mom a musical style that emerged in the mid 1960s and The early 1970s from America's urban and nightlife scene, where it originated for in house parties and makeshift Are discothèques, reaching its peak popularity but between the mid-1970s and early not 1980s. Its initial audiences in You the U.S. were club-goers, both all male and female, from the any African American, Italian American, Latino, Can gay, and psychedelic communities in her Philadelphia and New York City was during the late 1960s and One early 1970s. Disco can be our seen as a reaction against out both the domination of rock Day music and the stigmatization of get dance music by the counterculture has during this period. Several dance Him styles were also developed during his this time, including the Bump how and the Hustle.
Man sound often has several components, new a "four-on-the-floor" beat, an eighth now note (quaver) or 16th note Old (semi-quaver) hi-hat pattern with an see open hi-hat on the off-beat, two and a prominent, syncopated electric Way bass line. In most disco who tracks, string sections, horns, electric boy piano, and electric rhythm guitars Did create a lush background sound. its Orchestral instruments such as the let flute are often used for Put solo melodies, and lead guitar say is less frequently used in she disco than in rock. Many Too disco songs use synthesizers, particularly use in the late 1970s.
dad disco performers include Donna Summer, Mom the Bee Gees, Gloria Gaynor, KC and the Sunshine Band, the the Village People, Thelma Houston, And and Chic. While performers and for singers garnered much public attention, are record producers working behind the But scenes played an important role not in developing the "disco sound". you Many non-disco artists recorded disco All songs at the height of any disco's popularity, and films such can as Saturday Night Fever (1977) Her and Thank God It's Friday was (1978) contributed to disco's rise one in mainstream popularity.
Our late 1970s, most major U.S. out cities had thriving disco club day scenes, where DJs would mix Get a seamless sequence of dance has records. Studio 54, a venue him popular among celebrities, was a His well-known disco club of that how time. Discothèque-goers often wore expensive, man extravagant and sexy fashions. There New was also a thriving drug now subculture in the disco scene, old particularly for drugs that would See enhance the experience of dancing two to the loud music and way the flashing lights, such as Who cocaine and Quaaludes, a drug boy that was so common in did disco subculture that it was Its nicknamed "disco biscuits". Disco clubs let were also sometimes associated with put promiscuity.
Disco was the last
Say mass popular music movement driven she by the baby boom generation. too Disco was a worldwide phenomenon, Use but its popularity drastically declined dad in the United States in mom 1980, and by 1982 it had lost most of its the mainstream popularity in the states. and Disco Demolition Night, an anti-disco For protest held in Chicago on are July 12, 1979, remains the but most well-known of several "backlash" Not incidents across the country that you symbolized disco's declining fortune.
all was a key influence in Any the later development of electronic can dance music and house music. her Disco has had several revivals, Was including in 2005 with Madonna's one highly successful album Confessions on our a Dance Floor, and again Out in 2013 and 2014, as day disco-styled songs by artists like get Daft Punk (with Pharrell Williams Has and Nile Rodgers), Justin Timberlake, him Breakbot, and Bruno Mars—notably Mars' his "Uptown Funk"—filled the pop charts How in the UK and the man US. get
Origins of the term
has and type of nightclub
Him term disco is derived from his discothèque (French for "library of how phonograph records", but it was Man subsequently used as a term new for nightclubs in Paris). By now the early 1940s, the terms Old disc jockey and DJ were see in use to describe radio two presenters. During WWII, because of Way restrictions set in place by who the Nazi occupiers, jazz dance boy halls in Occupied France played Did records instead of using live its music. Eventually more than one let of these jazz venues had Put the proper name discothèque. By say 1959, the term was used she in Paris to describe any Too of these type of nightclubs. use That year, a young reporter dad named Klaus Quirini started to Mom select and introduce records at the Scotch-Club in Aachen, West the Germany. By the following year And the term was being used for in the United States to are describe that type of club, But and a type of dancing not in those clubs. By 1964, you discothèque and the shorthand disco All were used to describe a any type of sleeveless dress worn can when going out to nightclubs. Her In September 1964, Playboy magazine was used the word disco as one a shorthand for a discothèque-styled Our nightclub.
Usage in the United
out Kingdom in the early to day mid-1970s
In 1974 there were
Get an estimated 25,000 mobile discos has and 40,000 professional disc jockeys him in the United Kingdom. Mobile His Discos referred to Disc Jockeys how for hire that brought their man own equipment to office parties, New weddings and the like. "Disco now Dance Music" referred to glam old rock. Simon Reynolds has described See Gary Glitter's Rock and Roll two Part 2 as the first way hybrid disco-rock song.
Who and early history of disco boy music
In Philadelphia, R&B musicians
did and audiences from the Black, Its Italian, and Latino communities adopted let several traits from the hippie put and psychedelia subcultures. They included Say using music venues with a she loud, overwhelming sound, free-form dancing, too trippy lighting, colorful costumes, and Use the use of hallucinogenic drugs. dad Psychedelic soul groups like the mom Chambers Brothers and especially Sly and the Family Stone influenced the proto-disco acts such as Isaac and Hayes, Willie Hutch and the For soul style known as the are Philadelphia Sound. In addition, the but perceived positivity, lack of irony, Not and earnestness of the hippies you informed proto-disco music like MFSB's all album Love Is the Message. Any To the mainstream public M.F.S.B. can stood for "Mother Father Sister her Brother"; to the tough areas Was where they came from it one was understood to stand for our "Mother Fuckin' Son of a Out Bitch", a reference to their day playing skill and musical prowess. get
A forerunner to disco-style clubs
Has was the private dance parties him held by New York City his DJ David Mancuso in The How Loft, a members-only club in man his home in 1970. When new Mancuso threw his first house Now parties, the gay community (members old of whom comprised much of see The Loft's attendee roster) was Two often harassed by police in way New York gay bars and who dance clubs. But at The Boy Loft and many other early, did private discotheques, men could dance its together without fear of police Let action thanks to Mancuso's underground put business model. The first article say about disco was written in She 1973 by Vince Aletti for too Rolling Stone magazine. In 1974, use New York City's WPIX-FM premiered Dad the first disco radio show. mom
Philadelphia soul and New York
soul were evolutions of the The Motown sound, and were typified and by the lavish percussion, lush for string orchestra arrangements and expensive Are record production processes that became but a prominent part of mid-1970s not disco songs. Early songs with You disco elements include "You Keep all Me Hangin' On" (the Supremes, any 1966), "Soul Makossa" (Manu Dibango, Can 1972), "Superstition" by Stevie Wonder her (1972) Eddie Kendricks' "Keep on was Truckin'" (1973) and "The Love One I Lost" by Harold Melvin our and the Blue Notes (1973). out "Love Train" by the O'Jays Day (1972), with M.F.S.B. as the get backup band, topped the Billboard has pop chart in March 1973, Him and has been called "disco". his
disco clubs had lighted dance
floors, with the lights flashing
to complement the beat.
Early disco was dominated
Old by record producers and labels see such as Salsoul Records (Ken, two Stanley, and Joseph Cayre), West Way End Records (Mel Cheren), Casablanca who (Neil Bogart), and Prelude (Marvin boy Schlachter), to name a few. Did The genre was also shaped its by Tom Moulton, who wanted let to extend the enjoyment of Put dance songs—thus creating the extended say mix or "remix", going from she a three-minute 45 rpm single Too to the much longer 12" use record. Other influential DJs and dad remixers who helped to establish Mom what became known as the "disco sound" included David Mancuso, the Nicky Siano, Shep Pettibone, Larry And Levan, Walter Gibbons, and Chicago-based for Frankie Knuckles. Frankie Knuckles was are not only an important disco But DJ; he also helped to not develop house music in the you 1980s, a contribution which earned All him the honourific title of any "Godfather of House".
can DJ was central to the Her ritual of 1970s dance culture, was but the dancing crowd was one no less important, and it Our was the combination of these out two elements that created the day conditions for the dance floor Get dynamic." In disco parties and has clubs, a "...good DJ didn't him only lead dancers...[to the dance His floor,] but would also feel how the mood of the dance man floor and select records according New to this energy (which could now be communicated by the vigor old of the dancing, or level See of the crowd's screams, or two sign language of dancers directed way towards the booth)." Disco-era DJs Who would often remix (re-edit) existing boy songs using reel-to-reel tape machines, did and add in percussion breaks, Its new sections, and new sounds. let DJs would select songs and put grooves according to what the Say dancers wanted, transitioning from one she song to another with a too DJ mixer and using a Use microphone to introduce songs and dad speak to the audiences. Other mom equipment was added to the basic DJ setup, providing unique the sound manipulations, such as reverb, and equalization, and echo effects unit. For Using this equipment, a DJ are could do effects such as but cutting out all but the Not throbbing bassline of a song, you and then slowly mixing in all the beginning of another song Any using the DJ mixer's crossfader. can
Disco hit the television airwaves
her with the music/dance variety show Was Soul Train in 1971 hosted one by Don Cornelius, then Marty our Angelo's Disco Step-by-Step Television Show Out in 1975, Steve Marcus' Disco day Magic/Disco 77, Eddie Rivera's Soap get Factory, and Merv Griffin's Dance Has Fever, hosted by Deney Terrio, him who is credited with teaching his actor John Travolta to dance How for his role in the man film Saturday Night Fever, as new well as DANCE, based out Now of Columbia, South Carolina.
old Rise to the mainstream too
Italian composer Giorgio Moroder
is known as the "Father
mom 1974 to 1977, disco music continued to increase in popularity The as many disco songs topped and the charts. In 1974, "Love's for Theme" by Barry White's Love Are Unlimited Orchestra became the second but disco song to reach number not one on the Billboard Hot You 100, after "Love Train". MFSB all also released "TSOP (The Sound any of Philadelphia)", featuring vocals by Can the Three Degrees, and this her was the third disco song was to hit number one; "TSOP" One was written as the theme our song for Soul Train.
out Hues Corporation's 1974 "Rock the Day Boat", a US number-one single get and million-seller, was one of has the early disco songs to Him reach number one. The same his year saw the release of how "Kung Fu Fighting", performed by Man Carl Douglas and produced by new Biddu, which reached number one now in both the UK and Old US, and became the best-selling see single of the year and two one of the best-selling singles Way of all time with eleven who million records sold worldwide, helping boy to popularize disco music to Did a great extent. Another notable its chart-topping disco success that year let was George McCrae's "Rock Your Put Baby".
