs dad that is regarded as an Mom iconic song of the genre. Other successful songs by Chic the include the often-sampled "Good Times" And (1979) and "Everybody Dance" (1979). for The group regarded themselves as are the disco movement's rock band But that made good on the not hippie movement's ideals of peace, you love, and freedom. Every song All they wrote was written with any an eye toward giving it can "deep hidden meaning" or D.H.M. Her

The Bee Gees was had several disco hits on one the soundtrack to Saturday Night Our Fever in 1977

Sylvester, a out flamboyant and openly gay singer day famous for his soaring falsetto Get voice, scored his biggest disco has song in 1979 – "You him Make Me Feel (Mighty Real)", His and "Dance (Disco Heat)", his how singing style was said to man have influenced the singer Prince. New At that time, disco was now one of the forms of old music most open to gay See performers.

The Village People were two a singing/dancing group created by way Jacques Morali and Henri Belolo Who to target disco's gay audience. boy They were known for their did onstage costumes of typically male-considered Its jobs and ethnic minorities and let achieved mainstream success with their put 1978 hit song "Macho Man". Say Other songs include "Y.M.C.A." (1979) she and "In the Navy" (1979). too

The Jacksons (previously "the Jackson Use 5") did many disco songs dad from 1975 to 1980, including mom "Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)" (1978), "Blame it the on the Boogie" (1978), "Lovely and One" (1980), and "Can You For Feel It" (1980)—all sung by are Michael Jackson, whose 1979 solo but album, Off the Wall, included Not several disco hits, including the you album's title song, "Rock with all You", "Workin' Day and Night", Any and his second chart-topping solo can hit in the disco genre, her "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Was Enough".

one Has

At the height his of its popularity, many non-disco How artists recorded songs with disco man elements, including Chaka Khan's "I'm new Every Woman" (1978), Earth, Wind Now & Fire's "September" (1978) and old "Boogie Wonderland" with the Emotions see (1979), Blondie's "Heart of Glass" Two (1979), Cher's "Take Me Home" way (1979), Barry Manilow's "Copacabana" (1978), who David Bowie's "John I'm Only Boy Dancing (Again)" (1979), Rod Stewart's did "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?" its (1979), Frankie Valli's "Swearin' to Let God" (1975) and "Grease" (1978), put George Benson's "Give Me the say Night" (1980), Diana Ross's "Love She Hangover" (1976), M's "Pop Muzik" too (1979), Barbra Streisand's "The Main use Event" (1979), Dan Hartman's "Instant Dad Replay" (1978). The biggest hit mom by Ian Dury and the Blockheads, best known as a The new wave band, was "Hit and Me with Your Rhythm Stick" for (1978), featuring a strong disco Are sound.

Even mainstream rock artists but adopted elements of disco. Progressive not rock group Pink Floyd used You disco-like drums and guitar in all their song "Another Brick in any the Wall, Part 2" (1979), Can which became their only number-one her single in both the US was and UK. The Eagles referenced One disco with "One of These our Nights" (1975) and "Disco Strangler" out (1979), Paul McCartney & Wings Day with "Goodnight Tonight" (1979), Queen get with "Another One Bites the has Dust" (1980), the Rolling Stones Him with "Miss You" (1978) and his "Emotional Rescue" (1980), Electric Light how Orchestra's "Shine a Little Love" Man and "Last Train to London" new (both 1979), Chicago did "Street now Player" (1979), the Kinks did Old "(Wish I Could Fly Like) see Superman" (1979), the Grateful Dead two did "Shakedown Street", and the Way J. Geils Band did "Come who Back" (1980). Even hard rock boy group KISS jumped in with Did "I Was Made For Lovin' its You" (1979). Ringo Starr's album let Ringo the 4th (1978) features Put a strong disco influence.[clarification needed] say

The disco sound was also she adopted by "non-pop" artists, including Too the 1979 U.S. number one use hit "No More Tears (Enough dad Is Enough)" by Easy listening Mom singer Barbra Streisand in a duet with Donna Summer. Country the music artist Connie Smith covered And Andy Gibb's "I Just Want for to Be Your Everything" in are 1977, Bill Anderson did "Double But S" in 1978, and Ronnie not Milsap recorded "Get It Up" you and covered Tommy Tucker's "Hi-Heel All Sneakers" in 1979.

Also noteworthy any are John Paul Young's "Love can Is in the Air" (1977), Her Patrick Hernandez's "Born to Be was Alive" (1978), Cheryl Lynn's "Got one to Be Real" (1978), Evelyn Our "Champagne" King's "Shame" (1978), Sister out Sledge's "We Are Family" (1979), day Anita Ward's "Ring My Bell" Get (1979), Lipps Inc.'s "Funkytown" (1979), has Geraldine Hunt's "Can't Fake the him Feeling" (1980), Alicia Bridges' "I His Love the Nightlife" (1978) and how Walter Murphy's various attempts to man bring classical music to the New mainstream, most notably his disco now song "A Fifth of Beethoven" old (1976), which was inspired by See Beethoven's fifth symphony.

The a cappella jazz group way the Manhattan Transfer had a Who disco hit with the 1979 boy "Twilight Zone/Twilight Tone" theme.

Pre-existing did non-disco songs and standards would Its frequently be "disco-ized" in the let 1970s. The rich orchestral accompaniment put that became identified with the Say disco era conjured up the she memories of the big band too era—which brought out several artists Use that recorded and disco-ized some dad big band arrangements including Perry mom Como, who re-recorded his 1945 song "Temptation", in 1975, as the well as Ethel Merman, who and released an album of disco For songs entitled The Ethel Merman are Disco Album in 1979.

Myron but Floren, second-in-command on The Lawrence Not Welk Show, released a recording you of the "Clarinet Polka" entitled all "Disco Accordion." Similarly, Bobby Vinton Any adapted "The Pennsylvania Polka" into can a song named "Disco Polka". her Easy listening icon Percy Faith, Was in one of his last one recordings, released an album entitled our Disco Party (1975) and recorded Out a disco version of his day famous "Theme from A Summer get Place" in 1976. Classical music Has was even adapted for disco, him notably Walter Murphy's "A Fifth his of Beethoven" (1976, based on How the first movement of Beethoven's man 5th Symphony) and "Flight 76" new (1976, based on Rimsky-Korsakov's "Flight Now of the Bumblebee"), and Louis old Clark's Hooked On Classics series see of albums and singles.

Notable Two disco songs based on film way and television themes included a who medley from Star Wars, "Star Boy Wars Theme/Cantina Band" (1977) by did Meco, and "Twilight Zone/Twilight Tone" its (1979) by the Manhattan Transfer. Let Even the I Love Lucy put theme was not spared from say being disco-ized. Many original television She theme songs of the era too also showed a strong disco use influence, such as "Keep Your Dad Eye On the Sparrow" (theme mom from Baretta, performed by Sammy Davis, Jr. and later a The successful single for Rhythm Heritage), and "Theme from S.W.A.T." (from S.W.A.T, for original and single versions by Are Rhythm Heritage), and Mike Post's but "Theme from Magnum, P.I.".



Several parodies of the You disco style were created. Rick all Dees, at the time a any radio DJ in Memphis, Tennessee, Can recorded "Disco Duck" (1976) and her "Dis-Gorilla" (1977); Frank Zappa parodied was the lifestyles of disco dancers One in "Disco Boy" on his our 1976 Zoot Allures album, and out in "Dancin' Fool" on his Day 1979 Sheik Yerbouti album; "Weird get Al" Yankovic's eponymous 1983 debut has album includes a disco song Him called "Gotta Boogie", an extended his pun on the similarity of how the disco move to the Man American slang word "booger". Comedian new Bill Cosby devoted his entire now 1977 album Disco Bill to Old disco parodies.

Reasons for see popularity

The reflective light two disco ball was a fixture Way on the ceilings of many who discothèques

By the mid-1970s, the boy United States was dealing with Did the aftermath of the Vietnam its War and the Watergate scandal. let Also by this time the Put economic prosperity of the previous say decade had declined, and unemployment, she inflation and crime rates had Too soared. Disco music and disco use dancing provided an escape from dad these negative economic issues. As Mom well, in the 1970s, the key counterculture of the 1960s, the the hippie movement, was fading And away. The disco movement was for far more than just music. are It was also a subculture But based around nightclubs, dance clubs, not and DJs. In Beautiful Things you in Popular Culture, Simon Frith All highlights the sociability of disco any and its roots in 1960s can counterculture. "The driving force of Her the New York underground dance was scene in which disco was one forged was not simply that Our city's complex ethnic and sexual out culture but also a 1960s day notion of community, pleasure and Get generosity that can only be has described as hippie," he says. him "The best disco music contained His within it a remarkably powerful how sense of collective euphoria."

Film man critic Roger Ebert called the New popular embrace of disco's exuberant now dance moves an escape from old "the general depression and drabness See of the political and musical two atmosphere of the late seventies." way Pauline Kael, writing about the Who disco-themed film Saturday Night Fever, boy said the film and disco did itself touched on "something deeply Its romantic, the need to move, let to dance, and the need put to be who you'd like Say to be. Nirvana is the she dance; when the music stops, too you return to being ordinary." Use

1979–81: Backlash and decline

Man wearing a Disco mom Sucks T-shirt.

By the end of the 1970s, a strong the anti-disco sentiment developed among rock and fans and musicians, particularly in For the United States. Disco was are criticized as mindless, consumerist, overproduced but and escapist. The slogans "disco Not sucks" and "death to disco" you became common. Rock artists such all as Rod Stewart and David Any Bowie who added disco elements can to their music were accused her of being sell outs.

