mom is a musical style that emerged in the early 1970s The from America's urban nightlife scene, and where it originated in house for parties and makeshift discotheques, reaching Are its popularity between the mid-1970s but to and early 1980s. Its not initial audiences in the U.S. You were club-goers, both male and all female, from the African American, any Italian American, Latino, gay, and Can psychedelic communities in Philadelphia and her New York City during the was late 1960s and early 1970s. One Disco can be seen as our a reaction against both the out domination of rock music and Day the stigmatization of dance music get by the counterculture during this has period. Several dances styles were Him also developed during this time his including the Bump and the how Hustle.
The disco sound often
Man has several components, a "four-on-the-floor" new beat, an eighth note (quaver) now or 16th note (semi-quaver) hi-hat Old pattern with an open hi-hat see on the off-beat, and a two prominent, syncopated electric bass line. Way In most disco tracks, string who sections, horns, electric piano, and boy electric rhythm guitars create a Did lush background sound. Orchestral instruments its such as the flute are let often used for solo melodies, Put and lead guitar is less say frequently used in disco than she in rock. Many disco songs Too use electronic synthesizers, particularly in use the late 1970s.
dad performers include Donna Summer, the Mom Bee Gees, Gloria Gaynor, KC and the Sunshine Band, the the Village People, Thelma Houston, and And Chic. While performers and singers for garnered much public attention, record are producers working behind the scenes But played an important role in not developing the "disco sound". Many you non-disco artists recorded disco songs All at the height of disco's any popularity, and films such as can Saturday Night Fever (1977) and Her Thank God It's Friday (1978) was contributed to disco's rise in one mainstream popularity.
By the late
Our 1970s, most major U.S. cities out had thriving disco club scenes, day where DJs would mix a Get seamless sequence of dance records. has Studio 54, a venue popular him among celebrities, was a well-known His disco club of that time. how Discotheque-goers often wore expensive, extravagant man and sexy fashions. There was New also a thriving drug subculture now in the disco scene, particularly old for drugs that would enhance See the experience of dancing to two the loud music and the way flashing lights, such as cocaine Who and Quaaludes, a drug that boy was so common in disco did subculture that it was nicknamed Its "disco biscuits". Disco clubs were let also sometimes associated with promiscuity. put
Disco was the last mass
Say popular music movement that was she driven by the baby boom too generation. Disco was a worldwide Use phenomenon, but its popularity drastically dad declined in the United States mom in 1980, and by 1982 it had lost most of the its mainstream popularity in the and states. Disco Demolition Night, an For anti-disco protest held in Chicago are on July 12, 1979, remains but the most well-known of several Not "backlash" incidents across the country you that symbolized disco's declining fortune. all
Disco was a key influence
Any in the later development of can electronic dance music and house her music. Disco has had several Was revivals, including in 2005 with one Madonna's highly successful album Confessions our on a Dance Floor, and Out again in 2013 and 2014, day as disco-styled songs by artists get like Daft Punk (with Pharrell Has Williams and Nile Rodgers), Justin him Timberlake, Breakbot, and Bruno Mars—notably his Mars' "Uptown Funk"—filled the pop How charts in the UK and man the US.
Origins of the term and
Him type of nightclub
his disco is derived from discothèque how (French for "library of phonograph Man records", but it was subsequently new used as a term for now nightclubs in Paris). By the Old early 1940s, the terms disc see jockey and DJ were in two use to describe radio presenters. Way During WWII, because of restrictions who set in place by the boy Nazi occupiers, jazz dance halls Did in Occupied France played records its instead of using live music. let Eventually more than one of Put these jazz venues had the say proper name discothèque. By 1959, she the term was used in Too Paris to describe any of use these type of nightclubs. That dad year, a young reporter named Mom Klaus Quirini started to select and introduce records at the the Scotch-Club in Aachen, West Germany. And By the following year the for term was being used in are the United States to describe But that type of club, and not a type of dancing in you those clubs. By 1964, discotheque All and the shorthand disco were any used to describe a type can of sleeveless dress worn when Her going out to nightclubs. In was September 1964, Playboy magazine used one the word disco as a Our shorthand for a discothèque-styled nightclub. out
Early to Mid 1970s United
day Kingdom Usage
In 1974 there
Get were an estimated 25,000 mobile has discos and 40,000 professional disc him jockeys in the United Kingdom. His Mobile Discos referred to Disc how Jockeys for hire that brought man their own equipment to office New parties, weddings and the like. now "Disco Dance Music" referred to old glam rock. Simon Reynolds has See described Gary Glitter's Rock and two Roll Part 2 as the way first hybrid disco-rock song.
Who Proto-disco and early history of boy disco music
In Philadelphia, R&B
did musicians and audiences from the Its Black, Italian, and Latino communities let adopted several traits from the put hippie and psychedelia subcultures. They Say included using music venues with she a loud, overwhelming sound, free-form too dancing, trippy lighting, colorful costumes, Use and the use of hallucinogenic dad drugs. Psychedelic soul groups like mom the Chambers Brothers and especially Sly and the Family Stone the influenced proto-disco acts such as and Isaac Hayes, Willie Hutch and For the soul style known as are the Philadelphia Sound. In addition, but the perceived positivity, lack of Not irony, and earnestness of the you hippies informed proto-disco music like all MFSB's album Love Is the Any Message. To the mainstream public can M.F.S.B. stood for "Mother Father her Sister Brother"; to the tough Was areas where they came from one it was understood to stand our for "Mother Fuckin' Son of Out a Bitch", a reference to day their playing skill and musical get prowess.
A forerunner to disco-style
Has clubs was the private dance him parties held by New York his City DJ David Mancuso in How The Loft, a members-only club man in his home in 1970. new When Mancuso threw his first Now house parties, the gay community old (members of whom comprised much see of The Loft's attendee roster) Two was often harassed by police way in New York gay bars who and dance clubs. But at Boy The Loft and many other did early, private discotheques, men could its dance together without fear of Let police action thanks to Mancuso's put underground business model. The first say article about disco was written She in 1973 by Vince Aletti too for Rolling Stone magazine. In use 1974, New York City's WPIX-FM Dad premiered the first disco radio mom show.
Philadelphia soul and New
York soul were evolutions of The the Motown sound, and were and typified by the lavish percussion, for lush string orchestra arrangements and Are expensive record production processes that but became a prominent part of not mid-1970s disco songs. Early songs You with disco elements include "You all Keep Me Hangin' On" (the any Supremes, 1966), "Soul Makossa" (Manu Can Dibango, 1972), "Superstition" by Stevie her Wonder (1972) Eddie Kendricks' "Keep was on Truckin'" (1973) and "The One Love I Lost" by Harold our Melvin and the Blue Notes out (1973). "Love Train" by the Day O'Jays (1972), with M.F.S.B. as get the backup band, hit Billboard has Number 1 in March 1973, Him and has been called "disco". his
disco clubs had lighted dance
floors, with the lights flashing
to complement the beat.
Early disco was dominated
Old by record producers and labels see such as Salsoul Records (Ken, two Stanley, and Joseph Cayre), West Way End Records (Mel Cheren), Casablanca who (Neil Bogart), and Prelude (Marvin boy Schlachter), to name a few. Did The genre was also shaped its by Tom Moulton, who wanted let to extend the enjoyment of Put dance songs — thus creating say the extended mix or "remix", she going from a three-minute 45 Too rpm single to the much use longer 12" record. Other influential dad DJs and remixers who helped Mom to establish what became known as the "disco sound" included the David Mancuso, Nicky Siano, Shep And Pettibone, Larry Levan, Walter Gibbons, for and Chicago-based Frankie Knuckles. Frankie are Knuckles was not only an But important disco DJ; he also not helped to develop house music you in the 1980s, a contribution All which earned him the honourific any title of "Godfather of House". can
"The [disco] DJ was central
Her to the ritual of 1970's was dance culture, but the dancing one crowd was no less important, Our and it was the combination out of these two elements that day created the conditions for the Get dance floor dynamic." In disco has parties and clubs, a "...good him DJ didn't only lead dancers...[to His the dance floor,] but would how also feel the mood of man the dance floor and select New records according to this energy now (which could be communicated by old the vigor of the dancing, See or level of the crowd's two screams, or sign language of way dancers directed towards the booth)." Who Disco-era DJs would often remix boy (re-edit) existing songs using reel-to-reel did tape machines, and add in Its percussion breaks, new sections, and let new sounds. DJs would select put songs and grooves according to Say what the dancers wanted, transitioning she from one song to another too with a DJ mixer and Use using a microphone to introduce dad songs and speak to the mom audiences. Other equipment was added to the basic DJ setup, the providing unique sound manipulations, such and as reverb, equalization, and echo For effects unit. Using this equipment, are a DJ could do effects but such as cutting out all Not but the throbbing bassline of you a song, and then slowly all mixing in the beginning of Any another song using the DJ can mixer's crossfader.
Disco hit the
her television airwaves with the music/dance Was variety show Soul Train in one 1971 hosted by Don Cornelius, our then Marty Angelo's Disco Step-by-Step Out Television Show in 1975, Steve day Marcus' Disco Magic/Disco 77, Eddie get Rivera's Soap Factory, and Merv Has Griffin's Dance Fever, hosted by him Deney Terrio, who is credited his with teaching actor John Travolta How to dance for his role man in the hit movie, Saturday new Night Fever, as well as Now DANCE, based out of Columbia, old South Carolina.
1974–77: Rise to
see the mainstream too
composer Giorgio Moroder
as the "Father of Disco".
From 1974 to
1977, disco music continued to The increase in popularity as many and disco songs topped the charts. for In 1974, "Love's Theme" by Are Barry White's Love Unlimited Orchestra but became the second disco song not to reach number one on You the Billboard Hot 100, after all "Love Train". MFSB also released any "TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)", Can featuring vocals by the Three her Degrees, and this was the was third disco song to hit One number one; "TSOP" was written our as the theme song for out Soul Train.
