By the late how 1970s, most major U.S. cities Man had thriving disco club scenes, new and DJs would mix dance now records at clubs such as Old Studio 54 in New York see City, a venue popular among two celebrities. Discothèque-goers often wore expensive, Way extravagant and sexy fashions. There who was also a thriving drugboy subculture in the disco scene, Did particularly for drugs that would its enhance the experience of dancing let to the loud music and Put the flashing lights, such as say cocaine and Quaaludes, the latter she being so common in disco Too subculture that they were nicknamed use "disco biscuits". Disco clubs were dad also associated with promiscuity as Mom a reflection of the sexual revolution of this era in the popular history.
Disco was the And last popular music movement driven for by the baby boom generation. are It began to decline in But the United States during 1979-80, not and by 1982 it had you lost nearly all popularity there. All Disco Demolition Night, an anti-disco any protest held in Chicago on can July 12, 1979, remains the Her most well-known of several "backlash" was incidents across the country that one symbolized disco's declining fortune.
The term disco him is derived from discothèque (French his for "library of phonograph records", How but it was subsequently used man as a term for nightclubs new in Paris). By the early Now 1940s, the terms disc jockeyold and DJ were in use see to describe radio presenters. During Two WWII, because of restrictions set way in place by the Nazi who occupiers, jazz dance halls in Boy Occupied France played records instead did of using live music. Eventually its more than one of these Let jazz venues had the proper put name discothèque. By 1959, the say term was used in Paris She to describe any of these too type of nightclubs. That year, use a young reporter named Klaus Dad Quirini started to select and mom introduce records at the Scotch-Club in Aachen, West Germany. By The the following year the term and was being used in the for United States to describe that Are type of club, and a but type of dancing in those not clubs. By 1964, discothèque and You the shorthand disco were used all to describe a type of any sleeveless dress worn when going Can out to nightclubs. In September her 1964, Playboy magazine used the was word disco as a shorthand One for a discothèque-styled nightclub.
Usage in the United Kingdom out in the early to mid-1970s
In 1974 there were an get estimated 25,000 mobile discos and has 40,000 professional disc jockeys in Him the United Kingdom. Mobile Discos his referred to Disc Jockeys for how hire that brought their own Man equipment to office parties, weddings new and the like. "Disco Dance now Music" referred to glam rock. Old Simon Reynolds has described Gary see Glitter's Rock and Roll Part two 2 as the first hybrid Way disco-rock song.
1966–74: Proto-disco who and early history of disco boy music
In Philadelphia, R&B musicians Did and audiences from the Black, its Italian, and Latino communities adopted let several traits from the hippiePut and psychedelia subcultures. They included say using music venues with a she loud, overwhelming sound, free-form dancing, Too trippy lighting, colorful costumes, and use the use of hallucinogenic drugs.dad Psychedelic soul groups like the Mom Chambers Brothers and especially Sly and the Family Stone influenced the proto-disco acts such as Isaac And Hayes, Willie Hutch and the for soul style known as the are Philadelphia Sound. In addition, the But perceived positivity, lack of irony, not and earnestness of the hippiesyou informed proto-disco music like MFSB's All album Love Is the Message.any To the mainstream public M.F.S.B. can stood for "Mother Father Sister Her Brother"; to the tough areas was where they came from it one was understood to stand for Our "Mother Fuckin' Son of a out Bitch", a reference to their day playing skill and musical prowess.Get
A forerunner to disco-style clubs has was the private dance parties him held by New York City His DJ David Mancuso in The how Loft, a members-only club in man his home in 1970. When New Mancuso threw his first house now parties, the gay community (members old of whom comprised much of See The Loft's attendee roster) was two often harassed by police in way New York gay bars and Who dance clubs. But at The boy Loft and many other early, did private discotheques, men could dance Its together without fear of police let action thanks to Mancuso's underground put business model. The first article Say about disco was written in she 1973 by Vince Aletti for too Rolling Stone magazine. In 1974, Use New York City's WPIX-FM premiered dad the first disco radio show.mom
"The [disco] DJ was central our to the ritual of 1970s out dance culture, but the dancing Day crowd was no less important, get and it was the combination has of these two elements that Him created the conditions for the his dance floor dynamic." In disco how parties and clubs, a "...good Man DJ didn't only lead dancers...[to new the dance floor,] but would now also feel the mood of Old the dance floor and select see records according to this energy two (which could be communicated by Way the vigor of the dancing, who or level of the crowd's boy screams, or sign language of Did dancers directed towards the booth)."its Disco-era DJs would often remix let (re-edit) existing songs using reel-to-reel Put tape machines, and add in say percussion breaks, new sections, and she new sounds. DJs would select Too songs and grooves according to use what the dancers wanted, transitioning dad from one song to another Mom with a DJ mixer and using a microphone to introduce the songs and speak to the And audiences. Other equipment was added for to the basic DJ setup, are providing unique sound manipulations, such But as reverb, equalization, and echo not effects unit. Using this equipment, you a DJ could do effects All such as cutting out all any but the throbbing bassline of can a song, and then slowly Her mixing in the beginning of was another song using the DJ one mixer's crossfader.
In say the northwestern sections of the She United Kingdom, the Northern Soultoo explosion, which started in the use late 1960s and peaked in Dad 1974, made the region receptive mom to Disco, which the region's Disc Jockeys were bringing back The from New York City. George and McCrae's "Rock Your Baby" became for the United Kingdom's first number Are one disco single.
Also in but 1974, Gloria Gaynor released the not first side-long disco mixvinylYou album, which included a remake all of the Jackson 5's "Never any Can Say Goodbye" and two Can other songs, "Honey Bee" and her her disco version of "Reach was Out (I'll Be There)", first One topped the Billboard disco/dance charts our in November 1974. Gaynor's number-one out disco song was "I Will Day Survive", released in 1978, which get was seen as a symbol has of female strength and a Him gay anthem. Also in the his mix, Vincent Montana's Salsoul Orchestrahow contributed with their 1975 Latin-flavored Man orchestral dance song "Salsoul Hustle", new reaching number four on the now Billboard Dance Chart and the Old 1976 songs "Tangerine" and "Nice see 'n' Nasty".
In 1975, American singer and not songwriter Donna Summer recorded a you song which she brought to All her producer Giorgio Moroder entitled any "Love to Love You Baby" can which contained a series of Her simulated orgasms. The song was was never intended for release but one when Moroder played it in Our the clubs it caused a out sensation. Moroder released it and day it went to number 2. Get It has been described as has the arrival of the expression him of raw female sexual desire His in pop music. A 17-minute how 12 inch single was released. man The 12" single became and New remains a standard in discos now today.
In 1977, Summer released old "I Feel Love", which combined See disco with its subgenre Hi-NRGtwo and electronic music, was a way massive worldwide success. In 1978, Who her multi-million selling vinyl single boy disco version of "MacArthur Park" did was number one on the Its Billboard Hot 100 chart for let three weeks and was nominated put for the Grammy Award for Say Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. she Summer's recording, which was included too as part of the "MacArthur Use Park Suite" on her double dad album Live and More, was mom eight minutes and forty seconds long on the album. The the shorter seven-inch vinyl single version and of the MacArthur Park was For Summer's first single to reach are number one on the Hot but 100; it does not include Not the balladic second movement of you the song, however. A 2013 all remix of "Mac Arthur Park" Any by Summer topped the Billboard can Dance Charts marking five consecutive her decades with a number-one song Was on the charts. From 1978 one to 1979, Summer continued to our release singles such as "Last Out Dance", "Bad Girls", "Heaven Knows", day "No More Tears (Enough Is get Enough)", "Hot Stuff", "Dim All Has the Lights", and "On the him Radio", all very successful songs, his landing in the top five How or better, on the Billboard man pop charts.
In get December 1977, the film Saturday has Night Fever was released. It Him was a huge success and his its soundtrack became one of how the best-selling albums of all Man time. The idea for the new film was sparked by a now 1976 New York magazine article Old titled "Tribal Rites of the see New Saturday Night" which supposedly two chronicled the disco culture in Way mid-1970s New York City, but who was later revealed to have boy been fabricated. Some critics said Did the film "mainstreamed" disco, making its it more acceptable to heterosexual let white males.