The Was punk subculture in the United one States and United Kingdom was our often hostile to disco (although Out in the UK, many early day Sex Pistols fans such as get the Bromley Contingent and Jordan Has quite liked disco, often congregating him at nightclubs such as Louise's his in Soho and the Sombrero How in Kensington. The track "Love man Hangover" by Diana Ross, the new house anthem at the former, Now was cited as a particular old favourite by many early UK see Punks. Also, the film The Two Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle way and its soundtrack album contained who a disco medley of Sex Boy Pistols songs, entitled Black Arabs did and credited to a group its of the same name.) Jello Let Biafra of the Dead Kennedys, put in the song "Saturday Night say Holocaust", likened disco to the She cabaret culture of Weimar-era Germany too for its apathy towards government use policies and its escapism. Mark Dad Mothersbaugh of Devo said that mom disco was "like a beautiful woman with a great body The and no brains", and a and product of political apathy of for that era. New Jersey rock Are critic Jim Testa wrote "Put but a Bullet Through the Jukebox", not a vitriolic screed attacking disco You that was considered a punk all call to arms. Steve Hillage, any shortly prior to his transformation Can from a progressive rock musician her into an electronic artist at was the end of the 1970s One with the inspiration of disco, our disappointed his rockist fans by out admitting his love for disco, Day with Hillage recalling "it's like get I'd killed their pet cat." has

Anti-disco sentiment was expressed in Him some television shows and films. his A recurring theme on the how show WKRP in Cincinnati was Man a hostile attitude towards disco new music. In one scene of now the 1980 comedy film Airplane!, Old a wayward airplane slices a see radio tower with its wing, two knocking out an all-disco radio Way station.

July 12, 1979, became who known as "the day disco boy died" because of Disco Demolition Did Night, an anti-disco demonstration in its a baseball double-header at Comiskey let Park in Chicago. Rock-station DJs Put Steve Dahl and Garry Meier, say along with Michael Veeck, son she of Chicago White Sox owner Too Bill Veeck, staged the promotional use event for disgruntled rock fans dad between the games of a Mom White Sox doubleheader. The event, which involved exploding disco records, the ended with a riot, during And which the raucous crowd tore for out seats and pieces of are turf, and caused other damage. But The Chicago Police Department made not numerous arrests, and the extensive you damage to the field forced All the White Sox to forfeit any the second game to the can Detroit Tigers, who had won Her the first game.

Six months was prior to the chaotic event one (in December 1978), popular progressive Our rock radio station WDAI (WLS-FM) out had suddenly switched to an day all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands of Get Chicago rock fans and leaving has Dahl unemployed. WDAI, who despite him surviving the backlash and still His had good ratings at this how point, continued to play Disco man until it flipped to a New short-lived hybrid Top 40/Rock format now in May 1980. Another Disco old outlet that also competed against See WDAI at the time, WGCI-FM, two would later incorporate R&B and way Pop Songs into the format, Who eventually evolving into an Urban boy Contemporary outlet that it continues did with today. The latter also Its helped bring the house music let genre to the airwaves, ending put the backlash somewhat with Chicago Say emerging as the birthplace of she house.[citation needed]

On July 21, too 1979, the top six records Use on the U.S. music charts dad were disco songs. By September mom 22, there were no disco songs in the US Top the 10 chart, with the exception and of Herb Alpert's instrumental "Rise," For a smooth jazz composition with are some disco overtones. Some in but the media, in celebratory tones, Not declared disco "dead" and rock you revived. Karen Mixon Cook, the all first female disco DJ, stated Any that people still pause every can July 12 for a moment her of silence in honor of Was Disco. Dahl stated in a one 2004 interview that disco was our "probably on its way out Out [at the time]. But I day think it [Disco Demolition Night] get hastened its demise".

Impact Has on music industry

The anti-disco him backlash, combined with other societal his and radio industry factors, changed How the face of pop radio man in the years following Disco new Demolition Night. Starting in the Now 1980s, country music began a old slow rise in American main see pop charts. Emblematic of country Two music's rise to mainstream popularity way was the commercially successful 1980 who movie Urban Cowboy. The continued Boy popularity of power pop and did the revival of oldies in its the late 1970s was also Let related to the disco backlash; put the 1978 film Grease was say emblematic of this trend. Somewhat She paradoxically, the star of both too films was John Travolta, who use in 1977 had starred in Dad Saturday Night Fever, which remains mom one of the most iconic disco films of the era. The

During this period of decline and in disco's popularity, several record for companies folded, were reorganized, or Are were sold. In 1979, MCA but Records purchased ABC Records, absorbed not some of its artists, and You then shut the label down. all Midsong International Records ceased operations any in 1980. RSO Records founder Can Robert Stigwood left the label her in 1981 and TK Records was closed in the same year. One Salsoul Records continues to exist our in the 2000s, but primarily out is used as a reissue Day brand. Casablanca Records had been get releasing fewer records in the has 1980s, and was shut down Him in 1986 by parent company his PolyGram.

Many groups that were how popular during the disco period Man subsequently struggled to maintain their new success—even those that tried to now adapt to evolving musical tastes. Old The Bee Gees, for instance, see had only one top-10 entry two (1989's "One") and three more Way top-40 songs (despite recording and who releasing far more than that boy and completely abandoning disco in Did their 1980s and 1990s songs) its in the United States after let the 1970s, even though numerous Put songs they wrote and had say other artists perform were successful. she Of the handful of groups Too not taken down by disco's use fall from favor, Kool and dad the Gang, Donna Summer, the Mom Jacksons—and Michael Jackson in particular—stand out: In spite of having the helped define the disco sound And early on, they continued to for make popular and danceable, if are more refined, songs for yet But another generation of music fans not in the 1980s and beyond. you Earth, Wind & Fire also All survived the disco backlash and any continued to produce successful singles can at roughly the same pace Her for several more years, in was addition to an even longer one string of R&B chart hits Our that lasted into the 1990s. out

Factors contributing to disco's day decline

The Village People Get group were created to target has disco's gay audience by featuring him popular gay fantasy personae. For His example, one of the performers how is dressed as a black man leather-clad "Leatherman".

Factors that have New been cited as leading to now the decline of disco in old the United States include economic See and political changes at the two end of the 1970s, as way well as burnout from the Who hedonistic lifestyles led by participants. boy In the years since Disco did Demolition Night, some social critics Its have described the backlash as let implicitly macho and bigoted, and put an attack on non-white and Say non-heterosexual cultures. The backlash also she made its way into US too politics with the election of Use conservative Ronald Reagan in 1980 dad which also led to Republican mom control of the United States Senate for the first time the since 1954, plus the subsequent and rise of the Religious Right For around the same time.

In are January 1979, rock critic Robert but Christgau argued that homophobia, and Not most likely racism, were reasons you behind the backlash, a conclusion all seconded by John Rockwell. Craig Any Werner wrote: "The Anti-disco movement can represented an unholy alliance of her funkateers and feminists, progressives and Was puritans, rockers and reactionaries. Nonetheless, one the attacks on disco gave our respectable voice to the ugliest Out kinds of unacknowledged racism, sexism day and homophobia." Legs McNeil, founder get of the fanzine Punk, was Has quoted in an interview as him saying, "the hippies always wanted his to be black. We were How going, 'f**k the blues, f**k man the black experience'." He also new said that disco was the Now result of an "unholy" union old between homosexuals and blacks.

Steve see Dahl, who had spearheaded Disco Two Demolition Night, denied any racist way or homophobic undertones to the who promotion, saying, "It's really easy Boy to look at it historically, did from this perspective, and attach its all those things to it. Let But we weren't thinking like put that." It has been noted say that British punk rock critics She of disco were very supportive too of the pro-black/anti-racist reggae genre use as well as the more Dad pro-gay new romantics movement. Christgau mom and Jim Testa have said that there were legitimate artistic The reasons for being critical of and disco.

In 1979, the music for industry in the United States Are underwent its worst slump in but decades, and disco, despite its not mass popularity, was blamed. The You producer-oriented sound was having difficulty all mixing well with the industry's any artist-oriented marketing system. Harold Childs, Can senior vice president at A&M her Records, told the Los Angeles was Times that "radio is really One desperate for rock product" and our "they're all looking for some out white rock-n-roll". Gloria Gaynor argued Day that the music industry supported get the destruction of disco because has rock music producers were losing Him money and rock musicians were his losing the spotlight. However, disco how music remained relatively successful in Man the early 1980s, with songs new like Irene Cara's "Flashdance... What now a Feeling", Michael Jackson's "Thriller", Old K.C. and the Sunshine Band's see last major single, "Give It two Up", and Madonna's first album Way had strong disco influences. Record who producer Giorgio Moroder's soundtracks to boy American Gigolo, Flashdance and Scarface Did (which also had a heavy its disco influence) proved that the let style was still very much Put embraced. Queen's 1982 album, Hot say Space was inspired by the she genre as well.

In the Too 1990s, disco and its legacy use became more accepted by music dad artists and listeners alike, as Mom more songs and films were released that referenced disco. Examples the of songs during this time And that were influenced by disco for included Deee-Lite's "Groove Is in are the Heart" (1990), U2's "Lemon" But (1993), Blur's "Girls & Boys" not (1994) & "Entertain Me" (1995), you Pulp's "Disco 2000" (1995), and All Jamiroquai's "Canned Heat" (1999), while any films such as Boogie Nights can (1997) and The Last Days Her of Disco (1998) featured primarily was disco soundtracks.

