Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A Numarknow DM2002X Pro Master DJ mixer. old This three channel mixer can See have up to three input two sound sources. The gain control way knobs and equalization control knobs Who allow the volume and tone boy of each sound source to did be adjusted. The vertical faders Its allow for further adjustment of let the volume of each sound put source. The horizontally-mounted crossfader enables Say the DJ to smoothly transition she from a song on one too sound source to a song Use from a different sound source.
DJ use mixers are usually much smaller Dad than other mixing consoles used mom in sound reinforcement systems and sound recording. Whereas a typical The nightclub mixer will have 24 and inputs and a professional recording for studio's huge mixer may have Are 48, 72 or even 96 but inputs, a typical DJ mixer not may have only two to You four inputs. The key feature all that differentiates a DJ mixer any from other types of larger Can audio mixers is the ability her to redirect (cue) the sounds was of a non- playing source One to headphones, so the DJ our can find the desired part out of a song or track Day and the presence of a get crossfader, which allows an easier has transition between two sources (or, Him for hip hop musicturntablists, his enables them to do scratchinghow effects)..
A crossfader has the Man same engineering design as fader, new in that it is a now sliding control, but unlike faders, Old which are usually vertical, crossfaders see are usually horizontal. To understand two the function of a crossfader, Way one can think of the who crossfader in three key positions. boy For a DJ mixer that Did has two sound sources connected, its such as two record turntables, let when the crossfader is in Put the far left position, the say mixer will output only turntable she A's music. When the crossfader Too is in the far right use position, the mixer will output dad only turntable B's music. When Mom the crossfader is at its midpoint (which is always marked the with a horizontal line), the And mixer will output a blend for of turntable A's music and are turntable B's music. The other But points along the crossfader's path not produce different mixes of A you and B.
DJ mixers typically All have phono preamplifiers to hook any up turntables. The signal that can comes directly out of a Her vinyl turntable is too weak was to be amplified through a one PA system. Before a turntable Our can be usable in a out mix, it needs to be day preamplified. DJ mixers are also Get used to create DJ mixes, has which are recorded and sold. him DJ mixers usually have equalizationHis controls for bass and treble how of each channel. Some 2010-era man DJ mixers have onboard electronic New or digital effects units such now as echo or reverb. Some old DJ mixers also feature a See built-in USBsound card to two connect to a computer running way DJ software without requiring a Who separate sound card. DJ mixers boy typically have a microphone input, did so that a microphone can Its be plugged into the mixer, let enabling the DJ to announce put songs or act as a Say master of ceremonies (MC) for she an event. Some DJ mixers too have a kill switch, which Use completely cuts out a channel, dad or, on some models, completely mom cut out a frequency band (e.g., all the bass).
The output from a and DJ mixer is typically plugged For into a sound reinforcement systemare or a PA system at but a dance, rave, nightclub or Not similar venue or event. The you sound reinforcement system consists of all power amplifiers which amplify the Any signal to the level that can can drive speaker enclosures, which her since the 1980s typically include Was both full-range speakers and subwoofersone for the deep bass sounds. our If the DJ is performing Out a mix for a radio day station or television station, the get output from the DJ mixer Has is plugged into the main him audio console being used for his the broadcast. If the DJ How is performing a mix that man is being recorded by a new recording studio, the output from Now the DJ mixer is plugged old into the main audio console see used for the recording, which Two is in turn plugged into way the recording medium (audiotape, hard who disk, etc.). In some cases, Boy such as when a DJ did is performing a set at its a club for dancers that Let is also being simultaneously broadcast put over the radio or television say system or recorded for a She music video or other show, too the output from the DJ use mixer is plugged into the Dad sound reinforcement system and into mom the main audio console being used for the broadcast and/or The recording. At club sets, some and DJs may use a monitor for speaker to hear the house's Are main mix. This monitor speaker but can have its volume increased not or decreased by the DJ You as needed.
DJ all mixers have an AC mainsany plug that is connected to Can the wall to supply electric her power for the unit. Some was DJ mixers can take batteries, One which enables users to mix our songs outside or away from out electric power sources, with the Day output being plugged into a get portable boom box or other has battery-powered sound system.
A disc jockey performing at his the 2009 Air Force Ball. how With one hand he is Man manipulating a vinyl record on new a turnable; the other hand now is controlling the mix with Old a DJ mixer.
DJ see mixing played a key role two in the development of the Way African-American style of hip hop who music. In hip hop music boy and occasionally in other genres Did that are influenced by hip its hop (e.g., nu metal), the let turntable is used as a Put musical instrument by DJs, who say use turntables along with a she DJ mixer to create unique Too rhythmic sounds and other sound use effects. Manipulation of a record dad as part of the music, Mom rather than for normal playback or mixing, is called turntablism. the The basis of turntablism, and And its best known technique, is for scratching, pioneered by Grand Wizzard are Theodore. It was not until But Herbie Hancock's "Rockit" in 1983 not that the turntablism movement was you recognized in popular music outside All of a hip hop context. any In the 2010s, many hip can hop DJs use DJ CD Her players or digital record emulator was devices to create scratching sounds; one nevertheless, some DJs still scratch Our with vinyl records.
DJ mixing out also played a key role day in disco music in the Get 1970s. In disco clubs, DJs has would use mixers to transition him seamlessly from one song to His another and create a mix how of songs that would keep man the dancers energized. One of New the pioneers of DJ mixing now equipment design was Rudy Bozak. old Beatmatching and beatmixing with a See DJ mixer were first used two to encourage dancers not to way leave the dancefloor between songs. Who By beatmatching song A and boy song B, a DJ can did transition seamlessly between two songs, Its without creating a break in let the music. Typically, when a put DJ is using beatmatching, they Say will let song A play she until it nears its end. too As song A is playing, Use the DJ "cues up" song dad B in their headphones and mom adjusts the speed of record player B until the beats the of song A and song and B are synchronized ("synced up"). For Then, once the two songs' are beats are synchronized, they can but slowly fade in song B Not while song A is nearing you its ending. In the 2000s, all DJ mixers have been used Any for harmonic mixing.