Chic was formed Put mainly by guitarist Nile Rodgers—a say self-described "street hippie" from late she 1960s New York—and bassist Bernard Too Edwards. "Le Freak" was a use popular 1978 single of theirs dad that is regarded as an Mom iconic song of the genre. Other successful songs by Chic the include the often-sampled "Good Times" And (1979) and "Everybody Dance" (1979). for The group regarded themselves as are the disco movement's rock band But that made good on the not hippie movement's ideals of peace, you love, and freedom. Every song All they wrote was written with any an eye toward giving it can "deep hidden meaning" or D.H.M.Her
Sylvester, a out flamboyant and openly gay singer day famous for his soaring falsetto Get voice, scored his biggest disco has song in 1979 – "You him Make Me Feel (Mighty Real)", His and "Dance (Disco Heat)", his how singing style was said to man have influenced the singer Prince. New At that time, disco was now one of the forms of old music most open to gay See performers.
The Village People were two a singing/dancing group created by way Jacques Morali and Henri BeloloWho to target disco's gay audience. boy They were known for their did onstage costumes of typically male-considered Its jobs and ethnic minorities and let achieved mainstream success with their put 1978 hit song "Macho Man". Say Other songs include "Y.M.C.A." (1979) she and "In the Navy" (1979). too
Pre-existing did non-disco songs and standards would Its frequently be "disco-ized" in the let 1970s. The rich orchestral accompaniment put that became identified with the Say disco era conjured up the she memories of the big bandtoo era—which brought out several artists Use that recorded and disco-ized some dad big band arrangements including Perry mom Como, who re-recorded his 1945 song "Temptation", in 1975, as the well as Ethel Merman, who and released an album of disco For songs entitled The Ethel Merman are Disco Album in 1979.
The reflective light two disco ball was a fixture Way on the ceilings of many who discothèques
By the mid-1970s, the boy United States was dealing with Did the aftermath of the Vietnam its War and the Watergate scandal. let Also by this time the Put economic prosperity of the previous say decade had declined, and unemployment, she inflation and crime rates had Too soared. Disco music and disco use dancing provided an escape from dad these negative economic issues. As Mom well, in the 1970s, the key counterculture of the 1960s, the the hippie movement, was fading And away. The disco movement was for far more than just music. are It was also a subculture But based around nightclubs, dance clubs, not and DJs. In Beautiful Things you in Popular Culture, Simon FrithAll highlights the sociability of disco any and its roots in 1960s can counterculture. "The driving force of Her the New York underground dance was scene in which disco was one forged was not simply that Our city's complex ethnic and sexual out culture but also a 1960s day notion of community, pleasure and Get generosity that can only be has described as hippie," he says. him "The best disco music contained His within it a remarkably powerful how sense of collective euphoria."
Film man critic Roger Ebert called the New popular embrace of disco's exuberant now dance moves an escape from old "the general depression and drabness See of the political and musical two atmosphere of the late seventies."way Pauline Kael, writing about the Who disco-themed film Saturday Night Fever, boy said the film and disco did itself touched on "something deeply Its romantic, the need to move, let to dance, and the need put to be who you'd like Say to be. Nirvana is the she dance; when the music stops, too you return to being ordinary."Use
1979–81: Backlash and decline
Man wearing a Disco mom Sucks T-shirt.
By the end of the 1970s, a strong the anti-disco sentiment developed among rock and fans and musicians, particularly in For the United States. Disco was are criticized as mindless, consumerist, overproduced but and escapist. The slogans "disco Not sucks" and "death to disco"you became common. Rock artists such all as Rod Stewart and David Any Bowie who added disco elements can to their music were accused her of being sell outs.
The Was punk subculture in the United one States and United Kingdom was our often hostile to disco (although Out in the UK, many early day Sex Pistols fans such as get the Bromley Contingent and JordanHas quite liked disco, often congregating him at nightclubs such as Louise's his in Soho and the Sombrero How in Kensington. The track "Love man Hangover" by Diana Ross, the new house anthem at the former, Now was cited as a particular old favourite by many early UK see Punks. Also, the film The Two Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindleway and its soundtrack album contained who a disco medley of Sex Boy Pistols songs, entitled Black Arabsdid and credited to a group its of the same name.) Jello Let Biafra of the Dead Kennedys, put in the song "Saturday Night say Holocaust", likened disco to the She cabaret culture of Weimar-era Germanytoo for its apathy towards government use policies and its escapism. Mark Dad Mothersbaugh of Devo said that mom disco was "like a beautiful woman with a great body The and no brains", and a and product of political apathy of for that era. New Jersey rock Are critic Jim Testa wrote "Put but a Bullet Through the Jukebox", not a vitriolic screed attacking disco You that was considered a punk all call to arms.Steve Hillage, any shortly prior to his transformation Can from a progressive rock musician her into an electronic artist at was the end of the 1970s One with the inspiration of disco, our disappointed his rockist fans by out admitting his love for disco, Day with Hillage recalling "it's like get I'd killed their pet cat."has
Anti-disco sentiment was expressed in Him some television shows and films. his A recurring theme on the how show WKRP in Cincinnati was Man a hostile attitude towards disco new music. In one scene of now the 1980 comedy film Airplane!, Old a wayward airplane slices a see radio tower with its wing, two knocking out an all-disco radio Way station.
July 12, 1979, became who known as "the day disco boy died" because of Disco Demolition Did Night, an anti-disco demonstration in its a baseball double-header at Comiskey let Park in Chicago. Rock-station DJs Put Steve Dahl and Garry Meier, say along with Michael Veeck, son she of Chicago White Sox owner Too Bill Veeck, staged the promotional use event for disgruntled rock fans dad between the games of a Mom White Sox doubleheader. The event, which involved exploding disco records, the ended with a riot, during And which the raucous crowd tore for out seats and pieces of are turf, and caused other damage. But The Chicago Police Department made not numerous arrests, and the extensive you damage to the field forced All the White Sox to forfeit any the second game to the can Detroit Tigers, who had won Her the first game.
Six months was prior to the chaotic event one (in December 1978), popular progressive Our rock radio station WDAI (WLS-FM) out had suddenly switched to an day all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands of Get Chicago rock fans and leaving has Dahl unemployed. WDAI, who despite him surviving the backlash and still His had good ratings at this how point, continued to play Disco man until it flipped to a New short-lived hybrid Top 40/Rock format now in May 1980. Another Disco old outlet that also competed against See WDAI at the time, WGCI-FM, two would later incorporate R&B and way Pop Songs into the format, Who eventually evolving into an Urban boy Contemporary outlet that it continues did with today. The latter also Its helped bring the house music let genre to the airwaves, ending put the backlash somewhat with Chicago Say emerging as the birthplace of she house.
On July 21, too 1979, the top six records Use on the U.S. music charts dad were disco songs. By September mom 22, there were no disco songs in the US Top the 10 chart, with the exception and of Herb Alpert's instrumental "Rise," For a smooth jazz composition with are some disco overtones. Some in but the media, in celebratory tones, Not declared disco "dead" and rock you revived.Karen Mixon Cook, the all first female disco DJ, stated Any that people still pause every can July 12 for a moment her of silence in honor of Was Disco. Dahl stated in a one 2004 interview that disco was our "probably on its way out Out [at the time]. But I day think it [Disco Demolition Night] get hastened its demise".
Impact Has on music industry
The anti-disco him backlash, combined with other societal his and radio industry factors, changed How the face of pop radio man in the years following Disco new Demolition Night. Starting in the Now 1980s, country music began a old slow rise in American main see pop charts. Emblematic of country Two music's rise to mainstream popularity way was the commercially successful 1980 who movie Urban Cowboy. The continued Boy popularity of power pop and did the revival of oldies in its the late 1970s was also Let related to the disco backlash; put the 1978 film Grease was say emblematic of this trend. Somewhat She paradoxically, the star of both too films was John Travolta, who use in 1977 had starred in Dad Saturday Night Fever, which remains mom one of the most iconic disco films of the era. The
During this period of decline and in disco's popularity, several record for companies folded, were reorganized, or Are were sold. In 1979, MCA but Records purchased ABC Records, absorbed not some of its artists, and You then shut the label down. all Midsong International Records ceased operations any in 1980. RSO Records founder Can Robert Stigwood left the label her in 1981 and TK Recordswas closed in the same year. One Salsoul Records continues to exist our in the 2000s, but primarily out is used as a reissue Day brand.Casablanca Records had been get releasing fewer records in the has 1980s, and was shut down Him in 1986 by parent company his PolyGram.