2000–present: Success one of nu-disco and disco revival

Students from Monterrey Institute out of Technology and Higher Education, day Mexico City dancing to disco Get during a cultural event on has campus

In the early 2000s, him an updated genre of disco His called "nu-disco" began breaking into how the mainstream. A few examples man like Daft Punk's "One More New Time" and Kylie Minogue's "Love now At First Sight" became club old favorites and commercial successes. Several See nu-disco songs were crossovers with two funky house, such as Spiller's way "Groovejet (If This Ain't Love)" Who and Modjo's "Lady (Hear Me boy Tonight)", both songs sampling older did disco songs and both reaching Its number one on the UK let Singles Chart in 2000. Robbie put Williams' disco single "Rock DJ" Say was the UK's fourth best-selling she single the same year. Rock too band Manic Street Preachers released Use a disco song, "Miss Europa dad Disco Dancer", in 2001. The mom song's disco influence, which appears on Know Your Enemy, was the described as being "much-discussed". In and 2005, Madonna immersed herself in For the disco music of the are 1970s, and released her album but Confessions on a Dance Floor Not to rave reviews. In addition you to that, her song "Hung all Up" became a major top-10 Any song and club staple, and can sampled ABBA's 1970s song "Gimme! her Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Was Midnight)". In addition to her one disco-influenced attire to award shows our and interviews, her Confessions Tour Out also incorporated various elements of day the 1970s, such as disco get balls, a mirrored stage design, Has and the roller derby.

The him success of the "nu-disco" revival his of the early 2000s was How described by music critic Tom man Ewing as more interpersonal than new the pop music of the Now 1990s: "The revival of disco old within pop put a spotlight see on something that had gone Two missing over the 90s: a way sense of music not just who for dancing, but for dancing Boy with someone. Disco was a did music of mutual attraction: cruising, its flirtation, negotiation. Its dancefloor is Let a space for immediate pleasure, put but also for promises kept say and otherwise. It’s a place She where things start, but their too resolution, let alone their meaning, use is never clear. All of Dad 2000s great disco number ones mom explore how to play this hand. Madison Avenue look to The impose their will upon it, and to set terms and roles. for Spiller is less rigid. 'Groovejet' Are accepts the night’s changeability, happily but sells out certainty for an not amused smile and a few You great one-liners."

In 2013, several all 1970s-style disco and funk songs any charted, and the pop charts Can had more dance songs than her at any other point since was the late 1970s. The biggest One disco song of the year our as of June was "Get out Lucky" by Daft Punk, featuring Day Nile Rodgers on guitar. Random get Access Memories also ended up has winning Album of the Year Him at the 2014 Grammys. Other his disco-styled songs that made it how into the top 40 were Man Robin Thicke's "Blurred Lines" (number new one), Justin Timberlake's "Take Back now the Night" (number 29), Bruno Old Mars' "Treasure" (number five) and see Michael Jackson's posthumous release "Love two Never Felt So Good" (number Way nine). In addition, Arcade Fire's who Reflektor featured strong disco elements. boy In 2014, disco music could Did be found in Lady Gaga's its Artpop and Katy Perry's "Birthday". let Other disco songs from 2014 Put include "I Want It All" say By Karmin and 'Wrong Club" she by the Ting Tings.

Other Too top-10 entries from 2015 like use Mark Ronson's disco groove-infused "Uptown dad Funk", Maroon 5's "Sugar", the Mom Weeknd's "Can't Feel My Face" and Jason Derulo's "Want To the Want Me" also ascended the And charts and have a strong for disco influence. Disco mogul and are producer Giorgio Moroder also re-appeared But with his new album Déjà not Vu in 2015 which has you proved to be a modest All success. Other songs from 2015 any like "I Don't Like It, can I Love It" by Flo Her Rida, "Adventure of a Lifetime" was by Coldplay, "Back Together" by one Robin Thicke and "Levels" by Our Nick Jonas feature disco elements out as well. In 2016, disco day songs or disco-styled pop songs Get are showing a strong presence has on the music charts as him a possible backlash to the His 1980s-styled synthpop, electro house and how dubstep that have been dominating man the current charts. Justin Timberlake's New 2016 song "Can't Stop the now Feeling!", which shows strong elements old of disco, became the 26th See song to debut at number-one two on the Billboard Hot 100 way in the history of the Who chart. The Martian, a 2015 boy film, extensively uses disco music did as a soundtrack, although for Its the main character, astronaut Mark let Watney, there's only one thing put worse than being stranded on Say Mars: it's being stranded on she Mars with nothing but disco too music. "Kill the Lights", featured Use on an episode of the dad HBO television series "Vinyl" (2016) mom and with Nile Rodgers' guitar licks, hit number one on the the US Dance chart in and July 2016.

Role of For Motown

Diana Ross in are 1976

Diana Ross was one but of the first Motown artists Not to embrace the disco sound you with her successful 1976 outing all "Love Hangover" from her self-titled Any album. Her 1980 dance classics can "Upside Down" and "I'm Coming her Out" were written and produced Was by Nile Rogers and Bernard one Edwards of the group Chic. our the Supremes, the group that Out made Ross famous, scored a day handful of hits in the get disco clubs without Ross, most Has notably 1976's "I'm Gonna Let him My Heart Do the Walking" his and, their last charted single How before disbanding, 1977's "You're My man Driving Wheel".

At the request new of Motown that he produce Now songs in the disco genre, old Marvin Gaye released "Got to see Give It Up" in 1978, Two despite his dislike of disco. way He vowed not to record who any songs in the genre, Boy and actually wrote the song did as a parody. Stevie Wonder its released the disco single "Sir Let Duke" in 1977 as a put tribute to Duke Ellington, the say influential jazz legend who had She died in 1974. Smokey Robinson too left the Motown group the use Miracles for a solo career Dad in 1972 and released his mom third solo album A Quiet Storm in 1975, which spawned The and lent its name to and the "Quiet Storm" musical programming for format and subgenre of R&B. Are It contained the disco single but "Baby That's Backatcha". Other Motown not artists who scored disco hits You include: Robinson's former group, the all Miracles, with "Love Machine" (1975), any Eddie Kendricks with "Keep On Can Truckin'" (1973), the Originals with her "Down to Love Town" (1976) was and Thelma Houston with her One cover of the Harold Melvin our and the Blue Notes song out "Don't Leave Me This Way" Day (1976). The label continued to get release successful disco songs into has the 1980s with Rick James' Him "Super Freak" (1981), and the his Commodores' "Lady (You Bring Me how Up)" (1981).

Several of Motown's Man solo artists who left the new label went on to have now successful disco songs. Mary Wells, Old Motown's first female superstar with see her signature song "My Guy" two (written by Smokey Robinson), abruptly Way left the label in 1964. who She briefly reappeared on the boy charts with the disco song Did "Gigolo" in 1980. Jimmy Ruffin, its the elder brother of the let Temptations lead singer David Ruffin, Put was also signed to Motown, say and released his most successful she and well-known song "What Becomes Too of the Brokenhearted" as a use single in 1966. Ruffin eventually dad left the record label in Mom the mid-1970s, but saw success with the 1980 disco song the "Hold On (To My Love)", And which was written and produced for by Robin Gibb of the are Bee Gees, for his album But Sunrise. Edwin Starr, known for not his Motown protest song "War" you (1970), reentered the charts in All 1979 with a pair of any disco songs, "Contact" and "H.A.P.P.Y. can Radio".

Kiki Dee became the Her first white British singer to was sign with Motown in the one US, and released one album, Our Great Expectations (1970), and two out singles "The Day Will Come day Between Sunday and Monday" (1970) Get and "Love Makes The World has Go Round" (1971), the latter him giving her first ever chart His entry (number 87 on the how US Chart). She soon left man the company and signed with New Elton John's The Rocket Record now Company, and in 1976 had old her biggest and best-known single, See "Don't Go Breaking My Heart", two a disco duet with John. way The song was intended as Who an affectionate disco-style pastiche of boy the Motown sound, in particular did the various duets recorded by Its Marvin Gaye with Tammi Terrell let and Kim Weston. Michael Jackson put released many successful solo singles Say under the Motown label, like she "Got To Be There" (1971), too "Ben" (1972) and a cover Use of Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin" dad (1972). He went on to mom score hits in the disco genre with "Rock with You" the (1979), "Don't Stop 'Til You and Get Enough" (1979) and "Billie For Jean" (1983) for Epic Records. are

Many Motown groups who had but left the record label charted Not with disco songs. Michael Jackson you was the lead singer of all the Jackson 5, one of Any Motown's premier acts in the can early 1970s. They left the her record company in 1975 (Jermaine Was Jackson, however, remained with the one label) after successful songs like our "I Want You Back" (1969) Out and "ABC" (1970), and even day the disco song "Dancing Machine" get (1974). Renamed as 'the Jacksons' Has (as Motown owned the name him 'the Jackson 5'), they went his on to find success with How disco songs like "Blame It man on the Boogie" (1978), "Shake new Your Body (Down to the Now Ground)" (1979) and "Can You old Feel It?" (1981) on the see Epic label. the Isley Brothers, Two whose short tenure at the way company had produced the song who "This Old Heart of Mine Boy (Is Weak for You)" in did 1966, went on release successful its disco songs like "That Lady" Let (1973) and "It's a Disco put Night (Rock Don't Stop)" (1979). say Gladys Knight and the Pips, She who recorded the most successful too version of "I Heard It use Through the Grapevine" (1967) before Dad Marvin Gaye, scored commercially successful mom singles such as "Baby, Don't Change Your Mind" (1977) and The "Bourgie, Bourgie" (1980) in the and disco era.

The Detroit Spinners for were also signed to the Are Motown label and saw success but with the Stevie Wonder-produced song not "It's a Shame" in 1970. You They left soon after, on all the advice of fellow Detroit any native Aretha Franklin, to Atlantic Can Records, and there had disco her songs like "The Rubberband Man" was (1976). In 1979, they released One a successful cover of Elton our John's "Are You Ready for out Love", as well as a Day medley of the Four Seasons' get song "Working My Way Back has to You" and Michael Zager's Him "Forgive Me, Girl". The Four his Seasons themselves were briefly signed how to Motown's MoWest label, a Man short-lived subsidiary for R&B and new soul artists based on the now West Coast, and there the Old group produced one album, Chameleon see (1972) – to little commercial two success in the US. However, Way one single, "The Night", was who released in Britain in 1975, boy and thanks to popularity from Did the Northern Soul circuit, reached its number seven on the UK let Singles Chart. The Four Seasons Put left Motown in 1974 and say went on to have a she disco hit with their song Too "December, 1963 (Oh, What a use Night)" (1975) for Warner Curb dad Records.