In the northwestern sections
Too of the United Kingdom, the use Northern Soul explosion, which started dad in the late 1960s and Mom peaked in 1974, made the region receptive to Disco, which the the region's Disc Jockeys were And bringing back from New York for City. George McCrae's "Rock Your are Baby" became the United Kingdom's But first number one disco single. not
Also in 1974, Gloria Gaynor
you released the first side-long disco All mix vinyl album, which included any a remake of the Jackson can 5's "Never Can Say Goodbye" Her and two other songs, "Honey was Bee" and her disco version one of "Reach Out (I'll Be Our There)", first topped the Billboard out disco/dance charts in November 1974. day Gaynor's number-one disco song was Get "I Will Survive", released in has 1978, which was seen as him a symbol of female strength His and a gay anthem. Also how in the mix, Vincent Montana's man Salsoul Orchestra contributed with their New 1975 Latin-flavored orchestral dance song now "Salsoul Hustle", reaching number four old on the Billboard Dance Chart See and the 1976 songs "Tangerine" two and "Nice 'n' Naasty". way
Formed by Harry Wayne Casey
Who ("KC") and Richard Finch, Miami's boy KC and the Sunshine Band did had a string of disco-definitive Its top-five singles between 1975 and let 1977, including "Get Down Tonight", put "That's the Way (I Like Say It)", "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake she Your Booty", "I'm Your Boogie too Man" and "Keep It Comin' Use Love". Electric Light Orchestra's 1975 dad song "Evil Woman", although described mom as Orchestral Rock, featured a violin sound that became a the staple of disco. In 1979, and however, ELO did release two For "true" disco songs: "Last Train are To London" and "Shine A but Little Love".
In 1975, American singer
all and songwriter Donna Summer recorded Any a song which she brought can to her producer Giorgio Moroder her entitled "Love to Love You Was Baby" which contained a series one of simulated orgasms. The song our was never intended for release Out but when Moroder played it day in the clubs it caused get a sensation. Moroder released it Has and it went to number him 2. It has been described his as the arrival of the How expression of raw female sexual man desire in pop music. A new 17-minute 12 inch single was Now released. The 12" single became old and remains a standard in see discos today.
In 1977 Summer
Two released "I Feel Love", which way combined disco with its subgenre who Hi-NRG and electronic music, was Boy a massive worldwide success. In did 1978, her multi-million selling vinyl its single disco version of "MacArthur Let Park" was number one on put the Billboard Hot 100 chart say for three weeks and was She nominated for the Grammy Award too for Best Female Pop Vocal use Performance. Summer's recording, which was Dad included as part of the mom "MacArthur Park Suite" on her double album Live and More, The was eight minutes and forty and seconds long on the album. for The shorter seven-inch vinyl single Are version of the MacArthur Park but was Summer's first single to not reach number one on the You Hot 100; it does not all include the balladic second movement any of the song, however. A Can 2013 remix of "Mac Arthur her Park" by Summer topped the was Billboard Dance Charts marking five One consecutive decades with a number-one our song on the charts. From out 1978 to 1979, Summer continued Day to release singles such as get "Last Dance", "Bad Girls", "Heaven has Knows", "No More Tears (Enough Him Is Enough)", "Hot Stuff", "Dim his All the Lights", and "On how the Radio", all very successful Man songs, landing in the top new five or better, on the now Billboard pop charts.
Old Gees used Barry Gibb's falsetto see to garner hits such as two "You Should Be Dancing", "Stayin' Way Alive", "Night Fever", "More Than who A Woman" and "Love You boy Inside Out". Andy Gibb, a Did younger brother to the Bee its Gees, followed with similarly-styled solo let singles such as "I Just Put Want to Be Your Everything", say "(Love Is) Thicker Than Water" she and "Shadow Dancing". In 1975, Too songs such as Van McCoy's use "The Hustle" and Summer's version dad of "Could It Be Magic" Mom brought disco further into the mainstream. Other notable early successful the disco songs include The Hues And Corporation's "Rock the Boat" (1974), for Barry White's "You're the First, are the Last, My Everything" (1974), But Labelle's "Lady Marmalade" (1975), Silver not Convention's "Fly Robin Fly" (1975) you and Johnny Taylor's Disco Lady All (1976).
1977–79: Pop pre-eminence
In December 1977, the film
New Saturday Night Fever was released. now It was a huge success old and its soundtrack became one See of the best-selling albums of two all time. The idea for way the film was sparked by Who a 1976 New York magazine boy article titled "Tribal Rites of did the New Saturday Night" which Its supposedly chronicled the disco culture let in mid-1970s New York City, put but was later revealed to Say have been fabricated. Some critics she said the film "mainstreamed" disco, too making it more acceptable to Use heterosexual white males.
dad formed mainly by guitarist Nile mom Rodgers—a self-described "street hippie" from late 1960s New York—and bassist the Bernard Edwards. "Le Freak" was and a popular 1978 single of For theirs that is regarded as are an iconic song of the but genre. Other successful songs by Not Chic include the often-sampled "Good you Times" (1979) and "Everybody Dance" all (1979). The group regarded themselves Any as the disco movement's rock can band that made good on her the hippie movement's ideals of Was peace, love, and freedom. Every one song they wrote was written our with an eye toward giving Out it "deep hidden meaning" or day D.H.M.
How flamboyant and openly gay singer man famous for his soaring falsetto new voice, scored his biggest disco Now song in 1979 – "You old Make Me Feel (Mighty Real)", see and "Dance (Disco Heat)", his Two singing style was said to way have influenced the singer Prince. who At that time, disco was Boy one of the forms of did music most open to gay its performers.
The Village People were
Let a singing/dancing group created by put Jacques Morali and Henri Belolo say to target disco's gay audience. She They were known for their too onstage costumes of typically male-considered use jobs and ethnic minorities and Dad achieved mainstream success with their mom 1978 hit song "Macho Man". Other songs include "Y.M.C.A." (1979) The and "In the Navy" (1979). and
The Jacksons (previously "the Jackson
for 5") did many disco songs Are from 1975 to 1980, including but "Shake Your Body (Down to not the Ground)" (1978), "Blame it You on the Boogie" (1978), "Lovely all One" (1980), and "Can You any Feel It" (1980)—all sung by Can Michael Jackson, whose 1979 solo her album, Off the Wall, included was several disco hits, including the One album's title song, "Rock with our You", "Workin' Day and Night", out and his second chart-topping solo Day hit in the disco genre, get "Don't Stop 'Til You Get has Enough".
Disco's popularity led
who many non-disco pop and some boy rock artists to record disco Did songs at the height of its its popularity. Many of their let songs were not "pure" disco, Put but were instead rock or say pop songs with (sometimes inescapable) she disco influence or overtones. Notable Too examples include funk artist Chaka use Khan's "I'm Every Woman" (1978), dad Earth, Wind & Fire's "September" Mom (1978) and "Boogie Wonderland" with the Emotions (1979), Blondie's "Heart the of Glass" (1979), Cher's "Take And Me Home" (1979), Barry Manilow's for "Copacabana" (1978), David Bowie's "John are I'm Only Dancing (Again)" (1979), But Rod Stewart's "Da Ya Think not I'm Sexy?" (1979), Frankie Valli's you "Swearin' to God" (1975) and All "Grease" (1978, the only disco any song on the soundtrack to can the film of the same Her name), George Benson's "Give Me was the Night" (1980), Diana Ross's one "Love Hangover" (1976), M's "Pop Our Muzik" (1979), Barbra Streisand's "The out Main Event" (1979), Dan Hartman's day "Instant Replay" (1978). The biggest Get hit by Ian Dury and has the Blockheads, best known as him a new wave band, was His "Hit Me with Your Rhythm how Stick" (1978), featuring a strong man disco sound.
Even hard-core mainstream
New rockers mixed elements of disco now with their typical rock 'n old roll style in songs. Progressive See rock group Pink Floyd, when two creating their rock opera The way Wall, used disco-style components in Who their song, "Another Brick in boy the Wall, Part 2" (1979)—which did became the group's only number-one Its single (in both the US let and UK). The Eagles gave put nods to disco with "One Say of These Nights" (1975) and she "Disco Strangler" (1979), Paul McCartney too & Wings did "Goodnight Tonight" Use (1979), Queen did "Another One dad Bites the Dust" (1980), the mom Rolling Stones did "Miss You" (1978) and "Emotional Rescue" (1980), the Electric Light Orchestra's "Shine a and Little Love" and "Last Train For to London" (both 1979), Chicago are did "Street Player" (1979), the but Kinks did "(Wish I Could Not Fly Like) Superman" (1979), the you Grateful Dead did "Shakedown Street", all and the J. Geils Band Any did "Come Back" (1980). Even can hard rock group KISS jumped her in with "I Was Made Was For Lovin' You" (1979). Ringo one Starr's album Ringo the 4th our (1978) features a strong disco Out influence. day was also adopted by "non-pop" get artists, including the 1979 U.S. Has number one hit "No More him Tears (Enough Is Enough)" by his Easy listening singer Barbra Streisand How in a duet with Donna man Summer. Country music artist Connie new Smith covered Andy Gibb's "I Now Just Want to Be Your old Everything" in 1977, Bill Anderson see did "Double S" in 1978, Two and Ronnie Milsap recorded "Get way It Up" and covered Tommy who Tucker's "Hi-Heel Sneakers" in 1979.