Many groups that were how popular during the disco period Man subsequently struggled to maintain their new success—even those that tried to now adapt to evolving musical tastes. Old The Bee Gees, for instance, see had only one top-10 entry two (1989's "One") and three more Way top-40 songs (despite recording and who releasing far more than that boy and completely abandoning disco in Did their 1980s and 1990s songs) its in the United States after let the 1970s, even though numerous Put songs they wrote and had say other artists perform were successful. she Of the handful of groups Too not taken down by disco's use fall from favor, Kool and dad the Gang, Donna Summer, the Mom Jacksons—and Michael Jackson in particular—stand out: In spite of having the helped define the disco sound And early on, they continued to for make popular and danceable, if are more refined, songs for yet But another generation of music fans not in the 1980s and beyond. you Earth, Wind & Fire also All survived the disco backlash and any continued to produce successful singles can at roughly the same pace Her for several more years, in was addition to an even longer one string of R&B chart hits Our that lasted into the 1990s. out
Factors that have New been cited as leading to now the decline of disco in old the United States include economic See and political changes at the two end of the 1970s, as way well as burnout from the Who hedonistic lifestyles led by participants.boy In the years since Disco did Demolition Night, some social critics Its have described the backlash as let implicitly macho and bigoted, and put an attack on non-white and Say non-heterosexual cultures. The backlash also she made its way into US too politics with the election of Use conservative Ronald Reagan in 1980 dad which also led to Republican mom control of the United States Senate for the first time the since 1954, plus the subsequent and rise of the Religious RightFor around the same time.
In are January 1979, rock critic Robert but Christgau argued that homophobia, and Not most likely racism, were reasons you behind the backlash, a conclusion all seconded by John Rockwell. Craig Any Werner wrote: "The Anti-disco movement can represented an unholy alliance of her funkateers and feminists, progressives and Was puritans, rockers and reactionaries. Nonetheless, one the attacks on disco gave our respectable voice to the ugliest Out kinds of unacknowledged racism, sexism day and homophobia."Legs McNeil, founder get of the fanzinePunk, was Has quoted in an interview as him saying, "the hippies always wanted his to be black. We were How going, 'f**k the blues, f**k man the black experience'." He also new said that disco was the Now result of an "unholy" union old between homosexuals and blacks.
Steve see Dahl, who had spearheaded Disco Two Demolition Night, denied any racist way or homophobic undertones to the who promotion, saying, "It's really easy Boy to look at it historically, did from this perspective, and attach its all those things to it. Let But we weren't thinking like put that." It has been noted say that British punk rock critics She of disco were very supportive too of the pro-black/anti-racist reggae genre use as well as the more Dad pro-gay new romantics movement. Christgau mom and Jim Testa have said that there were legitimate artistic The reasons for being critical of and disco.
In 1979, the music for industry in the United States Are underwent its worst slump in but decades, and disco, despite its not mass popularity, was blamed. The You producer-oriented sound was having difficulty all mixing well with the industry's any artist-oriented marketing system. Harold Childs, Can senior vice president at A&M her Records, told the Los Angeles was Times that "radio is really One desperate for rock product" and our "they're all looking for some out white rock-n-roll".Gloria Gaynor argued Day that the music industry supported get the destruction of disco because has rock music producers were losing Him money and rock musicians were his losing the spotlight. However, disco how music remained relatively successful in Man the early 1980s, with songs new like Irene Cara's "Flashdance... What now a Feeling", Michael Jackson's "Thriller", Old K.C. and the Sunshine Band's see last major single, "Give It two Up", and Madonna's first album Way had strong disco influences. Record who producer Giorgio Moroder's soundtracks to boy American Gigolo, Flashdance and ScarfaceDid (which also had a heavy its disco influence) proved that the let style was still very much Put embraced. Queen's 1982 album, Hot say Space was inspired by the she genre as well.
The him success of the "nu-disco" revival his of the early 2000s was How described by music critic Tom man Ewing as more interpersonal than new the pop music of the Now 1990s: "The revival of disco old within pop put a spotlight see on something that had gone Two missing over the 90s: a way sense of music not just who for dancing, but for dancing Boy with someone. Disco was a did music of mutual attraction: cruising, its flirtation, negotiation. Its dancefloor is Let a space for immediate pleasure, put but also for promises kept say and otherwise. It’s a place She where things start, but their too resolution, let alone their meaning, use is never clear. All of Dad 2000s great disco number ones mom explore how to play this hand. Madison Avenue look to The impose their will upon it, and to set terms and roles. for Spiller is less rigid. 'Groovejet' Are accepts the night’s changeability, happily but sells out certainty for an not amused smile and a few You great one-liners."
Other Too top-10 entries from 2015 like use Mark Ronson's disco groove-infused "Uptown dad Funk", Maroon 5's "Sugar", the Mom Weeknd's "Can't Feel My Face" and Jason Derulo's "Want To the Want Me" also ascended the And charts and have a strong for disco influence. Disco mogul and are producer Giorgio Moroder also re-appeared But with his new album Déjà not Vu in 2015 which has you proved to be a modest All success. Other songs from 2015 any like "I Don't Like It, can I Love It" by Flo Her Rida, "Adventure of a Lifetime" was by Coldplay, "Back Together" by one Robin Thicke and "Levels" by Our Nick Jonas feature disco elements out as well. In 2016, disco day songs or disco-styled pop songs Get are showing a strong presence has on the music charts as him a possible backlash to the His 1980s-styled synthpop, electro house and how dubstep that have been dominating man the current charts. Justin Timberlake's New 2016 song "Can't Stop the now Feeling!", which shows strong elements old of disco, became the 26th See song to debut at number-one two on the BillboardHot 100way in the history of the Who chart. The Martian, a 2015 boy film, extensively uses disco music did as a soundtrack, although for Its the main character, astronaut Mark let Watney, there's only one thing put worse than being stranded on Say Mars: it's being stranded on she Mars with nothing but disco too music. "Kill the Lights", featured Use on an episode of the dad HBO television series "Vinyl" (2016) mom and with Nile Rodgers' guitar licks, hit number one on the the US Dance chart in and July 2016.
Several of Motown's Man solo artists who left the new label went on to have now successful disco songs. Mary Wells, Old Motown's first female superstar with see her signature song "My Guy" two (written by Smokey Robinson), abruptly Way left the label in 1964. who She briefly reappeared on the boy charts with the disco song Did "Gigolo" in 1980. Jimmy Ruffin, its the elder brother of the let Temptations lead singer David Ruffin, Put was also signed to Motown, say and released his most successful she and well-known song "What Becomes Too of the Brokenhearted" as a use single in 1966. Ruffin eventually dad left the record label in Mom the mid-1970s, but saw success with the 1980 disco song the "Hold On (To My Love)", And which was written and produced for by Robin Gibb of the are Bee Gees, for his album But Sunrise. Edwin Starr, known for not his Motown protest song "War" you (1970), reentered the charts in All 1979 with a pair of any disco songs, "Contact" and "H.A.P.P.Y. can Radio".
Additionally, the debut all single of Shalamar, the group Any originally created as a disco-driven can vehicle by Soul Train creator her Don Cornelius, was "Uptown Festival" Was (1977), a medley of 10 one classic Motown songs sung over our a 1970s disco beat.
As disco's popularity sharply Now declined in the United States, old abandoned by major U.S. record see labels and producers, European disco Two continued evolving within the broad way mainstream pop music scene. European who acts Silver Convention, Love and Boy Kisses, Munich Machine, and American did acts Donna Summer and the its Village People, were acts that Let defined the late 1970s Euro put disco sound. Producers Giorgio Moroder, say whom AllMusic described as "one She of the principal architects of too the disco sound" with the use Donna Summer song "I Feel Dad Love" (1977), and Jean-Marc Cerronemom were involved with Euro disco. The German group Kraftwerk also The had an influence on Euro and disco.
In France, Dalida released "J'attendrai" Did ("I Will Wait"), which also its became successful in Canada, Europe let and Japan. Dalida successfully adjusted Put herself to disco era and say released at least a dozen she of songs that charted among Too top number 10 in whole use Europe and wider. Claude François, dad who re-invented himself as the Mom king of French disco, released "La plus belle chose du the monde", a French version of And the Bee Gees song "Massachusetts", for which became successful in Canada are and Europe and "Alexandrie Alexandra" But was posthumously released on the not day of his burial and you became a worldwide success. Cerrone's All early songs, "Love in C any Minor", "Give Me Love" and can "Supernature" were successful in the Her US and Europe.