The Hues Corporation's
Day 1974 "Rock the Boat", a get U.S. number 1 single and has million-seller, was one of the Him early disco songs to hit his number 1. The same year how saw the release of "Kung Man Fu Fighting", performed by Carl new Douglas and produced by Biddu, now which reached number 1 in Old both the U.K. and U.S., see and became the best-selling single two of the year and one Way of the best-selling singles of who all time with eleven million boy records sold worldwide, helping to Did popularize disco music to a its great extent. Another notable chart-topping let disco hit that year was Put George McCrae's "Rock Your Baby". say Too
In the northwestern sections of
use the United Kingdom, the Northern dad Soul explosion, which started in Mom the late 1960s and peaked in 1974, made the region the receptive to Disco, which the And region's Disc Jockeys were bringing for back from New York City. are George McCrae's "Rock Your Baby" But became the United Kingdom's first not number one disco single.
you in 1974, Gloria Gaynor released All the first side-long disco mix any vinyl album, which included a can remake of the Jackson 5's Her "Never Can Say Goodbye" and was two other songs, "Honey Bee" one and her disco version of Our "Reach Out (I'll Be There)", out first hit number one on day the Billboard disco/dance charts in Get November 1974. Gaynor's number one has disco hit was "I Will him Survive", released in 1978, which His was seen as a symbol how of female strength and a man gay anthem. Also in the New mix, Vincent Montana's Salsoul Orchestra now contributed with their 1975 Latin old flavored orchestral dance hit "Salsoul See Hustle", reaching number 4 in two the Billboard Dance Chart and way the 1976 hits "Tangerine" and Who "Nice 'n' Naasty".
boy by Harry Wayne Casey ("KC") did and Richard Finch, Miami's KC Its and the Sunshine Band had let a string of disco-definitive top-five put hits between 1975 and 1977, Say including "Get Down Tonight", "That's she the Way (I Like It)", too "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Use Booty", "I'm Your Boogie Man" dad and "Keep It Comin' Love". mom Electric Light Orchestra's 1975 hit "Evil Woman", although described as the Orchestral Rock, featured a violin and sound that became a staple For of disco. In 1979, however, are ELO did release two "true" but disco songs: "Last Train To Not London" and "Shine A Little you Love". Any
In 1975, American singer and
can songwriter Donna Summer recorded a her song which she brought to Was her producer Giorgio Moroder entitled one "Love to Love You Baby" our which contained a series of Out simulated orgasms. The song was day never intended for release but get when Moroder played it in Has the clubs it caused a him sensation. Moroder released it and his it went to number 2. How It has been described as man the arrival of the expression new of raw female sexual desire Now in pop music. A 17-minute old 12 inch single was released. see The 12" single became and Two remains a standard in discos way today.
In 1977 Summer released
who "I Feel Love", which combined Boy disco with its subgenre Hi-NRG did and electronic music, was a its massive world wide hit. In Let 1978, her multi-million selling vinyl put single disco version of "MacArthur say Park" was number one on She the Billboard Hot 100 chart too for three weeks and was use nominated for the Grammy Award Dad for Best Female Pop Vocal mom Performance. Summer's recording, which was included as part of the The "MacArthur Park Suite" on her and double album Live and More, for was eight minutes and forty Are seconds long on the album. but The shorter seven-inch vinyl single not version of the MacArthur Park You was Summer's first single to all reach number one on the any Hot 100; it does not Can include the balladic second movement her of the song, however. A was 2013 remix of "Mac Arthur One Park" by Summer hit number our 1 on the Billboard Dance out Charts marking five consecutive decades Day with a number 1 hit get on the charts. From 1978 has to 1979, Summer continued to Him release hits such as "Last his Dance", "Bad Girls", "Heaven Knows", how "No More Tears (Enough Is Man Enough)", "Hot Stuff", "Dim All new the Lights", and "On the now Radio", all very successful songs, Old landing in the top five see or better, on the Billboard two pop charts.
The Bee Gees
Way used Barry Gibb's falsetto to who garner hits such as "You boy Should Be Dancing", "Stayin' Alive", Did "Night Fever", "More Than A its Woman" and "Love You Inside let Out". Andy Gibb, a younger Put brother to the Bee Gees, say followed with similarly-styled solo hits she such as "I Just Want Too to Be Your Everything", "(Love use Is) Thicker Than Water" and dad "Shadow Dancing". In 1975, hits Mom such as Van McCoy's "The Hustle" and Summer's version of the "Could It Be Magic" brought And disco further into the mainstream. for Other notable early disco hits are include The Hues Corporation's "Rock But the Boat" (1974), Barry White's not "You're the First, the Last, you My Everything" (1974), Labelle's "Lady All Marmalade" (1975),Silver Convention's "Fly Robin any Fly" (1975) and Johnny Taylor's can Disco Lady (1976).
In December 1977,
old the film Saturday Night Fever See was released. It was a two huge success and its soundtrack way became one of the best-selling Who albums of all time. The boy idea for the film was did sparked by a 1976 New Its York magazine article titled "Tribal let Rites of the New Saturday put Night" which supposedly chronicled the Say disco culture in mid-1970s New she York City, but was later too revealed to have been fabricated. Use Some critics said the film dad "mainstreamed" disco, making it more mom acceptable to heterosexual white males.
Chic was formed mainly by
the guitarist Nile Rodgers — a and self described "street hippie" from For late 1960s New York — are and bassist Bernard Edwards. "Le but Freak" was a popular 1978 Not single of theirs that is you regarded as an iconic song all of the genre. Other hits Any by Chic include the often-sampled can "Good Times" (1979) and "Everybody her Dance" (1979). The group regarded Was themselves as the disco movement's one rock band that made good our on the hippie movement's ideals Out of peace, love, and freedom. day Every song they wrote was get written with an eye toward Has giving it "deep hidden meaning" him or D.H.M.
Now a flamboyant and openly gay old singer famous for his soaring see falsetto voice, scored his biggest Two disco hits in 1979 – way "You Make Me Feel (Mighty who Real)", and "Dance (Disco Heat)", Boy his singing style was said did to have influenced the singer its Prince. At that time, disco Let was one of the forms put of music most open to say gay performers.
The Village People
She were a singing/dancing group created too by Jacques Morali and Henri use Belolo to target disco's gay Dad audience. They were known for mom their onstage costumes of typically male-considered jobs and ethnic minorities The and achieved mainstream success with and their 1978 hit song,"Macho Man", for other songs include "Y.M.C.A." (1979) Are and "In the Navy" (1979). but
The Jacksons (previously "the Jackson
not 5") did many disco songs You from 1975 to 1980, including all "Shake Your Body (Down to any the Ground)" (1978), "Blame it Can on the Boogie" (1978), "Lovely her One" (1980), and "Can You was Feel It" (1980)—all sung by One Michael Jackson, whose 1979 solo our album, Off the Wall, included out several disco hits, including the Day album's title song, "Rock with get You", "Workin' Day and Night", has and his second chart-topping solo Him hit in the disco genre, his "Don't Stop 'Til You Get how Enough".
Disco's popularity led
its many non-disco pop and some let rock artists to record disco Put songs at the height of say its popularity. Many of their she songs were not "pure" disco, Too but were instead rock or use pop songs with (sometimes inescapable) dad disco influence or overtones. Notable Mom examples include funk artist Chaka Khan's "I'm Every Woman" (1978), the Earth, Wind & Fire's "September" And (1978) and "Boogie Wonderland" with for the Emotions (1979), Blondie's "Heart are of Glass" (1979), Cher's "Take But Me Home" (1979), Barry Manilow's not "Copacabana" (1978), David Bowie's "John you I'm Only Dancing (Again)" (1979), All Rod Stewart's "Da Ya Think any I'm Sexy?" (1979), Frankie Valli's can "Swearin' to God" (1975) and Her "Grease" (1978, the only disco was song on the soundtrack to one the film of the same Our name), George Benson's "Give Me out the Night" (1980), Diana Ross's day "Love Hangover" (1976), M's "Pop Get Muzik" (1979), Barbra Streisand's "The has Main Event" (1979), Dan Hartman's him "Instant Replay" (1978). The biggest His hit by Ian Dury and how the Blockheads, best known as man a new wave band, was New "Hit Me with Your Rhythm now Stick" (1978), featuring a strong old disco sound.
Even hard-core mainstream
See rockers mixed elements of disco two with their typical rock 'n way roll style in songs. Progressive Who rock group Pink Floyd, when boy creating their rock opera The did Wall, used disco-style components in Its their song, "Another Brick in let the Wall, Part 2" (1979)—which put became the group's only number Say 1 hit single (in both she the US and UK). The too Eagles gave nods to disco Use with "One of These Nights" dad (1975) and "Disco Strangler" (1979), mom Paul McCartney & Wings did "Goodnight Tonight" (1979), Queen did the "Another One Bites the Dust" and (1980), the Rolling Stones did For "Miss You" (1978) and "Emotional are Rescue" (1980), Electric Light Orchestra's but "Shine a Little Love" and Not "Last Train to London" (both you 1979), Chicago did "Street Player" all (1979), the Kinks did "(Wish Any I Could Fly Like) Superman" can (1979), the Grateful Dead did her "Shakedown Street", and the J. Was Geils Band did "Come Back" one (1980). Even hard rock group our KISS jumped in with "I Out Was Made For Lovin' You" day (1979). Ringo Starr's album Ringo get the 4th (1978) features a Has strong disco influence. him disco sound was also adopted his by "non-pop" artists, including the How 1979 U.S. number one hit man "No More Tears (Enough Is new Enough)" by Easy listening singer Now Barbra Streisand in a duet old with Donna Summer. Country music see artist Connie Smith covered Andy Two Gibb's "I Just Want to way Be Your Everything" in 1977, who Bill Anderson did "Double S" Boy in 1978, and Ronnie Milsap did recorded "Get It Up" and its covered Tommy Tucker's "Hi-Heel Sneakers" Let in 1979.