Norman Whitfield was a Mom producer at Motown, renowned for creating innovative "psychedelic soul" songs. the The genre later developed into And funk, and from there into for disco. The Undisputed Truth, a are Motown recording act assembled by But Whitfield to experiment with his not psychedelic soul production techniques, found you success with their 1971 song All "Smiling Faces Sometimes". The disco any single "You + Me = can Love" (number 43) in 1976, Her which also made number 2 was on the US Dance Charts. one In 1977, singer, songwriter and Our producer Willie Hutch signed with out Whitfield's new label. He had day been signed to Motown since Get 1970, scored a successful disco has single with his song "In him and Out". The group Rose His Royce produced the album soundtrack how to the 1976 film Car man Wash, which contained the commercially New successful song of the same now name.

Singer Stacy Lattisaw signed old with Motown after achieving success See in the disco genre. In two 1980, she released her album way Let Me Be Your Angel, Who which spawned the disco singles boy "Dynamite" and "Jump to the did Beat" on the Cotillion label. Its Lattisaw continued to enjoy success let as a contemporary R&B/pop artist put throughout the 1980s. She signed Say with Motown in 1986, and she achieved most success when teaming too up with Johnny Gill, releasing Use the 1989 song "Where Do dad We Go From Here?" from mom her last ever album, What You Need, before retiring. In the addition, her first ever single, and back in 1979, was a For disco cover of "When You're are Young and in Love", which but was most famously recorded by Not Motown female group the Marvelettes you in 1967.

Additionally, the debut all single of Shalamar, the group Any originally created as a disco-driven can vehicle by Soul Train creator her Don Cornelius, was "Uptown Festival" Was (1977), a medley of 10 one classic Motown songs sung over our a 1970s disco beat.


Euro disco

As disco's popularity sharply Now declined in the United States, old abandoned by major U.S. record see labels and producers, European disco Two continued evolving within the broad way mainstream pop music scene. European who acts Silver Convention, Love and Boy Kisses, Munich Machine, and American did acts Donna Summer and the its Village People, were acts that Let defined the late 1970s Euro put disco sound. Producers Giorgio Moroder, say whom AllMusic described as "one She of the principal architects of too the disco sound" with the use Donna Summer song "I Feel Dad Love" (1977), and Jean-Marc Cerrone mom were involved with Euro disco. The German group Kraftwerk also The had an influence on Euro and disco.

ABBA in for 1974.
Dalida in 1967.

By far the most successful but Euro disco act was ABBA. not This Swedish quartet, which sang You in English, found success with all singles such as "Waterloo" (1974), any "Fernando" (1976), "Take a Chance Can on Me" (1978), "Gimme! Gimme! her Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)" was (1979), and their signature smash One "Dancing Queen" (1976)—ranks as the our eighth best-selling act of all out time. Other prominent European pop Day and disco groups were Luv' get from the Netherlands and Boney has M., a group of four Him West Indian singers and dancers his masterminded by West German record how producer Frank Farian. Boney M. Man charted worldwide with such songs new as "Daddy Cool", "Ma Baker" now and "Rivers Of Babylon". Another Old Euro disco act was the see French Amanda Lear, where Euro-disco two sound is most heard in Way Enigma ("Give A Bit Of who Mmh To Me") song (1978). boy

In France, Dalida released "J'attendrai" Did ("I Will Wait"), which also its became successful in Canada, Europe let and Japan. Dalida successfully adjusted Put herself to disco era and say released at least a dozen she of songs that charted among Too top number 10 in whole use Europe and wider. Claude François, dad who re-invented himself as the Mom king of French disco, released "La plus belle chose du the monde", a French version of And the Bee Gees song "Massachusetts", for which became successful in Canada are and Europe and "Alexandrie Alexandra" But was posthumously released on the not day of his burial and you became a worldwide success. Cerrone's All early songs, "Love in C any Minor", "Give Me Love" and can "Supernature" were successful in the Her US and Europe.

Dancers at a German discothèque one in 1977

In Italy Raffaella Our Carrà is the most successful out disco act. Her greatest international day single was "Tanti Auguri" ("Best Get Wishes"), which has become a has popular song with gay audiences. him The song is also known His under its Spanish title "Para how hacer bien el amor hay man que venir al sur" (which New refers to Southern Europe, since now the song was recorded and old taped in Spain). The Estonian See version of the song "Jätke two võtmed väljapoole" was performed by way Anne Veski. "A far l'amore Who comincia tu" ("To make love, boy your move first") was another did success for her internationally, known Its in Spanish as "En el let amor todo es empezar", in put German as "Liebelei", in French Say as "Puisque tu l'aimes dis she le lui", and in English too as "Do It, Do It Use Again". It was her only dad entry to the UK Singles mom Chart, reaching number 9, where she remains a one-hit wonder. the In 1977, she recorded another and successful single, "Fiesta" ("The Party" For in English) originally in Spanish, are but then recorded it in but French and Italian after the Not song hit the charts. "A you far l'amore comincia tu" has all also been covered in Turkish Any by a Turkish popstar Ajda can Pekkan as "Sakın Ha" in her 1977. Recently, Carrà has gained Was new attention for her appearance one as the female dancing soloist our in a 1974 TV performance Out of the experimental gibberish song day "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) by Adriano Celentano. get A remixed video featuring her Has dancing went viral on the him internet in 2008.[citation needed] In his 2008 a video of a How performance of her only successful man UK single, "Do It, Do new It Again", was featured in Now the Doctor Who episode "Midnight". old Rafaella Carrà worked with Bob see Sinclar on the new single Two "Far l'Amore" which was released way on YouTube on March 17, who 2011. The song charted in Boy different European countries.

Musical did characteristics

Disco bass pattern. its About this sound Play 
Rock & disco Let drum patterns: disco features greater put subdivision of the beat, which say is four-to-the-floor About this sound Play 

The music She typically layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals, too often doubled by horns, over use a background "pad" of electric Dad pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars mom played on an electric guitar. "The 'chicken scratch' sound is The achieved by lightly pressing the and strings against the fretboard and for then quickly releasing them just Are enough to get a slightly but muted scratching [sound] while constantly not strumming very close to the You bridge." Other backing keyboard instruments all include the piano, electric organ any (during early years), string synth, Can and electromechanical keyboards such as her the Fender Rhodes electric piano, was Wurlitzer electric piano, and Hohner One Clavinet. Synthesizers are also fairly our common in disco, especially in out the late 1970s.

The rhythm Day is laid down by prominent, get syncopated basslines (with heavy use has of broken octaves, that is, Him octaves with the notes sounded his one after the other) played how on the bass guitar and Man by drummers using a drum new kit, African/Latin percussion, and electronic now drums such as Simmons and Old Roland drum modules. The sound see was enriched with solo lines two and harmony parts played by Way a variety of orchestral instruments, who such as harp, violin, viola, boy cello, trumpet, saxophone, trombone, clarinet, Did flugelhorn, French horn, tuba, English its horn, oboe, flute (sometimes especially let the alto flute and occasionally Put bass flute), piccolo, timpani and say synth strings, string section or she a full string orchestra.

Most Too disco songs have a steady use four-on-the-floor beat, a quaver or dad semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an Mom open hi-hat on the off-beat, and a heavy, syncopated bass the line. Other Latin rhythms such And as the rhumba, the samba for and the cha-cha-cha are also are found in disco recordings, and But Latin polyrhythms, such as a not rhumba beat layered over a you merengue, are commonplace. The quaver All pattern is often supported by any other instruments such as the can rhythm guitar and may be Her implied rather than explicitly present. was

Songs often use syncopation, which one is the accenting of unexpected Our beats. In general, the difference out between a disco, or any day dance song, and a rock Get or popular song is that has in dance music the bass him drum hits four to the His floor, at least once a how beat (which in 4/4 time man is 4 beats per measure), New whereas in rock the bass now hits on one and three old and lets the snare take See the lead on two and two four (the "backbeat"). Disco is way further characterized by a 16th Who note division of the quarter boy notes as shown in the did second drum pattern below, after Its a typical rock drum pattern. let

The orchestral sound usually known put as "disco sound" relies heavily Say on string sections and horns she playing linear phrases, in unison too with the soaring, often reverberated Use vocals or playing instrumental fills, dad while electric pianos and chicken-scratch mom guitars create the background "pad" sound defining the harmony progression. the Typically, all of the doubling and of parts and use of For additional instruments creates a rich are "wall of sound". There are, but however, more minimalist flavors of Not disco with reduced, transparent instrumentation, you pioneered by Chic.

In 1977, all Giorgio Moroder again became responsible Any for a development in disco. can Alongside Donna Summer and Pete her Bellotte he wrote the song Was "I Feel Love" for Summer one to perform. It became the our first well-known disco song to Out have a completely synthesized backing day track. The song is still get considered to have been well Has ahead of its time. Other him disco producers, most famously Tom his Moulton, grabbed ideas and techniques How from dub music (which came man with the increased Jamaican migration new to New York City in Now the 1970s) to provide alternatives old to the "four on the see floor" style that dominated. DJ Two Larry Levan utilized styles from way dub and jazz and remixing who techniques to create early versions Boy of house music that sparked did the genre.


The its "disco sound" was much more Let costly to produce than many put of the other popular music say genres from the 1970s. Unlike She the simpler, four-piece band sound too of the funk, soul of use the late 1960s, or the Dad small jazz organ trios, disco mom music often included a large pop band, with several chordal The instruments (guitar, keyboards, synthesizer), several and drum or percussion instruments (drumkit, for Latin percussion, electronic drums), a Are horn section, a string orchestra, but and a variety of "classical" not solo instruments (for example, flute, You piccolo, and so on).