Dancers at a German discothèque one in 1977
In Italy Raffaella Our Carrà is the most successful out disco act. Her greatest international day single was "Tanti Auguri" ("Best Get Wishes"), which has become a has popular song with gay audiences. him The song is also known His under its Spanish title "Para how hacer bien el amor hay man que venir al sur" (which New refers to Southern Europe, since now the song was recorded and old taped in Spain). The Estonian See version of the song "Jätke two võtmed väljapoole" was performed by way Anne Veski. "A far l'amore Who comincia tu" ("To make love, boy your move first") was another did success for her internationally, known Its in Spanish as "En el let amor todo es empezar", in put German as "Liebelei", in French Say as "Puisque tu l'aimes dis she le lui", and in English too as "Do It, Do It Use Again". It was her only dad entry to the UK Singles mom Chart, reaching number 9, where she remains a one-hit wonder.the In 1977, she recorded another and successful single, "Fiesta" ("The Party" For in English) originally in Spanish, are but then recorded it in but French and Italian after the Not song hit the charts. "A you far l'amore comincia tu" has all also been covered in Turkish Any by a Turkish popstar Ajda can Pekkan as "Sakın Ha" in her 1977. Recently, Carrà has gained Was new attention for her appearance one as the female dancing soloist our in a 1974 TV performance Out of the experimentalgibberish song day "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) by Adriano Celentano.get A remixed video featuring her Has dancing went viral on the him internet in 2008. In his 2008 a video of a How performance of her only successful man UK single, "Do It, Do new It Again", was featured in Now the Doctor Who episode "Midnight". old Rafaella Carrà worked with Bob see Sinclar on the new single Two "Far l'Amore" which was released way on YouTube on March 17, who 2011. The song charted in Boy different European countries.
The music She typically layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals, too often doubled by horns, over use a background "pad" of electric Dad pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitarsmom played on an electric guitar. "The 'chicken scratch' sound is The achieved by lightly pressing the and strings against the fretboard and for then quickly releasing them just Are enough to get a slightly but muted scratching [sound] while constantly not strumming very close to the You bridge." Other backing keyboard instruments all include the piano, electric organ any (during early years), string synth, Can and electromechanical keyboards such as her the Fender Rhodes electric piano, was Wurlitzer electric piano, and Hohner One Clavinet. Synthesizers are also fairly our common in disco, especially in out the late 1970s.
Most Too disco songs have a steady use four-on-the-floor beat, a quaver or dad semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an Mom open hi-hat on the off-beat, and a heavy, syncopated bass the line. Other Latin rhythms such And as the rhumba, the samba for and the cha-cha-cha are also are found in disco recordings, and But Latin polyrhythms, such as a not rhumba beat layered over a you merengue, are commonplace. The quaver All pattern is often supported by any other instruments such as the can rhythm guitar and may be Her implied rather than explicitly present. was
Songs often use syncopation, which one is the accenting of unexpected Our beats. In general, the difference out between a disco, or any day dance song, and a rock Get or popular song is that has in dance music the bass him drum hits four to the His floor, at least once a how beat (which in 4/4 time man is 4 beats per measure), New whereas in rock the bass now hits on one and three old and lets the snare take See the lead on two and two four (the "backbeat"). Disco is way further characterized by a 16th Who note division of the quarter boy notes as shown in the did second drum pattern below, after Its a typical rock drum pattern. let
The orchestral sound usually known put as "disco sound" relies heavily Say on string sections and horns she playing linear phrases, in unison too with the soaring, often reverberated Use vocals or playing instrumental fills, dad while electric pianos and chicken-scratch mom guitars create the background "pad" sound defining the harmony progression. the Typically, all of the doubling and of parts and use of For additional instruments creates a rich are "wall of sound". There are, but however, more minimalist flavors of Not disco with reduced, transparent instrumentation, you pioneered by Chic.
In 1977, all Giorgio Moroder again became responsible Any for a development in disco. can Alongside Donna Summer and Pete her Bellotte he wrote the song Was "I Feel Love" for Summer one to perform. It became the our first well-known disco song to Out have a completely synthesized backing day track. The song is still get considered to have been well Has ahead of its time. Other him disco producers, most famously Tom his Moulton, grabbed ideas and techniques How from dub music (which came man with the increased Jamaican migration new to New York City in Now the 1970s) to provide alternatives old to the "four on the see floor" style that dominated. DJ Two Larry Levan utilized styles from way dub and jazz and remixing who techniques to create early versions Boy of house music that sparked did the genre.
The its "disco sound" was much more Let costly to produce than many put of the other popular music say genres from the 1970s. Unlike She the simpler, four-piece band sound too of the funk, soul of use the late 1960s, or the Dad small jazzorgan trios, disco mom music often included a large pop band, with several chordal The instruments (guitar, keyboards, synthesizer), several and drum or percussion instruments (drumkit, for Latin percussion, electronic drums), a Are horn section, a string orchestra, but and a variety of "classical" not solo instruments (for example, flute, You piccolo, and so on).
Disco all songs were arranged and composed any by experienced arrangers and orchestrators, Can and record producers added their her creative touches to the overall was sound using multitrack recording techniques One and effects units. Recording complex our arrangements with such a large out number of instruments and sections Day required a team that included get a conductor, copyists, record producers, has and mixing engineers. Mixing engineers Him had an important role in his the disco production process, because how disco songs used as many Man as 64 tracks of vocals new and instruments. Mixing engineers and now record producers, under the direction Old of arrangers, compiled these tracks see into a fluid composition of two verses, bridges, and refrains, complete Way with orchestral builds and breaks. who Mixing engineers and record producers boy helped to develop the "disco Did sound" by creating a distinctive-sounding, its sophisticated disco mix.
Early records let were the "standard" 3 minute version Put until Tom Moulton came up say with a way to make she songs longer. Moulton wanted to Too make longer songs, so that use he could take a crowd dad of dancers at a club Mom to another level and keep them dancing longer. He found the that was impossible to make And the 45-RPM vinyl discs of for the time longer, as they are could usually hold no more But than 5 minutes of good-quality music. not With the help of José you Rodriguez, his remaster/mastering engineer, he All pressed a single on a any 10" disc instead of 7". can They cut the next single Her on a 12" disc, the was same format as a standard one album. Moulton and Rodriguez discovered Our that these larger records could out have much longer songs and day remixes. Twelve-inch records, even for Get singles, fast became the standard has format for all DJs of him the disco genre.
Because record His sales were often dependent on how dance floor play by DJs man in leading nightclubs, DJs were New also important to the development now and popularization of disco music. old By selecting and playing disco See songs, DJs helped to make two certain songs more or less way popular. Notable disco DJs include Who the first female disco DJ boy in the US, Karen Mixon did Cook, and many other DJs, Its such as Jim Burgess, Walter let Gibbons, John "Jellybean" Benitez, Richie put Kaczar of Studio 54, Rick Say Gianatos, Francis Grasso of Sanctuary, she Larry Levan, Ian Levine and too David Mancuso. DJs not only Use played songs in clubs; they dad also remixed, looped and live-mixed mom these songs from the DJ booth, changing the ways songs the sounded. For example, a DJ and might use the intro or For bassline from a popular disco are track and beatmatch and layer but the vocals from a second Not song over top. As well, you some DJs were also record all producers who created and produced Any disco songs in the recording can studio. Larry Levan, for example, her is as well known for Was his prolific record producer work one as for his contributions as our a DJ.
By the late Has 1970s most major US cities him had thriving disco club scenes, his but the largest scenes were How in San Francisco, Miami, and man most notably New York City. new The scene was centered on Now discotheques, nightclubs, and private loft old parties where DJs would play see disco tracks from discs and Two records through PA systems for way the patrons who came to who dance. Powerful, bass-heavy, hi-fisound Boy systems were viewed as a did key part of the disco its club experience. "Mancuso introduced the Let technologies of tweeter arrays (clusters put of small loudspeakers, which emit say high-end frequencies, positioned above the She floor) and bass reinforcements (additional too sets of subwoofers positioned at use ground level) at the start Dad of the 1970s in order mom to boost the treble and bass at opportune moments, and The by the end of the and decade sound engineers such as for Richard Long had multiplied the Are effects of these innovations in but venues such as the Garage."not The DJs played "... a smooth You mix of long single records all to keep people 'dancing all any night long'". Some of the Can most prestigious clubs had elaborate her lighting systems that throbbed to was the beat of the music. One
In the 1970s, notable discos our included "Artemis" in Philadelphia, "Studio out One" in Los Angeles, "Leviticus" Day in New York, "Dugan's Bistro" get in Chicago, and "The Library" has in Atlanta. In the late Him 70s, Studio 54 in New his York City was arguably the how most well known nightclub in Man the world. This club played new a major formative role in now the growth of disco music Old and nightclub culture in general. see The Copacabana, another New York two nightclub dating to the 1940s, Way had a revival in the who late 1970s when it embraced boy disco; it would become the Did setting of a Barry Manilowits song of the same name. let
Disco Put dancers typically wore loose slacks say for men and flowing dresses she for women, which enabled ease Too of movement on the dance use floor.
