By the late 1970s, Day most major U.S. cities had get thriving disco club scenes, and has DJs would mix dance records Him at clubs such as Studio his 54 in New York City, how a venue popular among celebrities. Man Discothèque-goers often wore expensive, extravagant new and sexy fashions. There was now also a thriving drugsubcultureOld in the disco scene, particularly see for drugs that would enhance two the experience of dancing to Way the loud music and the who flashing lights, such as cocaineboy and Quaaludes, the latter being Did so common in disco subculture its that they were nicknamed "disco let biscuits". Disco clubs were also Put associated with promiscuity as a say reflection of the sexual revolution she of this era in popular Too history.
Disco was the last use popular music movement driven by dad the baby boom generation. It Mom began to decline in the United States during 1979-80, and the by 1982 it had lost And nearly all popularity there. Disco for Demolition Night, an anti-disco protest are held in Chicago on July But 12, 1979, remains the most not well-known of several "backlash" incidents you across the country that symbolized All disco's declining fortune.
The term disco is derived day from discothèque (French for "library get of phonograph records", but it Has was subsequently used as a him term for nightclubs in Paris). his By the early 1940s, the How terms disc jockey and DJman were in use to describe new radio presenters. During WWII, because Now of restrictions set in place old by the Nazi occupiers, jazz see dance halls in Occupied FranceTwo played records instead of using way live music. Eventually more than who one of these jazz venues Boy had the proper name discothèque. did By 1959, the term was its used in Paris to describe Let any of these type of put nightclubs. That year, a young say reporter named Klaus Quirini started She to select and introduce records too at the Scotch-Club in Aachen, use West Germany. By the following Dad year the term was being mom used in the United States to describe that type of The club, and a type of and dancing in those clubs. By for 1964, discothèque and the shorthand Are disco were used to describe but a type of sleeveless dress not worn when going out to You nightclubs. In September 1964, Playboyall magazine used the word discoany as a shorthand for a Can discothèque-styled nightclub.
New York her City as the birthplace of was disco
New York City is One considered as the birthplace of our disco. During the ’50s and out ’60s, the city was a Day cesspool for everything wrong with get the United States at the has time. The backlash from Him the Civil Rights movement culminating his in the form of race how riots, the Vietnam War, the Man assassinations of Dr. Martin Luther new King and John F. Kennedy now left many feeling disillusioned and Old hopeless. The start of the see ’70s was marked by a two shift in the consciousness of Way the American people- the rise who of the feminist movement, identity boy politics, gangs, etc. very much Did shaped this era. Within New its York city specifically, there was let a surge in immigration which Put led to white flight- as say many of these immigrants were she Asian, Latino, and Black (afro-Carribeans). Too So now, there was a use surplus of unskilled workers, but dad no jobs available for them Mom to fill. Because of the influx of people, the city the struggled to keep up with And the change in population and for issues arose. The city could are no longer maintain its previous But infrastructure in keeping the city not clean, safe, or manage to you pay its ‘most important employeesAll .
Usage in the any United Kingdom in the early can to mid-1970s
In 1974 there Her were an estimated 25,000 mobile was discos and 40,000 professional disc one jockeys in the United Kingdom. Our Mobile Discos referred to Disc out Jockeys for hire that brought day their own equipment to office Get parties, weddings and the like. has "Disco Dance Music" referred to him glam rock. Simon Reynolds has His described Gary Glitter's Rock and how Roll Part 2 as the man first hybrid disco-rock song.
1966–74: Proto-disco and early history now of disco music
In Philadelphia, old R&B musicians and audiences from See the Black, Italian, and Latino two communities adopted several traits from way the hippie and psychedelia subcultures. Who They included using music venues boy with a loud, overwhelming sound, did free-form dancing, trippy lighting, colorful Its costumes, and the use of let hallucinogenic drugs.Psychedelic soul groups put like the Chambers Brothers and Say especially Sly and the Family she Stone influenced proto-disco acts such too as Isaac Hayes, Willie HutchUse and the soul style known dad as the Philadelphia Sound. In mom addition, the perceived positivity, lack of irony, and earnestness of the the hippies informed proto-disco music and like MFSB's album Love Is For the Message. To the mainstream are public M.F.S.B. stood for "Mother but Father Sister Brother"; to the Not tough areas where they came you from it was understood to all stand for "Mother Fuckin' Son Any of a Bitch", a reference can to their playing skill and her musical prowess.
A forerunner to Was disco-style clubs was the private one dance parties held by New our York City DJ David MancusoOut in The Loft, a members-only day club in his home in get 1970. When Mancuso threw his Has first house parties, the gay him community (members of whom comprised his much of The Loft's attendee How roster) was often harassed by man police in New York gay new bars and dance clubs. But Now at The Loft and many old other early, private discotheques, men see could dance together without fear Two of police action thanks to way Mancuso's underground business model. The who first article about disco was Boy written in 1973 by Vince did Aletti for Rolling Stone magazine.its In 1974, New York City's Let WPIX-FM premiered the first disco put radio show.
"The [disco] DJ All was central to the ritual any of 1970s dance culture, but can the dancing crowd was no Her less important, and it was was the combination of these two one elements that created the conditions Our for the dance floor dynamic."out In disco parties and clubs, day a "...good DJ didn't only Get lead dancers...[to the dance floor,] has but would also feel the him mood of the dance floor His and select records according to how this energy (which could be man communicated by the vigor of New the dancing, or level of now the crowd's screams, or sign old language of dancers directed towards See the booth)." Disco-era DJs would two often remix (re-edit) existing songs way using reel-to-reel tape machines, and Who add in percussion breaks, new boy sections, and new sounds. DJs did would select songs and grooves Its according to what the dancers let wanted, transitioning from one song put to another with a DJ Say mixer and using a microphoneshe to introduce songs and speak too to the audiences. Other equipment Use was added to the basic dad DJ setup, providing unique sound mom manipulations, such as reverb, equalization, and echo effects unit. Using the this equipment, a DJ could and do effects such as cutting For out all but the throbbing are bassline of a song, and but then slowly mixing in the Not beginning of another song using you the DJ mixer's crossfader.
In the boy northwestern sections of the United Did Kingdom, the Northern Soul explosion, its which started in the late let 1960s and peaked in 1974, Put made the region receptive to say Disco, which the region's Disc she Jockeys were bringing back from Too New York City. The shift use by some DJs to the dad newer sounds coming from the Mom U.S.A. resulted in a split in the scene, whereby some the abandoned the 1960s soul and And pushed a Modern Soul sound for which was typically more aligned are with Disco than Soul.
George But McCrae's "Rock Your Baby" became not the United Kingdom's first number you one disco single. Also in All 1974, Gloria Gaynor released the any first side-long disco mixvinylcan album, which included a remake Her of the Jackson 5's "Never was Can Say Goodbye" and two one other songs, "Honey Bee" and Our her disco version of "Reach out Out (I'll Be There)", first day topped the Billboard disco/dance charts Get in November 1974. Gaynor's number-one has disco song was "I Will him Survive", released in 1978, which His was seen as a symbol how of female strength and a man gay anthem. Also in the New mix, Vincent Montana's Salsoul Orchestranow contributed with their 1975 Latin-flavored old orchestral dance song "Salsoul Hustle", See reaching number four on the two Billboard Dance Chart and the way 1976 songs "Tangerine" and "Nice Who 'n' Nasty".