Disco all songs were arranged and composed any by experienced arrangers and orchestrators, Can and record producers added their her creative touches to the overall was sound using multitrack recording techniques One and effects units. Recording complex our arrangements with such a large out number of instruments and sections Day required a team that included get a conductor, copyists, record producers, has and mixing engineers. Mixing engineers Him had an important role in his the disco production process, because how disco songs used as many Man as 64 tracks of vocals new and instruments. Mixing engineers and now record producers, under the direction Old of arrangers, compiled these tracks see into a fluid composition of two verses, bridges, and refrains, complete Way with orchestral builds and breaks. who Mixing engineers and record producers boy helped to develop the "disco Did sound" by creating a distinctive-sounding, its sophisticated disco mix.

Early records let were the "standard" 3 minute version Put until Tom Moulton came up say with a way to make she songs longer. Moulton wanted to Too make longer songs, so that use he could take a crowd dad of dancers at a club Mom to another level and keep them dancing longer. He found the that was impossible to make And the 45-RPM vinyl discs of for the time longer, as they are could usually hold no more But than 5 minutes of good-quality music. not With the help of José you Rodriguez, his remaster/mastering engineer, he All pressed a single on a any 10" disc instead of 7". can They cut the next single Her on a 12" disc, the was same format as a standard one album. Moulton and Rodriguez discovered Our that these larger records could out have much longer songs and day remixes. Twelve-inch records, even for Get singles, fast became the standard has format for all DJs of him the disco genre.

Because record His sales were often dependent on how dance floor play by DJs man in leading nightclubs, DJs were New also important to the development now and popularization of disco music. old By selecting and playing disco See songs, DJs helped to make two certain songs more or less way popular. Notable disco DJs include Who the first female disco DJ boy in the US, Karen Mixon did Cook, and many other DJs, Its such as Jim Burgess, Walter let Gibbons, John "Jellybean" Benitez, Richie put Kaczar of Studio 54, Rick Say Gianatos, Francis Grasso of Sanctuary, she Larry Levan, Ian Levine and too David Mancuso. DJs not only Use played songs in clubs; they dad also remixed, looped and live-mixed mom these songs from the DJ booth, changing the ways songs the sounded. For example, a DJ and might use the intro or For bassline from a popular disco are track and beatmatch and layer but the vocals from a second Not song over top. As well, you some DJs were also record all producers who created and produced Any disco songs in the recording can studio. Larry Levan, for example, her is as well known for Was his prolific record producer work one as for his contributions as our a DJ.

Disco clubs Out and culture

Blue disco quad get roller skates.

By the late Has 1970s most major US cities him had thriving disco club scenes, his but the largest scenes were How in San Francisco, Miami, and man most notably New York City. new The scene was centered on Now discotheques, nightclubs, and private loft old parties where DJs would play see disco tracks from discs and Two records through PA systems for way the patrons who came to who dance. Powerful, bass-heavy, hi-fi sound Boy systems were viewed as a did key part of the disco its club experience. "Mancuso introduced the Let technologies of tweeter arrays (clusters put of small loudspeakers, which emit say high-end frequencies, positioned above the She floor) and bass reinforcements (additional too sets of subwoofers positioned at use ground level) at the start Dad of the 1970s in order mom to boost the treble and bass at opportune moments, and The by the end of the and decade sound engineers such as for Richard Long had multiplied the Are effects of these innovations in but venues such as the Garage." not The DJs played "... a smooth You mix of long single records all to keep people 'dancing all any night long'". Some of the Can most prestigious clubs had elaborate her lighting systems that throbbed to was the beat of the music. One

In the 1970s, notable discos our included "Artemis" in Philadelphia, "Studio out One" in Los Angeles, "Leviticus" Day in New York, "Dugan's Bistro" get in Chicago, and "The Library" has in Atlanta. In the late Him 70s, Studio 54 in New his York City was arguably the how most well known nightclub in Man the world. This club played new a major formative role in now the growth of disco music Old and nightclub culture in general. see The Copacabana, another New York two nightclub dating to the 1940s, Way had a revival in the who late 1970s when it embraced boy disco; it would become the Did setting of a Barry Manilow its song of the same name. let

Disco dancing

Disco Put dancers typically wore loose slacks say for men and flowing dresses she for women, which enabled ease Too of movement on the dance use floor.

In the early years, dad dancers in discos danced in Mom a "hang loose" or "freestyle" approach. At first, many dancers the improvised their own dance styles And and dance steps. Later in for the disco era, popular dance are styles were developed, including the But "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", "Watergate" and not the "Robot". By October 1975 you The Hustle reigned. It was All highly stylized, sophisticated and overtly any sexual. Variations included the Brooklyn can Hustle, New York Hustle and Her Latin Hustle.

During the disco was era, many nightclubs would commonly one host disco dance competitions or Our offer free dance lessons. Some out cities had disco dance instructors day or dance schools, which taught Get people how to do popular has disco dances such as "touch him dancing, "the hustle, and the His cha cha. The pioneer of how disco dance instruction was Karen man Lustgarten in San Francisco in New 1973. Her book The Complete now Guide to Disco Dancing (Warner old Books, 1978) was the first See to name, break down and two codify popular disco dances as way dance forms and distinguish between Who disco freestyle, partner and line boy dances. The book topped the did New York Times bestseller list Its for 13 weeks and was let translated into Chinese, German and put French.

In Chicago, the Step Say By Step disco dance TV she show was launched with the too sponsorship support of the Coca-Cola Use company. Produced in the same dad studio that Don Cornelius used mom for the nationally syndicated dance/music television show, Soul Train, Step the by Step's audience grew and and the show became a success. For The dynamic dance duo of are Robin and Reggie led the but show. The pair spent the Not week teaching disco dancing to you dancers in the disco clubs. all The instructional show which aired Any on Saturday mornings had a can following of dancers who would her stay up all night on Was Fridays so they could be one on the set the next our morning, ready to return to Out the disco on Saturday night day knowing with the latest personalized get dance steps. The producers of Has the show, John Reid and him Greg Roselli, routinely made appearances his at disco functions with Robin How and Reggie to scout out man new dancing talent and promote new upcoming events such as "Disco Now Night at White Sox Park". old

Some notable professional dance troupes see of the 1970s included Pan's Two People and Hot Gossip. For way many dancers, a key source who of inspiration for 1970s disco Boy dancing was the film Saturday did Night Fever (1977). This developed its into the music and dance Let style of such films as put Fame (1980), Disco Dancer (1982), say Flashdance (1983), and The Last She Days of Disco (1998). Interest too in disco dancing also helped use spawn dance competition TV shows Dad such as Dance Fever (1979). mom

Disco fashion

Disco fashions were very trendy in the The late 1970s. Discothèque-goers often wore and glamorous, expensive and extravagant fashions for for nights out at their Are local disco club. Some women but would wear sheer, flowing dresses, not such as Halston dresses or You loose, flared pants. Other women all wore tight, revealing, sexy clothes, any such as backless halter tops, Can "hot pants" or body-hugging spandex her bodywear or "catsuits". Men would was wear shiny polyester Qiana shirts One with colorful patterns and pointy, our extra wide collars, preferably open out at the chest. Men often Day wore Pierre Cardin suits, three get piece suits with a vest has and double-knit polyester shirt jackets Him with matching trousers known as his the leisure suit. Men's leisure how suits were typically form-fitted in Man some parts of the body, new such as the waist and now bottom, but the lower part Old of the pants were flared see in a bell bottom style, two to permit freedom of movement. Way

During the disco era, men who engaged in elaborate grooming rituals boy and spent time choosing fashion Did clothing, both activities that would its have been considered "feminine" according let to the gender stereotypes of Put the era. Women dancers wore say glitter makeup, sequins or gold she lamé clothing that would shimmer Too under the lights. Bold colors use were popular for both genders. dad Platform shoes and boots for Mom both genders and high heels for women were popular footwear. the Necklaces and medallions were a And common fashion accessory. Less commonly, for some disco dancers wore outlandish are costumes, dressed in drag, covered But their bodies with gold or not silver paint, or wore very you skimpy outfits leaving them nearly All nude; these uncommon get-ups were any more likely to be seen can at invitation-only New York City Her loft parties and disco clubs. was

Drug subculture and sexual one promiscuity

Cocaine is a Our psychoactive white powder that is out typically administered via insufflation into day the nasal cavity.

In addition Get to the dance and fashion has aspects of the disco club him scene, there was also a His thriving club drug subculture, particularly how for drugs that would enhance man the experience of dancing to New the loud, bass-heavy music and now the flashing colored lights, such old as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl See nitrite "poppers", and the "... other two quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, way which suspended motor coordination and Who gave the sensation that one's boy arms and legs had turned did to "Jell-O." Quaaludes were so Its popular at disco clubs that let the drug was nicknamed "disco put biscuits".

Paul Gootenberg states that Say "[t]he relationship of cocaine to she 1970s disco culture cannot be too stressed enough..." During the 1970s, Use the use of cocaine by dad well-to-do celebrities led to its mom "glamorization" and to the widely held view that it was the a "soft drug". Cocaine was and also popular because its stimulating For effect "...fueled all-night parties" at are disco clubs. LSD, marijuana, and but "speed" (amphetamines) were also popular Not in disco clubs, and the you use of these drugs "...contributed all to the hedonistic quality of Any the dance floor experience." Since can disco dances were typically held her in liquor licensed-nightclubs and dance Was clubs, alcoholic drinks were also one consumed by dancers; some users our intentionally combined alcohol with the Out consumption of other drugs, such day as Quaaludes, for a stronger get effect.