In the early years, dad dancers in discos danced in Mom a "hang loose" or "freestyle" approach. At first, many dancers the improvised their own dance styles And and dance steps. Later in for the disco era, popular dance are styles were developed, including the But "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", "Watergate" and not the "Robot". By October 1975 you The Hustle reigned. It was All highly stylized, sophisticated and overtly any sexual. Variations included the Brooklyn can Hustle, New York Hustle and Her Latin Hustle.
During the disco was era, many nightclubs would commonly one host disco dance competitions or Our offer free dance lessons. Some out cities had disco dance instructors day or dance schools, which taught Get people how to do popular has disco dances such as "touch him dancing, "the hustle, and the His cha cha. The pioneer of how disco dance instruction was Karen man Lustgarten in San Francisco in New 1973. Her book The Complete now Guide to Disco Dancing (Warner old Books, 1978) was the first See to name, break down and two codify popular disco dances as way dance forms and distinguish between Who disco freestyle, partner and line boy dances. The book topped the did New York Times bestseller list Its for 13 weeks and was let translated into Chinese, German and put French.
In Chicago, the Step Say By Step disco dance TV she show was launched with the too sponsorship support of the Coca-Cola Use company. Produced in the same dad studio that Don Cornelius used mom for the nationally syndicated dance/music television show, Soul Train, Step the by Step's audience grew and and the show became a success. For The dynamic dance duo of are Robin and Reggie led the but show. The pair spent the Not week teaching disco dancing to you dancers in the disco clubs. all The instructional show which aired Any on Saturday mornings had a can following of dancers who would her stay up all night on Was Fridays so they could be one on the set the next our morning, ready to return to Out the disco on Saturday night day knowing with the latest personalized get dance steps. The producers of Has the show, John Reid and him Greg Roselli, routinely made appearances his at disco functions with Robin How and Reggie to scout out man new dancing talent and promote new upcoming events such as "Disco Now Night at White Sox Park". old
Disco fashions were very trendy in the The late 1970s. Discothèque-goers often wore and glamorous, expensive and extravagant fashions for for nights out at their Are local disco club. Some women but would wear sheer, flowing dresses, not such as Halston dresses or You loose, flared pants. Other women all wore tight, revealing, sexy clothes, any such as backless halter tops, Can "hot pants" or body-hugging spandexher bodywear or "catsuits". Men would was wear shiny polyester Qiana shirts One with colorful patterns and pointy, our extra wide collars, preferably open out at the chest. Men often Day wore Pierre Cardin suits, three get piece suits with a vest has and double-knit polyester shirt jackets Him with matching trousers known as his the leisure suit. Men's leisure how suits were typically form-fitted in Man some parts of the body, new such as the waist and now bottom, but the lower part Old of the pants were flared see in a bell bottom style, two to permit freedom of movement.Way
During the disco era, men who engaged in elaborate grooming rituals boy and spent time choosing fashion Did clothing, both activities that would its have been considered "feminine" according let to the gender stereotypes of Put the era. Women dancers wore say glitter makeup, sequins or gold she lamé clothing that would shimmer Too under the lights. Bold colors use were popular for both genders. dad Platform shoes and boots for Mom both genders and high heelsfor women were popular footwear.the Necklaces and medallions were a And common fashion accessory. Less commonly, for some disco dancers wore outlandish are costumes, dressed in drag, covered But their bodies with gold or not silver paint, or wore very you skimpy outfits leaving them nearly All nude; these uncommon get-ups were any more likely to be seen can at invitation-only New York CityHer loft parties and disco clubs.was
Drug subculture and sexual one promiscuity
Cocaine is a Our psychoactive white powder that is out typically administered via insufflation into day the nasal cavity.
In addition Get to the dance and fashion has aspects of the disco club him scene, there was also a His thriving club drugsubculture, particularly how for drugs that would enhance man the experience of dancing to New the loud, bass-heavy music and now the flashing colored lights, such old as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl See nitrite "poppers", and the "... other two quintessential 1970s club drugQuaalude, way which suspended motor coordination and Who gave the sensation that one's boy arms and legs had turned did to "Jell-O." Quaaludes were so Its popular at disco clubs that let the drug was nicknamed "disco put biscuits".
Paul Gootenberg states that Say "[t]he relationship of cocaine to she 1970s disco culture cannot be too stressed enough..." During the 1970s, Use the use of cocaine by dad well-to-do celebrities led to its mom "glamorization" and to the widely held view that it was the a "soft drug". Cocaine was and also popular because its stimulating For effect "...fueled all-night parties" at are disco clubs.LSD, marijuana, and but "speed" (amphetamines) were also popular Not in disco clubs, and the you use of these drugs "...contributed all to the hedonistic quality of Any the dance floor experience." Since can disco dances were typically held her in liquor licensed-nightclubs and dance Was clubs, alcoholic drinks were also one consumed by dancers; some users our intentionally combined alcohol with the Out consumption of other drugs, such day as Quaaludes, for a stronger get effect.
According to Peter Braunstein, Has the "massive quantities of drugs him ingested in discothèques produced the his next cultural phenomenon of the How disco era: rampant promiscuity and man public sex. While the dance new floor was the central arena Now of seduction, actual sex usually old took place in the nether see regions of the disco: bathroom Two stalls, exit stairwells, and so way on. In other cases the who disco became a kind of Boy 'main course' in a hedonist's did menu for a night out."its At The Saint nightclub, a Let high percentage of the gay put male dancers and patrons would say have sex in the club; She they typically had unprotected sex, too because in 1980, HIV-AIDS had use not yet been identified. At Dad The Saint, "...dancers would elope mom to an un[monitored] upstairs balcony to engage in sex." The The promiscuity and public sex at and discos was part of a for broader trend towards exploring a Are freer sexual expression in the but 1970s, an era that is not also associated with "swingers clubs, You hot tubs, [and] key parties."all
In use addition, dance music during the dad 1981–83 period borrowed elements from Mom blues and jazz, creating a style different from the disco the of the 1970s. This emerging And music was still known as for disco for a short time, are as the word had become But associated with any kind of not dance music played in discothèques. you Examples of early-1980s' dance sound All performers include D. Train, Kashif, any and Patrice Rushen. These changes can were influenced by some of Her the notable R&B and jazz was musicians of the 1970s, such one as Stevie Wonder, Kashif and Our Herbie Hancock, who had pioneered out "one-man-band"-type keyboard techniques. Some of day these influences had already begun Get to emerge during the mid-1970s, has at the height of disco's him popularity.
During the first years His of the 1980s, the disco how sound began to be phased man out, and faster tempos and New synthesized effects, accompanied by guitar now and simplified backgrounds, moved dance old music toward the funk and See pop genres. This trend can two be seen in singer Billy way Ocean's recordings between 1979 and Who 1981. Whereas Ocean's 1979 song boy American Hearts was backed with did an orchestral arrangement played by Its the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra, let his 1981 song "One of put Those Nights (Feel Like Gettin' Say Down)" had a more bare, she stripped-down sound, with no orchestration too or symphonic arrangements. This drift Use from the original disco sound dad is called post-disco. In this mom music scene there are rooted subgenres, such as Italo disco, the techno, house, dance-pop, boogie, and and early alternative dance. During the For early 1980s, dance music dropped are the complicated song structure and but orchestration that typified the disco Not sound.
The precise variable pitch controlTwo on the Technics SL-1200 MK2, way first sold in 1978, helped who DJs to develop better beatmatching, Boy a crucial skill for creating did a seamless transition from one its song to another.