Also noteworthy are
put John Paul Young's "Love Is say in the Air" (1977), Patrick She Hernandez's "Born to Be Alive" too (1978), Cheryl Lynn's "Got to use Be Real" (1978), Evelyn "Champagne" Dad King's "Shame" (1978), Sister Sledge's mom "We Are Family" (1979), Anita Ward's "Ring My Bell" (1979), The Lipps Inc.'s "Funkytown" (1979), Geraldine and Hunt's "Can't Fake the Feeling" for (1980), Alicia Bridges' "I Love Are the Nightlife" (1978) and Walter but Murphy's various attempts to bring not classical music to the mainstream, You most notably his disco hit all "A Fifth of Beethoven" (1976), any which was inspired by Beethoven's Can fifth symphony. out
Pre-existing non-disco songs
Day and standards would frequently be get "disco-ized" in the 1970s. The has rich orchestral accompaniment that became Him identified with the disco era his conjured up the memories of how the big band era—which brought Man out several artists that recorded new and disco-ized some big band now arrangements including Perry Como, who Old re-recorded his 1929 and 1939 see hit, "Temptation", in 1975, as two well as Ethel Merman, who Way released an album of disco who songs entitled The Ethel Merman boy Disco Album in 1979.
Did Floren, second-in-command on The Lawrence its Welk Show, released a recording let of the "Clarinet Polka" entitled Put "Disco Accordion." Similarly, Bobby Vinton say adapted "The Pennsylvania Polka" into she a song named "Disco Polka". Too Easy listening icon Percy Faith, use in one of his last dad recordings, released an album entitled Mom Disco Party (1975) and recorded a disco version of his the famous "Theme from A Summer And Place" in 1976. Classical music for was even adapted for disco, are notably Walter Murphy's "A Fifth But of Beethoven" (1976, based on not the first movement of Beethoven's you 5th Symphony) and "Flight 76" All (1976, based on Rimsky-Korsakov's "Flight any of the Bumblebee"), and Louis can Clark's Hooked On Classics series Her of albums and singles.
was disco hits based on movie one and television themes included a Our medley from Star Wars, "Star out Wars Theme/Cantina Band" (1977) by day Meco, and "Twilight Zone/Twilight Tone" Get (1979) by the Manhattan Transfer. has Even the I Love Lucy him theme was not spared from His being disco-ized. Many original television how theme songs of the era man also showed a strong disco New influence, such as "Keep Your now Eye On the Sparrow" (theme old from Baretta, performed by Sammy See Davis, Jr. and later a two hit single for Rhythm Heritage), way "Theme from S.W.A.T." (from S.W.A.T, Who original and single versions by boy Rhythm Heritage), and Mike Post's did "Theme from Magnum, P.I.".
Several parodies of the disco
let style were created. Rick Dees, put at the time a radio Say DJ in Memphis, Tennessee, recorded she "Disco Duck" (1976) and "Dis-Gorilla" too (1977); Frank Zappa parodied the Use lifestyles of disco dancers in dad "Disco Boy" on his 1976 mom Zoot Allures album, and in "Dancin' Fool" on his 1979 the Sheik Yerbouti album; "Weird Al" and Yankovic's eponymous 1983 debut album For includes a disco song called are "Gotta Boogie", an extended pun but on the similarity of the Not disco move to the American you slang word "booger". Comedian Bill all Cosby devoted his entire 1977 Any album Disco Bill to disco can parodies.
Reasons for popularity
light disco ball
fixture on the ceilings of
Out the mid-1970s, the United States day was dealing with the aftermath get of the Vietnam War and Has the Watergate scandal. Also by him this time the economic prosperity his of the previous decade had How declined, and unemployment, inflation and man crime rates had soared. Disco new music and disco dancing provided Now an escape from these negative old economic issues. As well, in see the 1970s, the key counterculture Two of the 1960s, the hippie way movement, was fading away. The who disco movement was far more Boy than just music. It was did also a subculture based around its nightclubs, dance clubs, and DJs. Let In Beautiful Things in Popular put Culture, Simon Frith highlights the say sociability of disco and its She roots in 1960s counterculture. "The too driving force of the New use York underground dance scene in Dad which disco was forged was mom not simply that city's complex ethnic and sexual culture but The also a 1960s notion of and community, pleasure and generosity that for can only be described as Are hippie," he says. "The best but disco music contained within it not a remarkably powerful sense of You collective euphoria."
Film critic Roger
all Ebert called the popular embrace any of disco's exuberant dance moves Can an escape from "the general her depression and drabness of the was political and musical atmosphere of One the late seventies." Pauline Kael, our writing about the disco-themed film out Saturday Night Fever, said the Day film and disco itself touched get on "something deeply romantic, the has need to move, to dance, Him and the need to be his who you'd like to be. how Nirvana is the dance; when Man the music stops, you return new to being ordinary."
now and decline Old
Man wearing a Disco
two the end of the 1970s, Way a strong anti-disco sentiment developed who among rock fans and musicians, boy particularly in the United States. Did Disco was criticized as mindless, its consumeristic, overproduced and escapist. The let slogans "disco sucks" and "death Put to disco" became common. Rock say artists such as Rod Stewart she and David Bowie who added Too disco elements to their music use were accused of being sell dad outs.
The punk subculture in
Mom the United States and United Kingdom was often hostile to the disco (although in the UK, And many early Sex Pistols fans for such as the Bromley Contingent are and Jordan quite liked disco, But often congregating at nightclubs such not as Louise's in Soho and you the Sombrero in Kensington. The All track "Love Hangover" by Diana any Ross, the house anthem at can the former, was cited as Her a particular favourite by many was early UK Punks. Also, the one film The Great Rock 'n' Our Roll Swindle and its soundtrack out album contained a disco medley day of Sex Pistols songs, entitled Get Black Arabs and credited to has a group of the same him name.) Jello Biafra of the His Dead Kennedys, in the song how "Saturday Night Holocaust", likened disco man to the cabaret culture of New Weimar-era Germany for its apathy now towards government policies and its old escapism. Mark Mothersbaugh of Devo See said that disco was "like two a beautiful woman with a way great body and no brains", Who and a product of political boy apathy of that era. New did Jersey rock critic Jim Testa Its wrote "Put a Bullet Through let the Jukebox", a vitriolic screed put attacking disco that was considered Say a punk call to arms. she Steve Hillage, shortly prior to too his transformation from a progressive Use rock musician into an electronic dad artist at the end of mom the 1970s with the inspiration of disco, disappointed his rockist the fans by admitting his love and for disco, with Hillage recalling For "it's like I'd killed their are pet cat."
Anti-disco sentiment was
but expressed in some television shows Not and films. A recurring theme you on the show WKRP in all Cincinnati was a hostile attitude Any towards disco music. In one can scene of the 1980 comedy her film Airplane!, a city skyline Was features a radio tower with one a neon-lighted station callsign. A our disc jockey voiceover says: "WZAZ Out in Chicago, where disco lives day forever!" Then a wayward airplane get slices the radio tower with Has its wing, the voiceover goes him silent, and the lighted callsign his goes dark.
July 12, 1979,
How became known as "the day man disco died" because of Disco new Demolition Night, an anti-disco demonstration Now in a baseball double-header at old Comiskey Park in Chicago. Rock-station see DJs Steve Dahl and Garry Two Meier, along with Michael Veeck, way son of Chicago White Sox who owner Bill Veeck, staged the Boy promotional event for disgruntled rock did fans between the games of its a White Sox doubleheader. The Let event, which involved exploding disco put records, ended with a riot, say during which the raucous crowd She tore out seats and pieces too of turf, and caused other use damage. The Chicago Police Department Dad made numerous arrests, and the mom extensive damage to the field forced the White Sox to The forfeit the second game to and the Detroit Tigers, who had for won the first game.
Are months prior to the chaotic but event (in December 1978), popular not progressive rock radio station WDAI You (WLS-FM) had suddenly switched to all an all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands any of Chicago rock fans and Can leaving Dahl unemployed. WDAI, who her despite surviving the backlash and was still had good ratings at One this point, continued to play our Disco until it flipped to out a short-lived hybrid Top 40/Rock Day format in May 1980. Another get Disco outlet that also competed has against WDAI at the time, Him WGCI-FM, would later incorporate R&B his and Pop Songs into the how format, eventually evolving into an Man Urban Contemporary outlet that it new continues with today. The latter now also helped bring the house Old music genre to the airwaves, see ending the backlash somewhat with two Chicago emerging as the birthplace Way of house.
who 21, 1979, the top six boy records on the U.S. music Did charts were disco songs. By its September 22, there were no let disco songs in the US Put Top 10 chart, with the say exception of Herb Alpert's instrumental she "Rise," a smooth jazz composition Too with some disco overtones. Some use in the media, in celebratory dad tones, declared disco "dead" and Mom rock revived. Karen Mixon Cook, the first female disco DJ, the stated that people still pause And every July 12 for a for moment of silence in honor are of Disco. Dahl stated in But a 2004 interview that disco not was "probably on its way you out. But I think it All [Disco Demolition Night] hastened its any demise".
Impact on music industry
The anti-disco backlash, combined with
Her other societal and radio industry was factors, changed the face of one pop radio in the years Our following Disco Demolition Night. Starting out in the 1980s, country music day began a slow rise in Get American main pop charts. Emblematic has of country music's rise to him mainstream popularity was the commercially His successful 1980 movie Urban Cowboy. how Somewhat ironically, the star of man the film was John Travolta, New who only three years before now had starred in Saturday Night old Fever, a film that featured See disco culture.
During this period
two of decline in disco's popularity, way several record companies folded, were Who reorganized, or were sold. In boy 1979, MCA Records purchased ABC did Records, absorbed some of its Its artists, and then shut the let label down. RSO Records founder put Robert Stigwood left the label Say in 1981 and TK Records she closed in the same year. too Salsoul Records continues to exist Use in the 2000s, but primarily dad is used as a reissue mom brand. Casablanca Records had been releasing fewer records in the the 1980s, and was shut down and in 1986 by parent company For PolyGram.