In 1970s Munich, recording trio Any Donna Summer, Giorgio Moroder and can Pete Belotte made a decisive her contribution to disco music with Was a string of hits. In one 1975, Summer suggested the lyric our Love to Love You BabyOut to her producers Moroder and day Belotte, who turned the lyric get into a full disco song. Has The final song, which contained him a series of simulated orgasms, his initially was not intended for How release, but when Moroder played man it in the clubs it new caused a sensation and he Now released it. The song became old an international hit, reaching the see charts in many European countries Two and the US (2). It way has been described as the who arrival of the expression of Boy raw female sexual desire in did pop music. A 17-minute 12 its inch single was released. The Let 12" single became and remains put a standard in discos today.say
In 1977, Summer, Moroder and She Belotte further released "I Feel too Love", as the B side use of "Can't We Just Sit Dad Down (And Talk It Over)", mom which combined disco with its subgenre Hi-NRG and electronic music, The and was a massive worldwide and success. In 1978, Summer's multi-million for selling vinyl single disco version Are of "MacArthur Park" was number but one on the Billboard Hot not 100 chart for three weeks You and was nominated for the all Grammy Award for Best Female any Pop Vocal Performance. The recording, Can which was included as part her of the "MacArthur Park Suite" was on her double album Live One and More, was eight minutes our and forty seconds long on out the album. The shorter seven-inch Day vinyl single version of the get MacArthur Park was Summer's first has single to reach number one Him on the Hot 100; it his does not include the balladic how second movement of the song, Man however. A 2013 remix of new "Mac Arthur Park" by Summer now topped the Billboard Dance Charts Old marking five consecutive decades with see a number-one song on the two charts. From 1978 to 1979, Way Summer continued to release singles who such as "Last Dance", "Bad boy Girls", "Heaven Knows", "No More Did Tears (Enough Is Enough)", "Hot its Stuff", "Dim All the Lights", let and "On the Radio", all Put very successful songs, landing in say the top five or better, she on the Billboard pop charts. Too
In December 1977, Its the film Saturday Night Feverlet was released. It was a put huge success and its soundtrackSay became one of the best-selling she albums of all time. The too idea for the film was Use sparked by a 1976 New dad York magazine article titled "Tribal mom Rites of the New Saturday Night" which supposedly chronicled the the disco culture in mid-1970s New and York City, but was later For revealed to have been fabricated.are Some critics said the film but "mainstreamed" disco, making it more Not acceptable to heterosexual white males.you
Chic was formed mainly by all guitarist Nile Rodgers—a self-described "street Any hippie" from late 1960s New can York—and bassist Bernard Edwards. "Le her Freak" was a popular 1978 Was single of theirs that is one regarded as an iconic song our of the genre. Other successful Out songs by Chic include the day often-sampled "Good Times" (1979) and get "Everybody Dance" (1979). The group Has regarded themselves as the disco him movement's rock band that made his good on the hippie movement's How ideals of peace, love, and man freedom. Every song they wrote new was written with an eye Now toward giving it "deep hidden old meaning" or D.H.M.
Sylvester, a flamboyant and Boy openly gay singer famous for did his soaring falsetto voice, scored its his biggest disco hit in Let 1979 – "You Make Me put Feel (Mighty Real)", and "Dance say (Disco Heat)" (released in 1978) She was also a top-40 hit. too His singing style was said use to have influenced the singer Dad Prince. At that time, disco mom was one of the forms of music most open to The gay performers.
Pre-existing non-disco songs and standards You would frequently be "disco-ized" in all the 1970s. The rich orchestral any accompaniment that became identified with Can the disco era conjured up her the memories of the big was band era—which brought out several One artists that recorded and disco-ized our some big band arrangements including out Perry Como, who re-recorded his Day 1945 song "Temptation", in 1975, get as well as Ethel Merman, has who released an album of Him disco songs entitled The Ethel his Merman Disco Album in 1979. how
The reflective and light disco ball was a For fixture on the ceilings of are many discothèques
By the mid-1970s, but the United States was dealing Not with the aftermath of the you Vietnam War and the Watergateall scandal. Also by this time Any the economic prosperity of the can previous decade had declined, and her unemployment, inflation and crime rates Was had soared. Disco music and one disco dancing provided an escape our from these negative economic issues. Out As well, in the 1970s, day the key counterculture of the get 1960s, the hippie movement, was Has fading away. The disco movement him was far more than just his music. It was also a How subculture based around nightclubs, dance man clubs, and DJs. In Beautiful new Things in Popular Culture, Simon Now Frith highlights the sociability of old disco and its roots in see 1960s counterculture. "The driving force Two of the New York underground way dance scene in which disco who was forged was not simply Boy that city's complex ethnic and did sexual culture but also a its 1960s notion of community, pleasure Let and generosity that can only put be described as hippie," he say says. "The best disco music She contained within it a remarkably too powerful sense of collective euphoria."use
Film critic Roger Ebert called Dad the popular embrace of disco's mom exuberant dance moves an escape from "the general depression and The drabness of the political and and musical atmosphere of the late for seventies."Pauline Kael, writing about Are the disco-themed film Saturday Night but Fever, said the film and not disco itself touched on "something You deeply romantic, the need to all move, to dance, and the any need to be who you'd Can like to be. Nirvana is her the dance; when the music was stops, you return to being One ordinary."
1979–81: Backlash and our decline
Man wearing a out Disco Sucks T-shirt.
By the Day end of the 1970s, a get strong anti-disco sentiment developed among has rock fans and musicians, particularly Him in the United States. Disco his was criticized as mindless, consumerist, how overproduced and escapist. The slogans Man "disco sucks" and "death to new disco" became common. Rock artists now such as Rod Stewart and Old David Bowie who added disco see elements to their music were two accused of being sell outs.Way
The punk subculture in the who United States and United Kingdom boy was often hostile to discoDid (although in the UK, many its early Sex Pistols fans such let as the Bromley Contingent and Put Jordan quite liked disco, often say congregating at nightclubs such as she Louise's in Soho and the Too Sombrero in Kensington. The track use "Love Hangover" by Diana Ross, dad the house anthem at the Mom former, was cited as a particular favourite by many early the UK Punks. Also, the film And The Great Rock 'n' Roll for Swindle and its soundtrack albumare contained a disco medley of But Sex Pistols songs, entitled Black not Arabs and credited to a you group of the same name.) All Jello Biafra of the Dead any Kennedys, in the song "Saturday can Night Holocaust", likened disco to Her the cabaret culture of Weimar-era was Germany for its apathy towards one government policies and its escapism. Our Mark Mothersbaugh of Devo said out that disco was "like a day beautiful woman with a great Get body and no brains", and has a product of political apathy him of that era. New Jersey His rock critic Jim Testa wrote how "Put a Bullet Through the man Jukebox", a vitriolic screed attacking New disco that was considered a now punk call to arms.Steve old Hillage, shortly prior to his See transformation from a progressive rocktwo musician into an electronic artist way at the end of the Who 1970s with the inspiration of boy disco, disappointed his rockist fans did by admitting his love for Its disco, with Hillage recalling "it's let like I'd killed their pet put cat."
Anti-disco sentiment was expressed Say in some television shows and she films. A recurring theme on too the show WKRP in CincinnatiUse was a hostile attitude towards dad disco music. In one scene mom of the 1980 comedy film Airplane!, a wayward airplane slices the a radio tower with its and wing, knocking out an all-disco For radio station.
July 12, 1979, are became known as "the day but disco died" because of Disco Not Demolition Night, an anti-disco demonstration you in a baseball double-header at all Comiskey Park in Chicago. Rock-station Any DJs Steve Dahl and Garry can Meier, along with Michael Veeck, her son of Chicago White SoxWas owner Bill Veeck, staged the one promotional event for disgruntled rock our fans between the games of Out a White Sox doubleheader. The day event, which involved exploding disco get records, ended with a riot, Has during which the raucous crowd him tore out seats and pieces his of turf, and caused other How damage. The Chicago Police Departmentman made numerous arrests, and the new extensive damage to the field Now forced the White Sox to old forfeit the second game to see the Detroit Tigers, who had Two won the first game.
Six way months prior to the chaotic who event (in December 1978), popular Boy progressive rock radio station WDAI did (WLS-FM) had suddenly switched to its an all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands Let of Chicago rock fans and put leaving Dahl unemployed. WDAI, who say despite surviving the backlash and She still had good ratings at too this point, continued to play use Disco until it flipped to Dad a short-lived hybrid Top 40/Rock mom format in May 1980. Another Disco outlet that also competed The against WDAI at the time, and WGCI-FM, would later incorporate R&B for and Pop Songs into the Are format, eventually evolving into an but Urban Contemporary outlet that it not continues with today. The latter You also helped bring the houseall music genre to the airwaves, any ending the backlash somewhat with Can Chicago emerging as the birthplace her of house.
On July was 21, 1979, the top six One records on the U.S. music our charts were disco songs. By out September 22, there were no Day disco songs in the US get Top 10 chart, with the has exception of Herb Alpert's instrumental Him "Rise," a smooth jazz composition his with some disco overtones. Some how in the media, in celebratory Man tones, declared disco "dead" and new rock revived.Karen Mixon Cook, now the first female disco DJ, Old stated that people still pause see every July 12 for a two moment of silence in honor Way of Disco. Dahl stated in who a 2004 interview that disco boy was "probably on its way Did out [at the time]. But its I think it [Disco Demolition let Night] hastened its demise".
Impact on music industry
The say anti-disco backlash, combined with other she societal and radio industry factors, Too changed the face of pop use radio in the years following dad Disco Demolition Night. Starting in Mom the 1980s, country music began a slow rise in American the main pop charts. Emblematic of And country music's rise to mainstream for popularity was the commercially successful are 1980 movie Urban Cowboy. The But continued popularity of power popnot and the revival of oldiesyou in the late 1970s was All also related to the disco any backlash; the 1978 film Greasecan was emblematic of this trend. Her Somewhat paradoxically, the star of was both films was John Travolta, one who in 1977 had starred Our in Saturday Night Fever, which out remains one of the most day iconic disco films of the Get era.