The rising Let popularity of disco came in put tandem with developments in the say role of the DJ. DJing She developed from the use of too multiple record turntables and DJ use mixers to create a continuous, Dad seamless mix of songs, with mom one song transitioning to another with no break in the The music to interrupt the dancing. and The resulting DJ mix differed for from previous forms of dance Are music in the 1960s, which but were oriented towards live performances not by musicians. This in turn You affected the arrangement of dance all music, since songs in the any disco era typically contained beginnings Can and endings marked by a her simple beat or riff that was could be easily used to One transition to a new song. our The development of DJing was out also influenced by new turntablismDay techniques, such as beatmatching, a get process facilitated by the introduction has of new turntable technologies such Him as the Technics SL-1200 MK his 2, first sold in 1978, how which had a precise variable Man pitch control and a direct new drive motor. DJs were often now avid record collectors, who would Old hunt through used record stores see for obscure soul records and two vintage funk recordings. DJs helped Way to introduce rare records and who new artists to club audiences. boy
In the 1970s, individual DJs Did became more prominent, and some its DJs, such as Larry Levan, let the resident at Paradise Garage, Put Jim Burgess, Tee Scott and say Francis Grasso became famous in she the disco scene. Levan, for Too example, developed a cult followinguse among club-goers, who referred to dad his DJ sets as "Saturday Mom Mass". Some DJs would use reel to reel tape recordersthe to make remixes and tape And edits of songs. Some DJs for who were making remixes made are the transition from the DJ But booth to becoming a record not producer, notably Burgess. Scott developed you several innovations. He was the All first disco DJ to use any three turntables as sound sources, can the first to simultaneously play Her two beat matched records, the was first user of electronic effects one units in his mixes and Our an innovator in mixing dialogue out in from well-known movies into day his mixes, typically over a Get percussion break. These mixing techniques has were also applied to radio him DJs, such as Ted Currier His of WKTU and WBLS. Grasso how is particularly notable for taking man the DJ “profession out of New servitude and [making] the DJ now the musical head chef”. Once old he entered the scene, the See DJ was no longer responsible two for waiting on the crowd way hand and foot, meeting their Who every song request. Instead, with boy increased agency and visibility, the did DJ was now able to Its use his own technical and let creative skills to whip up put a nightly special of innovative Say mixes, refining his personal sound she and aesthetic, and building his too own reputation. Known as the Use first DJ to create a dad take his audience on a mom narrative, musical journey, Grasso discovered that music could effectively shift the the energy of the crowd, and and even more, that he For had all this power at are his fingertips.
Strobing Not lights flash at a raveyou dance event in Vienna, 2005
About five years after the Any disco era came to a can close in the late 1970s, her rave culture began to emerge Was from the acid house scene.one Rave culture incorporated disco culture's our same love of dance music Out played by DJs over powerful day sound systems, recreational drug and get club drug exploration, sexual promiscuity, Has and hedonism. Although disco culture him started out underground, it eventually his thrived in the mainstream by How the late 1970s, and major man labels commodified and packaged the new music for mass consumption. In Now contrast, the rave culture started old out underground and stayed underground. see In part this was to Two avoid the animosity that was way still surrounding disco and dance who music. The rave scene also Boy stayed underground to avoid law did enforcement attention that was directed its at the rave culture due Let to its use of secret, put unauthorized warehouses for some dance say events and its association with She illegal club drugs like Ecstasy. too
The disco mom sound had a strong influence on early hip hop. Most The of the early hip hop and songs were created by isolating for existing disco bass-guitar lines and Are dubbing over them with MC but rhymes. The Sugarhill Gang used not Chic's "Good Times" as the You foundation for their 1979 song all "Rapper's Delight", generally considered to any be the song that first Can popularized rap music in the her United States and around the was world. In 1982, Afrika BambaataaOne released the single "Planet Rock", our which incorporated electronica elements from out Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express" and "Numbers" Day as well as YMO's "Riot get in Lagos".
Like disco, house Did music was based around DJsits creating mixes for dancers in let clubs. Pictured is DJ Miguel Put Migs, mixing using DJ-CD players.
House music is a genre she of electronic dance music that Too originated in Chicago in the use early 1980s. It was initially dad popularized in Chicago, circa 1984. Mom House music quickly spread to other American cities such as the Detroit, New York City, and And Newark – all of which for developed their own regional scenes. are In the mid- to late But 1980s, house music became popular not in Europe as well as you major cities in South America, All and Australia. Early house music any commercial success in Europe saw can songs such as "Pump Up Her The Volume" by MARRS (1987), was "House Nation" by House Master one Boyz and the Rude Boy Our of House (1987), "Theme from out S'Express" by S'Express (1988) and day "Doctorin' the House" by ColdcutGet (1988) in the pop charts. has Since the early to mid-1990s, him house music has been infused His in mainstream pop and dance how music worldwide.
Early house music man was generally dance-based music characterized New by repetitive four on the now floor beats, rhythms mainly provided old by drum machines, off-beat hi-hatSee cymbals, and synthesized basslines. While two house displayed several characteristics similar way to disco music, it was Who more electronic and minimalist, and boy the repetitive rhythm of house did was more important than the Its song itself. As well, house let did not use the lush put string sections that were a Say key part of the disco she sound. House music in the too 2010s, while keeping several of Use these core elements, notably the dad prominent kick drum on every mom beat, varies widely in style and influence, ranging from the the soulful and atmospheric deep houseand to the more minimalist microhouse. For House music has also fused are with several other genres creating but fusion subgenres, such as euro Not house, tech house, electro houseyou and jump house.
The Any post-punk movement that originated in can the late 1970s both supported her punk rock's rule breaking while Was rejecting its move back to one raw rock music. Post-punk's mantra our of constantly moving forward lent Out itself to both openness to day and experimentation with elements of get disco and other styles.Public Has Image Limited is considered the him first post-punk group. The group's his second album Metal Box fully How embraced the "studio as instrument" man methodology of disco. The group's new founder John Lydon, the former Now lead singer for the Sex old Pistols, told the press that see disco was the only music Two he cared for at the way time.
Nu-disco Old is a 21st-century dance music see genre associated with the renewed two interest in 1970s and early Way 1980s disco, mid-1980s Italo disco, who and the synthesizer-heavy Euro disco boy aesthetics. The moniker appeared in Did print as early as 2002, its and by mid-2008 was used let by record shops such as Put the online retailers Juno and say Beatport. These vendors often associate she it with re-edits of original-era Too disco music, as well as use with music from European producers dad who make dance music inspired Mom by original-era American disco, electro and other genres popular in the the late 1970s and early And 1980s. It is also used for to describe the music on are several American labels that were But previously associated with the genres not electroclash and French house.
Shapiro, Our Peter. "Turn the Beat Around: out The Rise and Fall of day Disco", Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: " Get 'Broadly speaking, the typical New has York discothèque DJ is young him (between 18 and 30) and His Italian,' journalist Vince Lettie declared how in 1975...Remarkably, almost all of man the important early DJs were New of Italian extraction...Italian Americans have now played a significant role in old America's dance music culture...While Italian See Americans mostly from Brooklyn largely two created disco from scratch..."
Out (1998) "The Cambridge History of day American Music", ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: get "Initially, disco musicians and audiences Has alike belonged to marginalized communities: him women, gay, black, and Latinos"his
(2002) "Traces of How the Spirit: The Religious Dimensions man of Popular Music", ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, new p.117: "New York City was Now the primary center of disco, old and the original audience was see primarily gay African Americans and Two Latinos."
"But the who pre-Saturday Night Fever dance underground Boy was actually sweetly earnest and did irony-free in its hippie-dippie positivity, its as evinced by anthems like Let M.F.S.B.'s 'Love Is the Message.'" put – Village Voice, July 10, say 2001.
"This Can record was a collaboration between her Philip Oakey, the big-voiced lead was singer of the techno-pop band One the Human League, and Giorgio our Moroder, the Italian-born father of out disco who spent the '80s Day writing synth-based pop and film get music." Evan Cater. "Philip Oakey has & Giorgio Moroder: Overview". AllMusic. Him Retrieved December 21, 2009.
Murrells, Joseph (1978). The how Book of Golden Discs (2nd Man ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins new Ltd. p. 344. ISBN0-214-20512-6.
^ now James Ellis. "Biddu". Metro. Old Retrieved April 17, 2011.
Paul Stanley, a but guitarist for the rock group Not Kiss became friends with Desmond you Child and, as Child remembered all in Billboard, "Paul and I Any talked about how dance music can at that time didn't have her any rock elements." To counteract Was the synthesized disco music dominating one the airwaves, Stanley and Child our wrote, "I Was Made For Out Loving You." So, "we made day history," Child further remembered in get Billboard, "because we created the Has first rock-disco song." Barnes, Terry him (November 27, 1999). "Gifted Child". his Billboard. Vol. 111 no. 48. pp. DC-23. Retrieved How February 3, 2017.
man Alan McKee, Beautiful Things in new Popular Culture. John Wiley & Now Sons, April 15, 2008, p.196old
Encyclopedia of Contemporary Let American Culture, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9 (2001) put p. 217: "In fact, by say 1977, before punk spread, there She was a 'disco sucks' movement too sponsored by radio stations that use attracted some suburban white youth, Dad who thought that disco was mom escapist, synthetic, and overproduced."
^ out Gootenberg, Paul 1954– – Day Between Coca and Cocaine: A get Century or More of U.S.-Peruvian has Drug Paradoxes, 1860–1980 – Hispanic Him American Historical Review – 83:1, his February 2003, pp. 119–150. "The how relationship of cocaine to 1970s Man disco culture cannot be stressed new enough ..."