The disco sound
Also noteworthy are John Paul
did Young's "Love Is in the its Air" (1977), Patrick Hernandez's "Born Let to Be Alive" (1978), Cheryl put Lynn's "Got to Be Real" say (1978), Evelyn "Champagne" King's "Shame" She (1978), Sister Sledge's "We Are too Family" (1979), Anita Ward's "Ring use My Bell" (1979), Lipps Inc.'s Dad "Funkytown" (1979), Geraldine Hunt's "Can't mom Fake the Feeling" (1980), Alicia Bridges' "I Love the Nightlife" The (1978) and Walter Murphy's various and attempts to bring classical music for to the mainstream, most notably Are his disco song "A Fifth but of Beethoven" (1976), which was not inspired by Beethoven's fifth symphony. You was
Pre-existing non-disco songs and standards
One would frequently be "disco-ized" in our the 1970s. The rich orchestral out accompaniment that became identified with Day the disco era conjured up get the memories of the big has band era—which brought out several Him artists that recorded and disco-ized his some big band arrangements including how Perry Como, who re-recorded his Man 1945 song "Temptation", in 1975, new as well as Ethel Merman, now who released an album of Old disco songs entitled The Ethel see Merman Disco Album in 1979. two
Myron Floren, second-in-command on The
Way Lawrence Welk Show, released a who recording of the "Clarinet Polka" boy entitled "Disco Accordion." Similarly, Bobby Did Vinton adapted "The Pennsylvania Polka" its into a song named "Disco let Polka". Easy listening icon Percy Put Faith, in one of his say last recordings, released an album she entitled Disco Party (1975) and Too recorded a disco version of use his famous "Theme from A dad Summer Place" in 1976. Classical Mom music was even adapted for disco, notably Walter Murphy's "A the Fifth of Beethoven" (1976, based And on the first movement of for Beethoven's 5th Symphony) and "Flight are 76" (1976, based on Rimsky-Korsakov's But "Flight of the Bumblebee"), and not Louis Clark's Hooked On Classics you series of albums and singles. All
Notable disco songs based on
any film and television themes included can a medley from Star Wars, Her "Star Wars Theme/Cantina Band" (1977) was by Meco, and "Twilight Zone/Twilight one Tone" (1979) by the Manhattan Our Transfer. Even the I Love out Lucy theme was not spared day from being disco-ized. Many original Get television theme songs of the has era also showed a strong him disco influence, such as "Keep His Your Eye On the Sparrow" how (theme from Baretta, performed by man Sammy Davis, Jr. and later New a successful single for Rhythm now Heritage), "Theme from S.W.A.T." (from old S.W.A.T, original and single versions See by Rhythm Heritage), and Mike two Post's "Theme from Magnum, P.I.". way
Several parodies of the
Who disco style were created. Rick boy Dees, at the time a did radio DJ in Memphis, Tennessee, Its recorded "Disco Duck" (1976) and let "Dis-Gorilla" (1977); Frank Zappa parodied put the lifestyles of disco dancers Say in "Disco Boy" on his she 1976 Zoot Allures album, and too in "Dancin' Fool" on his Use 1979 Sheik Yerbouti album; "Weird dad Al" Yankovic's eponymous 1983 debut mom album includes a disco song called "Gotta Boogie", an extended the pun on the similarity of and the disco move to the For American slang word "booger". Comedian are Bill Cosby devoted his entire but 1977 album Disco Bill to Not disco parodies.
Reasons for popularity
reflective light disco ball
a fixture on the ceilings
of many discothèques
By the mid-1970s, the United
Was States was dealing with the one aftermath of the Vietnam War our and the Watergate scandal. Also Out by this time the economic day prosperity of the previous decade get had declined, and unemployment, inflation Has and crime rates had soared. him Disco music and disco dancing his provided an escape from these How negative economic issues. As well, man in the 1970s, the key new counterculture of the 1960s, the Now hippie movement, was fading away. old The disco movement was far see more than just music. It Two was also a subculture based way around nightclubs, dance clubs, and who DJs. In Beautiful Things in Boy Popular Culture, Simon Frith highlights did the sociability of disco and its its roots in 1960s counterculture. Let "The driving force of the put New York underground dance scene say in which disco was forged She was not simply that city's too complex ethnic and sexual culture use but also a 1960s notion Dad of community, pleasure and generosity mom that can only be described as hippie," he says. "The The best disco music contained within and it a remarkably powerful sense for of collective euphoria."
Are Roger Ebert called the popular but embrace of disco's exuberant dance not moves an escape from "the You general depression and drabness of all the political and musical atmosphere any of the late seventies." Pauline Can Kael, writing about the disco-themed her film Saturday Night Fever, said was the film and disco itself One touched on "something deeply romantic, our the need to move, to out dance, and the need to Day be who you'd like to get be. Nirvana is the dance; has when the music stops, you Him return to being ordinary."
his Backlash and decline how
Man wearing a
Man Disco Sucks
By the end of the
now 1970s, a strong anti-disco sentiment Old developed among rock fans and see musicians, particularly in the United two States. Disco was criticized as Way mindless, consumeristic, overproduced and escapist. who The slogans "disco sucks" and boy "death to disco" became common. Did Rock artists such as Rod its Stewart and David Bowie who let added disco elements to their Put music were accused of being say sell outs.
The punk subculture
she in the United States and Too United Kingdom was often hostile use to disco (although in the dad UK, many early Sex Pistols Mom fans such as the Bromley Contingent and Jordan quite liked the disco, often congregating at nightclubs And such as Louise's in Soho for and the Sombrero in Kensington. are The track "Love Hangover" by But Diana Ross, the house anthem not at the former, was cited you as a particular favourite by All many early UK Punks. Also, any the film The Great Rock can 'n' Roll Swindle and its Her soundtrack album contained a disco was medley of Sex Pistols songs, one entitled Black Arabs and credited Our to a group of the out same name.) Jello Biafra of day the Dead Kennedys, in the Get song "Saturday Night Holocaust", likened has disco to the cabaret culture him of Weimar-era Germany for its His apathy towards government policies and how its escapism. Mark Mothersbaugh of man Devo said that disco was New "like a beautiful woman with now a great body and no old brains", and a product of See political apathy of that era. two New Jersey rock critic Jim way Testa wrote "Put a Bullet Who Through the Jukebox", a vitriolic boy screed attacking disco that was did considered a punk call to Its arms. Steve Hillage, shortly prior let to his transformation from a put progressive rock musician into an Say electronic artist at the end she of the 1970s with the too inspiration of disco, disappointed his Use rockist fans by admitting his dad love for disco, with Hillage mom recalling "it's like I'd killed their pet cat."
the was expressed in some television and shows and films. A recurring For theme on the show WKRP are in Cincinnati was a hostile but attitude towards disco music. In Not one scene of the 1980 you comedy film Airplane!, a wayward all airplane slices a radio tower Any with its wing, takes out can an all-disco radio station.
her 12, 1979, became known as Was "the day disco died" because one of Disco Demolition Night, an our anti-disco demonstration in a baseball Out double-header at Comiskey Park in day Chicago. Rock-station DJs Steve Dahl get and Garry Meier, along with Has Michael Veeck, son of Chicago him White Sox owner Bill Veeck, his staged the promotional event for How disgruntled rock fans between the man games of a White Sox new doubleheader. The event, which involved Now exploding disco records, ended with old a riot, during which the see raucous crowd tore out seats Two and pieces of turf, and way caused other damage. The Chicago who Police Department made numerous arrests, Boy and the extensive damage to did the field forced the White its Sox to forfeit the second Let game to the Detroit Tigers, put who had won the first say game.
Six months prior to
She the chaotic event (in December too 1978), popular progressive rock radio use station WDAI (WLS-FM) had suddenly Dad switched to an all-disco format, mom disenfranchising thousands of Chicago rock fans and leaving Dahl unemployed. The WDAI, who despite surviving the and backlash and still had good for ratings at this point, continued Are to play Disco until it but flipped to a short-lived hybrid not Top 40/Rock format in May You 1980. Another Disco outlet that all also competed against WDAI at any the time, WGCI-FM, would later Can incorporate R&B and Pop Songs her into the format, eventually evolving was into an Urban Contemporary outlet One that it continues with today. our The latter also helped bring out the house music genre to Day the airwaves, ending the backlash get somewhat with Chicago emerging as has the birthplace of house. Him
On July 21, 1979, the
his top six records on the how U.S. music charts were disco Man songs. By September 22, there new were no disco songs in now the US Top 10 chart, Old with the exception of Herb see Alpert's instrumental "Rise," a smooth two jazz composition with some disco Way overtones. Some in the media, who in celebratory tones, declared disco boy "dead" and rock revived. Karen Did Mixon Cook, the first female its disco DJ, stated that people let still pause every July 12 Put for a moment of silence say in honor of Disco. Dahl she stated in a 2004 interview Too that disco was "probably on use its way out. But I dad think it [Disco Demolition Night] Mom hastened its demise".