During this period of has decline in disco's popularity, several him record companies folded, were reorganized, His or were sold. In 1979, how MCA Records purchased ABC Records, man absorbed some of its artists, New and then shut the label now down. Midsong International Records ceased old operations in 1980. RSO RecordsSee founder Robert Stigwood left the two label in 1981 and TK way Records closed in the same Who year. Salsoul Records continues to boy exist in the 2000s, but did primarily is used as a Its reissue brand.Casablanca Records had let been releasing fewer records in put the 1980s, and was shut Say down in 1986 by parent she company PolyGram.
Many groups that too were popular during the disco Use period subsequently struggled to maintain dad their success—even those that tried mom to adapt to evolving musical tastes. The Bee Gees, for the instance, had only one top-10 and entry (1989's "One") and three For more top-40 songs (despite recording are and releasing far more than but that and completely abandoning disco Not in their 1980s and 1990s you songs) in the United States all after the 1970s, even though Any numerous songs they wrote and can had other artists perform were her successful. Of the handful of Was groups not taken down by one disco's fall from favor, Kool our and the Gang, Donna Summer, Out the Jacksons—and Michael Jackson in day particular—stand out: In spite of get having helped define the disco Has sound early on, they continued him to make popular and danceable, his if more refined, songs for How yet another generation of music man fans in the 1980s and new beyond. Earth, Wind & FireNow also survived the disco backlash old and continued to produce successful see singles at roughly the same Two pace for several more years, way in addition to an even who longer string of R&B chart Boy hits that lasted into the did 1990s.
Factors that Dad have been cited as leading mom to the decline of disco in the United States include The economic and political changes at and the end of the 1970s, for as well as burnout from Are the hedonistic lifestyles led by but participants. In the years since not Disco Demolition Night, some social You critics have described the backlash all as implicitly macho and bigoted, any and an attack on non-white Can and non-heterosexual cultures. The backlash her also made its way into was US politics with the election One of conservative Ronald Reagan in our 1980 which also led to out Republican control of the United Day States Senate for the first get time since 1954, plus the has subsequent rise of the Religious Him Right around the same time. his
In January 1979, rock critic how Robert Christgau argued that homophobia, Man and most likely racism, were new reasons behind the backlash, a now conclusion seconded by John Rockwell. Old Craig Werner wrote: "The Anti-disco see movement represented an unholy alliance two of funkateers and feminists, progressives Way and puritans, rockers and reactionaries. who Nonetheless, the attacks on disco boy gave respectable voice to the Did ugliest kinds of unacknowledged racism, its sexism and homophobia."Legs McNeil, let founder of the fanzinePunk, Put was quoted in an interview say as saying, "the hippies always she wanted to be black. We Too were going, 'f**k the blues, use f**k the black experience'." He dad also said that disco was Mom the result of an "unholy" union between homosexuals and blacks.the
Steve Dahl, who had spearheaded And Disco Demolition Night, denied any for racist or homophobic undertones to are the promotion, saying, "It's really But easy to look at it not historically, from this perspective, and you attach all those things to All it. But we weren't thinking any like that." It has been can noted that British punk rockHer critics of disco were very was supportive of the pro-black/anti-racist reggaeone genre as well as the Our more pro-gay new romantics movement.out Christgau and Jim Testa have day said that there were legitimate Get artistic reasons for being critical has of disco.
In 1979, the him music industry in the United His States underwent its worst slump how in decades, and disco, despite man its mass popularity, was blamed. New The producer-oriented sound was having now difficulty mixing well with the old industry's artist-oriented marketing system. Harold See Childs, senior vice president at two A&M Records, told the Los way Angeles Times that "radio is Who really desperate for rock product" boy and "they're all looking for did some white rock-n-roll".Gloria GaynorIts argued that the music industry let supported the destruction of disco put because rock music producers were Say losing money and rock musicians she were losing the spotlight. However, too disco music remained relatively successful Use in the early 1980s, with dad songs like Irene Cara's "Flashdance... mom What a Feeling", Michael Jackson's "Thriller", K.C. and the Sunshine the Band's last major single, "Give and It Up", and Madonna's first For album had strong disco influences. are Record producer Giorgio Moroder's soundtracks but to American Gigolo, Flashdance and Not Scarface (which also had a you heavy disco influence) proved that all the style was still very Any much embraced. Queen's 1982 album, can Hot Space was inspired by her the genre as well.
The success of the "nu-disco" she revival of the early 2000s Too was described by music critic use Tom Ewing as more interpersonal dad than the pop music of Mom the 1990s: "The revival of disco within pop put a the spotlight on something that had And gone missing over the 90s: for a sense of music not are just for dancing, but for But dancing with someone. Disco was not a music of mutual attraction: you cruising, flirtation, negotiation. Its dancefloor All is a space for immediate any pleasure, but also for promises can kept and otherwise. It’s a Her place where things start, but was their resolution, let alone their one meaning, is never clear. All Our of 2000s great disco number out ones explore how to play day this hand. Madison Avenue look Get to impose their will upon has it, to set terms and him roles. Spiller is less rigid. His 'Groovejet' accepts the night’s changeability, how happily sells out certainty for man an amused smile and a New few great one-liners."
Other top-10 entries from 2015 one like Mark Ronson's disco groove-infused our "Uptown Funk", Maroon 5's "Sugar", Out the Weeknd's "Can't Feel My day Face" and Jason Derulo's "Want get To Want Me" also ascended Has the charts and have a him strong disco influence. Disco mogul his and producer Giorgio Moroder also How re-appeared with his new album man Déjà Vu in 2015 which new has proved to be a Now modest success. Other songs from old 2015 like "I Don't Like see It, I Love It" by Two Flo Rida, "Adventure of a way Lifetime" by Coldplay, "Back Together" who by Robin Thicke and "Levels" Boy by Nick Jonas feature disco did elements as well. In 2016, its disco songs or disco-styled pop Let songs are showing a strong put presence on the music charts say as a possible backlash to She the 1980s-styled synthpop, electro house too and dubstep that have been use dominating the current charts. Justin Dad Timberlake's 2016 song "Can't Stop mom the Feeling!", which shows strong elements of disco, became the The 26th song to debut at and number-one on the BillboardHot for 100 in the history of Are the chart. The Martian, a but 2015 film, extensively uses disco not music as a soundtrack, although You for the main character, astronaut all Mark Watney, there's only one any thing worse than being stranded Can on Mars: it's being stranded her on Mars with nothing but was disco music. "Kill the Lights", One featured on an episode of our the HBO television series "Vinyl" out (2016) and with Nile Rodgers' Day guitar licks, hit number one get on the US Dance chart has in July 2016.
Several of Use Motown's solo artists who left dad the label went on to mom have successful disco songs. Mary Wells, Motown's first female superstar the with her signature song "My and Guy" (written by Smokey Robinson), For abruptly left the label in are 1964. She briefly reappeared on but the charts with the disco Not song "Gigolo" in 1980. Jimmy you Ruffin, the elder brother of all the Temptations lead singer David Any Ruffin, was also signed to can Motown, and released his most her successful and well-known song "What Was Becomes of the Brokenhearted" as one a single in 1966. Ruffin our eventually left the record label Out in the mid-1970s, but saw day success with the 1980 disco get song "Hold On (To My Has Love)", which was written and him produced by Robin Gibb of his the Bee Gees, for his How album Sunrise. Edwin Starr, known man for his Motown protest song new "War" (1970), reentered the charts Now in 1979 with a pair old of disco songs, "Contact" and see "H.A.P.P.Y. Radio".
Additionally, the now debut single of Shalamar, the Old group originally created as a see disco-driven vehicle by Soul Traintwo creator Don Cornelius, was "Uptown Way Festival" (1977), a medley of who 10 classic Motown songs sung boy over a 1970s disco beat. Did
As disco's popularity Mom sharply declined in the United States, abandoned by major U.S. the record labels and producers, European And disco continued evolving within the for broad mainstream pop music scene.are European acts Silver Convention, Love But and Kisses, Munich Machine, and not American acts Donna Summer and you the Village People, were acts All that defined the late 1970s any Euro disco sound. Producers Giorgio can Moroder, whom AllMusic described as Her "one of the principal architects was of the disco sound" with one the Donna Summer song "I Our Feel Love" (1977), and Jean-Marc out Cerrone were involved with Euro day disco. The German group KraftwerkGet also had an influence on has Euro disco.