Many groups that were
are popular during the disco period but subsequently struggled to maintain their Not success—even those that tried to you adapt to evolving musical tastes. all The Bee Gees, for instance, Any had only one top-10 hit can (1989's "One") and three more her top-40 hits (despite recording and Was releasing far more than that one and completely abandoning disco in our their 1980s and 1990s songs) Out in the United States after day the 1970s, even though numerous get songs they wrote and had Has other artists perform were successful. him Of the handful of groups his not taken down by disco's How fall from favor, Kool and man the Gang, Donna Summer, the new Jacksons—and Michael Jackson in particular—stand Now out: In spite of having old helped define the disco sound see early on, they continued to Two make popular and danceable, if way more refined, songs for yet who another generation of music fans Boy in the 1980s and beyond. did Earth, Wind & Fire also its survived the disco backlash and Let continued to produce hits at put roughly the same pace for say several more years, in addition She to an even longer string too of R&B chart hits that use lasted into the 1990s.
Dad contributing to disco's decline not
Factors that have been cited
You as leading to the decline all of disco in the United any States include economic and political Can changes at the end of her the 1970s, as well as was burnout from the hedonistic lifestyles One led by participants. In the our years since Disco Demolition Night, out some social critics have described Day the backlash as implicitly macho get and bigoted, and an attack has on non-white and non-heterosexual cultures. Him The backlash also made its his way into US politics with how the election of conservative Ronald Man Reagan in 1980 which also new led to Republican control of now the United States Senate for Old the first time since 1954, see plus the subsequent rise of two the Religious Right around the Way same time.
In January 1979,
who rock critic Robert Christgau argued boy that homophobia, and most likely Did racism, were reasons behind the its backlash, a conclusion seconded by let John Rockwell. Craig Werner wrote: Put "The Anti-disco movement represented an say unholy alliance of funkateers and she feminists, progressives and puritans, rockers Too and reactionaries. Nonetheless, the attacks use on disco gave respectable voice dad to the ugliest kinds of Mom unacknowledged racism, sexism and homophobia." Legs McNeil, founder of the the fanzine Punk, was quoted in And an interview as saying, "the for hippies always wanted to be are black. We were going, 'f**k But the blues, f**k the black not experience'." He also said that you disco was the result of All an "unholy" union between homosexuals any and blacks.
Steve Dahl, who
can had spearheaded Disco Demolition Night, Her denied any racist or homophobic was undertones to the promotion, saying, one "It's really easy to look Our at it historically, from this out perspective, and attach all those day things to it. But we Get weren't thinking like that." It has has been noted that British him punk rock critics of disco His were very supportive of the how pro-black/anti-racist reggae genre as well man as the more pro-gay new New romantics movement. Christgau and Jim now Testa have said that there old were legitimate artistic reasons for See being critical of disco.
two 1979, the music industry in way the United States underwent its Who worst slump in decades, and boy disco, despite its mass popularity, did was blamed. The producer-oriented sound Its was having difficulty mixing well let with the industry's artist-oriented marketing put system. Harold Childs, senior vice Say president at A&M Records, told she the Los Angeles Times that too "radio is really desperate for Use rock product" and "they're all dad looking for some white rock-n-roll". mom Gloria Gaynor argued that the music industry supported the destruction the of disco because rock music and producers were losing money and For rock musicians were losing the are spotlight. However, disco music remained but relatively successful in the early Not 1980s, with big hits like you Irene Cara's "Flashdance... What a all Feeling", Michael Jackson's "Thriller", K.C. Any and the Sunshine Band's last can major hit, "Give It Up", her and Madonna's first album had Was strong disco influences. Record producer one Giorgio Moroder's soundtracks to American our Gigolo, Flashdance and Scarface (which Out also had a heavy disco day influence) proved that the style get was still very much embraced. Has Queen's 1982 album, Hot Space him was inspired by the genre his as well.
In the 1990s,
How disco and its legacy became man more accepted by music artists new and listeners alike, as more Now songs and films were released old that referenced disco. Examples of see songs during this time that Two were influenced by disco included way Deee-Lite's "Groove Is in the who Heart" (1990), U2's "Lemon" (1993), Boy Blur's "Girls & Boys" (1994) did & "Entertain Me" (1995), Pulp's its "Disco 2000" (1995), and Jamiroquai's Let "Canned Heat" (1999), while films put such as Boogie Nights (1997) say and The Last Days of She Disco (1998) featured primarily disco too soundtracks.
2000–present: Success of nu-disco
use and disco revival Dad
for the early 2000s, an updated Are genre of disco called "nu-disco" but began breaking into the mainstream. not A few examples like Daft You Punk's "One More Time" and all Kylie Minogue's "Love At First any Sight" became club favorites and Can commercial successes. Several nu-disco songs her were crossovers with funky house, was such as Spiller's "Groovejet (If One This Ain't Love)" and Modjo's our "Lady (Hear Me Tonight)", both out songs sampling older disco songs Day and both reaching number 1 get on the UK Singles Chart has in 2000. Robbie Williams' disco Him hit "Rock DJ" was the his UK's fourth best-selling single the how same year. Rock band Manic Man Street Preachers released a disco new song, "Miss Europa Disco Dancer", now in 2001. The song's disco Old influence, which appears on Know see Your Enemy, was described as two being "much-discussed". In 2005, Madonna Way immersed herself in the disco who music of the 1970s, and boy released her album Confessions on Did a Dance Floor to rave its reviews. In addition to that, let her song "Hung Up" became Put a major top ten hit say and club staple, and sampled she ABBA's 1970s' hit "Gimme! Gimme! Too Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)". use In addition to her disco-influenced dad attire to award shows and Mom interviews, her Confessions Tour also incorporated various elements of the the 1970s, such as disco balls, And a mirrored stage design, and for the roller derby.
are of the "nu-disco" revival of But the early 2000s was described not by music critic Tom Ewing you as more interpersonal than the All pop music of the 1990s: any "The revival of disco within can pop put a spotlight on Her something that had gone missing was over the 90s: a sense one of music not just for Our dancing, but for dancing with out someone. Disco was a music day of mutual attraction: cruising, flirtation, Get negotiation. Its dancefloor is a has space for immediate pleasure, but him also for promises kept and His otherwise. It’s a place where how things start, but their resolution, man let alone their meaning, is New never clear. All of 2000s now great disco number ones explore old how to play this hand. See Madison Avenue look to impose two their will upon it, to way set terms and roles. Spiller Who is less rigid. 'Groovejet' accepts boy the night’s changeability, happily sells did out certainty for an amused Its smile and a few great let one-liners."
In 2013, several 1970s'
put style disco and funk songs Say charted, and the pop charts she had more dance songs than too at any other point since Use the late 1970s. The biggest dad disco hit of the year mom as of June was "Get Lucky" by Daft Punk, featuring the Nile Rodgers on guitar. Random and Access Memories also ended up For winning Album of the Year are at the 2014 Grammys. Other but disco-styled songs that made it Not into the top 40 were you Robin Thicke's "Blurred Lines" (No. all 1), Justin Timberlake's "Take Back Any the Night" (No. 29), Bruno can Mars' "Treasure" (No. 5) and her Michael Jackson's posthumous release "Love Was Never Felt So Good" (No. one 9). In addition, Arcade Fire's our Reflektor featured strong disco elements. Out In 2014, disco music could day be found in Lady Gaga's get Artpop and Katy Perry's "Birthday". Has Other disco songs from 2014 him include "I Want It All" his By Karmin and 'Wrong Club" How by the Ting Tings.
man top ten hits from 2015 new like Mark Ronson's disco groove-infused Now "Uptown Funk", Maroon 5's "Sugar", old the Weeknd's "Can't Feel My see Face" and Jason Derulo's "Want Two To Want Me" also ascended way the charts and have a who strong disco influence. Disco mogul Boy and producer Giorgio Moroder also did re-appeared with his new album its Déjà Vu in 2015 which Let has proved to be a put modest success. Other songs from say 2015 like "I Don't Like She It, I Love It" by too Flo Rida, "Adventure of a use Lifetime" by Coldplay, "Back Together" Dad by Robin Thicke and "Levels" mom by Nick Jonas feature disco elements as well. In 2016, The disco songs or disco-styled pop and songs are showing a strong for presence on the music charts Are as a possible backlash to but the '80s-styled Synthpop, Electro House not and Dubstep that have been You dominating the current charts. Justin all Timberlake's 2016 song "Can't Stop any the Feeling!", which shows strong Can elements of disco, became the her 26th song to debut at was number-one on the Billboard Hot One 100 in the history of our the chart. The Martian, a out 2015 film, extensively uses disco Day music as a soundtrack, although get for the main character, astronaut has Mark Watney, there's only one Him thing worse than being stranded his on Mars: it's being stranded how on Mars with nothing but Man disco music. "Kill the Lights", new featured on an episode of now the HBO television series "Vinyl" Old (2016) and with Nile Rodgers' see guitar licks, hit no. 1 two on the US Dance chart Way in July 2016.