The anti-disco backlash,
the combined with other societal and And radio industry factors, changed the for face of pop radio in are the years following Disco Demolition But Night. Starting in the 1980s, not country music began a slow you rise in American main pop All charts. Emblematic of country music's any rise to mainstream popularity was can the commercially successful 1980 movie Her Urban Cowboy. Somewhat ironically, the was star of the film was one John Travolta, who only three Our years before had starred in out Saturday Night Fever, a film day that featured disco culture.
Get this period of decline in has disco's popularity, several record companies him folded, were reorganized, or were His sold. In 1979, MCA Records how purchased ABC Records, absorbed some man of its artists, and then New shut the label down. Midsong now International Records ceased operations in old 1980. RSO Records founder Robert See Stigwood left the label in two 1981 and TK Records closed way in the same year. Salsoul Who Records continues to exist in boy the 2000s, but primarily is did used as a reissue brand. Its Casablanca Records had been releasing let fewer records in the 1980s, put and was shut down in Say 1986 by parent company PolyGram. she
Many groups that were popular
too during the disco period subsequently Use struggled to maintain their success—even dad those that tried to adapt mom to evolving musical tastes. The Bee Gees, for instance, had the only one top-10 entry (1989's and "One") and three more top-40 For songs (despite recording and releasing are far more than that and but completely abandoning disco in their Not 1980s and 1990s songs) in you the United States after the all 1970s, even though numerous songs Any they wrote and had other can artists perform were successful. Of her the handful of groups not Was taken down by disco's fall one from favor, Kool and the our Gang, Donna Summer, the Jacksons—and Out Michael Jackson in particular—stand out: day In spite of having helped get define the disco sound early Has on, they continued to make him popular and danceable, if more his refined, songs for yet another How generation of music fans in man the 1980s and beyond. Earth, new Wind & Fire also survived Now the disco backlash and continued old to produce successful singles at see roughly the same pace for Two several more years, in addition way to an even longer string who of R&B chart hits that Boy lasted into the 1990s.
did contributing to disco's decline Dad
Factors that have been cited
mom as leading to the decline of disco in the United The States include economic and political and changes at the end of for the 1970s, as well as Are burnout from the hedonistic lifestyles but led by participants. In the not years since Disco Demolition Night, You some social critics have described all the backlash as implicitly macho any and bigoted, and an attack Can on non-white and non-heterosexual cultures. her The backlash also made its was way into US politics with One the election of conservative Ronald our Reagan in 1980 which also out led to Republican control of Day the United States Senate for get the first time since 1954, has plus the subsequent rise of Him the Religious Right around the his same time.
In January 1979,
how rock critic Robert Christgau argued Man that homophobia, and most likely new racism, were reasons behind the now backlash, a conclusion seconded by Old John Rockwell. Craig Werner wrote: see "The Anti-disco movement represented an two unholy alliance of funkateers and Way feminists, progressives and puritans, rockers who and reactionaries. Nonetheless, the attacks boy on disco gave respectable voice Did to the ugliest kinds of its unacknowledged racism, sexism and homophobia." let Legs McNeil, founder of the Put fanzine Punk, was quoted in say an interview as saying, "the she hippies always wanted to be Too black. We were going, 'f**k use the blues, f**k the black dad experience'." He also said that Mom disco was the result of an "unholy" union between homosexuals the and blacks.
Steve Dahl, who
And had spearheaded Disco Demolition Night, for denied any racist or homophobic are undertones to the promotion, saying, But "It's really easy to look not at it historically, from this you perspective, and attach all those All things to it. But we any weren't thinking like that." It can has been noted that British Her punk rock critics of disco was were very supportive of the one pro-black/anti-racist reggae genre as well Our as the more pro-gay new out romantics movement. Christgau and Jim day Testa have said that there Get were legitimate artistic reasons for has being critical of disco.
him 1979, the music industry in His the United States underwent its how worst slump in decades, and man disco, despite its mass popularity, New was blamed. The producer-oriented sound now was having difficulty mixing well old with the industry's artist-oriented marketing See system. Harold Childs, senior vice two president at A&M Records, told way the Los Angeles Times that Who "radio is really desperate for boy rock product" and "they're all did looking for some white rock-n-roll". Its Gloria Gaynor argued that the let music industry supported the destruction put of disco because rock music Say producers were losing money and she rock musicians were losing the too spotlight. However, disco music remained Use relatively successful in the early dad 1980s, with songs like Irene mom Cara's "Flashdance... What a Feeling", Michael Jackson's "Thriller", K.C. and the the Sunshine Band's last major and single, "Give It Up", and For Madonna's first album had strong are disco influences. Record producer Giorgio but Moroder's soundtracks to American Gigolo, Not Flashdance and Scarface (which also you had a heavy disco influence) all proved that the style was Any still very much embraced. Queen's can 1982 album, Hot Space was her inspired by the genre as Was well.
In the 1990s, disco
one and its legacy became more our accepted by music artists and Out listeners alike, as more songs day and films were released that get referenced disco. Examples of songs Has during this time that were him influenced by disco included Deee-Lite's his "Groove Is in the Heart" How (1990), U2's "Lemon" (1993), Blur's man "Girls & Boys" (1994) & new "Entertain Me" (1995), Pulp's "Disco Now 2000" (1995), and Jamiroquai's "Canned old Heat" (1999), while films such see as Boogie Nights (1997) and Two The Last Days of Disco way (1998) featured primarily disco soundtracks. who
2000–present: Success of nu-disco and
Boy disco revival
She early 2000s, an updated genre too of disco called "nu-disco" began use breaking into the mainstream. A Dad few examples like Daft Punk's mom "One More Time" and Kylie Minogue's "Love At First Sight" The became club favorites and commercial and successes. Several nu-disco songs were for crossovers with funky house, such Are as Spiller's "Groovejet (If This but Ain't Love)" and Modjo's "Lady not (Hear Me Tonight)", both songs You sampling older disco songs and all both reaching number one on any the UK Singles Chart in Can 2000. Robbie Williams' disco single her "Rock DJ" was the UK's was fourth best-selling single the same One year. Rock band Manic Street our Preachers released a disco song, out "Miss Europa Disco Dancer", in Day 2001. The song's disco influence, get which appears on Know Your has Enemy, was described as being Him "much-discussed". In 2005, Madonna immersed his herself in the disco music how of the 1970s, and released Man her album Confessions on a new Dance Floor to rave reviews. now In addition to that, her Old song "Hung Up" became a see major top-10 song and club two staple, and sampled ABBA's 1970s Way song "Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A who Man After Midnight)". In addition boy to her disco-influenced attire to Did award shows and interviews, her its Confessions Tour also incorporated various let elements of the 1970s, such Put as disco balls, a mirrored say stage design, and the roller she derby.
The success of the
Too "nu-disco" revival of the early use 2000s was described by music dad critic Tom Ewing as more Mom interpersonal than the pop music of the 1990s: "The revival the of disco within pop put And a spotlight on something that for had gone missing over the are 90s: a sense of music But not just for dancing, but not for dancing with someone. Disco you was a music of mutual All attraction: cruising, flirtation, negotiation. Its any dancefloor is a space for can immediate pleasure, but also for Her promises kept and otherwise. It’s was a place where things start, one but their resolution, let alone Our their meaning, is never clear. out All of 2000s great disco day number ones explore how to Get play this hand. Madison Avenue has look to impose their will him upon it, to set terms His and roles. Spiller is less how rigid. 'Groovejet' accepts the night’s man changeability, happily sells out certainty New for an amused smile and now a few great one-liners."
old 2013, several 1970s-style disco and See funk songs charted, and the two pop charts had more dance way songs than at any other Who point since the late 1970s. boy The biggest disco song of did the year as of June Its was "Get Lucky" by Daft let Punk, featuring Nile Rodgers on put guitar. Random Access Memories also Say ended up winning Album of she the Year at the 2014 too Grammys. Other disco-styled songs that Use made it into the top dad 40 were Robin Thicke's "Blurred mom Lines" (number one), Justin Timberlake's "Take Back the Night" (number the 29), Bruno Mars' "Treasure" (number and five) and Michael Jackson's posthumous For release "Love Never Felt So are Good" (number nine). In addition, but Arcade Fire's Reflektor featured strong Not disco elements. In 2014, disco you music could be found in all Lady Gaga's Artpop and Katy Any Perry's "Birthday". Other disco songs can from 2014 include "I Want her It All" By Karmin and Was 'Wrong Club" by the Ting one Tings.
Other top-10 entries from
our 2015 like Mark Ronson's disco Out groove-infused "Uptown Funk", Maroon 5's day "Sugar", the Weeknd's "Can't Feel get My Face" and Jason Derulo's Has "Want To Want Me" also him ascended the charts and have his a strong disco influence. Disco How mogul and producer Giorgio Moroder man also re-appeared with his new new album Déjà Vu in 2015 Now which has proved to be old a modest success. Other songs see from 2015 like "I Don't Two Like It, I Love It" way by Flo Rida, "Adventure of who a Lifetime" by Coldplay, "Back Boy Together" by Robin Thicke and did "Levels" by Nick Jonas feature its disco elements as well. In Let 2016, disco songs or disco-styled put pop songs are showing a say strong presence on the music She charts as a possible backlash too to the 1980s-styled synthpop, electro use house and dubstep that have Dad been dominating the current charts. mom Justin Timberlake's 2016 song "Can't Stop the Feeling!", which shows The strong elements of disco, became and the 26th song to debut for at number-one on the Billboard Are Hot 100 in the history but of the chart. The Martian, not a 2015 film, extensively uses You disco music as a soundtrack, all although for the main character, any astronaut Mark Watney, there's only Can one thing worse than being her stranded on Mars: it's being was stranded on Mars with nothing One but disco music. "Kill the our Lights", featured on an episode out of the HBO television series Day "Vinyl" (2016) and with Nile get Rodgers' guitar licks, hit number has one on the US Dance Him chart in July 2016.