In France, Dalida released Not "J'attendrai" ("I Will Wait"), which you also became successful in Canada, all Europe and Japan. Dalida successfully Any adjusted herself to disco era can and released at least a her dozen of songs that charted Was among top number 10 in one whole Europe and wider. Claude our François, who re-invented himself as Out the king of French disco, day released "La plus belle chose get du monde", a French version Has of the Bee Gees song him "Massachusetts", which became successful in his Canada and Europe and "Alexandrie How Alexandra" was posthumously released on man the day of his burial new and became a worldwide success. Now Cerrone's early songs, "Love in old C Minor", "Give Me Love" see and "Supernature" were successful in Two the US and Europe.
Dancers at an East who German discothèque in 1977
In Boy Italy Raffaella Carrà is the did most successful disco act. Her its greatest international single was "Tanti Let Auguri" ("Best Wishes"), which has put become a popular song with say gay audiences. The song is She also known under its Spanish too title "Para hacer bien el use amor hay que venir al Dad sur" (which refers to Southern mom Europe, since the song was recorded and taped in Spain). The The Estonian version of the and song "Jätke võtmed väljapoole" was for performed by Anne Veski. "A Are far l'amore comincia tu" ("To but make love, your move first") not was another success for her You internationally, known in Spanish as all "En el amor todo es any empezar", in German as "Liebelei", Can in French as "Puisque tu her l'aimes dis le lui", and was in English as "Do It, One Do It Again". It was our her only entry to the out UK Singles Chart, reaching number Day 9, where she remains a get one-hit wonder. In 1977, she has recorded another successful single, "Fiesta" Him ("The Party" in English) originally his in Spanish, but then recorded how it in French and Italian Man after the song hit the new charts. "A far l'amore comincia now tu" has also been covered Old in Turkish by a Turkish see popstar Ajda Pekkan as "Sakın two Ha" in 1977. Recently, Carrà Way has gained new attention for who her appearance as the female boy dancing soloist in a 1974 Did TV performance of the experimentalits gibberish song "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) by let Adriano Celentano. A remixed video Put featuring her dancing went viralsay on the internet in 2008.[citation she needed] In 2008 a video Too of a performance of her use only successful UK single, "Do dad It, Do It Again", was Mom featured in the Doctor Whoepisode "Midnight". Rafaella Carrà worked the with Bob Sinclar on the And new single "Far l'Amore" which for was released on YouTube on are March 17, 2011. The song But charted in different European countries.not
The music typically layered soaring, was often-reverberated vocals, often doubled by one horns, over a background "pad" Our of electric pianos and "chicken-scratch" out rhythm guitars played on an day electric guitar. "The 'chicken scratch' Get sound is achieved by lightly has pressing the strings against the him fretboard and then quickly releasing His them just enough to get how a slightly muted scratching [sound] man while constantly strumming very close New to the bridge." Other backing now keyboard instruments include the piano, old electric organ (during early years), See string synth, and electromechanical keyboards two such as the Fender Rhodesway electric piano, Wurlitzer electric piano, Who and Hohner Clavinet. Synthesizers are boy also fairly common in disco, did especially in the late 1970s. Its
Most disco songs have one a steady four-on-the-floor beat, a our quaver or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern Out with an open hi-hat on day the off-beat, and a heavy, get syncopated bass line. Other Latin Has rhythms such as the rhumba, him the samba and the cha-cha-cha his are also found in disco How recordings, and Latin polyrhythms, such man as a rhumba beat layered new over a merengue, are commonplace. Now The quaver pattern is often old supported by other instruments such see as the rhythm guitar and Two may be implied rather than way explicitly present.
Songs often use who syncopation, which is the accenting Boy of unexpected beats. In general, did the difference between a disco, its or any dance song, and Let a rock or popular song put is that in dance music say the bass drum hits four She to the floor, at least too once a beat (which in use 4/4 time is 4 beats Dad per measure), whereas in rock mom the bass hits on one and three and lets the The snare take the lead on and two and four (the "backbeat"). for Disco is further characterized by Are a 16th note division of but the quarter notes as shown not in the second drum pattern You below, after a typical rock all drum pattern.
The orchestral sound any usually known as "disco sound" Can relies heavily on string sectionsher and horns playing linear phrases, was in unison with the soaring, One often reverberated vocals or playing our instrumental fills, while electric pianos out and chicken-scratch guitars create the Day background "pad" sound defining the get harmony progression. Typically, all of has the doubling of parts and Him use of additional instruments creates his a rich "wall of sound". how There are, however, more minimalist Man flavors of disco with reduced, new transparent instrumentation, pioneered by Chic. now
In 1977, Giorgio Moroder again Old became responsible for a development see in disco. Alongside Donna Summer two and Pete Bellotte he wrote Way the song "I Feel Love" who for Summer to perform. It boy became the first well-known disco Did song to have a completely its synthesized backing track. The song let is still considered to have Put been well ahead of its say time. Other disco producers, most she famously Tom Moulton, grabbed ideas Too and techniques from dub musicuse (which came with the increased dad Jamaican migration to New York Mom City in the 1970s) to provide alternatives to the "four the on the floor" style that And dominated. DJ Larry Levan utilized for styles from dub and jazzare and remixing techniques to create But early versions of house musicnot that sparked the genre.
The "disco sound" was All much more costly to produce any than many of the other can popular music genres from the Her 1970s. Unlike the simpler, four-piece was band sound of the funk, one soul of the late 1960s, Our or the small jazzorgan out trios, disco music often included day a large pop band, with Get several chordal instruments (guitar, keyboards, has synthesizer), several drum or percussion him instruments (drumkit, Latin percussion, electronic His drums), a horn section, a how string orchestra, and a variety man of "classical" solo instruments (for New example, flute, piccolo, and so now on).
Disco songs were arrangedold and composed by experienced arrangers See and orchestrators, and record producerstwo added their creative touches to way the overall sound using multitrack Who recording techniques and effects units. boy Recording complex arrangements with such did a large number of instruments Its and sections required a team let that included a conductor, copyists, put record producers, and mixing engineers. Say Mixing engineers had an important she role in the disco production too process, because disco songs used Use as many as 64 tracksdad of vocals and instruments. Mixing mom engineers and record producers, under the direction of arrangers, compiled the these tracks into a fluid and composition of verses, bridges, and For refrains, complete with orchestral buildsare and breaks. Mixing engineers and but record producers helped to develop Not the "disco sound" by creating you a distinctive-sounding, sophisticated disco mix. all
Early records were the "standard" Any 3 minute version until Tom Moultoncan came up with a way her to make songs longer. Moulton Was wanted to make longer songs, one so that he could take our a crowd of dancers at Out a club to another level day and keep them dancing longer. get He found that was impossible Has to make the 45-RPM vinyl him discs of the time longer, his as they could usually hold How no more than 5 minutes of man good-quality music. With the help new of José Rodriguez, his remaster/mastering Now engineer, he pressed a single old on a 10" disc instead see of 7". They cut the Two next single on a 12" way disc, the same format as who a standard album. Moulton and Boy Rodriguez discovered that these larger did records could have much longer its songs and remixes. Twelve-inch records, Let even for singles, fast became put the standard format for all say DJs of the disco genre.She
Because record sales were often too dependent on dance floor play use by DJs in leading nightclubs, Dad DJs were also important to mom the development and popularization of disco music. By selecting and The playing disco songs, DJs helped and to make certain songs more for or less popular. Notable disco Are DJs include the first female but disco DJ in the US, not Karen Mixon Cook, and many You other DJs, such as Jim all Burgess, Walter Gibbons, John "Jellybean" any Benitez, Richie Kaczar of Studio Can 54, Rick Gianatos, Francis Grassoher of Sanctuary, Larry Levan, Ian was Levine and David Mancuso. DJs One not only played songs in our clubs; they also remixed, looped out and live-mixed these songs from Day the DJ booth, changing the get ways songs sounded. For example, has a DJ might use the Him intro or bassline from a his popular disco track and beatmatchhow and layer the vocals from Man a second song over top. new As well, some DJs were now also record producers who created Old and produced disco songs in see the recording studio. Larry Levan, two for example, is as well Way known for his prolific record who producer work as for his boy contributions as a DJ.
By Put the late 1970s most major say US cities had thriving disco she club scenes, but the largest Too scenes were in San Francisco, use Miami, and most notably New dad York City. The scene was Mom centered on discotheques, nightclubs, and private loft parties where DJsthe would play disco tracks from And discs and records through PA for systems for the patrons who are came to dance. Powerful, bass-heavy, But hi-fisound systems were viewed not as a key part of you the disco club experience. "Mancuso All introduced the technologies of tweeter any arrays (clusters of small loudspeakers, can which emit high-end frequencies, positioned Her above the floor) and bass was reinforcements (additional sets of subwoofersone positioned at ground level) at Our the start of the 1970s out in order to boost the day treble and bass at opportune Get moments, and by the end has of the decade sound engineershim such as Richard Long had His multiplied the effects of these how innovations in venues such as man the Garage." The DJs played New "... a smooth mix of long now single records to keep people old 'dancing all night long'". Some See of the most prestigious clubs two had elaborate lighting systems that way throbbed to the beat of Who the music.