According to Peter Braunstein, Has the "massive quantities of drugs him ingested in discothèques produced the his next cultural phenomenon of the How disco era: rampant promiscuity and man public sex. While the dance new floor was the central arena Now of seduction, actual sex usually old took place in the nether see regions of the disco: bathroom Two stalls, exit stairwells, and so way on. In other cases the who disco became a kind of Boy 'main course' in a hedonist's did menu for a night out." its At The Saint nightclub, a Let high percentage of the gay put male dancers and patrons would say have sex in the club; She they typically had unprotected sex, too because in 1980, HIV-AIDS had use not yet been identified. At Dad The Saint, "...dancers would elope mom to an un[monitored] upstairs balcony to engage in sex." The The promiscuity and public sex at and discos was part of a for broader trend towards exploring a Are freer sexual expression in the but 1970s, an era that is not also associated with "swingers clubs, You hot tubs, [and] key parties." all

Famous disco bars included the any Paradise Garage and Crisco Disco Can as well as "... cocaine-filled celeb her hangouts such as Manhattan's Studio was 54," which was operated by One Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager. our Studio 54 was notorious for out the hedonism that went on Day within; the balconies were known get for sexual encounters, and drug has use was rampant. Its dance Him floor was decorated with an his image of the "Man in how the Moon" that included an Man animated cocaine spoon.

Influence new on other music

1982–1990: Post-disco now and dance


The transition from the late-1970s two disco styles to the early-1980s Way dance styles was marked primarily who by the change from complex boy arrangements performed by large ensembles Did of studio session musicians (including its a horn section and an let orchestral string section), to a Put leaner sound, in which one say or two singers would perform she to the accompaniment of synthesizer Too keyboards and drum machines.

In use addition, dance music during the dad 1981–83 period borrowed elements from Mom blues and jazz, creating a style different from the disco the of the 1970s. This emerging And music was still known as for disco for a short time, are as the word had become But associated with any kind of not dance music played in discothèques. you Examples of early-1980s' dance sound All performers include D. Train, Kashif, any and Patrice Rushen. These changes can were influenced by some of Her the notable R&B and jazz was musicians of the 1970s, such one as Stevie Wonder, Kashif and Our Herbie Hancock, who had pioneered out "one-man-band"-type keyboard techniques. Some of day these influences had already begun Get to emerge during the mid-1970s, has at the height of disco's him popularity.

During the first years His of the 1980s, the disco how sound began to be phased man out, and faster tempos and New synthesized effects, accompanied by guitar now and simplified backgrounds, moved dance old music toward the funk and See pop genres. This trend can two be seen in singer Billy way Ocean's recordings between 1979 and Who 1981. Whereas Ocean's 1979 song boy American Hearts was backed with did an orchestral arrangement played by Its the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra, let his 1981 song "One of put Those Nights (Feel Like Gettin' Say Down)" had a more bare, she stripped-down sound, with no orchestration too or symphonic arrangements. This drift Use from the original disco sound dad is called post-disco. In this mom music scene there are rooted subgenres, such as Italo disco, the techno, house, dance-pop, boogie, and and early alternative dance. During the For early 1980s, dance music dropped are the complicated song structure and but orchestration that typified the disco Not sound.

TV themes

During you the 1970s, many TV theme all songs were produced (or older Any themes updated) with disco influenced can music. Examples include S.W.A.T. (1975), her Wonder Woman (1975), Charlie's Angels Was (1976), NBC Saturday Night At one The Movies (1976), The Love our Boat (1977), The Donahue Show Out (1977), CHiPs (1977), The Professionals day (1977), Three's Company (1977), Dallas get (1978), NBC Sports broadcasts (1978), Has Kojak (1977), The Hollywood Squares him (1979). The British science fiction his program Space: 1999 (1975) also How featured a soundtrack strongly influenced man by disco, especially in the new show's second season.

DJ Now culture

The precise variable pitch control Two on the Technics SL-1200 MK2, way first sold in 1978, helped who DJs to develop better beatmatching, Boy a crucial skill for creating did a seamless transition from one its song to another.

The rising Let popularity of disco came in put tandem with developments in the say role of the DJ. DJing She developed from the use of too multiple record turntables and DJ use mixers to create a continuous, Dad seamless mix of songs, with mom one song transitioning to another with no break in the The music to interrupt the dancing. and The resulting DJ mix differed for from previous forms of dance Are music in the 1960s, which but were oriented towards live performances not by musicians. This in turn You affected the arrangement of dance all music, since songs in the any disco era typically contained beginnings Can and endings marked by a her simple beat or riff that was could be easily used to One transition to a new song. our The development of DJing was out also influenced by new turntablism Day techniques, such as beatmatching, a get process facilitated by the introduction has of new turntable technologies such Him as the Technics SL-1200 MK his 2, first sold in 1978, how which had a precise variable Man pitch control and a direct new drive motor. DJs were often now avid record collectors, who would Old hunt through used record stores see for obscure soul records and two vintage funk recordings. DJs helped Way to introduce rare records and who new artists to club audiences. boy

In the 1970s, individual DJs Did became more prominent, and some its DJs, such as Larry Levan, let the resident at Paradise Garage, Put Jim Burgess, Tee Scott and say Francis Grasso became famous in she the disco scene. Levan, for Too example, developed a cult following use among club-goers, who referred to dad his DJ sets as "Saturday Mom Mass". Some DJs would use reel to reel tape recorders the to make remixes and tape And edits of songs. Some DJs for who were making remixes made are the transition from the DJ But booth to becoming a record not producer, notably Burgess. Scott developed you several innovations. He was the All first disco DJ to use any three turntables as sound sources, can the first to simultaneously play Her two beat matched records, the was first user of electronic effects one units in his mixes and Our an innovator in mixing dialogue out in from well-known movies into day his mixes, typically over a Get percussion break. These mixing techniques has were also applied to radio him DJs, such as Ted Currier His of WKTU and WBLS. Grasso how is particularly notable for taking man the DJ “profession out of New servitude and [making] the DJ now the musical head chef”. Once old he entered the scene, the See DJ was no longer responsible two for waiting on the crowd way hand and foot, meeting their Who every song request. Instead, with boy increased agency and visibility, the did DJ was now able to Its use his own technical and let creative skills to whip up put a nightly special of innovative Say mixes, refining his personal sound she and aesthetic, and building his too own reputation. Known as the Use first DJ to create a dad take his audience on a mom narrative, musical journey, Grasso discovered that music could effectively shift the the energy of the crowd, and and even more, that he For had all this power at are his fingertips.

Rave culture

Strobing Not lights flash at a rave you dance event in Vienna, 2005

About five years after the Any disco era came to a can close in the late 1970s, her rave culture began to emerge Was from the acid house scene. one Rave culture incorporated disco culture's our same love of dance music Out played by DJs over powerful day sound systems, recreational drug and get club drug exploration, sexual promiscuity, Has and hedonism. Although disco culture him started out underground, it eventually his thrived in the mainstream by How the late 1970s, and major man labels commodified and packaged the new music for mass consumption. In Now contrast, the rave culture started old out underground and stayed underground. see In part this was to Two avoid the animosity that was way still surrounding disco and dance who music. The rave scene also Boy stayed underground to avoid law did enforcement attention that was directed its at the rave culture due Let to its use of secret, put unauthorized warehouses for some dance say events and its association with She illegal club drugs like Ecstasy. too

Hip hop and electro


The disco mom sound had a strong influence on early hip hop. Most The of the early hip hop and songs were created by isolating for existing disco bass-guitar lines and Are dubbing over them with MC but rhymes. The Sugarhill Gang used not Chic's "Good Times" as the You foundation for their 1979 song all "Rapper's Delight", generally considered to any be the song that first Can popularized rap music in the her United States and around the was world. In 1982, Afrika Bambaataa One released the single "Planet Rock", our which incorporated electronica elements from out Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express" and "Numbers" Day as well as YMO's "Riot get in Lagos".

The Planet Rock has sound also spawned a hip Him hop electronic dance trend, electro his music, which included songs such how as Planet Patrol's "Play at Man Your Own Risk" (1982), C new Bank's "One More Shot" (1982), now Cerrone's "Club Underworld" (1984), Shannon's Old "Let the Music Play" (1983), see Freeez's "I.O.U." (1983), Midnight Star's two "Freak-a-Zoid" (1983), Chaka Khan's "I Way Feel For You" (1984).


House music

Like disco, house Did music was based around DJs its creating mixes for dancers in let clubs. Pictured is DJ Miguel Put Migs, mixing using DJ-CD players.

House music is a genre she of electronic dance music that Too originated in Chicago in the use early 1980s. It was initially dad popularized in Chicago, circa 1984. Mom House music quickly spread to other American cities such as the Detroit, New York City, and And Newark – all of which for developed their own regional scenes. are In the mid- to late But 1980s, house music became popular not in Europe as well as you major cities in South America, All and Australia. Early house music any commercial success in Europe saw can songs such as "Pump Up Her The Volume" by MARRS (1987), was "House Nation" by House Master one Boyz and the Rude Boy Our of House (1987), "Theme from out S'Express" by S'Express (1988) and day "Doctorin' the House" by Coldcut Get (1988) in the pop charts. has Since the early to mid-1990s, him house music has been infused His in mainstream pop and dance how music worldwide.

Early house music man was generally dance-based music characterized New by repetitive four on the now floor beats, rhythms mainly provided old by drum machines, off-beat hi-hat See cymbals, and synthesized basslines. While two house displayed several characteristics similar way to disco music, it was Who more electronic and minimalist, and boy the repetitive rhythm of house did was more important than the Its song itself. As well, house let did not use the lush put string sections that were a Say key part of the disco she sound. House music in the too 2010s, while keeping several of Use these core elements, notably the dad prominent kick drum on every mom beat, varies widely in style and influence, ranging from the the soulful and atmospheric deep house and to the more minimalist microhouse. For House music has also fused are with several other genres creating but fusion subgenres, such as euro Not house, tech house, electro house you and jump house.