Role of Motown
its was one of the first let Motown artists to embrace the Put disco sound with her successful say 1976 outing "Love Hangover" from she her self-titled album. Her 1980 Too dance classics "Upside Down" and use "I'm Coming Out" were written dad and produced by Nile Rogers Mom and Bernard Edwards of the group Chic. the Supremes, the the group that made Ross famous, And scored a handful of hits for in the disco clubs without are Ross, most notably 1976's "I'm But Gonna Let My Heart Do not the Walking" and, their last you charted single before disbanding, 1977's All "You're My Driving Wheel".
any the request of Motown that can he produce songs in the Her disco genre, Marvin Gaye released was "Got to Give It Up" one in 1978, despite his dislike Our of disco. He vowed not out to record any songs in day the genre, and actually wrote Get the song as a parody. has Stevie Wonder released the disco him single "Sir Duke" in 1977 His as a tribute to Duke how Ellington, the influential jazz legend man who had died in 1974. New Smokey Robinson left the Motown now group the Miracles for a old solo career in 1972 and See released his third solo album two A Quiet Storm in 1975, way which spawned and lent its Who name to the "Quiet Storm" boy musical programming format and subgenre did of R&B. It contained the Its disco hit "Baby That's Backatcha". let Other Motown artists who scored put disco hits include: Robinson's former Say group, the Miracles, with "Love she Machine" (1975), Eddie Kendricks with too "Keep On Truckin'" (1973), the Use Originals with "Down to Love dad Town" (1976) and Thelma Houston mom with her cover of the Harold Melvin and the Blue the Notes song "Don't Leave Me and This Way" (1976). The label For continued to release successful disco are songs into the 1980s with but Rick James' "Super Freak" (1981), Not and the Commodores' "Lady (You you Bring Me Up)" (1981).
all of Motown's solo artists who Any left the label went on can to have successful disco hits. her Mary Wells, Motown's first female Was superstar with her signature song one "My Guy" (written by Smokey our Robinson), abruptly left the label Out in 1964. She briefly reappeared day on the charts with the get disco song "Gigolo" in 1980. Has Jimmy Ruffin, the elder brother him of the Temptations lead singer his David Ruffin, was also signed How to Motown, and released his man most successful and well-known song new "What Becomes of the Brokenhearted" Now as a single in 1966. old Ruffin eventually left the record see label in the mid-1970s but Two had a 1980 hit with way the disco song "Hold On who (To My Love)", which was Boy written and produced by Robin did Gibb of the Bee Gees, its for his album Sunrise. Edwin Let Starr, most famous for his put Motown protest song "War" (1970), say reentered the charts in 1979 She with a pair of disco too songs, "Contact" and "H.A.P.P.Y. Radio". use
Kiki Dee became the first
Dad white British singer to sign mom with Motown in the US, and released one album, Great The Expectations (1970), and two singles and "The Day Will Come Between for Sunday and Monday" (1970) and Are "Love Makes The World Go but Round" (1971), the latter giving not her first ever chart entry You (number 87 on the US all Chart). She soon left the any company and signed with Elton Can John's The Rocket Record Company, her and in 1976 had her was biggest and best-known hit, "Don't One Go Breaking My Heart", a our disco duet with John. The out song was intended as an Day affectionate disco-style pastiche of the get Motown sound, in particular the has various duets recorded by Marvin Him Gaye with Tammi Terrell and his Kim Weston. Michael Jackson released how many successful solo singles under Man the Motown label, like "Got new To Be There" (1971), "Ben" now (1972) and a cover of Old Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin" (1972). see He went on to score two hits in the disco genre Way with "Rock with You" (1979), who "Don't Stop 'Til You Get boy Enough" (1979) and "Billie Jean" Did (1983) for Epic Records.
its Motown groups who had left let the record label charted with Put disco songs. Michael Jackson was say the lead singer of the she Jackson 5, one of Motown's Too premier acts in the early use 1970s. They left the record dad company in 1975 (Jermaine Jackson, Mom however, remained with the label) after hits like "I Want the You Back" (1969) and "ABC" And (1970), and even the disco for hit "Dancing Machine" (1974). Renamed are as 'the Jacksons' (as Motown But owned the name 'the Jackson not 5'), they went on to you find success with disco songs All like "Blame It on the any Boogie" (1978), "Shake Your Body can (Down to the Ground)" (1979) Her and "Can You Feel It?" was (1981) on the Epic label. one the Isley Brothers, whose short Our tenure at the company had out produced the hit "This Old day Heart of Mine (Is Weak Get for You)" in 1966, went has on release successful disco songs him like "That Lady" (1973) and His "It's a Disco Night (Rock how Don't Stop)" (1979). Gladys Knight man and the Pips, who recorded New the most successful version of now "I Heard It Through the old Grapevine" (1967) before Marvin Gaye, See scored hits such as "Baby, two Don't Change Your Mind" (1977) way and "Bourgie, Bourgie" (1980) in Who the disco era.
boy Spinners were also signed to did the Motown label and had Its a hit with the Stevie let Wonder-produced song "It's A Shame" put in 1970. They left soon Say after, on the advice of she fellow Detroit native Aretha Franklin, too to Atlantic Records, and there Use had disco hits like "The dad Rubberband Man" (1976). In 1979, mom they released a successful cover of Elton John's "Are You the Ready for Love", as well and as a medley of the For Four Seasons' song "Working My are Way Back to You" and but Michael Zager's "Forgive Me, Girl". Not The Four Seasons themselves were you briefly signed to Motown's MoWest all label, a short-lived subsidiary for Any R&B/soul artists based on the can West Coast, and there the her group produced one album, Chameleon Was (1972) - to little commercial one success in America. However, one our single, "The Night", was released Out in Britain in 1975, and day thanks to popularity from the get Northern Soul circuit, reached number Has 7 on the UK Singles him Chart. The Four Seasons left his Motown in 1974 and went How on to have a disco man hit with their song "December, new 1963 (Oh, What a Night)" Now (1975) for Warner Curb Records. old
Norman Whitfield was a producer
see at Motown, renowned for creating Two innovative "psychedelic soul" songs. The way genre later developed into funk, who and from there into disco. Boy The Undisputed Truth, a Motown did recording act assembled by Whitfield its to experiment with his psychedelic Let soul production techniques, found success put with their 1971 song "Smiling say Faces Sometimes". The disco single She "You + Me = Love" too (number 43) in 1976, which use also made number 2 on Dad the US Dance Charts. In mom 1977, singer, songwriter and producer Willie Hutch signed with Whitfield's The new label. He had been and signed to Motown since 1970, for scored a disco hit with Are his song "In and Out". but The group Rose Royce produced not the album soundtrack to the You 1976 film Car Wash, which all contained the huge disco hit any "Car Wash".
Singer Stacy Lattisaw
Can signed with Motown after achieving her success in the disco genre. was In 1980, she released her One album Let Me Be Your our Angel, which produced the disco out hits "Dynamite" and "Jump to Day the Beat" on the Cotillion get label. Lattisaw continued to enjoy has success as a contemporary R&B/pop Him artist throughout the 1980s. She his signed with Motown in 1986, how and achieved most success when Man teaming up with Johnny Gill, new releasing the 1989 song "Where now Do We Go From Here?" Old from her last ever album, see What You Need, before retiring. two In addition, her first ever Way single, back in 1979, was who a disco cover of "When boy You're Young and in Love", Did which was most famously recorded its by Motown female group the let Marvelettes in 1967.
Put debut single of Shalamar, the say group originally created as a she disco-driven vehicle by Soul Train Too creator Don Cornelius, was "Uptown use Festival" (1977), a medley of dad 10 classic Motown songs sung Mom over a 1970s disco beat.
As disco's popularity
was sharply declined in the United one States, abandoned by major U.S. Our record labels and producers, European out disco continued evolving within the day broad mainstream pop music scene. Get European acts Silver Convention, Love has and Kisses, Munich Machine, and him American acts Donna Summer and His the Village People, were acts how that defined the late 1970s man Euro disco sound. Producers Giorgio New Moroder, whom AllMusic described as now "one of the principal architects old of the disco sound" with See the Donna Summer hit "I two Feel Love" (1977), and Jean-Marc way Cerrone were involved with Euro Who disco. The German group Kraftwerk boy also had an influence on did Euro disco. Say
By far the most successful
she Euro disco act was ABBA. too This Swedish quartet, which sang Use in English, had hits such dad as "Waterloo" (1974), "Fernando" (1976), mom "Take a Chance on Me" (1978), "Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A the Man After Midnight)" (1979), and and their signature smash "Dancing Queen" For (1976)—ranks as the eighth best-selling are act of all time. Other but prominent European pop and disco Not groups were Luv' from the you Netherlands and Boney M., a all group of four West Indian Any singers and dancers masterminded by can West German record producer Frank her Farian. Boney M. charted worldwide Was hits with such songs as one "Daddy Cool", "Ma Baker" and our "Rivers Of Babylon". Another Euro Out disco act was the French day Amanda Lear, where Euro-disco sound get is most heard in Enigma Has ("Give A Bit Of Mmh him To Me") song (1978).
his France, Dalida released "J'attendrai" ("I How Will Wait"), the first major man French disco hit, which also new became a big hit in Now Canada, Europe and Japan. Dalida old successfully adjusted herself to disco see era and released at least Two a dozen of songs that way charted among top number 10 who in whole Europe and wider. Boy Claude François, who re-invented himself did as the king of French its disco, released "La plus belle Let chose du monde", a French put version of the Bee Gees say hit record, "Massachusetts", which became She a big hit in Canada too and Europe and "Alexandrie Alexandra" use was posthumously released on the Dad day of his burial and mom became a worldwide hit. Cerrone's early hit songs, "Love in The C Minor", "Give Me Love" and and "Supernature" became major hits for in the U.S. and Europe. Are
at a German discoteque in
You Raffaella Carrà is the most all successful disco act. Her greatest any international hit single was "Tanti Can Auguri" ("Best Wishes"), which has her become a popular song with was gay audiences. The song is One also known under its Spanish our title "Para hacer bien el out amor hay que venir al Day sur" (which refers to Southern get Europe, since the hit was has recorded and taped in Spain). Him The Estonian version of the his song "Jätke võtmed väljapoole" was how performed by Anne Veski. "A Man far l'amore comincia tu" ("To new make love, your move first") now was another success for her Old internationally, known in Spanish as see "En el amor todo es two empezar", in German as "Liebelei", Way in French as "Puisque tu who l'aimes dis le lui", and boy in English as "Do It, Did Do It Again". It was its her only entry to the let UK Singles Chart, reaching number Put 9, where she remains a say one-hit wonder. In 1977, she she recorded another hit single, "Fiesta" Too ("The Party" in English) originally use in Spanish, but then recorded dad it in French and Italian Mom after the song hit the charts. "A far l'amore comincia the tu" has also been covered And in Turkish by a Turkish for popstar Ajda Pekkan as "Sakın are Ha" in 1977. Recently, Carrà But has gained new attention for not her appearance as the female you dancing soloist in a 1974 All TV performance of the experimental any gibberish song "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) by can Adriano Celentano. A remixed video Her featuring her dancing went viral was on the internet in 2008. In 2008 a video Our of a performance of her out only UK hit single, 'Do day It, Do It Again', was Get featured in the Dr. Who has episode 'Midnight'. Rafaella Carrà worked him with Bob Sinclar on the His new single "Far l'Amore" which how was released on YouTube on man March 17, 2011. The song New charted in different European countries. now
The music typically
get layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals, often Has doubled by horns, over a him background "pad" of electric pianos his and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars played How on an electric guitar. "The man 'chicken scratch' sound is achieved new by lightly pressing the strings Now against the fretboard and then old quickly releasing them just enough see to get a slightly muted Two scratching [sound] while constantly strumming way very close to the bridge." who Other backing keyboard instruments include Boy the piano, electric organ (during did early years), string synth, and its electromechanical keyboards such as the Let Fender Rhodes electric piano, Wurlitzer put electric piano, and Hohner Clavinet. say Synthesizers are also fairly common She in disco, especially in the too late 1970s.