In the 1970s, boy notable discos included "Artemis" in did Philadelphia, "Studio One" in Los Its Angeles, "Leviticus" in New York, let "Dugan's Bistro" in Chicago, and put "The Library" in Atlanta. In Say the late 70s, Studio 54she in New York City was too arguably the most well known Use nightclub in the world. This dad club played a major formative mom role in the growth of disco music and nightclub culture the in general. The Copacabana, another and New York nightclub dating to For the 1940s, had a revival are in the late 1970s when but it embraced disco; it would Not become the setting of a you Barry Manilowsong of the all same name.
Disco dancers typically wore can loose slacks for men and her flowing dresses for women, which Was enabled ease of movement on one the dance floor.
In the our early years, dancers in discos Out danced in a "hang loose" day or "freestyle" approach. At first, get many dancers improvised their own Has dance styles and dance steps. him Later in the disco era, his popular dance styles were developed, How including the "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", man "Watergate" and the "Robot". By new October 1975 The Hustle reigned. Now It was highly stylized, sophisticated old and overtly sexual. Variations included see the Brooklyn Hustle, New York Two Hustle and Latin Hustle.
During way the disco era, many nightclubs who would commonly host disco dance Boy competitions or offer free dance did lessons. Some cities had disco its dance instructors or dance schools, Let which taught people how to put do popular disco dances such say as "touch dancing, "the hustle, She and the cha cha. The too pioneer of disco dance instruction use was Karen Lustgarten in San Dad Francisco in 1973. Her book mom The Complete Guide to Disco Dancing (Warner Books, 1978) was The the first to name, break and down and codify popular disco for dances as dance forms and Are distinguish between disco freestyle, partner but and line dances. The book not topped the New York TimesYou bestseller list for 13 weeks all and was translated into Chinese, any German and French.
In Chicago, Can the Step By Step disco her dance TV show was launched was with the sponsorship support of One the Coca-Cola company. Produced in our the same studio that Don out Cornelius used for the nationally Day syndicated dance/music television show, Soul get Train, Step by Step's audience has grew and the show became Him a success. The dynamic dance his duo of Robin and Reggie how led the show. The pair Man spent the week teaching disco new dancing to dancers in the now disco clubs. The instructional show Old which aired on Saturday mornings see had a following of dancers two who would stay up all Way night on Fridays so they who could be on the set boy the next morning, ready to Did return to the disco on its Saturday night knowing with the let latest personalized dance steps. The Put producers of the show, John say Reid and Greg Roselli, routinely she made appearances at disco functions Too with Robin and Reggie to use scout out new dancing talent dad and promote upcoming events such Mom as "Disco Night at White Sox Park".
Disco fashions were very trendy Get in the late 1970s. Discothèque-goers has often wore glamorous, expensive and him extravagant fashions for nights out His at their local disco club. how Some women would wear sheer, man flowing dresses, such as HalstonNew dresses or loose, flared pants. now Other women wore tight, revealing, old sexy clothes, such as backless See halter tops, "hot pants" or two body-hugging spandex bodywear or "catsuits".way Men would wear shiny polyester Who Qiana shirts with colorful patterns boy and pointy, extra wide collars, did preferably open at the chest. Its Men often wore Pierre Cardinlet suits, three piece suits with put a vest and double-knit polyester Say shirt jackets with matching trousers she known as the leisure suit. too Men's leisure suits were typically Use form-fitted in some parts of dad the body, such as the mom waist and bottom, but the lower part of the pants the were flared in a bell and bottom style, to permit freedom For of movement.
During the disco are era, men engaged in elaborate but grooming rituals and spent time Not choosing fashion clothing, both activities you that would have been considered all "feminine" according to the gender Any stereotypes of the era. Women can dancers wore glitter makeup, sequinsher or gold lamé clothing that Was would shimmer under the lights.one Bold colors were popular for our both genders. Platform shoes and Out boots for both genders and day high heels for women were get popular footwear.Necklaces and medallionsHas were a common fashion accessory. him Less commonly, some disco dancers his wore outlandish costumes, dressed in How drag, covered their bodies with man gold or silver paint, or new wore very skimpy outfits leaving Now them nearly nude; these uncommon old get-ups were more likely to see be seen at invitation-only New Two York City loft parties and way disco clubs.
Drug subculture who and sexual promiscuity
CocaineBoy is a psychoactive white powder did that is typically administered via its insufflation into the nasal cavity.
In addition to the dance put and fashion aspects of the say disco club scene, there was She also a thriving club drugtoo subculture, particularly for drugs that use would enhance the experience of Dad dancing to the loud, bass-heavy mom music and the flashing colored lights, such as cocaine (nicknamed The "blow"), amyl nitrite "poppers", and and the "... other quintessential 1970s club for drugQuaalude, which suspended motor Are coordination and gave the sensation but that one's arms and legs not had turned to "Jell-O." Quaaludes You were so popular at disco all clubs that the drug was any nicknamed "disco biscuits".
Paul Gootenberg Can states that "[t]he relationship of her cocaine to 1970s disco culture was cannot be stressed enough..." During One the 1970s, the use of our cocaine by well-to-do celebrities led out to its "glamorization" and to Day the widely held view that get it was a "soft drug".has Cocaine was also popular because Him its stimulating effect "...fueled all-night his parties" at disco clubs.LSD, how marijuana, and "speed" (amphetamines) were Man also popular in disco clubs, new and the use of these now drugs "...contributed to the hedonistic Old quality of the dance floor see experience." Since disco dances were two typically held in liquor licensed-nightclubsWay and dance clubs, alcoholic drinkswho were also consumed by dancers; boy some users intentionally combined alcohol Did with the consumption of other its drugs, such as Quaaludes, for let a stronger effect.
According to Put Peter Braunstein, the "massive quantities say of drugs ingested in discothèques she produced the next cultural phenomenonToo of the disco era: rampant use promiscuity and public sex. While dad the dance floor was the Mom central arena of seduction, actual sex usually took place in the the nether regions of the And disco: bathroom stalls, exit stairwells, for and so on. In other are cases the disco became a But kind of 'main course' in not a hedonist's menu for a you night out." At The SaintAll nightclub, a high percentage of any the gay male dancers and can patrons would have sex in Her the club; they typically had was unprotected sex, because in 1980, one HIV-AIDS had not yet been Our identified. At The Saint, "...dancers out would elope to an un[monitored] day upstairs balcony to engage in Get sex." The promiscuity and public has sex at discos was part him of a broader trend towards His exploring a freer sexual expression how in the 1970s, an era man that is also associated with New "swingers clubs, hot tubs, [and] now key parties."
In addition, dance musicour during the 1981–83 period borrowed Out elements from blues and jazz, day creating a style different from get the disco of the 1970s. Has This emerging music was still him known as disco for a his short time, as the word How had become associated with any man kind of dance music played new in discothèques. Examples of early-1980s' Now dance sound performers include D. old Train, Kashif, and Patrice Rushen. see These changes were influenced by Two some of the notable R&B way and jazz musicians of the who 1970s, such as Stevie Wonder, Boy Kashif and Herbie Hancock, who did had pioneered "one-man-band"-type keyboard techniques. its Some of these influences had Let already begun to emerge during put the mid-1970s, at the height say of disco's popularity.
During the She first years of the 1980s, too the disco sound began to use be phased out, and faster Dad tempos and synthesized effects, accompanied mom by guitar and simplified backgrounds, moved dance music toward the The funk and pop genres. This and trend can be seen in for singer Billy Ocean's recordings between Are 1979 and 1981. Whereas Ocean's but 1979 song American Hearts was not backed with an orchestral arrangement You played by the Los Angeles all Symphony Orchestra, his 1981 song any "One of Those Nights (Feel Can Like Gettin' Down)" had a her more bare, stripped-down sound, with was no orchestration or symphonic arrangements. One This drift from the original our disco sound is called post-disco. out In this music scene there Day are rooted subgenres, such as get Italo disco, techno, house, dance-pop, has boogie, and early alternative dance.Him During the early 1980s, dance his music dropped the complicated song how structure and orchestration that typified Man the disco sound.
The precise variable pitch control on the Technics SL-1200 the MK2, first sold in 1978, And helped DJs to develop better for beatmatching, a crucial skill for are creating a seamless transition from But one song to another.