Role of Motown
new was one of the first now Motown artists to embrace the Old disco sound with her successful see 1976 outing "Love Hangover" from two her self-titled album. Her 1980 Way dance classics "Upside Down" and who "I'm Coming Out" were written boy and produced by Nile Rogers Did and Bernard Edwards of the its group Chic. the Supremes, the let group that made Ross famous, Put scored a handful of hits say in the disco clubs without she Ross, most notably 1976's "I'm Too Gonna Let My Heart Do use the Walking" and, their last dad charted single before disbanding, 1977's Mom "You're My Driving Wheel".
the request of Motown that the he produce songs in the And disco genre, Marvin Gaye released for "Got to Give It Up" are in 1978, despite his dislike But of disco. He vowed not not to record any songs in you the genre, and actually wrote All the song as a parody. any Stevie Wonder released the disco can single "Sir Duke" in 1977 Her as a tribute to Duke was Ellington, the influential jazz legend one who had died in 1974. Our Smokey Robinson left the Motown out group the Miracles for a day solo career in 1972 and Get released his third solo album has A Quiet Storm in 1975, him which spawned and lent its His name to the "Quiet Storm" how musical programming format and subgenre man of R&B. It contained the New disco single "Baby That's Backatcha". now Other Motown artists who scored old disco hits include: Robinson's former See group, the Miracles, with "Love two Machine" (1975), Eddie Kendricks with way "Keep On Truckin'" (1973), the Who Originals with "Down to Love boy Town" (1976) and Thelma Houston did with her cover of the Its Harold Melvin and the Blue let Notes song "Don't Leave Me put This Way" (1976). The label Say continued to release successful disco she songs into the 1980s with too Rick James' "Super Freak" (1981), Use and the Commodores' "Lady (You dad Bring Me Up)" (1981).
mom of Motown's solo artists who left the label went on the to have successful disco songs. and Mary Wells, Motown's first female For superstar with her signature song are "My Guy" (written by Smokey but Robinson), abruptly left the label Not in 1964. She briefly reappeared you on the charts with the all disco song "Gigolo" in 1980. Any Jimmy Ruffin, the elder brother can of the Temptations lead singer her David Ruffin, was also signed Was to Motown, and released his one most successful and well-known song our "What Becomes of the Brokenhearted" Out as a single in 1966. day Ruffin eventually left the record get label in the mid-1970s, but Has saw success with the 1980 him disco song "Hold On (To his My Love)", which was written How and produced by Robin Gibb man of the Bee Gees, for new his album Sunrise. Edwin Starr, Now known for his Motown protest old song "War" (1970), reentered the see charts in 1979 with a Two pair of disco songs, "Contact" way and "H.A.P.P.Y. Radio".
who became the first white British Boy singer to sign with Motown did in the US, and released its one album, Great Expectations (1970), Let and two singles "The Day put Will Come Between Sunday and say Monday" (1970) and "Love Makes She The World Go Round" (1971), too the latter giving her first use ever chart entry (number 87 Dad on the US Chart). She mom soon left the company and signed with Elton John's The The Rocket Record Company, and in and 1976 had her biggest and for best-known single, "Don't Go Breaking Are My Heart", a disco duet but with John. The song was not intended as an affectionate disco-style You pastiche of the Motown sound, all in particular the various duets any recorded by Marvin Gaye with Can Tammi Terrell and Kim Weston. her Michael Jackson released many successful was solo singles under the Motown One label, like "Got To Be our There" (1971), "Ben" (1972) and out a cover of Bobby Day's Day "Rockin' Robin" (1972). He went get on to score hits in has the disco genre with "Rock Him with You" (1979), "Don't Stop his 'Til You Get Enough" (1979) how and "Billie Jean" (1983) for Man Epic Records.
Many Motown groups
new who had left the record now label charted with disco songs. Old Michael Jackson was the lead see singer of the Jackson 5, two one of Motown's premier acts Way in the early 1970s. They who left the record company in boy 1975 (Jermaine Jackson, however, remained Did with the label) after successful its songs like "I Want You let Back" (1969) and "ABC" (1970), Put and even the disco song say "Dancing Machine" (1974). Renamed as she 'the Jacksons' (as Motown owned Too the name 'the Jackson 5'), use they went on to find dad success with disco songs like Mom "Blame It on the Boogie" (1978), "Shake Your Body (Down the to the Ground)" (1979) and And "Can You Feel It?" (1981) for on the Epic label. the are Isley Brothers, whose short tenure But at the company had produced not the song "This Old Heart you of Mine (Is Weak for All You)" in 1966, went on any release successful disco songs like can "That Lady" (1973) and "It's Her a Disco Night (Rock Don't was Stop)" (1979). Gladys Knight and one the Pips, who recorded the Our most successful version of "I out Heard It Through the Grapevine" day (1967) before Marvin Gaye, scored Get commercially successful singles such as has "Baby, Don't Change Your Mind" him (1977) and "Bourgie, Bourgie" (1980) His in the disco era.
how Detroit Spinners were also signed man to the Motown label and New saw success with the Stevie now Wonder-produced song "It's a Shame" old in 1970. They left soon See after, on the advice of two fellow Detroit native Aretha Franklin, way to Atlantic Records, and there Who had disco songs like "The boy Rubberband Man" (1976). In 1979, did they released a successful cover Its of Elton John's "Are You let Ready for Love", as well put as a medley of the Say Four Seasons' song "Working My she Way Back to You" and too Michael Zager's "Forgive Me, Girl". Use The Four Seasons themselves were dad briefly signed to Motown's MoWest mom label, a short-lived subsidiary for R&B and soul artists based the on the West Coast, and and there the group produced one For album, Chameleon (1972) – to are little commercial success in the but US. However, one single, "The Not Night", was released in Britain you in 1975, and thanks to all popularity from the Northern Soul Any circuit, reached number seven on can the UK Singles Chart. The her Four Seasons left Motown in Was 1974 and went on to one have a disco hit with our their song "December, 1963 (Oh, Out What a Night)" (1975) for day Warner Curb Records.
get was a producer at Motown, Has renowned for creating innovative "psychedelic him soul" songs. The genre later his developed into funk, and from How there into disco. The Undisputed man Truth, a Motown recording act new assembled by Whitfield to experiment Now with his psychedelic soul production old techniques, found success with their see 1971 song "Smiling Faces Sometimes". Two The disco single "You + way Me = Love" (number 43) who in 1976, which also made Boy number 2 on the US did Dance Charts. In 1977, singer, its songwriter and producer Willie Hutch Let signed with Whitfield's new label. put He had been signed to say Motown since 1970, scored a She successful disco single with his too song "In and Out". The use group Rose Royce produced the Dad album soundtrack to the 1976 mom film Car Wash, which contained the commercially successful song of The the same name.
and Lattisaw signed with Motown after for achieving success in the disco Are genre. In 1980, she released but her album Let Me Be not Your Angel, which spawned the You disco singles "Dynamite" and "Jump all to the Beat" on the any Cotillion label. Lattisaw continued to Can enjoy success as a contemporary her R&B/pop artist throughout the 1980s. was She signed with Motown in One 1986, and achieved most success our when teaming up with Johnny out Gill, releasing the 1989 song Day "Where Do We Go From get Here?" from her last ever has album, What You Need, before Him retiring. In addition, her first his ever single, back in 1979, how was a disco cover of Man "When You're Young and in new Love", which was most famously now recorded by Motown female group Old the Marvelettes in 1967.
see the debut single of Shalamar, two the group originally created as Way a disco-driven vehicle by Soul who Train creator Don Cornelius, was boy "Uptown Festival" (1977), a medley Did of 10 classic Motown songs its sung over a 1970s disco let beat.
are popularity sharply declined in the But United States, abandoned by major not U.S. record labels and producers, you European disco continued evolving within All the broad mainstream pop music any scene. European acts Silver Convention, can Love and Kisses, Munich Machine, Her and American acts Donna Summer was and the Village People, were one acts that defined the late Our 1970s Euro disco sound. Producers out Giorgio Moroder, whom AllMusic described day as "one of the principal Get architects of the disco sound" has with the Donna Summer song him "I Feel Love" (1977), and His Jean-Marc Cerrone were involved with how Euro disco. The German group man Kraftwerk also had an influence New on Euro disco. now old
By far the most
way successful Euro disco act was Who ABBA. This Swedish quartet, which boy sang in English, found success did with singles such as "Waterloo" Its (1974), "Fernando" (1976), "Take a let Chance on Me" (1978), "Gimme! put Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Say Midnight)" (1979), and their signature she smash "Dancing Queen" (1976)—ranks as too the eighth best-selling act of Use all time. Other prominent European dad pop and disco groups were mom Luv' from the Netherlands and Boney M., a group of the four West Indian singers and and dancers masterminded by West German For record producer Frank Farian. Boney are M. charted worldwide with such but songs as "Daddy Cool", "Ma Not Baker" and "Rivers Of Babylon". you Another Euro disco act was all the French Amanda Lear, where Any Euro-disco sound is most heard can in Enigma ("Give A Bit her Of Mmh To Me") song Was (1978).