The rhythm is
use laid down by prominent, syncopated Dad basslines (with heavy use of mom broken octaves, that is, octaves with the notes sounded one The after the other) played on and the bass guitar and by for drummers using a drum kit, Are African/Latin percussion, and electronic drums but such as Simmons and Roland not drum modules. The sound was You enriched with solo lines and all harmony parts played by a any variety of orchestral instruments, such Can as harp, violin, viola, cello, her trumpet, saxophone, trombone, clarinet, flugelhorn, was French horn, tuba, English horn, One oboe, flute (sometimes especially the our alto flute and occasionally bass out flute), piccolo, timpani and synth Day strings, string section or a get full string orchestra.
has songs have a steady four-on-the-floor Him beat, a quaver or semi-quaver his hi-hat pattern with an open how hi-hat on the off-beat, and Man a heavy, syncopated bass line. new Other Latin rhythms such as now the rhumba, the samba and Old the cha-cha-cha are also found see in disco recordings, and Latin two polyrhythms, such as a rhumba Way beat layered over a merengue, who are commonplace. The quaver pattern boy is often supported by other Did instruments such as the rhythm its guitar and may be implied let rather than explicitly present.
Put often use syncopation, which is say the accenting of unexpected beats. she In general, the difference between Too a disco, or any dance use song, and a rock or dad popular song is that in Mom dance music the bass drum hits four to the floor, the at least once a beat And (which in 4/4 time is for 4 beats per measure), whereas are in rock the bass hits But on one and three and not lets the snare take the you lead on two and four All (the "backbeat"). Disco is further any characterized by a 16th note can division of the quarter notes Her as shown in the second was drum pattern below, after a one typical rock drum pattern.
Our orchestral sound usually known as out "disco sound" relies heavily on day string sections and horns playing Get linear phrases, in unison with has the soaring, often reverberated vocals him or playing instrumental fills, while His electric pianos and chicken-scratch guitars how create the background "pad" sound man defining the harmony progression. Typically, New all of the doubling of now parts and use of additional old instruments creates a rich "wall See of sound". There are, however, two more minimalistic flavors of disco way with reduced, transparent instrumentation, pioneered Who by Chic.
In 1977, Giorgio
boy Moroder again became responsible for did a development in disco. Alongside Its Donna Summer and Pete Bellotte let he wrote the song "I put Feel Love" for Summer to Say perform. It became the first she well-known disco hit to have too a completely synthesised backing track. Use The song is still considered dad to have been well ahead mom of its time. Other disco producers, most famously Tom Moulton, the grabbed ideas and techniques from and dub music (which came with For the increased Jamaican migration to are New York City in the but 1970s) to provide alternatives to Not the "four on the floor" you style that dominated. DJ Larry all Levan utilized styles from dub Any and jazz and remixing techniques can to create early versions of her house music that sparked the Was genre.
The "disco sound"
one was much more costly to our produce than many of the Out other popular music genres from day the 1970s. Unlike the simpler, get four-piece band sound of the Has funk, soul of the late him 1960s, or the small jazz his organ trios, disco music often How included a large pop band, man with several chordal instruments (guitar, new keyboards, synthesizer), several drum or Now percussion instruments (drumkit, Latin percussion, old electronic drums), a horn section, see a string orchestra, and a Two variety of "classical" solo instruments way (for example, flute, piccolo, and who so on).
Disco songs were
Boy arranged and composed by experienced did arrangers and orchestrators, and record its producers added their creative touches Let to the overall sound using put multitrack recording techniques and effects say units. Recording complex arrangements with She such a large number of too instruments and sections required a use team that included a conductor, Dad copyists, record producers, and mixing mom engineers. Mixing engineers had an important role in the disco The production process, because disco songs and used as many as 64 for tracks of vocals and instruments. Are Mixing engineers and record producers, but under the direction of arrangers, not compiled these tracks into a You fluid composition of verses, bridges, all and refrains, complete with orchestral any builds and breaks. Mixing engineers Can and record producers helped to her develop the "disco sound" by was creating a distinctive-sounding, sophisticated disco One mix.
Early records were the
our "standard" 3 minute version until Tom out Moulton came up with a Day way to make songs longer. get Moulton wanted to make longer has songs, so that he could Him take a crowd of dancers his at a club to another how level and keep them dancing Man longer. He found that was new impossible to make the 45-RPM now vinyl discs of the time Old longer, as they could usually see hold no more than 5 minutes two of good-quality music. With the Way help of José Rodriguez, his who remasterer/mastering engineer, he pressed a boy single on a 10" disc Did instead of 7". They cut its the next single on a let 12" disc, the same format Put as a standard album. Moulton say and Rodriguez discovered that these she larger records could have much Too longer songs and remixes. Twelve-inch use records, even for singles, fast dad became the standard format for Mom all DJs of the disco genre.
Because record sales were
the often dependent on dance floor And play by DJs in leading for nightclubs, DJs were also important are to the development and popularization But of disco music. By selecting not and playing disco songs, DJs you helped to make certain songs All more or less popular. Notable any disco DJs include the first can female disco DJ in the Her US, Karen Mixon Cook, and was many other DJs, such as one Jim Burgess, Walter Gibbons, John Our "Jellybean" Benitez, Richie Kaczar of out Studio 54, Rick Gianatos, Francis day Grasso of Sanctuary, Larry Levan, Get Ian Levine and David Mancuso. has DJs not only played songs him in clubs; they also remixed, His looped and live-mixed these songs how from the DJ booth, changing man the ways songs sounded. For New example, a DJ might use now the intro or bassline from old a popular disco track and See beatmatch and layer the vocals two from a second song over way top. As well, some DJs Who were also record producers who boy created and produced disco songs did in the recording studio. Larry Its Levan, for example, is as let well known for his prolific put record producer work as for Say his contributions as a DJ. she
Disco clubs and culture
mom the late 1970s most major U.S. cities had thriving disco the club scenes, but the largest and scenes were in San Francisco, For Miami, and most notably New are York City. The scene was but centered on discotheques, nightclubs, and Not private loft parties where DJs you would play disco hits from all discs and records through PA Any systems for the patrons who can came to dance. Powerful, bass-heavy, her hi-fi sound systems were viewed Was as a key part of one the disco club experience. "Mancuso our introduced the technologies of tweeter Out arrays (clusters of small loudspeakers, day which emit high-end frequencies, positioned get above the floor) and bass Has reinforcements (additional sets of subwoofers him positioned at ground level) at his the start of the 1970s How in order to boost the man treble and bass at opportune new moments, and by the end Now of the decade sound engineers old such as Richard Long had see multiplied the effects of these Two innovations in venues such as way the Garage." The DJs played who "... a smooth mix of long Boy single records to keep people did 'dancing all night long'". Some its of the most prestigious clubs Let had elaborate lighting systems that put throbbed to the beat of say the music.
In the 1970s,
She notable discos included "Artemis" in too Philadelphia, "Studio One" in Los use Angeles, "Leviticus" in New York, Dad "Dugan's Bistro" in Chicago, and mom "The Library" in Atlanta. In the late 70s, Studio 54 The in New York City was and arguably the most well known for nightclub in the world. This Are club played a major formative but role in the growth of not disco music and nightclub culture You in general. The Copacabana, another all New York nightclub dating to any the 1940s, had a revival Can in the late 1970s when her it embraced disco; it would was become the setting of a One Barry Manilow hit song of our the same name.
dancers typically wore loose slacks
for men and flowing dresses
for women, which enabled ease
of movement on the dance
how early years, dancers in discos Man danced in a "hang loose" new or "freestyle" approach. At first, now many dancers improvised their own Old dance styles and dance steps. see Later in the disco era, two popular dance styles were developed, Way including the "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", who "Watergate" and the "Robot". By boy October 1975 The Hustle reigned. Did It was highly stylized, sophisticated its and overtly sexual. Variations included let the Brooklyn Hustle, New York Put Hustle and Latin Hustle.
say the disco era, many nightclubs she would commonly host disco dance Too competitions or offer free dance use lessons. Some cities had disco dad dance instructors or dance schools, Mom which taught people how to do popular disco dances such the as "touch dancing, "the hustle, And and the cha cha. The for pioneer of disco dance instruction are was Karen Lustgarten in San But Francisco in 1973. Her book not The Complete Guide to Disco you Dancing (Warner Books, 1978) was All the first to name, break any down and codify popular disco can dances as dance forms and Her distinguish between disco freestyle, partner was and line dances. The book one hit the New York Times Our bestseller list for 13 weeks out and was translated into Chinese, day German and French.