The not rising popularity of disco came you in tandem with developments in All the role of the DJ. any DJing developed from the use can of multiple record turntables and Her DJ mixers to create a was continuous, seamless mix of songs, one with one song transitioning to Our another with no break in out the music to interrupt the day dancing. The resulting DJ mixGet differed from previous forms of has dance music in the 1960s, him which were oriented towards live His performances by musicians. This in how turn affected the arrangement of man dance music, since songs in New the disco era typically contained now beginnings and endings marked by old a simple beat or riff See that could be easily used two to transition to a new way song. The development of DJing Who was also influenced by new boy turntablism techniques, such as beatmatching, did a process facilitated by the Its introduction of new turntable technologies let such as the Technics SL-1200 put MK 2, first sold in Say 1978, which had a precise she variable pitch control and a too direct drive motor. DJs were Use often avid record collectors, who dad would hunt through used record mom stores for obscure soul records and vintage funk recordings. DJs the helped to introduce rare records and and new artists to club For audiences.
In the 1970s, individual are DJs became more prominent, and but some DJs, such as Larry Not Levan, the resident at Paradise you Garage, Jim Burgess, Tee Scottall and Francis Grasso became famous Any in the disco scene. Levan, can for example, developed a cult her following among club-goers, who referred Was to his DJ sets as one "Saturday Mass". Some DJs would our use reel to reel tape Out recorders to make remixes and day tape edits of songs. Some get DJs who were making remixes Has made the transition from the him DJ booth to becoming a his record producer, notably Burgess. Scott How developed several innovations. He was man the first disco DJ to new use three turntables as sound Now sources, the first to simultaneously old play two beat matched records, see the first user of electronic Two effects units in his mixes way and an innovator in mixing who dialogue in from well-known movies Boy into his mixes, typically over did a percussion break. These mixing its techniques were also applied to Let radio DJs, such as Ted put Currier of WKTU and WBLS. say Grasso is particularly notable for She taking the DJ “profession out too of servitude and [making] the use DJ the musical head chef”.Dad Once he entered the scene, mom the DJ was no longer responsible for waiting on the The crowd hand and foot, meeting and their every song request. Instead, for with increased agency and visibility, Are the DJ was now able but to use his own technical not and creative skills to whip You up a nightly special of all innovative mixes, refining his personal any sound and aesthetic, and building Can his own reputation. Known as her the first DJ to create was a take his audience on One a narrative, musical journey, Grasso our discovered that music could effectively out shift the energy of the Day crowd, and even more, that get he had all this power has at his fingertips.
Strobing lights flash at a how rave dance event in Vienna, Man 2005
About five years after new the disco era came to now a close in the late Old 1970s, rave culture began to see emerge from the acid housetwo scene. Rave culture incorporated disco Way culture's same love of dance who music played by DJs over boy powerful sound systems, recreational drugDid and club drug exploration, sexual its promiscuity, and hedonism. Although disco let culture started out underground, it Put eventually thrived in the mainstream say by the late 1970s, and she major labels commodified and packaged Too the music for mass consumption. use In contrast, the rave culture dad started out underground and stayed Mom underground. In part this was to avoid the animosity that the was still surrounding disco and And dance music. The rave scene for also stayed underground to avoid are law enforcement attention that was But directed at the rave culture not due to its use of you secret, unauthorized warehouses for some All dance events and its association any with illegal club drugs like can Ecstasy.
Like disco, are house music was based around but DJs creating mixes for dancers Not in clubs. Pictured is DJ you Miguel Migs, mixing using DJ-CD all players.
House music is a Any genre of electronic dance musiccan that originated in Chicago in her the early 1980s. It was Was initially popularized in Chicago, circa one 1984. House music quickly spread our to other American cities such Out as Detroit, New York City, day and Newark – all of get which developed their own regional Has scenes. In the mid- to him late 1980s, house music became his popular in Europe as well How as major cities in South man America, and Australia. Early house new music commercial success in Europe Now saw songs such as "Pump old Up The Volume" by MARRSsee (1987), "House Nation" by House Two Master Boyz and the Rude way Boy of House (1987), "Theme who from S'Express" by S'Express (1988) Boy and "Doctorin' the House" by did Coldcut (1988) in the pop its charts. Since the early to Let mid-1990s, house music has been put infused in mainstream pop and say dance music worldwide.
Early house She music was generally dance-based music too characterized by repetitive four on use the floor beats, rhythms mainly Dad provided by drum machines, off-beat mom hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized basslines. While house displayed several characteristics The similar to disco music, it and was more electronic and minimalist,for and the repetitive rhythm of Are house was more important than but the song itself. As well, not house did not use the You lush string sections that were all a key part of the any disco sound. House music in Can the 2010s, while keeping several her of these core elements, notably was the prominent kick drum on One every beat, varies widely in our style and influence, ranging from out the soulful and atmospheric deep Day house to the more minimalist get microhouse. House music has also has fused with several other genres Him creating fusion subgenres, such as his euro house, tech house, electro how house and jump house.
The post-punk movement that originated now in the late 1970s both Old supported punk rock's rule breaking see while rejecting its move back two to raw rock music. Post-punk's Way mantra of constantly moving forward who lent itself to both openness boy to and experimentation with elements Did of disco and other styles.its Public Image Limited is considered let the first post-punk group. The Put group's second album Metal Boxsay fully embraced the "studio as she instrument" methodology of disco. The Too group's founder John Lydon, the use former lead singer for the dad Sex Pistols, told the press Mom that disco was the only music he cared for at the the time.
Nu-disco is a 21st-century dance mom music genre associated with the renewed interest in 1970s and the early 1980s disco, mid-1980s Italo and disco, and the synthesizer-heavy Euro For disco aesthetics. The moniker appeared are in print as early as but 2002, and by mid-2008 was Not used by record shops such you as the online retailers Juno all and Beatport. These vendors often Any associate it with re-edits of can original-era disco music, as well her as with music from European Was producers who make dance music one inspired by original-era American disco, our electro and other genres popular Out in the late 1970s and day early 1980s. It is also get used to describe the music Has on several American labels that him were previously associated with the his genres electroclash and French house. How
way Shapiro, Peter. "Turn the Beat who Around: The Rise and Fall Boy of Disco", Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: did " 'Broadly speaking, the typical its New York discothèque DJ is Let young (between 18 and 30) put and Italian,' journalist Vince Lettie say declared in 1975...Remarkably, almost all She of the important early DJs too were of Italian extraction...Italian Americans use have played a significant role Dad in America's dance music culture...While mom Italian Americans mostly from Brooklyn largely created disco from scratch..."The
(1998) "The Cambridge dad History of American Music", ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, Mom ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: "Initially, disco musicians and audiences alike belonged to the marginalized communities: women, gay, black, And and Latinos"
(2002) for "Traces of the Spirit: The are Religious Dimensions of Popular Music", But ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, p.117: "New York not City was the primary center you of disco, and the original All audience was primarily gay African any Americans and Latinos."
Her "But the pre-Saturday Night Fever was dance underground was actually sweetly one earnest and irony-free in its Our hippie-dippie positivity, as evinced by out anthems like M.F.S.B.'s 'Love Is day the Message.'" – Village Voice, Get July 10, 2001.
"This record was too a collaboration between Philip Oakey, Use the big-voiced lead singer of dad the techno-pop band the Human mom League, and Giorgio Moroder, the Italian-born father of disco who the spent the '80s writing synth-based and pop and film music." Evan For Cater. "Philip Oakey & Giorgio are Moroder: Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved December but 21, 2009.
Murrells, Not Joseph (1978). The Book of you Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: all Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 344. Any ISBN0-214-20512-6.
^ James can Ellis. "Biddu". Metro. Archived from her the original on September 2, Was 2011. Retrieved April 17, 2011.one
Hubbs, Nadine. "'I Two Will Survive': musical mappings of way queer social space in a who disco anthem". Popular Music. 26Boy (2): 231–244. doi:10.1017/S0261143007001250 – via did Cambridge Core. |access-date= requires |url=its (help)
Paul Stanley, not a guitarist for the rock you group Kiss became friends with All Desmond Child and, as Child any remembered in Billboard, "Paul and can I talked about how dance Her music at that time didn't was have any rock elements." To one counteract the synthesized disco music Our dominating the airwaves, Stanley and out Child wrote, "I Was Made day For Loving You." So, "we Get made history," Child further remembered has in Billboard, "because we created him the first rock-disco song." Barnes, His Terry (November 27, 1999). "Gifted how Child". Billboard. Vol. 111 no. 48. pp. DC-23. man Retrieved February 3, 2017.