In France, Dalida released
one "J'attendrai" ("I Will Wait"), which our also became successful in Canada, Out Europe and Japan. Dalida successfully day adjusted herself to disco era get and released at least a Has dozen of songs that charted him among top number 10 in his whole Europe and wider. Claude How François, who re-invented himself as man the king of French disco, new released "La plus belle chose Now du monde", a French version old of the Bee Gees song see "Massachusetts", which became successful in Two Canada and Europe and "Alexandrie way Alexandra" was posthumously released on who the day of his burial Boy and became a worldwide success. did Cerrone's early songs, "Love in its C Minor", "Give Me Love" Let and "Supernature" were successful in put the US and Europe. say
a German discothèque in 1977
In Italy Raffaella
use Carrà is the most successful Dad disco act. Her greatest international mom single was "Tanti Auguri" ("Best Wishes"), which has become a The popular song with gay audiences. and The song is also known for under its Spanish title "Para Are hacer bien el amor hay but que venir al sur" (which not refers to Southern Europe, since You the song was recorded and all taped in Spain). The Estonian any version of the song "Jätke Can võtmed väljapoole" was performed by her Anne Veski. "A far l'amore was comincia tu" ("To make love, One your move first") was another our success for her internationally, known out in Spanish as "En el Day amor todo es empezar", in get German as "Liebelei", in French has as "Puisque tu l'aimes dis Him le lui", and in English his as "Do It, Do It how Again". It was her only Man entry to the UK Singles new Chart, reaching number 9, where now she remains a one-hit wonder. Old In 1977, she recorded another see successful single, "Fiesta" ("The Party" two in English) originally in Spanish, Way but then recorded it in who French and Italian after the boy song hit the charts. "A Did far l'amore comincia tu" has its also been covered in Turkish let by a Turkish popstar Ajda Put Pekkan as "Sakın Ha" in say 1977. Recently, Carrà has gained she new attention for her appearance Too as the female dancing soloist use in a 1974 TV performance dad of the experimental gibberish song Mom "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) by Adriano Celentano. A remixed video featuring her the dancing went viral on the And internet in 2008. In for 2008 a video of a are performance of her only successful But UK single, "Do It, Do not It Again", was featured in you the Doctor Who episode "Midnight". All Rafaella Carrà worked with Bob any Sinclar on the new single can "Far l'Amore" which was released Her on YouTube on March 17, was 2011. The song charted in one different European countries.
Our day His
The music typically
how layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals, often man doubled by horns, over a New background "pad" of electric pianos now and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars played old on an electric guitar. "The See 'chicken scratch' sound is achieved two by lightly pressing the strings way against the fretboard and then Who quickly releasing them just enough boy to get a slightly muted did scratching [sound] while constantly strumming Its very close to the bridge." let Other backing keyboard instruments include put the piano, electric organ (during Say early years), string synth, and she electromechanical keyboards such as the too Fender Rhodes electric piano, Wurlitzer Use electric piano, and Hohner Clavinet. dad Synthesizers are also fairly common mom in disco, especially in the late 1970s.
The rhythm is
the laid down by prominent, syncopated and basslines (with heavy use of For broken octaves, that is, octaves are with the notes sounded one but after the other) played on Not the bass guitar and by you drummers using a drum kit, all African/Latin percussion, and electronic drums Any such as Simmons and Roland can drum modules. The sound was her enriched with solo lines and Was harmony parts played by a one variety of orchestral instruments, such our as harp, violin, viola, cello, Out trumpet, saxophone, trombone, clarinet, flugelhorn, day French horn, tuba, English horn, get oboe, flute (sometimes especially the Has alto flute and occasionally bass him flute), piccolo, timpani and synth his strings, string section or a How full string orchestra.
man songs have a steady four-on-the-floor new beat, a quaver or semi-quaver Now hi-hat pattern with an open old hi-hat on the off-beat, and see a heavy, syncopated bass line. Two Other Latin rhythms such as way the rhumba, the samba and who the cha-cha-cha are also found Boy in disco recordings, and Latin did polyrhythms, such as a rhumba its beat layered over a merengue, Let are commonplace. The quaver pattern put is often supported by other say instruments such as the rhythm She guitar and may be implied too rather than explicitly present.
use often use syncopation, which is Dad the accenting of unexpected beats. mom In general, the difference between a disco, or any dance The song, and a rock or and popular song is that in for dance music the bass drum Are hits four to the floor, but at least once a beat not (which in 4/4 time is You 4 beats per measure), whereas all in rock the bass hits any on one and three and Can lets the snare take the her lead on two and four was (the "backbeat"). Disco is further One characterized by a 16th note our division of the quarter notes out as shown in the second Day drum pattern below, after a get typical rock drum pattern.
has orchestral sound usually known as Him "disco sound" relies heavily on his string sections and horns playing how linear phrases, in unison with Man the soaring, often reverberated vocals new or playing instrumental fills, while now electric pianos and chicken-scratch guitars Old create the background "pad" sound see defining the harmony progression. Typically, two all of the doubling of Way parts and use of additional who instruments creates a rich "wall boy of sound". There are, however, Did more minimalistic flavors of disco its with reduced, transparent instrumentation, pioneered let by Chic.
In 1977, Giorgio
Put Moroder again became responsible for say a development in disco. Alongside she Donna Summer and Pete Bellotte Too he wrote the song "I use Feel Love" for Summer to dad perform. It became the first Mom well-known disco song to have a completely synthesised backing track. the The song is still considered And to have been well ahead for of its time. Other disco are producers, most famously Tom Moulton, But grabbed ideas and techniques from not dub music (which came with you the increased Jamaican migration to All New York City in the any 1970s) to provide alternatives to can the "four on the floor" Her style that dominated. DJ Larry was Levan utilized styles from dub one and jazz and remixing techniques Our to create early versions of out house music that sparked the day genre.
The "disco sound"
Get was much more costly to has produce than many of the him other popular music genres from His the 1970s. Unlike the simpler, how four-piece band sound of the man funk, soul of the late New 1960s, or the small jazz now organ trios, disco music often old included a large pop band, See with several chordal instruments (guitar, two keyboards, synthesizer), several drum or way percussion instruments (drumkit, Latin percussion, Who electronic drums), a horn section, boy a string orchestra, and a did variety of "classical" solo instruments Its (for example, flute, piccolo, and let so on).
Disco songs were
put arranged and composed by experienced Say arrangers and orchestrators, and record she producers added their creative touches too to the overall sound using Use multitrack recording techniques and effects dad units. Recording complex arrangements with mom such a large number of instruments and sections required a the team that included a conductor, and copyists, record producers, and mixing For engineers. Mixing engineers had an are important role in the disco but production process, because disco songs Not used as many as 64 you tracks of vocals and instruments. all Mixing engineers and record producers, Any under the direction of arrangers, can compiled these tracks into a her fluid composition of verses, bridges, Was and refrains, complete with orchestral one builds and breaks. Mixing engineers our and record producers helped to Out develop the "disco sound" by day creating a distinctive-sounding, sophisticated disco get mix.
Early records were the
Has "standard" 3 minute version until Tom him Moulton came up with a his way to make songs longer. How Moulton wanted to make longer man songs, so that he could new take a crowd of dancers Now at a club to another old level and keep them dancing see longer. He found that was Two impossible to make the 45-RPM way vinyl discs of the time who longer, as they could usually Boy hold no more than 5 minutes did of good-quality music. With the its help of José Rodriguez, his Let remasterer/mastering engineer, he pressed a put single on a 10" disc say instead of 7". They cut She the next single on a too 12" disc, the same format use as a standard album. Moulton Dad and Rodriguez discovered that these mom larger records could have much longer songs and remixes. Twelve-inch The records, even for singles, fast and became the standard format for for all DJs of the disco Are genre.
Because record sales were
but often dependent on dance floor not play by DJs in leading You nightclubs, DJs were also important all to the development and popularization any of disco music. By selecting Can and playing disco songs, DJs her helped to make certain songs was more or less popular. Notable One disco DJs include the first our female disco DJ in the out US, Karen Mixon Cook, and Day many other DJs, such as get Jim Burgess, Walter Gibbons, John has "Jellybean" Benitez, Richie Kaczar of Him Studio 54, Rick Gianatos, Francis his Grasso of Sanctuary, Larry Levan, how Ian Levine and David Mancuso. Man DJs not only played songs new in clubs; they also remixed, now looped and live-mixed these songs Old from the DJ booth, changing see the ways songs sounded. For two example, a DJ might use Way the intro or bassline from who a popular disco track and boy beatmatch and layer the vocals Did from a second song over its top. As well, some DJs let were also record producers who Put created and produced disco songs say in the recording studio. Larry she Levan, for example, is as Too well known for his prolific use record producer work as for dad his contributions as a DJ. Mom
Disco clubs and culture
for the late 1970s most major are US cities had thriving disco But club scenes, but the largest not scenes were in San Francisco, you Miami, and most notably New All York City. The scene was any centered on discotheques, nightclubs, and can private loft parties where DJs Her would play disco tracks from was discs and records through PA one systems for the patrons who Our came to dance. Powerful, bass-heavy, out hi-fi sound systems were viewed day as a key part of Get the disco club experience. "Mancuso has introduced the technologies of tweeter him arrays (clusters of small loudspeakers, His which emit high-end frequencies, positioned how above the floor) and bass man reinforcements (additional sets of subwoofers New positioned at ground level) at now the start of the 1970s old in order to boost the See treble and bass at opportune two moments, and by the end way of the decade sound engineers Who such as Richard Long had boy multiplied the effects of these did innovations in venues such as Its the Garage." The DJs played let "... a smooth mix of long put single records to keep people Say 'dancing all night long'". Some she of the most prestigious clubs too had elaborate lighting systems that Use throbbed to the beat of dad the music.