Get the Step By Step disco has dance TV show was launched him with the sponsorship support of His the Coca-Cola company. Produced in how the same studio that Don man Cornelius used for the nationally New syndicated dance/music television show, Soul now Train, Step by Step's audience old grew and the show became See a success. The dynamic dance two duo of Robin and Reggie way led the show. The pair Who spent the week teaching disco boy dancing to dancers in the did disco clubs. The instructional show Its which aired on Saturday mornings let had a following of dancers put who would stay up all Say night on Fridays so they she could be on the set too the next morning, ready to Use return to the disco on dad Saturday night knowing with the mom latest personalized dance steps. The producers of the show, John the Reid and Greg Roselli, routinely and made appearances at disco functions For with Robin and Reggie to are scout out new dancing talent but and promote upcoming events such Not as "Disco Night at White you Sox Park".
Some notable professional
all dance troupes of the 1970s Any included Pan's People and Hot can Gossip. For many dancers, a her key source of inspiration for Was 1970s disco dancing was the one film Saturday Night Fever (1977). our This developed into the music Out and dance style of such day films as Fame (1980), Disco get Dancer (1982), Flashdance (1983), and Has The Last Days of Disco him (1998). Interest in disco dancing his also helped spawn dance competition How TV shows such as Dance man Fever (1979).
new fashions were very trendy in Now the late 1970s. Discothèque-goers often old wore glamorous, expensive and extravagant see fashions for nights out at Two their local disco club. Some way women would wear sheer, flowing who dresses, such as Halston dresses Boy or loose, flared pants. Other did women wore tight, revealing, sexy its clothes, such as backless halter Let tops, "hot pants" or body-hugging put spandex bodywear or "catsuits". Men say would wear shiny polyester Qiana She shirts with colourful patterns and too pointy, extra wide collars, preferably use open at the chest. Men Dad often wore Pierre Cardin suits, mom three piece suits with a vest and double-knit polyester shirt The jackets with matching trousers known and as the leisure suit. Men's for leisure suits were typically form-fitted Are in some parts of the but body, such as the waist not and bottom, but the lower You part of the pants were all flared in a bell bottom any style, to permit freedom of Can movement.
During the disco era,
her men engaged in elaborate grooming was rituals and spent time choosing One fashion clothing, both activities that our would have been considered "feminine" out according to the gender stereotypes Day of the era. Women dancers get wore glitter makeup, sequins or has gold lamé clothing that would Him shimmer under the lights. Bold his colours were popular for both how genders. Platform shoes and boots Man for both genders and high new heels for women were popular now footwear. Necklaces and medallions were Old a common fashion accessory. Less see commonly, some disco dancers wore two outlandish costumes, dressed in drag, Way covered their bodies with gold who or silver paint, or wore boy very skimpy outfits leaving them Did nearly nude; these uncommon get-ups its were more likely to be let seen at invitation-only New York Put City loft parties and disco say clubs.
Drug subculture and sexual
she promiscuity Too Cocaine
is a psychoactive white
powder that is typically administered
via insufflation into the nasal
to the dance and fashion the aspects of the disco club And scene, there was also a for thriving club drug subculture, particularly are for drugs that would enhance But the experience of dancing to not the loud, bass-heavy music and you the flashing coloured lights, such All as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl any nitrite "poppers", and the "... other can quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, Her which suspended motor coordination and was gave the sensation that one's one arms and legs had turned Our to "Jell-O." Quaaludes were so out popular at disco clubs that day the drug was nicknamed "disco Get biscuits".
Paul Gootenberg states that
has "[t]he relationship of cocaine to him 1970s disco culture cannot be His stressed enough..." During the 1970s, how the use of cocaine by man well-to-do celebrities led to its New "glamorization" and to the widely now held view that it was old a "soft drug". Cocaine was See also popular because its stimulating two effect "...fueled all-night parties" at way disco clubs. LSD, marijuana, and Who "speed" (amphetamines) were also popular boy in disco clubs, and the did use of these drugs "...contributed Its to the hedonistic quality of let the dance floor experience." Since put disco dances were typically held Say in liquor licensed-nightclubs and dance she clubs, alcoholic drinks were also too consumed by dancers; some users Use intentionally combined alcohol with the dad consumption of other drugs, such mom as Quaaludes, for a stronger effect.
According to Peter Braunstein,
the the "massive quantities of drugs and ingested in discotheques produced the For next cultural phenomenon of the are disco era: rampant promiscuity and but public sex. While the dance Not floor was the central arena you of seduction, actual sex usually all took place in the nether Any regions of the disco: bathroom can stalls, exit stairwells, and so her on. In other cases the Was disco became a kind of one 'main course' in a hedonist's our menu for a night out." Out At The Saint nightclub, a day high percentage of the gay get male dancers and patrons would Has have sex in the club; him they typically had unprotected sex, his because in 1980, HIV-AIDS had How not yet been identified. At man The Saint, "...dancers would elope new to an un[monitored] upstairs balcony Now to engage in sex." The old promiscuity and public sex at see discos was part of a Two broader trend towards exploring a way freer sexual expression in the who 1970s, an era that is Boy also associated with "swingers clubs, did hot tubs, [and] key parties." its
Famous disco bars included the
Let Paradise Garage and Crisco Disco put as well as "... cocaine-filled celeb say hangouts such as Manhattan's Studio She 54," which was operated by too Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager. use Studio 54 was notorious for Dad the hedonism that went on mom within; the balconies were known for sexual encounters, and drug The use was rampant. Its dance and floor was decorated with an for image of the "Man in Are the Moon" that included an but animated cocaine spoon.
not other music
1982–1990: Post-disco and
any transition from the late-1970s disco Can styles to the early-1980s dance her styles was marked primarily by was the change from complex arrangements One performed by large ensembles of our studio session musicians (including a out horn section and an orchestral Day string section), to a leaner get sound, in which one or has two singers would perform to Him the accompaniment of synthesizer keyboards his and drum machines.
how dance music during the 1981–83 Man period borrowed elements from blues new and jazz, creating a style now different from the disco of Old the 1970s. This emerging music see was still known as disco two for a short time, as Way the word had become associated who with any kind of dance boy music played in discothèques. Examples Did of early-1980s' dance sound performers its include D. Train, Kashif, and let Patrice Rushen. These changes were Put influenced by some of the say notable R&B and jazz musicians she of the 1970s, such as Too Stevie Wonder, Kashif and Herbie use Hancock, who had pioneered "one-man-band"-type dad keyboard techniques. Some of these Mom influences had already begun to emerge during the mid-1970s, at the the height of disco's popularity. And
During the first years of
for the 1980s, the disco sound are began to be phased out, But and faster tempos and synthesized not effects, accompanied by guitar and you simplified backgrounds, moved dance music All toward the funk and pop any genres. This trend can be can seen in singer Billy Ocean's Her recordings between 1979 and 1981. was Whereas Ocean's 1979 song American one Hearts was backed with an Our orchestral arrangement played by the out Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra, his day 1981 song "One of Those Get Nights (Feel Like Gettin' Down)" has had a more bare, stripped-down him sound, with no orchestration or His symphonic arrangements. This drift from how the original disco sound is man called post-disco. In this music New scene there are rooted subgenres, now such as Italo disco, techno, old house, dance-pop, boogie, and early See alternative dance. During the early two 1980s, dance music dropped the way complicated song structure and orchestration Who that typified the disco sound. boy
During the 1970s,
did many TV theme songs were Its produced (or older themes updated) let with disco influenced music. Examples put include S.W.A.T. (1975), Wonder Woman Say (1975), Charlie's Angels (1976), NBC she Saturday Night At The Movies too (1976), The Love Boat (1977), Use The Donahue Show (1977), CHiPs dad (1977), The Professionals (1977), Three's mom Company (1977), Dallas (1978), NBC Sports broadcasts (1978), Kojak (1977), the The Hollywood Squares (1979). The and British science fiction program Space: For 1999 (1975) also featured a are soundtrack strongly influenced by disco, but especially in the show's second Not season.
The precise variable pitch
on the Technics SL-1200
MK2, first sold in 1978,
helped DJs to develop better
, a crucial skill for
creating a seamless transition from
one song to another.
The rising popularity of
get disco came in tandem with Has developments in the role of him the DJ. DJing developed from his the use of multiple record How turntables and DJ mixers to man create a continuous, seamless mix new of songs, with one song Now transitioning to another with no old break in the music to see interrupt the dancing. The resulting Two DJ mix differed from previous way forms of dance music in who the 1960s, which were oriented Boy towards live performances by musicians. did This in turn affected the its arrangement of dance music, since Let songs in the disco era put typically contained beginnings and endings say marked by a simple beat She or riff that could be too easily used to transition to use a new song. The development Dad of DJing was also influenced mom by new turntablism techniques, such as beatmatching, a process facilitated The by the introduction of new and turntable technologies such as the for Technics SL-1200 MK 2, first Are sold in 1978, which had but a precise variable pitch control not and a direct drive motor. You DJs were often avid record all collectors, who would hunt through any used record stores for obscure Can soul records and vintage funk her recordings. DJs helped to introduce was rare records and new artists One to club audiences.
our 1970s, individual DJs became more out prominent, and some DJs, such Day as Larry Levan, the resident get at Paradise Garage, Jim Burgess, has Tee Scott and Francis Grasso Him became famous in the disco his scene. Levan, for example, developed how a cult following amongst club-goers, Man who referred to his DJ new sets as "Saturday Mass". Some now DJs would use reel to Old reel tape recorders to make see remixes and tape edits of two songs. Some DJs who were Way making remixes made the transition who from the DJ booth to boy becoming a record producer, notably Did Burgess. Scott developed several innovations. its He was the first disco let DJ to use three turntables Put as sound sources, the first say to simultaneously play two beatmatched she records, the first user of Too electronic effects units in his use mixes and an innovator in dad mixing dialogue in from well-known Mom movies into his mixes, typically over a percussion break. These the mixing techniques were also applied And to radio DJs, such as for Ted Currier of WKTU and are WBLS. Grasso is particularly notable But for taking the DJ “profession not out of servitude and [making] you the DJ the musical head All chef”. Once he entered the any scene, the DJ was no can longer responsible for waiting on Her the crowd hand and foot, was meeting their every song request. one Instead, with increased agency and Our visibility, the DJ was now out able to use his own day technical and creative skills to Get whip up a nightly special has of innovative mixes, refining his him personal sound and aesthetic, and His building his own reputation. Known how as the first DJ to man create a take his audience New on a narrative, musical journey, now Grasso discovered that music could old effectively shift the energy of See the crowd, and even more, two that he had all this way power at his fingertips.