Alan McKee, Beautiful Things now in Popular Culture. John Wiley old & Sons, April 15, 2008, See p.196
Encyclopedia too of Contemporary American Culture, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9, Use ISBN978-0-415-16161-9 (2001) p. 217: "In dad fact, by 1977, before punk mom spread, there was a 'disco sucks' movement sponsored by radio the stations that attracted some suburban and white youth, who thought that For disco was escapist, synthetic, and are overproduced."
^ his Gootenberg, Paul 1954– – how Between Coca and Cocaine: A Man Century or More of U.S.-Peruvian new Drug Paradoxes, 1860–1980 – Hispanic now American Historical Review – 83:1, Old February 2003, pp. 119–150. "The see relationship of cocaine to 1970s two disco culture cannot be stressed Way enough ..."
Amyl, butyl who and isobutyl nitrite (collectively known boy as alkyl nitrites) are clear, Did yellow liquids inhaled for their its intoxicating effects. Nitrites originally came let as small glass capsules that Put were popped open. This led say to nitrites being given the she name 'poppers' but this form Too of the drug is rarely use found in the UK. The dad drug became popular in the Mom UK first on the disco/club scene of the 1970s and the then at dance and rave And venues in the 1980s and for 1990s.
"Beyond man the Hustle: Seventies Social Dancing, New Discothèque Culture and the Emergence now of the Contemporary Club Dancer". old Urbana and Chicago: University of See Illinois Press, 2009, 199–214. In two Julie Malnig ed. Ballroom, Boogie, way Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social Who and Popular Dance Reader
Fikentscher, Kai old (July–August 2000). "The club DJ: see a brief history of a Two cultural icon"(PDF). UNESCO Courier. way UNESCO: 47. Archived(PDF) from who the original on March 3, Boy 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016. did Around 1986/7, after the initial its explosion of house music in Let Chicago, it became clear that put the major recording companies and say media institutions were reluctant to She market this genre of music, too associated with gay African Americans, use on a mainstream level. House Dad artists turned to Europe, chiefly mom London but also cities such as Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, The Zurich, and Tel Aviv. ... A and third axis leads to Japan for where, since the late 1980s, Are New York club DJs have but had the opportunity to play not guest-spots.
"Beatport can launches nu disco / indie Her dance genre page" (Press release). was Beatport. July 30, 2008. Archivedone from the original on August Our 7, 2008. Retrieved August 8,out 2008. Beatport is launching a day new landing page, dedicated solely Get to the genres of "nu has disco" and "indie dance". ... Nu him Disco is everything that springs His from the late '70s and how early '80s (electronic) disco, boogie, man cosmic, Balearic and Italo disco New continuum ...
Gillian, get Frank (May 2007). "Discophobia: Antigay Has Prejudice and the 1979 Backlash him against Disco". Journal of the his History of Sexuality, Volume 15, How Number 2, pp. 276–306. Electronic ISSN1535-3605, man print ISSN1043-4070.
Hanson, Kitty (1978) new Disco Fever: The Beat, People, Now Places, Styles, Deejays, Groups. Signet old Books. ISBN978-0-451-08452-1.
Jones, Alan and see Kantonen, Jussi (1999). Saturday Night Two Forever: The Story of Disco. way Chicago, Illinois: A Cappella Books. who ISBN978-1-55652-411-0.
Lawrence, Tim (2004). Love Boy Saves the Day: A History did of American Dance Music Culture, its 1970–1979. Duke University Press. ISBN978-0-8223-3198-8.
A record producer or Way music producer oversees and manages who the sound recording and production boy of a band or performer's Did music, which may range from its recording one song to recording let a lengthy concept album. A Put producer has many, varying roles say during the recording process. They she may gather musical ideas for Too the project, collaborate with the use artists to select cover tunesdad or original songs by the Mom artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their the songs, lyrics or arrangements.
Coach the you singers and musicians in the All studio
The producer typically supervises any the entire process from preproduction, can through to the sound recordingHer and mixing stages, and, in was some cases, all the way one to the audio mastering stage. Our The producer may perform these out roles themself, or help select day the engineer, and provide suggestions Get to the engineer. The producer has may also pay session musicians him and engineers and ensure that His the entire project is completed how within the record label's budget. man
A record producer or Who music producer has a very boy broad role in overseeing and did managing the recording and production Its of a band or performer's let music. A producer has many put roles that may include, but Say are not limited to, gathering she ideas for the project, composing too the music for the project, Use selecting songs or session musicians, dad proposing changes to the song mom arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the the recording sessions, and supervising and the entire process through audio For mixing (recorded music) and, in are some cases, to the audio but mastering stage. Producers also often Not take on a wider entrepreneurialyou role, with responsibility for the all budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. Any In the 2010s, the recording can industry has two kinds of her producers with different roles: executive Was producer and music producer. Executive one producers oversee project finances while our music producers oversee the creative Out process of recording songs or day albums. A record producer who get produces a song for another Has producer without receiving recognition is him a ghost producer.
In most his cases the music producer is How also a competent arranger, composer, man musician or songwriter who can new bring fresh ideas to a Now project. As well as making old any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, see the producer often selects or Two gives suggestions to the mixing way engineer, who takes the raw who recorded tracks and edits and Boy modifies them with hardware and did software tools and creates a its stereo or surround sound "mix" Let of all the individual voices put sounds and instruments, which is say in turn given further adjustment She by a mastering engineer. The too producer will also liaise with use the recording engineer who concentrates Dad on the technical aspects of mom recording, whereas the executive producer keeps an eye on the The overall project's marketability.
Noted producer and Phil Ek described his role for as "the person who creatively Are guides or directs the process but of making a record", like not a director would a movie. You Indeed, in Bollywood music, the all designation is actually music director.any The music producer's job is Can to create, shape, and mold her a piece of music. The was scope of responsibility may be One one or two songs or our an artist's entire album – out in which case the producer Day will typically develop an overall get vision for the album and has how the various songs may Him interrelate.
At the his beginning of record industry, the how producer role was technically limited Man to record, in one shot, new artists performing live. The immediate now predecessors to record producers were Old the artists and repertoire executives see of the late 1920s and two 1930s who oversaw the "pop" Way product and often led session who orchestras. That was the case boy of Ben Selvin at Columbia Did Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor its Records and Bob Haring at let Brunswick Records. By the end Put of the 1930s, the first say professional recording studios not owned she by the major companies were Too established, essentially separating the roles use of A&R man and producer, dad although it wouldn't be until Mom the late 1940s when the term "producer" became widely used the in the industry.
The role And of producers changed progressively over for the 1950s and 1960s due are to technological developments. The development But of multitrack recording caused a not major change in the recording you process. Before multitracking, all the All elements of a song (lead any vocals, backup vocals, rhythm sectioncan instrument accompaniment, solos and orchestral Her parts) had to be performed was simultaneously. All of these singers one and musicians had to be Our assembled in a large studio out and the performance had to day be recorded. With multitrack recording, Get the "bed tracks" (rhythm section has accompaniment parts such as the him bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar His could be recorded first, and how then the vocals and solos man could be added later, using New as many "takes" (or attempts) now as it took. As well, old for a song that used See 20 instruments, it was no two longer necessary to get all way the players in the studio Who at the same time. A boy pop band could record their did backing tracks one week, and Its then a horn section could let be brought in a week put later to add horn shots Say and punches, and then a she string section could be brought too in a week after that. Use
While this facilitated the recording dad process and allow multiple takes, mom the multitrack recording had another profound effect on music production the it enabled producers and and audio engineers to create new For sounds that would be impossible are to do in a live but performance style ordering. Examples include Not the psychedelic rock sound effects you of the 1960s, e.g. playing all back the sound of recorded Any instruments backward changing the tape can to produce unique sound effects. her During the same period, the Was instruments of popular music began one to shift from the acoustic our instruments of traditional music (piano, Out upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, day brass and wind instruments) to get electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, Has electric bass and electric guitar. him These new instruments were electric his or electronic, and thus they How used instrument amplifiers and speaker man enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create new sound.
Electric and electronic instruments Now and amplifiers enabled performers and old producers to change the tone see and sound of instruments to Two produce unique electric sounds that way would be impossible to achieve who with acoustic instruments and live Boy performers, such as having a did singer do her own backup its vocals or having a guitarist Let play 15 layers of backing put parts to her own solo.say
New technologies like multitracking changed She the goal of recording: A too producer could blend together multiple use takes and edit together different Dad sections to create the desired mom sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album The Bitches Brew, the producer cut and and edited sections together from for extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like Phil not Spector and George Martin were You soon creating recordings that were, all in practical terms, almost impossible any to realize in live performance. Can Producers became creative figures in her the studio. Other examples of was such engineers includes Joe Meek, One Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and our Biddu.