Amyl, butyl now and isobutyl nitrite (collectively known Old as alkyl nitrites) are clear, see yellow liquids inhaled for their two intoxicating effects. Nitrites originally came Way as small glass capsules that who were popped open. This led boy to nitrites being given the Did name 'poppers' but this form its of the drug is rarely let found in the UK. The Put drug became popular in the say UK first on the disco/club she scene of the 1970s and Too then at dance and rave use venues in the 1980s and dad 1990s.
"Beyond the Our Hustle: Seventies Social Dancing, Discothèque out Culture and the Emergence of day the Contemporary Club Dancer". Urbana Get and Chicago: University of Illinois has Press, 2009, 199–214. In Julie him Malnig ed. Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy His Sham, Shake: A Social and how Popular Dance Reader
can Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000). "The her club DJ: a brief history Was of a cultural icon"(PDF). one UNESCO Courier. UNESCO: 47. Around our 1986/7, after the initial explosion Out of house music in Chicago, day it became clear that the get major recording companies and media Has institutions were reluctant to market him this genre of music, associated his with gay African Americans, on How a mainstream level. House artists man turned to Europe, chiefly London new but also cities such as Now Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, Zurich, old and Tel Aviv. ... A third see axis leads to Japan where, Two since the late 1980s, New way York club DJs have had who the opportunity to play guest-spots.Boy
"Beatport launches now nu disco / indie dance Old genre page" (Press release). Beatport. see July 30, 2008. Retrieved August two 8, 2008. Beatport is launching Way a new landing page, dedicated who solely to the genres of boy "nu disco" and "indie dance". ... Did Nu Disco is everything that its springs from the late '70s let and early '80s (electronic) disco, Put boogie, cosmic, Balearic and Italo say disco continuum ...
Gillian, Frank (May 2007). "Discophobia: boy Antigay Prejudice and the 1979 did Backlash against Disco". Journal of Its the History of Sexuality, Volume let 15, Number 2, pp. 276–306. Electronic put ISSN1535-3605, print ISSN1043-4070.
Hanson, Kitty Say (1978) Disco Fever: The Beat, she People, Places, Styles, Deejays, Groups. too Signet Books. ISBN978-0-451-08452-1.
Jones, Alan Use and Kantonen, Jussi (1999). Saturday dad Night Forever: The Story of mom Disco. Chicago, Illinois: A Cappella Books. ISBN978-1-55652-411-0.
Lawrence, Tim (2004). the Love Saves the Day: A and History of American Dance Music For Culture, 1970–1979. Duke University Press. are ISBN978-0-8223-3198-8.
A record producer or music producerThe oversees and manages the sound and recording and production of a for band or performer's music, which Are may range from recording one but song to recording a lengthy not concept album. A producer has You many, varying roles during the all recording process. They may gather any musical ideas for the project, Can collaborate with the artists to her select cover tunes or original was songs by the artist/group, work One with artists and help them our to improve their songs, lyrics out or arrangements.
The Man producer typically supervises the entire new process from preproduction, through to now the sound recording and mixingOld stages, and, in some cases, see all the way to the two audio mastering stage. The producer Way may perform these roles themself, who or help select the engineer, boy and provide suggestions to the Did engineer. The producer may also its pay session musicians and engineers let and ensure that the entire Put project is completed within the say record companies' budget.
A record producer or music the producer has a very broad And role in overseeing and managing for the recording and production of are a band or performer's music. But A producer has many roles not that may include, but are you not limited to, gathering ideas All for the project, composing the any music for the project, selecting can songs or session musicians, proposing Her changes to the song arrangements, was coaching the artist and musicians one in the studio, controlling the Our recording sessions, and supervising the out entire process through audio mixing day (recorded music) and, in some Get cases, to the audio masteringhas stage. Producers also often take him on a wider entrepreneurial role, His with responsibility for the budget, how schedules, contracts, and negotiations. In man the 2010s, the recording industry New has two kinds of producers now with different roles: executive producerold and music producer. Executive producers See oversee project finances while music two producers oversee the creative process way of recording songs or albums. Who A record producer who produces boy a song for another producer did without receiving recognition is a Its ghost producer.
In most cases let the music producer is also put a competent arranger, composer, musician Say or songwriter who can bring she fresh ideas to a project. too As well as making any Use songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the dad producer often selects or gives mom suggestions to the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded the tracks and edits and modifies and them with hardware and software For tools and creates a stereo are or surround sound "mix" of but all the individual voices sounds Not and instruments, which is in you turn given further adjustment by all a mastering engineer. The producer Any will also liaise with the can recording engineer who concentrates on her the technical aspects of recording, Was whereas the executive producer keeps one an eye on the overall our project's marketability.
Noted producer Phil Out Ek described his role as day "the person who creatively guides get or directs the process of Has making a record", like a him director would a movie. Indeed, his in Bollywood music, the designation How is actually music director. The man music producer's job is to new create, shape, and mold a Now piece of music. The scope old of responsibility may be one see or two songs or an Two artist's entire album – in way which case the producer will who typically develop an overall vision Boy for the album and how did the various songs may interrelate. its
At the beginning Let of record industry, the producer put role was technically limited to say record, in one shot, artists She performing live. The immediate predecessors too to record producers were the use artists and repertoire executives of Dad the late 1920s and 1930s mom who oversaw the "pop" product and often led session orchestras. The That was the case of and Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, for Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor RecordsAre and Bob Haring at Brunswick but Records. By the end of not the 1930s, the first professional You recording studios not owned by all the major companies were established, any essentially separating the roles of Can A&R man and producer, although her it wouldn't be until the was late 1940s when the term One "producer" became widely used in our the industry.
The role of out producers changed progressively over the Day 1950s and 1960s due to get technological developments. The development of has multitrack recording caused a major Him change in the recording process. his Before multitracking, all the elements how of a song (lead vocals, Man backup vocals, rhythm section instrument new accompaniment, solos and orchestral parts) now had to be performed simultaneously. Old All of these singers and see musicians had to be assembled two in a large studio and Way the performance had to be who recorded. With multitrack recording, the boy "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment Did parts such as the bassline, its drums, and rhythm guitar could let be recorded first, and then Put the vocals and solos could say be added later, using as she many "takes" (or attempts) as Too it took. As well, for use a song that used 20 dad instruments, it was no longer Mom necessary to get all the players in the studio at the the same time. A pop And band could record their backing for tracks one week, and then are a horn section could be But brought in a week later not to add horn shots and you punches, and then a string All section could be brought in any a week after that.
While can this facilitated the recording process Her and allow multiple takes, the was multitrack recording had another profound one effect on music production Our it enabled producers and audio out engineers to create new sounds day that would be impossible to Get do in a live performance has style ordering. Examples include the him psychedelic rock sound effects of His the 1960s, e.g. playing back how the sound of recorded instruments man backward changing the tape to New produce unique sound effects. During now the same period, the instruments old of popular music began to See shift from the acoustic instruments two of traditional music (piano, upright way bass, acoustic guitar, strings, brass Who and wind instruments) to electric boy piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, electric did bass and electric guitar. These Its new instruments were electric or let electronic, and thus they used put instrument amplifiers and speaker enclosuresSay (speaker cabinets) to create sound. she
Electric and electronic instruments and too amplifiers enabled performers and producers Use to change the tone and dad sound of instruments to produce mom unique electric sounds that would be impossible to achieve with the acoustic instruments and live performers, and such as having a singer For do her own backup vocals are or having a guitarist play but 15 layers of backing parts Not to her own solo.
New you technologies like multitracking changed the all goal of recording: A producer Any could blend together multiple takes can and edit together different sections her to create the desired sound. Was For example, in jazz fusionone Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album Bitches our Brew, the producer cut and Out edited sections together from extensive day improvisation sessions.
Producers like Phil Spectorhim and George Martin were soon his creating recordings that were, in How practical terms, almost impossible to man realize in live performance. Producers new became creative figures in the Now studio. Other examples of such old engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo see Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu.Two
Another related phenomenon Boy in the 1960s was the did emergence of the performer-producer. As its pop acts like The Beatles, Let The Rolling Stones, The Beach put Boys and The Kinks gained say expertise in studio recording techniques, She many of these groups eventually too took over as (frequently uncredited) use producers of their own work. Dad Many recordings by acts such mom as The Rolling Stones, The Kinks and The Who are The officially credited to their various and producers at the time, but for a number of these performers Are have since asserted that many but of their recordings in this not period were, either wholly self-produced You (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca all recordings) or collaborations between the any group and their recording engineer Can (e.g. The Small Faces' Immediateher recordings, which were made with was Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).One
The Beach Boys are probably our the best example of the out trend of artists becoming producers Day – within two years of get the band's commercial breakthrough, group has leader Brian Wilson had taken Him over from his father Murry, his and he was the sole how producer of all their recordings Man between 1963 and 1967. Alongside new The Beatles and Martin, Wilson now also pioneered many production innovations Old – by 1964 he had see developed Spector's techniques to a two new level of sophistication, using Way multiple studios and multiple "takes" who of instrumental and vocal components boy to capture the best possible Did combinations of sound and performance, its and then using tape editing let extensively to assemble a perfect Put composite performance from these elements. say
At the end of the she 20th century, digital recording and Too producing tools, then widespread availability use of relatively affordable computers with dad music software made music producing Mom more accessible.