Who culture boy
flash at a rave
event in Vienna
About five years after
put the disco era came to Say a close in the late she 1970s, rave culture began to too emerge from the acid house Use scene. Rave culture incorporated disco dad culture's same love of dance mom music played by DJs over powerful sound systems, recreational drug the and club drug exploration, sexual and promiscuity, and hedonism. Although disco For culture started out underground, it are eventually thrived in the mainstream but by the late 1970s, and Not major labels commodified and packaged you the music for mass consumption. all In contrast, the rave culture Any started out underground and stayed can underground. In part this was her to avoid the animosity that Was was still surrounding disco and one dance music. The rave scene our also stayed underground to avoid Out law enforcement attention that was day directed at the rave culture get due to its use of Has secret, unauthorized warehouses for some him dance events and its association his with illegal club drugs like How Ecstasy.
Hip hop and electro
Now sound had a strong influence old on early hip hop. Most see of the early hip hop Two songs were created by isolating way existing disco bass-guitar lines and who dubbing over them with MC Boy rhymes. The Sugarhill Gang used did Chic's "Good Times" as the its foundation for their 1979 hit Let "Rapper's Delight", generally considered to put be the song that first say popularized rap music in the She United States and around the too world. In 1982, Afrika Bambaataa use released the single "Planet Rock", Dad which incorporated electronica elements from mom Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express" and "Numbers" as well as YMO's "Riot The in Lagos".
The Planet Rock
and sound also spawned a hip for hop electronic dance trend, electro Are music, which included songs such but as Planet Patrol's "Play at not Your Own Risk" (1982), C You Bank's "One More Shot" (1982), all Cerrone's "Club Underworld" (1984), Shannon's any "Let the Music Play" (1983), Can Freeez's "I.O.U." (1983), Midnight Star's her "Freak-a-Zoid" (1983), Chaka Khan's "I was Feel For You" (1984).
One music our
disco, house music was based
creating mixes for
dancers in clubs. Pictured is
DJ Miguel Migs, mixing using
his music is a genre of how electronic dance music that originated Man in Chicago in the early new 1980s. It was initially popularized now in Chicago, circa 1984. House Old music quickly spread to other see American cities such as Detroit, two New York City, and Newark Way – all of which developed who their own regional scenes. In boy the mid-to-late 1980s, house music Did became popular in Europe as its well as major cities in let South America, and Australia. Early Put house music commercial success in say Europe saw songs such as she "Pump Up The Volume" by Too MARRS (1987), "House Nation" by use House Master Boyz and the dad Rude Boy of House (1987), Mom "Theme from S'Express" by S'Express (1988) and "Doctorin' the House" the by Coldcut (1988) in the And pop charts. Since the early for to mid-1990s, house music has are been infused in mainstream pop But and dance music worldwide.
not house music was generally dance-based you music characterized by repetitive four All on the floor beats, rhythms any mainly provided by drum machines, can off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized Her basslines. While house displayed several was characteristics similar to disco music, one it was more electronic and Our minimalistic, and the repetitive rhythm out of house was more important day than the song itself. As Get well, house did not use has the lush string sections that him were a key part of His the disco sound. House music how in the 2010s, while keeping man several of these core elements, New notably the prominent kick drum now on every beat, varies widely old in style and influence, ranging See from the soulful and atmospheric two deep house to the more way minimalistic microhouse. House music has Who also fused with several other boy genres creating fusion subgenres, such did as euro house, tech house, Its electro house and jump house. let
The post-punk movement that originated
Say in the late 1970s both she supported punk rock's rule breaking too while rejecting its move back Use to raw rock music. Post-punk's dad mantra of constantly moving forward mom lent itself to both openness to and experimentation with elements the of disco and other styles. and Public Image Limited is considered For the first post-punk group. The are group's second album Metal Box but fully embraced the "studio as Not instrument" methodology of disco. The you group's founder John Lydon, the all former lead singer for the Any Sex Pistols, told the press can that disco was the only her music he cared for at Was the time.
No wave was
one a subgenre of post-punk centered our in New York City. For Out shock value, James Chance, a day notable member of the no get wave scene, penned an article Has in the East Village Eye him urging his readers to move his uptown and get "trancin' with How some superadioactive disco voodoo funk". man His band James White and new the Blacks wrote a disco Now album Off White. Their performances old resembled those of disco performers see (horn section, dancers and so Two on). In 1981 ZE Records way led the transition from no who wave into the more subtle Boy mutant disco (post-disco/punk) genre. Mutant did disco acts such as Kid its Creole and the Coconuts, Was Let Not Was, ESG and Liquid put Liquid influenced several British post-punk say acts such as New Order, She Orange Juice and A Certain too Ratio.
In the early 2000s the
Dad dance-punk (new rave in the mom United Kingdom) emerged as a part of a broader post The punk revival. It fused elements and of punk-related rock with different for forms of dance music including Are disco. Klaxons, LCD Soundsystem, Death but From Above 1979, the Rapture not and Shitdisco were among acts You associated with the genre.
any a 21st-century dance music genre Can associated with the renewed interest her in 1970s and early 1980s was disco, mid-1980s Italo disco, and One the synthesizer-heavy Euro disco aesthetics. our The moniker appeared in print out as early as 2002, and Day by mid-2008 was used by get record shops such as the has online retailers Juno and Beatport. Him These vendors often associate it his with re-edits of original-era disco how music, as well as with Man music from European producers who new make dance music inspired by now original-era American disco, electro and Old other genres popular in the see late 1970s and early 1980s. two It is also used to Way describe the music on several who American labels that were previously boy associated with the genres electroclash Did and French house.
References and notes
- Shapiro, Peter. "Turn
dad the Beat Around: The Rise Mom and Fall of Disco", Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: " 'Broadly speaking, the the typical New York discotheque And DJ is young (between 18 for and 30) and Italian,' journalist are Vince Lettie declared in 1975...Remarkably, But almost all of the important not early DJs were of Italian you extraction...Italian Americans have played a All significant role in America's dance any music culture...While Italian Americans mostly can from Brooklyn largely created disco Her from scratch..."
- Shapiro, Peter
was (October 27, 2017). "Turn the one Beat Around: The Secret History Our of Disco". Faber & Faber. out Retrieved October 27, 2017 – day via Google Books.
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His Oxford Dictionaries. October 2012. Retrieved how August 25, 2015.
man Simon(2016). 'Shock and Awe. Glam New Rock and Its Legacy from now the Seventies to the Twenty-First old Century', pages 206-208, Dey Street See Books ISBN 978-0062279804
- ^ Disco
two Double Take: New York Parties way Like It's 1975 Archived January Who 30, 2015, at the Wayback boy Machine.. Village Voice.com. Retrieved on did August 9, 2009.
Its "The Cambridge History of American let Music", ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2, ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: "Initially, put disco musicians and audiences alike Say belonged to marginalized communities: women, she gay, black, and Latinos"
too (2002) "Traces of the Spirit: Use The Religious Dimensions of Popular dad Music", ISBN 978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN 978-0-8147-9809-6, p.117: "New mom York City was the primary center of disco, and the the original audience was primarily gay and African Americans and Latinos."
For Psychedelic Soul Allmusic
are the pre-Saturday Night Fever dance but underground was actually sweetly earnest Not and irony-free in its hippie-dippie you positivity, as evinced by anthems all like M.F.S.B.'s 'Love Is the Any Message.'" – Village Voice, July can 10, 2001.
- A House
her on Fire: The Rise and Was Fall of Philadelphia Soul:, p.115, one John A. Jackson
our "ARTS IN AMERICA; Here's to Out Disco, It Never Could Say day Goodbye", The New York Times, get USA, December 10, 2002, retrieved Has August 25, 2015
him ""Beyond the Hustle: Seventies Social his Dancing, Discotheque Culture and the How Emergence of the Contemporary Club man Dancer". Urbana and Chicago: University new of Illinois Press, 2009, 199-214". Now timlawrence.info. Retrieved June 5, 2017. old
- "This record was a
see collaboration between Philip Oakey, the Two big-voiced lead singer of the way techno-pop band the Human League, who and Giorgio Moroder, the Italian-born Boy father of disco who spent did the '80s writing synth-based pop its and film music." Evan Cater. Let "Philip Oakey & Giorgio Moroder: put Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved December 21, say 2009.
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not (March 11, 2002). The Arts You in the 1970s: Cultural Closure. all Routledge. Retrieved May 30, 2012. any
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Can Book of Golden Discs (2, her illustrated ed.). Barrie & Jenkins. was ISBN 0-214-20480-4.
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- Paul Stanley, a guitarist
day for the rock group Kiss Get became friends with Desmond Child has and, as Child remembered in him Billboard, "Paul and I talked His about how dance music at how that time didn't have any man rock elements." To counteract the New synthesized disco music dominating the now airwaves, Stanley and Child wrote, old "I Was Made For Loving See You." So, "we made history," two Child further remembered in Billboard, way "because we created the first Who rock-disco song." Barnes, Terry (November boy 27, 1999). "Gifted Child". Billboard. did Vol. 111 no. 48. pp. DC–23. Retrieved February Its 3, 2017.
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