Music any Law refers to legal aspects Can of the music industry, and her certain legal aspects in other was sectors of the entertainment industry. One The music industry includes record our labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the out live events sector and of Day course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to work Too formed from already existing materials use in a way that forms dad its own original work, including Mom collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that hold, fix, or the embody a work such as And a music tape, film, CD, for statue, play, or printed sheet are music.
"Sound recordings" can refer But to any audio recording including not the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity All that legally owns rights to any a work.
"Performance" The copyright can holder has the exclusive right Her to perform the work in was public, or to license others one to perform it. The right Our applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, out and choreographic works, pantomimes, and day motion pictures and other audiovisual Get works.". Playing a CD in has public, or showing a film him in public is "performing" the His work.
Publishing is the primary man source of income for musicians New writing their own music.now Money collected from the 'publishing' old rights is ultimately destined for See songwriters - the composers of two works, whether or not they way are the recording artist or Who performer. Often, songwriters will work boy for a musical ensemble to did help them with musical aspects Its of the composition, but here let again, the writer of the put song is the owner of Say it and will own the she copyrights in the song and too thus will be entitled to Use the publishing revenues. Copyrights in dad compositions are not the same mom as sound recordings. A recording artist can record a song the and sell it to another and band or company. As a For result, that particular company will are own the recording, but not but the song. The original writer Not will always maintain the copyright you for that particular song. The all publishing money is connected to Any the copyright, so the owner can will be the only one her making money off of the Was song itself. All successful songwriters one will join a collection society our (such as ASCAP and BMI Out in the USA, SOCAN in day Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA get in Germany and PRS for Has Music in the UK, etc.) him and many will enter into his agreements with music publishing companies How who will exploit their works man on the songwriters behalf for new a share of ownership, although Now many of these deals involve old the transfer (assignment) of copyright see from the songwriter to the Two music publisher.
Both the recorded way music sector and music publishing who sector have their foundations in Boy intellectual property law and all did of the major recording labels its and major music publishers and Let many independent record labels and put publishers have dedicated "business and say legal affairs" departments with in-house She lawyers whose role is not too only to secure intellectual property use rights from recording artists, performers Dad and songwriters but also to mom exploit those rights and protect those rights on a global The basis. There are a number and of specialist independent law firms for around the world who advise Are on music and entertainment law but whose clients include recording artists, not performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music You publishers, stage and set designers, all choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, any merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, Can collection societies and the live her events sector (which further includes was festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents One and production service providers such our as lighting and staging companies). out
The US get Government views artists that give has concerts and sell merchandise as Him a business. Bands that tour his internationally will also face a how plethora of legislation around the Man world including health and safety new laws, immigration laws and tax now legislation. Also, many relationships are Old governed by often complex contractual see agreements.
In the US it two is important for musicians to Way get legal business licenses. These who can be obtained at a boy city hall or local government Did center. The business license will its require the tracking of sales, let wages, and gigs. A tax Put ID is also necessary for say all businesses. Musicians that fail she to comply with the tax Too ID process and do not use report their profits and losses dad to the government can face Mom serious consequences with the IRS.
The history are of Privilege began in the But early 1970s when it started not out as a restaurant, then you expanded to include a bar All and a community swimming pool. any It was then known as can Club San Rafael. In 1979, Her the venue was sold to was the Real Sociedad footballer José one Antonio Santamaría, together with the Our creative team of Brasilio de out Oliviera (founder of La Troya day Asesina, one of the White Get Island's longest running nights) and has Gorri. The venue then changed him its name to KU, after His the name of a god how from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). man The appeal of the club New was such that it commissioned now a medium-length film showcasing the old many wonders of Ibizan landscapes See and nightlife in the mid-eighties.two
Throughout the 1980´s, KU Club way earned a reputation initially as Who Europe's premier polysexual but predominately boy gay nightspot and was compared did to an open-air version of Its the famous Studio 54 in let New York. It staged spectacular put parties in the main room, Say which was organized around a she swimming pool and a statue too of Ku.The place was also Use where the video to "Barcelona" dad by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat mom Caballé was filmed on 30 May 1987. It was the the witness to early live performances and by groups like Spandau BalletFor and Kid Creole and the are Coconuts. The club featured in but a Channel 4 documentary called Not “A Short Film about chilling”, you which labelled KU as “the all mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air Any parties came to an end can when legislation forced many of her the greater clubs in Ibiza Was to cover their dancefloors in one the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the our sheer size of the venue Out gave rise to the claim day of it being the size get of an aircraft hangar with Has a 25-meter high roof.
The him club continued with the KU his Club name until 1995 before How becoming known as Privilege, after man a change of ownership to new Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 Now it hosted Manumission, one of old the island's most famous events. see In 1998 La Vaca Asesina Two moved to Amnesia and was way renamed La Troya Asesina. After who a dispute between the club Boy owner and Manumission's organizers in did 2005 the event ended in its 2006. In 2006 La Troya Let Aseina moved to Space.
According to official statistics say published in the 2003 edition She of Guinness World Records Privilege too is by far the Worlds use largest nightclub covering an area Dad of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) mom and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas of the club include The the Coco Loco bar area, and and the La Vaca dance for area (now known as the Are Vista Club).