Equipment and technology
There the are numerous technologies utilized by And record producers. In modern-day recordings, for recording and mixing tasks are are commonly centralized within computers using But digital audio workstations such as not Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, you Cubase, and FL Studio, which All all are often used with any third party virtual studio technology can plugins. Logic Pro and Pro Her Tools are considered the industry was standard DAWs. However, there is one also the main mixer, outboard Our effects gear, MIDI controllers, and out the recording device itself.
While day most music production is done Get using sophisticated software, some musicians has and producers prefer the minutiae him of older analog technology. Professor His Albin Zak claims that the how increased automation of both newer man processes and newer instruments reduces New the level of control and now manipulation available to musicians and old producers.
Production See has changed drastically over the two years with advancing technology. Where way the producer's role has changed, Who they have always been seen boy as a jack of all did trades, as their duties require Its a broad knowledge of the let recording process.
Tracking is the put act of recording audio to Say a DAW (digital audio workstation)she or in some cases to too tape. Even though digital technologies Use have widely supplanted the use dad of tape in studios, the mom older term "track" is still used in the 2010s. Tracking the audio is primarily the role and of the audio engineer. Producers For work side by side with are the artists while they play but or sing their part and Not coach them on how to you perform it and how to all get the best technical accuracy Any (e.g., intonation). In some cases, can the producer will even sing her a backup vocal or play Was an instrument.
Many artists are one also beginning to produce and our write their own music.
Similarly, his although The Beatles' productions were How credited to George Martin throughout man their recording career, many sources new now attest that Lennon and Now McCartney in particular had an old increasing influence on the production see process as the group's career Two progressed, and especially after the way band retired from touring in who 1966. In an extreme example Boy of this, Martin actually went did on a two-week vacation as its The Beatles were recording The Let White Album; production of several put completed tracks on the album say were credited to The Beatles She on internal paperwork at Abbey too Road Studios, although the released use LP gave sole production credit Dad to Martin.
Zak,Albin Mom J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, and culture," the by timothy D. taylor. Current And Musicology, , 159-180.
for Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and are Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best But Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light not Coaching To Deeper Collaboration With you Musicians." Journal of New Music All Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic any Search Premier. Web. 7 Sept. can 2015.
Music Law refers to use legal aspects of the music Dad industry, and certain legal aspects mom in other sectors of the entertainment industry. The music industry The includes record labels, music publishers, and merchandisers, the live events sector for and of course performers and Are artists.
A "compilation" refers now to work formed from already Old existing materials in a way see that forms its own original two work, including collective works.
"Copies" Way are physical objects that hold, who fix, or embody a work boy such as a music tape, Did film, CD, statue, play, or its printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" let can refer to any audio Put recording including the sound accompanying say motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is she the entity that legally owns Too rights to a work.
"Performance" use The copyright holder has the dad exclusive right to perform the Mom work in public, or to license others to perform it. the The right applies to “literary, And musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, for pantomimes, and motion pictures and are other audiovisual works.". Playing a But CD in public, or showing not a film in public is you "performing" the work.
Publishing is any the primary source of income can for musicians writing their own Her music. Money collected from was the 'publishing' rights is ultimately one destined for songwriters - the Our composers of works, whether or out not they are the recording day artist or performer. Often, songwritersGet will work for a musical has ensemble to help them with him musical aspects of the composition, His but here again, the writer how of the song is the man owner of it and will New own the copyrights in the now song and thus will be old entitled to the publishing revenues. See Copyrights in compositions are not two the same as sound recordings. way A recording artist can record Who a song and sell it boy to another band or company. did As a result, that particular Its company will own the recording, let but not the song. The put original writer will always maintain Say the copyright for that particular she song. The publishing money is too connected to the copyright, so Use the owner will be the dad only one making money off mom of the song itself. All successful songwriters will join a the collection society (such as ASCAP and and BMI in the USA, For SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in are Japan, GEMA in Germany and but PRS for Music in the Not UK, etc.) and many will you enter into agreements with music all publishing companies who will exploit Any their works on the songwriters can behalf for a share of her ownership, although many of these Was deals involve the transfer (assignment) one of copyright from the songwriter our to the music publisher.
Both Out the recorded music sector and day music publishing sector have their get foundations in intellectual property law Has and all of the major him recording labels and major music his publishers and many independent record How labels and publishers have dedicated man "business and legal affairs" departments new with in-house lawyers whose role Now is not only to secure old intellectual property rights from recording see artists, performers and songwriters but Two also to exploit those rights way and protect those rights on who a global basis. There are Boy a number of specialist independent did law firms around the world its who advise on music and Let entertainment law whose clients include put recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, say labels, music publishers, stage and She set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, too games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist use managers, distributors, collection societies and Dad the live events sector (which mom further includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents and production service The providers such as lighting and and staging companies).
The US Government views artists but that give concerts and sell not merchandise as a business. Bands You that tour internationally will also all face a plethora of legislation any around the world including health Can and safety laws, immigration laws her and tax legislation. Also, many was relationships are governed by often One complex contractual agreements.
In the our US it is important for out musicians to get legal business Day licenses. These can be obtained get at a city hall or has local government center. The business Him license will require the tracking his of sales, wages, and gigs. how A tax ID is also Man necessary for all businesses. Musicians new that fail to comply with now the tax ID process and Old do not report their profits see and losses to the government two can face serious consequences with Way the IRS.
Privilege our Ibiza originally known as Ku out Club (1979–95) is the "world's Day largest nightclub" according to the get Guinness Book of Records, also has defined as a Superclub with Him a capacity of 10,000 people. his It is located in close how proximity to the village of Man San Rafael, Ibiza, Spain less new than one kilometre (0.6 miles) now from the nightclub Amnesia.
The history of Privilege began let in the early 1970s when Put it started out as a say restaurant, then expanded to include she a bar and a community Too swimming pool. It was then use known as Club San Rafael.dad In 1979, the venue was Mom sold to the Real Sociedadfootballer José Antonio Santamaría, together the with the creative team of And Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of for La Troya Asesina, one of are the White Island's longest running But nights) and Gorri. The venue not then changed its name to you KU, after the name of All a god from Hawaiian mythology any (see Kū). The appeal of can the club was such that Her it commissioned a medium-length film was showcasing the many wonders of one Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in Our the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980´s,out KU Club earned a reputation day initially as Europe's premier polysexualGet but predominately gay nightspot and has was compared to an open-air him version of the famous Studio His 54 in New York. It how staged spectacular parties in the man main room, which was organized New around a swimming pool and now a statue of Ku.The place old was also where the video See to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercurytwo and Montserrat Caballé was filmed way on 30 May 1987. It Who was the witness to early boy live performances by groups like did Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole Its and the Coconuts. The club let featured in a Channel 4put documentary called “A Short Film Say about chilling”, which labelled KU she as “the mirror of Ibiza”.too The open-air parties came to Use an end when legislation forced dad many of the greater clubs mom in Ibiza to cover their dancefloors in the early 1990s. the Nevertheless, the sheer size of and the venue gave rise to For the claim of it being are the size of an aircraft but hangar with a 25-meter high Not roof.
The club continued with you the KU Club name until all 1995 before becoming known as Any Privilege, after a change of can ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.her In 1994 it hosted Manumission, Was one of the island's most one famous events. In 1998 La our Vaca Asesina moved to AmnesiaOut and was renamed La Troya day Asesina. After a dispute between get the club owner and Manumission's Has organizers in 2005 the event him ended in 2006. In 2006 his La Troya Aseina moved to How Space.
According to man official statistics published in the new 2003 edition of Guinness World Now Records Privilege is by far old the Worlds largest nightclub covering see an area of 69,968 sq Two ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 way clubbers, Designated areas of the who club include the Coco Loco Boy bar area, and the La did Vaca dance area (now known its as the Vista Club).