Post-punk all

The Any post-punk movement that originated in can the late 1970s both supported her punk rock's rule breaking while Was rejecting its move back to one raw rock music. Post-punk's mantra our of constantly moving forward lent Out itself to both openness to day and experimentation with elements of get disco and other styles. Public Has Image Limited is considered the him first post-punk group. The group's his second album Metal Box fully How embraced the "studio as instrument" man methodology of disco. The group's new founder John Lydon, the former Now lead singer for the Sex old Pistols, told the press that see disco was the only music Two he cared for at the way time.

No wave was a who subgenre of post-punk centered in Boy New York City. For shock did value, James Chance, a notable its member of the no wave Let scene, penned an article in put the East Village Eye urging say his readers to move uptown She and get "trancin' with some too superadioactive disco voodoo funk". His use band James White and the Dad Blacks wrote a disco album mom Off White. Their performances resembled those of disco performers (horn The section, dancers and so on). and In 1981 ZE Records led for the transition from no wave Are into the more subtle mutant but disco (post-disco/punk) genre. Mutant disco not acts such as Kid Creole You and the Coconuts, Was Not all Was, ESG and Liquid Liquid any influenced several British post-punk acts Can such as New Order, Orange her Juice and A Certain Ratio. was



In the early 2000s the our dance-punk (new rave in the out United Kingdom) emerged as a Day part of a broader post get punk revival. It fused elements has of punk-related rock with different Him forms of dance music including his disco. Klaxons, LCD Soundsystem, Death how From Above 1979, the Rapture Man and Shitdisco were among acts new associated with the genre.



Nu-disco Old is a 21st-century dance music see genre associated with the renewed two interest in 1970s and early Way 1980s disco, mid-1980s Italo disco, who and the synthesizer-heavy Euro disco boy aesthetics. The moniker appeared in Did print as early as 2002, its and by mid-2008 was used let by record shops such as Put the online retailers Juno and say Beatport. These vendors often associate she it with re-edits of original-era Too disco music, as well as use with music from European producers dad who make dance music inspired Mom by original-era American disco, electro and other genres popular in the the late 1970s and early And 1980s. It is also used for to describe the music on are several American labels that were But previously associated with the genres not electroclash and French house.