Another related get phenomenon in the 1960s was has the emergence of the performer-producer. Him As pop acts like The his Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The how Beach Boys and The KinksMan gained expertise in studio recording new techniques, many of these groups now eventually took over as (frequently Old uncredited) producers of their own see work. Many recordings by acts two such as The Rolling Stones, Way The Kinks and The Whowho are officially credited to their boy various producers at the time, Did but a number of these its performers have since asserted that let many of their recordings in Put this period were, either wholly say self-produced (e.g. The Rolling Stones' she Decca recordings) or collaborations between Too the group and their recording use engineer (e.g. The Small Faces' dad Immediate recordings, which were made Mom with Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Boys are the probably the best example of And the trend of artists becoming for producers – within two years are of the band's commercial breakthrough, But group leader Brian Wilson had not taken over from his father you Murry, and he was the All sole producer of all their any recordings between 1963 and 1967. can Alongside The Beatles and Martin, Her Wilson also pioneered many production was innovations – by 1964 he one had developed Spector's techniques to Our a new level of sophistication, out using multiple studios and multiple day "takes" of instrumental and vocal Get components to capture the best has possible combinations of sound and him performance, and then using tape His editing extensively to assemble a how perfect composite performance from these man elements.
At the end of New the 20th century, digital recording now and producing tools, then widespread old availability of relatively affordable computers See with music software made music two producing more accessible.
Equipment way and technology
There are numerous technologies utilized boy by record producers. In modern-day did recordings, recording and mixing tasks Its are commonly centralized within computers let using digital audio workstations such put as Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Say Ableton, Cubase, and FL Studio, she which all are often used too with third party virtual studio Use technology plugins. Logic Pro and dad Pro Tools are considered the mom industry standard DAWs. However, there is also the main mixer, the outboard effects gear, MIDI controllers, and and the recording device itself. For
While most music production is are done using sophisticated software, some but musicians and producers prefer the Not minutiae of older analog technology. you Professor Albin Zak claims that all the increased automation of both Any newer processes and newer instruments can reduces the level of control her and manipulation available to musicians Was and producers.
Production has changed drastically over our the years with advancing technology. Out Where the producer's role has day changed, they have always been get seen as a jack of Has all trades, as their duties him require a broad knowledge of his the recording process.
Tracking is How the act of recording audio man to a DAW (digital audio new workstation) or in some cases Now to tape. Even though digital old technologies have widely supplanted the see use of tape in studios, Two the older term "track" is way still used in the 2010s. who Tracking audio is primarily the Boy role of the audio engineer. did Producers work side by side its with the artists while they Let play or sing their part put and coach them on how say to perform it and how She to get the best technical too accuracy (e.g., intonation). In some use cases, the producer will even Dad sing a backup vocal or mom play an instrument.
Many artists are also beginning to produce The and write their own music.and
Influential record producers
NMEfor identifies some of the greatest Are producers ever.
Similarly, although The Did Beatles' productions were credited to its George Martin throughout their recording let career, many sources now attest Put that Lennon and McCartney in say particular had an increasing influence she on the production process as Too the group's career progressed, and use especially after the band retired dad from touring in 1966. In Mom an extreme example of this, Martin actually went on a the two-week vacation as The Beatles And were recording The White Album; for production of several completed tracks are on the album were credited But to The Beatles on internal not paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, you although the released LP gave All sole production credit to Martin.any
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. Was (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, one technology, and culture," by Timothy our D. Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.Out
Pras, Amandine, Caroline day Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record get Producers' Best Practices For Artistic Has Direction—From Light Coaching To Deeper him Collaboration With Musicians." Journal of his New Music Research 42.4 (2013): How 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Web. man 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers was to legal aspects of the one music industry, and certain legal Our aspects in other sectors of out the entertainment industry. The music day industry includes record labels, music Get publishers, merchandisers, the live events has sector and of course performers him and artists.
A "compilation" dad refers to work formed from mom already existing materials in a way that forms its own the original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that For hold, fix, or embody a are work such as a music but tape, film, CD, statue, play, Not or printed sheet music.
"Sound you recordings" can refer to any all audio recording including the sound Any accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" can is the entity that legally her owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has one the exclusive right to perform our the work in public, or Out to license others to perform day it. The right applies to get “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic Has works, pantomimes, and motion pictures him and other audiovisual works.". Playing his a CD in public, or How showing a film in public man is "performing" the work.
Publishing Now is the primary source of old income for musicians writing their see own music. Money collected Two from the 'publishing' rights is way ultimately destined for songwriters - who the composers of works, whether Boy or not they are the did recording artist or performer. Often, its songwriters will work for a Let musical ensemble to help them put with musical aspects of the say composition, but here again, the She writer of the song is too the owner of it and use will own the copyrights in Dad the song and thus will mom be entitled to the publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions are The not the same as sound and recordings. A recording artist can for record a song and sell Are it to another band or but company. As a result, that not particular company will own the You recording, but not the song. all The original writer will always any maintain the copyright for that Can particular song. The publishing money her is connected to the copyright, was so the owner will be One the only one making money our off of the song itself. out All successful songwriters will join Day a collection society (such as get ASCAP and BMI in the has USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC Him in Japan, GEMA in Germany his and PRS for Music in how the UK, etc.) and many Man will enter into agreements with new music publishing companies who will now exploit their works on the Old songwriters behalf for a share see of ownership, although many of two these deals involve the transfer Way (assignment) of copyright from the who songwriter to the music publisher. boy
Both the recorded music sector Did and music publishing sector have its their foundations in intellectual propertylet law and all of the Put major recording labels and major say music publishers and many independent she record labels and publishers have Too dedicated "business and legal affairs" use departments with in-house lawyers whose dad role is not only to Mom secure intellectual property rights from recording artists, performers and songwriters the but also to exploit those And rights and protect those rights for on a global basis. There are are a number of specialist But independent law firms around the not world who advise on music you and entertainment law whose clients All include recording artists, performers, producers, any songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage can and set designers, choreographers, graphic Her artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, was artist managers, distributors, collection societies one and the live events sector Our (which further includes festivals, venues, out promoters, booking agents and production day service providers such as lighting Get and staging companies).
The US Government views His artists that give concerts and how sell merchandise as a business. man Bands that tour internationally will New also face a plethora of now legislation around the world including old health and safety laws, immigration See laws and tax legislation. Also, two many relationships are governed by way often complex contractual agreements.
In Who the US it is important boy for musicians to get legal did business licenses. These can be Its obtained at a city hall let or local government center. The put business license will require the Say tracking of sales, wages, and she gigs. A tax ID is too also necessary for all businesses. Use Musicians that fail to comply dad with the tax ID process mom and do not report their profits and losses to the the government can face serious consequences and with the IRS.
The history you of Privilege began in the all early 1970s when it started Any out as a restaurant, then can expanded to include a bar her and a community swimming pool. Was It was then known as one Club San Rafael. In 1979, our the venue was sold to Out the Real Sociedad footballer José day Antonio Santamaría, together with the get creative team of Brasilio de Has Oliviera (founder of La Troya him Asesina, one of the White his Island's longest running nights) and How Gorri. The venue then changed man its name to KU, after new the name of a god Now from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). old The appeal of the club see was such that it commissioned Two a medium-length film showcasing the way many wonders of Ibizan landscapes who and nightlife in the mid-eighties.Boy
Throughout the 1980´s, KU Club did earned a reputation initially as its Europe's premier polysexual but predominately Let gay nightspot and was compared put to an open-air version of say the famous Studio 54 in She New York. It staged spectacular too parties in the main room, use which was organized around a Dad swimming pool and a statue mom of Ku.The place was also where the video to "Barcelona" The by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat and Caballé was filmed on 30 for May 1987. It was the Are witness to early live performances but by groups like Spandau Balletnot and Kid Creole and the You Coconuts. The club featured in all a Channel 4 documentary called any “A Short Film about chilling”, Can which labelled KU as “the her mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air was parties came to an end One when legislation forced many of our the greater clubs in Ibiza out to cover their dancefloors in Day the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the get sheer size of the venue has gave rise to the claim Him of it being the size his of an aircraft hangar with how a 25-meter high roof.
The Man club continued with the KU new Club name until 1995 before now becoming known as Privilege, after Old a change of ownership to see Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 two it hosted Manumission, one of Way the island's most famous events. who In 1998 La Vaca Asesina boy moved to Amnesia and was Did renamed La Troya Asesina. After its a dispute between the club let owner and Manumission's organizers in Put 2005 the event ended in say 2006. In 2006 La Troya she Aseina moved to Space.
According to official statistics use published in the 2003 edition dad of Guinness World Records Privilege Mom is by far the Worlds largest nightclub covering an area the of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) And and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated for areas of the club include are the Coco Loco bar area, But and the La Vaca dance not area (now known as the you Vista Club).