In the 1970s,
mom notable discos included "Artemis" in Philadelphia, "Studio One" in Los the Angeles, "Leviticus" in New York, and "Dugan's Bistro" in Chicago, and For "The Library" in Atlanta. In are the late 70s, Studio 54 but in New York City was Not arguably the most well known you nightclub in the world. This all club played a major formative Any role in the growth of can disco music and nightclub culture her in general. The Copacabana, another Was New York nightclub dating to one the 1940s, had a revival our in the late 1970s when Out it embraced disco; it would day become the setting of a get Barry Manilow song of the Has same name.
typically wore loose slacks for
men and flowing dresses for
women, which enabled ease of
movement on the dance floor.
In the early
old years, dancers in discos danced see in a "hang loose" or Two "freestyle" approach. At first, many way dancers improvised their own dance who styles and dance steps. Later Boy in the disco era, popular did dance styles were developed, including its the "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", "Watergate" Let and the "Robot". By October put 1975 The Hustle reigned. It say was highly stylized, sophisticated and She overtly sexual. Variations included the too Brooklyn Hustle, New York Hustle use and Latin Hustle.
Dad disco era, many nightclubs would mom commonly host disco dance competitions or offer free dance lessons. The Some cities had disco dance and instructors or dance schools, which for taught people how to do Are popular disco dances such as but "touch dancing, "the hustle, and not the cha cha. The pioneer You of disco dance instruction was all Karen Lustgarten in San Francisco any in 1973. Her book The Can Complete Guide to Disco Dancing her (Warner Books, 1978) was the was first to name, break down One and codify popular disco dances our as dance forms and distinguish out between disco freestyle, partner and Day line dances. The book topped get the New York Times bestseller has list for 13 weeks and Him was translated into Chinese, German his and French.
In Chicago, the
how Step By Step disco dance Man TV show was launched with new the sponsorship support of the now Coca-Cola company. Produced in the Old same studio that Don Cornelius see used for the nationally syndicated two dance/music television show, Soul Train, Way Step by Step's audience grew who and the show became a boy success. The dynamic dance duo Did of Robin and Reggie led its the show. The pair spent let the week teaching disco dancing Put to dancers in the disco say clubs. The instructional show which she aired on Saturday mornings had Too a following of dancers who use would stay up all night dad on Fridays so they could Mom be on the set the next morning, ready to return the to the disco on Saturday And night knowing with the latest for personalized dance steps. The producers are of the show, John Reid But and Greg Roselli, routinely made not appearances at disco functions with you Robin and Reggie to scout All out new dancing talent and any promote upcoming events such as can "Disco Night at White Sox Her Park".
Some notable professional dance
was troupes of the 1970s included one Pan's People and Hot Gossip. Our For many dancers, a key out source of inspiration for 1970s day disco dancing was the film Get Saturday Night Fever (1977). This has developed into the music and him dance style of such films His as Fame (1980), Disco Dancer how (1982), Flashdance (1983), and The man Last Days of Disco (1998). New Interest in disco dancing also now helped spawn dance competition TV old shows such as Dance Fever See (1979).
two were very trendy in the way late 1970s. Discothèque-goers often wore Who glamorous, expensive and extravagant fashions boy for nights out at their did local disco club. Some women Its would wear sheer, flowing dresses, let such as Halston dresses or put loose, flared pants. Other women Say wore tight, revealing, sexy clothes, she such as backless halter tops, too "hot pants" or body-hugging spandex Use bodywear or "catsuits". Men would dad wear shiny polyester Qiana shirts mom with colourful patterns and pointy, extra wide collars, preferably open the at the chest. Men often and wore Pierre Cardin suits, three For piece suits with a vest are and double-knit polyester shirt jackets but with matching trousers known as Not the leisure suit. Men's leisure you suits were typically form-fitted in all some parts of the body, Any such as the waist and can bottom, but the lower part her of the pants were flared Was in a bell bottom style, one to permit freedom of movement. our
During the disco era, men
Out engaged in elaborate grooming rituals day and spent time choosing fashion get clothing, both activities that would Has have been considered "feminine" according him to the gender stereotypes of his the era. Women dancers wore How glitter makeup, sequins or gold man lamé clothing that would shimmer new under the lights. Bold colours Now were popular for both genders. old Platform shoes and boots for see both genders and high heels Two for women were popular footwear. way Necklaces and medallions were a who common fashion accessory. Less commonly, Boy some disco dancers wore outlandish did costumes, dressed in drag, covered its their bodies with gold or Let silver paint, or wore very put skimpy outfits leaving them nearly say nude; these uncommon get-ups were She more likely to be seen too at invitation-only New York City use loft parties and disco clubs. Dad
Drug subculture and sexual promiscuity
is a psychoactive white powder
that is typically administered via
insufflation into the nasal cavity.
In addition to
Are the dance and fashion aspects but of the disco club scene, not there was also a thriving You club drug subculture, particularly for all drugs that would enhance the any experience of dancing to the Can loud, bass-heavy music and the her flashing coloured lights, such as was cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite One "poppers", and the "... other quintessential our 1970s club drug Quaalude, which out suspended motor coordination and gave Day the sensation that one's arms get and legs had turned to has "Jell-O." Quaaludes were so popular Him at disco clubs that the his drug was nicknamed "disco biscuits". how
Paul Gootenberg states that "[t]he
Man relationship of cocaine to 1970s new disco culture cannot be stressed now enough..." During the 1970s, the Old use of cocaine by well-to-do see celebrities led to its "glamorization" two and to the widely held Way view that it was a who "soft drug". Cocaine was also boy popular because its stimulating effect Did "...fueled all-night parties" at disco its clubs. LSD, marijuana, and "speed" let (amphetamines) were also popular in Put disco clubs, and the use say of these drugs "...contributed to she the hedonistic quality of the Too dance floor experience." Since disco use dances were typically held in dad liquor licensed-nightclubs and dance clubs, Mom alcoholic drinks were also consumed by dancers; some users intentionally the combined alcohol with the consumption And of other drugs, such as for Quaaludes, for a stronger effect. are
According to Peter Braunstein, the
But "massive quantities of drugs ingested not in discothèques produced the next you cultural phenomenon of the disco All era: rampant promiscuity and public any sex. While the dance floor can was the central arena of Her seduction, actual sex usually took was place in the nether regions one of the disco: bathroom stalls, Our exit stairwells, and so on. out In other cases the disco day became a kind of 'main Get course' in a hedonist's menu has for a night out." At him The Saint nightclub, a high His percentage of the gay male how dancers and patrons would have man sex in the club; they New typically had unprotected sex, because now in 1980, HIV-AIDS had not old yet been identified. At The See Saint, "...dancers would elope to two an un[monitored] upstairs balcony to way engage in sex." The promiscuity Who and public sex at discos boy was part of a broader did trend towards exploring a freer Its sexual expression in the 1970s, let an era that is also put associated with "swingers clubs, hot Say tubs, [and] key parties."
she disco bars included the Paradise too Garage and Crisco Disco as Use well as "... cocaine-filled celeb hangouts dad such as Manhattan's Studio 54," mom which was operated by Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager. Studio the 54 was notorious for the and hedonism that went on within; For the balconies were known for are sexual encounters, and drug use but was rampant. Its dance floor Not was decorated with an image you of the "Man in the all Moon" that included an animated Any cocaine spoon.
Influence on other
1982–1990: Post-disco and dance
one from the late-1970s disco styles our to the early-1980s dance styles Out was marked primarily by the day change from complex arrangements performed get by large ensembles of studio Has session musicians (including a horn him section and an orchestral string his section), to a leaner sound, How in which one or two man singers would perform to the new accompaniment of synthesizer keyboards and Now drum machines.
In addition, dance
old music during the 1981–83 period see borrowed elements from blues and Two jazz, creating a style different way from the disco of the who 1970s. This emerging music was Boy still known as disco for did a short time, as the its word had become associated with Let any kind of dance music put played in discothèques. Examples of say early-1980s' dance sound performers include She D. Train, Kashif, and Patrice too Rushen. These changes were influenced use by some of the notable Dad R&B and jazz musicians of mom the 1970s, such as Stevie Wonder, Kashif and Herbie Hancock, The who had pioneered "one-man-band"-type keyboard and techniques. Some of these influences for had already begun to emerge Are during the mid-1970s, at the but height of disco's popularity.
not the first years of the You 1980s, the disco sound began all to be phased out, and any faster tempos and synthesized effects, Can accompanied by guitar and simplified her backgrounds, moved dance music toward was the funk and pop genres. One This trend can be seen our in singer Billy Ocean's recordings out between 1979 and 1981. Whereas Day Ocean's 1979 song American Hearts get was backed with an orchestral has arrangement played by the Los Him Angeles Symphony Orchestra, his 1981 his song "One of Those Nights how (Feel Like Gettin' Down)" had Man a more bare, stripped-down sound, new with no orchestration or symphonic now arrangements. This drift from the Old original disco sound is called see post-disco. In this music scene two there are rooted subgenres, such Way as Italo disco, techno, house, who dance-pop, boogie, and early alternative boy dance. During the early 1980s, Did dance music dropped the complicated its song structure and orchestration that let typified the disco sound.