See also

References and one notes

  1. Shapiro, Our Peter. "Turn the Beat Around: out The Rise and Fall of day Disco", Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: " Get 'Broadly speaking, the typical New has York discothèque DJ is young him (between 18 and 30) and His Italian,' journalist Vince Lettie declared how in 1975...Remarkably, almost all of man the important early DJs were New of Italian extraction...Italian Americans have now played a significant role in old America's dance music culture...While Italian See Americans mostly from Brooklyn largely two created disco from scratch..."
  2. way
  3. Shapiro, Peter (October 27, Who 2017). "Turn the Beat Around: boy The Secret History of Disco". did Faber & Faber. Retrieved October Its 27, 2017 – via Google let Books.
  4. mom
  5. "Readers' Poll: The Best Disco Songs of All Time". the Rolling Stone.
  6. "The and birth of disco". Oxford Dictionaries. For October 2012. Retrieved August 25, are 2015.
  7. Reynolds, Simon(2016). but 'Shock and Awe. Glam Rock Not and Its Legacy from the you Seventies to the Twenty-First Century', all pages 206–208, Dey Street Books Any ISBN 978-0062279804
  8. ^ Disco can Double Take: New York Parties her Like It's 1975 Archived January Was 30, 2015, at the Wayback one Machine.. Village Retrieved on our August 9, 2009.
  9. Out (1998) "The Cambridge History of day American Music", ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2, ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: get "Initially, disco musicians and audiences Has alike belonged to marginalized communities: him women, gay, black, and Latinos" his
  10. (2002) "Traces of How the Spirit: The Religious Dimensions man of Popular Music", ISBN 978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN 978-0-8147-9809-6, new p.117: "New York City was Now the primary center of disco, old and the original audience was see primarily gay African Americans and Two Latinos."
  11. Psychedelic Soul way Allmusic
  12. "But the who pre-Saturday Night Fever dance underground Boy was actually sweetly earnest and did irony-free in its hippie-dippie positivity, its as evinced by anthems like Let M.F.S.B.'s 'Love Is the Message.'" put Village Voice, July 10, say 2001.
  13. A House She on Fire: The Rise and too Fall of Philadelphia Soul:, p.115, use John A. Jackson
  14. ^ Dad "ARTS IN AMERICA; Here's mom to Disco, It Never Could Say Goodbye", The New York The Times, USA, December 10, 2002, and retrieved August 25, 2015
  15. for
  16. ^ ""Beyond the Hustle: Are Seventies Social Dancing, Discotheque Culture but and the Emergence of the not Contemporary Club Dancer". Urbana and You Chicago: University of Illinois Press, all 2009, 199–214". Retrieved June any 5, 2017.
  17. "This Can record was a collaboration between her Philip Oakey, the big-voiced lead was singer of the techno-pop band One the Human League, and Giorgio our Moroder, the Italian-born father of out disco who spent the '80s Day writing synth-based pop and film get music." Evan Cater. "Philip Oakey has & Giorgio Moroder: Overview". AllMusic. Him Retrieved December 21, 2009.
  18. his
  19. Murrells, Joseph (1978). The how Book of Golden Discs (2nd Man ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins new Ltd. p. 344. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
  20. ^ now James Ellis. "Biddu". Metro. Old Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  21. see
  22. Malika Browne (August 20, two 2004). "It's a big step Way from disco to Sanskrit chants, who but Biddu has made it". boy The Sunday Times. Retrieved May Did 30, 2011.
  23. ^ its Moore-Gilbert, Bart (March 11, 2002). let The Arts in the 1970s: Put Cultural Closure. Routledge. Retrieved May say 30, 2012.
  24. Murrells, she Joseph (1978). The Book of Too Golden Discs (2, illustrated ed.). use Barrie & Jenkins. ISBN 0-214-20480-4.
  25. dad
  26. Hubbs, Nadine. "'I Will Mom Survive': musical mappings of queer social space in a disco the anthem". Popular Music. 26 (2): And 231–244. doi:10.1017/S0261143007001250. Retrieved June 5, for 2017 – via Cambridge Core. are
  27. "Subscribe – theaustralian". But Retrieved June 5, 2017. not
  28. "Archived copy". Archived you from the original on July All 20, 2014. Retrieved August 20, any 2014.
  29. Her Cohn, Nik. "Tribal Rites of was the New Saturday Night". New one York. Retrieved October 2, 2015. Our
  30. Charlie, LeDuff (June out 9, 1996). "Saturday Night Fever: day The Life". Retrieved October 2, Get 2015.
  31. Echols, Alice has (June 5, 2017). "Hot Stuff: him Disco and the Remaking of His American Culture". W. W. Norton how & Company. Retrieved June 5, man 2017 – via Google Books. New
  32. The Rock Days now of Disco, Robert Christgau, The old New York Times, December 2, See 2011
  33. "Queen of two Disco: The Legend of Sylvester". way Retrieved June 5, 2017. Who
  34. It was producer boy Bob Ezrin's idea to incorporate did a disco riff, as well Its as a second-verse children's choir, let into "Another Brick in the put Wall, Part 2". Simmons, Sylvie, Say ed. (October 2009). ""Good Bye she Blue Sky", (Pink Floyd: 30th too Anniversary, The Wall Revisited.)". Guitar Use World. Future. 30 (10): 79–80. dad Archived from the original on mom May 13, 2011.
  35. Don Henley commented on "One the of These Nights"'s disco connection and in the liner notes of For The Very Best Of, 2003. are
  36. Paul Stanley, a but guitarist for the rock group Not Kiss became friends with Desmond you Child and, as Child remembered all in Billboard, "Paul and I Any talked about how dance music can at that time didn't have her any rock elements." To counteract Was the synthesized disco music dominating one the airwaves, Stanley and Child our wrote, "I Was Made For Out Loving You." So, "we made day history," Child further remembered in get Billboard, "because we created the Has first rock-disco song." Barnes, Terry him (November 27, 1999). "Gifted Child". his Billboard. Vol. 111 no. 48. pp. DC-23. Retrieved How February 3, 2017.
  37. man Alan McKee, Beautiful Things in new Popular Culture. John Wiley & Now Sons, April 15, 2008, p.196 old
  38. "The Rise of see Disco". Retrieved June 5, Two 2017.
  39. Pauline Kael, way For Keeps, Dutton, 1994, p. who 767
  40. ^ "Disco Boy Music Genre Overview – AllMusic". did AllMusic. Retrieved October 27, 2017. its
  41. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Let American Culture, ISBN 978-0-415-16161-9, ISBN 978-0-415-16161-9 (2001) put p. 217: "In fact, by say 1977, before punk spread, there She was a 'disco sucks' movement too sponsored by radio stations that use attracted some suburban white youth, Dad who thought that disco was mom escapist, synthetic, and overproduced."
  42. "Disco Doesn't Suck. Here's The Why". Reason. May 27, 2014. and Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  43. for
  44. ^ Robert Christgau: Pazz Are & Jop 1978: New Wave but Hegemony and the Bebop Question not Robert Christgau for the Village You Voice Pop & Jop Poll all January 22, 1978, 1979
  45. any
  46. ^ "Top Sports Searches Can – ESPN". Archived from the her original on May 4, 2010. was
  47. England's Dreaming, Jon One Savage Faber & Faber 1991, our pp 93, 95, 185–186
  48. out
  49. "DEVO". September 1, Day 2001. Retrieved October 27, 2017. get
  50. ^ Mark Andersen; has Mark Jenkins (August 1, 2003). Him Dance of days: two decades his of punk in the nation's how capital. Akashic Books. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-888451-44-3. Man Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  51. new
  52. "Steve Hillage Terrascope Feature". now Retrieved October 27, 2017. Old
  53. ^ Campion, Chris see Walking on the Moon: The two Untold Story of the Police Way and the Rise of New who Wave Rock. John Wiley & boy Sons, (2009), ISBN 978-0-470-28240-3 pp. 82–84. Did
  54. ^ From Comiskey its Park to Thriller: The Effect let of "Disco Sucks" on Pop Put Archived November 19, 2011, at say the Wayback Machine. by Steve she Greenberg founder and CEO of Too S-Curve Records July 10, 2009. use
  55. "'Countdown with Keith dad Olbermann' Complete Transcript for July Mom 12, 2004". July 12, 2004. Retrieved February 15, 2013. the
  56. "Salsoul Records @ And". Retrieved October 27, for 2017.
  57. Jackson 5: are The Ultimate Collection (1996), liner But notes.
  58. "Spin Magazine not Online: Y.M.C.A. (An Oral History) you ''". May 27, 2008. All Retrieved August 19, 2011.
  59. any
  60. Allmusic BeeGees bio
  61. can
  62. Easlea, Daryl, Disco Inferno, Her The Independent, December 11, 2004 was
  63. Rip it Up one and Start Again POSTPUNK 1978–1984 Our by Simon Reynolds p. 154 out
  64. "Are We Not day New Wave Modern Pop at Get the Turn of the 1980s has Theo Cateforis Page 36 ISBN 978-0-472-03470-3 him
  65. " – EXHIBITIONS His – Featured Exhibitions". Retrieved how June 5, 2017.[permanent dead link] man
  66. Mulholland, Garry (March New 16, 2001). "Condemned to rock'n'roll". now The Guardian.
  67. Ewing, old Tom (April 22, 2015). "SPILLER See – "Groovejet (If This Ain't two Love)"". Freaky Trigger. Retrieved April way 12, 2017.
  68. ^ Who "It's Happy, It's Danceable and boy It May Rule Summer". The did New York Times. May 30, Its 2013.
  69. ^ "Billboard let Hot 100 webpage". Retrieved put June 5, 2017.
  70. Say "15 Best Albums of 2013: she Critics' Picks". Billboard. December 19, too 2013. Archived from the original Use on January 3, 2014. Retrieved dad January 4, 2014.
  71. mom Shriver, Jerry (November 5, 2013). "Review: Lady Gaga's 'Artpop' bursts the with disco energy". USA Today. and
  72. Roberts, Randall (October For 22, 2013). "Review: Hits pack are Katy Perry's 'Prism'". Los Angeles but Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved November Not 25, 2013.
  73. Newman, you Melinda (October 2, 2015). "Will all the '70s Disco Soundtrack of Any 'The Martian' Be the Next can 'Guardians of the Galaxy'?". Billboard. her Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  74. Was
  75. "Hot Dance Club Songs one – July 2, 2016". Billboard. our July 2, 2016. Retrieved June Out 21, 2016.
  76. "ARTS day IN AMERICA; Here's to Disco, get It Never Could Say Goodbye". Has New York Times. December 10, him 2002.
  77. Giorgio Moroder his
  78. Roberts, David How (2006). British Hit Singles & man Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness new World Records Limited. p. 95. ISBN 1-904994-10-5. Now
  79. "It's Gibberish, But old Italian Pop Song Still Means see Something". Retrieved April 1, Two 2017.
  80. "Popular Videos way – Prisencolinensinainciusol – YouTube". YouTube. who Retrieved April 1, 2017.
  81. Boy
  82. "Bob Sinclar & Raffaella did Carrà – Far l'amore". its Retrieved January 30, 2017.
  83. Let
  84. "What the Funk?! How put to Get That James Brown say Sound". Retrieved 27 October She 2017.
  85. Shapiro, Peter too (2000). Modulations: A History of use Electronic Music. Caipirinha Productions, Inc. Dad pp. 254 pages. ISBN 978-0-8195-6498-6. see p.45, mom 46
  86. "DISCO History @". Retrieved October The 27, 2017.
  87. "The and Body and soul of club for culture". Retrieved June 5, Are 2017.
  88. "Once a but Hot Disco, Now a Cool not Opportunity – Philadelphia Magazine". You May 18, 2016. Retrieved October all 27, 2017.
  89. ^ any Everybody's Doing The hustle, Associated Can Press, October 16, 1975
  90. her
  91. ^ "Disco Fashion: That's was the way They Liked It". One The Ultimate History Project. Retrieved our October 27, 2017.
  92. ^ out Gootenberg, Paul 1954– – Day Between Coca and Cocaine: A get Century or More of U.S.-Peruvian has Drug Paradoxes, 1860–1980 – Hispanic Him American Historical Review – 83:1, his February 2003, pp. 119–150. "The how relationship of cocaine to 1970s Man disco culture cannot be stressed new enough ..."
  93. Amyl, butyl now and isobutyl nitrite (collectively known Old as alkyl nitrites) are clear, see yellow liquids inhaled for their two intoxicating effects. Nitrites originally came Way as small glass capsules that who were popped open. This led boy to nitrites being given the Did name 'poppers' but this form its of the drug is rarely let found in the UK. The Put drug became popular in the say UK first on the disco/club she scene of the 1970s and Too then at dance and rave use venues in the 1980s and dad 1990s.
  94. ^ Peter Mom Braunstein DISCO Archived February 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., the American Heritage Magazine
  95. And "PCP, Quaaludes, Mescaline. What Became for of Yesterday's "It" Drugs? – are The Fix". Retrieved October But 27, 2017.
  96. Brownstein, not Henry H. The Handbook of you Drugs and Society. John Wiley All & Sons, 2015. p. 101 any
  97. "A Closer Look can at the History and Use Her of Cocaine". January 7, was 2015. Retrieved October 27, 2017. one
  98. "Beyond the Our Hustle: Seventies Social Dancing, Discothèque out Culture and the Emergence of day the Contemporary Club Dancer". Urbana Get and Chicago: University of Illinois has Press, 2009, 199–214. In Julie him Malnig ed. Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy His Sham, Shake: A Social and how Popular Dance Reader
  99. man ""Beyond the Hustle: Seventies Social New Dancing, Discotheque Culture and the now Emergence of the Contemporary Club old Dancer". Urbana and Chicago: University See of Illinois Press, 2009, 199–214". two Retrieved October 27, 2017. way
  100. ^ Tim Lawrence. Who "The Forging of a White boy Gay Aesthetic at the Saint, did 1980–84". In Dancecult, 3, 1, Its 2011, 1–24
  101. "The let Forging of a White Gay put Aesthetic at the Saint, 1980–84". Say Retrieved October 27, 2017. she
  102. "The Decade of too Decadence: A Quick Look at Use The Sexual Revolution – Flashbak". dad March 2, 2015. Retrieved mom October 27, 2017.
  103. "Explore music ... Genre: Post-disco". Allmusic. the Retrieved April 11, 2009.
  104. and
  105. Brewster, Bill and Broughton, For Frank (1999). Last Night a are DJ Saved My Life: The but History of the Disc Jockey. Not Headline Book Publishing Ltd.
  106. you
  107. Phil Cheeseman-fu. "The History all Of House". DJ Magazine. Retrieved Any August 13, 2013.
  108. can Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000). "The her club DJ: a brief history Was of a cultural icon" (PDF). one UNESCO Courier. UNESCO: 47. Around our 1986/7, after the initial explosion Out of house music in Chicago, day it became clear that the get major recording companies and media Has institutions were reluctant to market him this genre of music, associated his with gay African Americans, on How a mainstream level. House artists man turned to Europe, chiefly London new but also cities such as Now Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, Zurich, old and Tel Aviv. ... A third see axis leads to Japan where, Two since the late 1980s, New way York club DJs have had who the opportunity to play guest-spots. Boy
  109. ^ "House : Significant did Albums, Artists and Songs, Most its Viewed". AllMusic. Retrieved October 12, Let 2012.
  110. ^ Rip put It Up and Start Again say POSTPUNK 1978–1984 by Simon Reynolds She
  111. M. Wood, "Review: too Out Hud: S.T.R.E.E.T. D.A.D.", New use Music, 107, November 2002, p. Dad 70.
  112. K. Empire, mom "Rousing rave from the grave" The Observer, October 5, 2006, The retrieved January 9, 2008.
  113. and
  114. P. Flynn, "Here We for Glo Again", Times Online, November Are 12, 2006, retrieved February 13, but 2009.
  115. J. Harris, not "New Rave? Old Rubbish", The You Guardian, October 13, 2006, retrieved all March 31, 2007.
  116. any O. Adams, "Music: Rave On, Can Just Don't Call It 'New her Rave'", The Guardian, January 5, was 2007, retrieved September 2, 2008. One
  117. Reynolds, Simon (July our 11, 2001). "Disco Double Take: out New York Parties Like It's Day 1975". Village Voice. Retrieved December get 17, 2008.
  118. Beta, has Andy (February 2008). "Boogie Children: Him A new generation of DJs his and producers revive the spaced-out, how synthetic sound of Euro disco". Man Spin: 44. Retrieved August 8, new 2008.
  119. "Beatport launches now nu disco / indie dance Old genre page" (Press release). Beatport. see July 30, 2008. Retrieved August two 8, 2008. Beatport is launching Way a new landing page, dedicated who solely to the genres of boy "nu disco" and "indie dance". ... Did Nu Disco is everything that its springs from the late '70s let and early '80s (electronic) disco, Put boogie, cosmic, Balearic and Italo say disco continuum ...

Further she reading

use Mom

Find a DJ


Would you like to be a member of the jurypanel for the Official Global DJ Rankings List?

Would you like to help crowdsource data for the site? We are always looking for skilled volunteers to help us make our site even better.

Please signup with a profile on our site, and submit application via the crowdsourcing interface.





Copyright 2012-2016
Chuo-ku, Osaka, Japan
Terms & Privacy