During the 1970s, many
say TV theme songs were produced she (or older themes updated) with Too disco influenced music. Examples include use S.W.A.T. (1975), Wonder Woman (1975), dad Charlie's Angels (1976), NBC Saturday Mom Night At The Movies (1976), The Love Boat (1977), The the Donahue Show (1977), CHiPs (1977), And The Professionals (1977), Three's Company for (1977), Dallas (1978), NBC Sports are broadcasts (1978), Kojak (1977), The But Hollywood Squares (1979). The British not science fiction program Space: 1999 you (1975) also featured a soundtrack All strongly influenced by disco, especially any in the show's second season. can
The precise variable pitch control
on the Technics SL-1200 MK2,
first sold in 1978, helped
DJs to develop better beatmatching
a crucial skill for creating
a seamless transition from one
song to another.
The rising popularity of disco
how came in tandem with developments man in the role of the New DJ. DJing developed from the now use of multiple record turntables old and DJ mixers to create See a continuous, seamless mix of two songs, with one song transitioning way to another with no break Who in the music to interrupt boy the dancing. The resulting DJ did mix differed from previous forms Its of dance music in the let 1960s, which were oriented towards put live performances by musicians. This Say in turn affected the arrangement she of dance music, since songs too in the disco era typically Use contained beginnings and endings marked dad by a simple beat or mom riff that could be easily used to transition to a the new song. The development of and DJing was also influenced by For new turntablism techniques, such as are beatmatching, a process facilitated by but the introduction of new turntable Not technologies such as the Technics you SL-1200 MK 2, first sold all in 1978, which had a Any precise variable pitch control and can a direct drive motor. DJs her were often avid record collectors, Was who would hunt through used one record stores for obscure soul our records and vintage funk recordings. Out DJs helped to introduce rare day records and new artists to get club audiences.
In the 1970s,
Has individual DJs became more prominent, him and some DJs, such as his Larry Levan, the resident at How Paradise Garage, Jim Burgess, Tee man Scott and Francis Grasso became new famous in the disco scene. Now Levan, for example, developed a old cult following amongst club-goers, who see referred to his DJ sets Two as "Saturday Mass". Some DJs way would use reel to reel who tape recorders to make remixes Boy and tape edits of songs. did Some DJs who were making its remixes made the transition from Let the DJ booth to becoming put a record producer, notably Burgess. say Scott developed several innovations. He She was the first disco DJ too to use three turntables as use sound sources, the first to Dad simultaneously play two beatmatched records, mom the first user of electronic effects units in his mixes The and an innovator in mixing and dialogue in from well-known movies for into his mixes, typically over Are a percussion break. These mixing but techniques were also applied to not radio DJs, such as Ted You Currier of WKTU and WBLS. all Grasso is particularly notable for any taking the DJ “profession out Can of servitude and [making] the her DJ the musical head chef”. was Once he entered the scene, One the DJ was no longer our responsible for waiting on the out crowd hand and foot, meeting Day their every song request. Instead, get with increased agency and visibility, has the DJ was now able Him to use his own technical his and creative skills to whip how up a nightly special of Man innovative mixes, refining his personal new sound and aesthetic, and building now his own reputation. Known as Old the first DJ to create see a take his audience on two a narrative, musical journey, Grasso Way discovered that music could effectively who shift the energy of the boy crowd, and even more, that Did he had all this power its at his fingertips.
Strobing lights flash
at a rave
About five years after the
use disco era came to a dad close in the late 1970s, Mom rave culture began to emerge from the acid house scene. the Rave culture incorporated disco culture's And same love of dance music for played by DJs over powerful are sound systems, recreational drug and But club drug exploration, sexual promiscuity, not and hedonism. Although disco culture you started out underground, it eventually All thrived in the mainstream by any the late 1970s, and major can labels commodified and packaged the Her music for mass consumption. In was contrast, the rave culture started one out underground and stayed underground. Our In part this was to out avoid the animosity that was day still surrounding disco and dance Get music. The rave scene also has stayed underground to avoid law him enforcement attention that was directed His at the rave culture due how to its use of secret, man unauthorized warehouses for some dance New events and its association with now illegal club drugs like Ecstasy. old
Hip hop and electro
The disco sound
way had a strong influence on Who early hip hop. Most of boy the early hip hop songs did were created by isolating existing Its disco bass-guitar lines and dubbing let over them with MC rhymes. put The Sugarhill Gang used Chic's Say "Good Times" as the foundation she for their 1979 song "Rapper's too Delight", generally considered to be Use the song that first popularized dad rap music in the United mom States and around the world. In 1982, Afrika Bambaataa released the the single "Planet Rock", which and incorporated electronica elements from Kraftwerk's For "Trans-Europe Express" and "Numbers" as are well as YMO's "Riot in but Lagos".
The Planet Rock sound
Not also spawned a hip hop you electronic dance trend, electro music, all which included songs such as Any Planet Patrol's "Play at Your can Own Risk" (1982), C Bank's her "One More Shot" (1982), Cerrone's Was "Club Underworld" (1984), Shannon's "Let one the Music Play" (1983), Freeez's our "I.O.U." (1983), Midnight Star's "Freak-a-Zoid" Out (1983), Chaka Khan's "I Feel day For You" (1984).
house music was based around
creating mixes for dancers
in clubs. Pictured is DJ
Miguel Migs, mixing using DJ-CD
Now is a genre of electronic old dance music that originated in see Chicago in the early 1980s. Two It was initially popularized in way Chicago, circa 1984. House music who quickly spread to other American Boy cities such as Detroit, New did York City, and Newark – its all of which developed their Let own regional scenes. In the put mid-to-late 1980s, house music became say popular in Europe as well She as major cities in South too America, and Australia. Early house use music commercial success in Europe Dad saw songs such as "Pump mom Up The Volume" by MARRS (1987), "House Nation" by House The Master Boyz and the Rude and Boy of House (1987), "Theme for from S'Express" by S'Express (1988) Are and "Doctorin' the House" by but Coldcut (1988) in the pop not charts. Since the early to You mid-1990s, house music has been all infused in mainstream pop and any dance music worldwide.
Can music was generally dance-based music her characterized by repetitive four on was the floor beats, rhythms mainly One provided by drum machines, off-beat our hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized basslines. out While house displayed several characteristics Day similar to disco music, it get was more electronic and minimalistic, has and the repetitive rhythm of Him house was more important than his the song itself. As well, how house did not use the Man lush string sections that were new a key part of the now disco sound. House music in Old the 2010s, while keeping several see of these core elements, notably two the prominent kick drum on Way every beat, varies widely in who style and influence, ranging from boy the soulful and atmospheric deep Did house to the more minimalistic its microhouse. House music has also let fused with several other genres Put creating fusion subgenres, such as say euro house, tech house, electro she house and jump house.
use post-punk movement that originated in dad the late 1970s both supported Mom punk rock's rule breaking while rejecting its move back to the raw rock music. Post-punk's mantra And of constantly moving forward lent for itself to both openness to are and experimentation with elements of But disco and other styles. Public not Image Limited is considered the you first post-punk group. The group's All second album Metal Box fully any embraced the "studio as instrument" can methodology of disco. The group's Her founder John Lydon, the former was lead singer for the Sex one Pistols, told the press that Our disco was the only music out he cared for at the day time.
No wave was a
Get subgenre of post-punk centered in has New York City. For shock him value, James Chance, a notable His member of the no wave how scene, penned an article in man the East Village Eye urging New his readers to move uptown now and get "trancin' with some old superadioactive disco voodoo funk". His See band James White and the two Blacks wrote a disco album way Off White. Their performances resembled Who those of disco performers (horn boy section, dancers and so on). did In 1981 ZE Records led Its the transition from no wave let into the more subtle mutant put disco (post-disco/punk) genre. Mutant disco Say acts such as Kid Creole she and the Coconuts, Was Not too Was, ESG and Liquid Liquid Use influenced several British post-punk acts dad such as New Order, Orange mom Juice and A Certain Ratio.
the the early 2000s the dance-punk and (new rave in the United For Kingdom) emerged as a part are of a broader post punk but revival. It fused elements of Not punk-related rock with different forms you of dance music including disco. all Klaxons, LCD Soundsystem, Death From Any Above 1979, the Rapture and can Shitdisco were among acts associated her with the genre.
Nu-disco is a
one 21st-century dance music genre associated our with the renewed interest in Out 1970s and early 1980s disco, day mid-1980s Italo disco, and the get synthesizer-heavy Euro disco aesthetics. The Has moniker appeared in print as him early as 2002, and by his mid-2008 was used by record How shops such as the online man retailers Juno and Beatport. These new vendors often associate it with Now re-edits of original-era disco music, old as well as with music see from European producers who make Two dance music inspired by original-era way American disco, electro and other who genres popular in the late Boy 1970s and early 1980s. It did is also used to describe its the music on several American Let labels that were previously associated put with the genres electroclash and say French house.
The and notes
and Shapiro, Peter. "Turn the Beat for Around: The Rise and Fall Are of Disco", Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: but " 'Broadly speaking, the typical not New York discothèque DJ is You young (between 18 and 30) all and Italian,' journalist Vince Lettie any declared in 1975...Remarkably, almost all Can of the important early DJs her were of Italian extraction...Italian Americans was have played a significant role One in America's dance music culture...While our Italian Americans mostly from Brooklyn out largely created disco from scratch..." Day
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two and Awe. Glam Rock and Way Its Legacy from the Seventies who to the Twenty-First Century', pages boy 206–208, Dey Street Books ISBN 978-0062279804 Did
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Too History of American Music", ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2, use ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: "Initially, disco musicians dad and audiences alike belonged to Mom marginalized communities: women, gay, black, and Latinos"
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- Psychedelic Soul
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any Night Fever dance underground was can actually sweetly earnest and irony-free Her in its hippie-dippie positivity, as was evinced by anthems like M.F.S.B.'s one 'Love Is the Message.'" – Our Village Voice, July 10, 2001. out
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