Ambient music is a genre
old of music that puts an See emphasis on tone and atmosphere two over traditional musical structure or way rhythm. Ambient music is said Who to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual", boy or "unobtrusive" quality. According to did Brian Eno, one of its Its pioneers, "Ambient music must be let able to accommodate many levels put of listening attention without enforcing Say one in particular; it must she be as ignorable as it too is interesting."
As a genre,
Use it originated in the United dad Kingdom in the 1970s, when mom new sound-making devices were being introduced to a wider market, the such as the synthesizer. The and work of Tangerine Dream, Cluster, For King Tubby, and composer Erik are Satie, as well as the but psychoacoustic soundscapes of Irv Teibel's Not Environments series, were all influences you on the emergence of ambient. all Brian Eno named and popularized Any ambient music in 1978 with can his album Ambient 1: Music her for Airports. Artists such as Was The Orb and Aphex Twin one gained commercial success with ambient our tracks in the early 1990s. Out Ambient compositions are often quite day lengthy, much longer than more get popular, commercial forms of music. Has
Ambient had a revival towards
him the late 1980s with the his prominence of house and techno How music. Eventually, ambient grew a man cult following in the 1990s. new By the early 1990s, artists Now such as Aphex Twin were old being called ambient house, ambient see techno, or "ambient" by the Two media. Genre offshoots include dark way ambient, ambient dub, psybient, and who ambient trance.
Precursors and origins
Developing in the
One 1970s, ambient stemmed from the our experimental and synthesizer-oriented styles of out the period. Although Jamaican dub Day musicians such as King Tubby, get Japanese electronic music composers such has as Isao Tomita, and German Him bands such as Popol Vuh his and Tangerine Dream, predate him how in the creation of ambient Man music and/or were contemporaneous with new him, Brian Eno played a now key role in its development Old and popularization, and is often see erroneously cited as two ambient's founder. The concept of Way background or furniture music had who already existed some time before, boy but only in the 70s Did was ambient music first created, its which incorporated New Age ideals let with the newly invented modular Put synthesizer. The impact the rise say of the synthesizer in modern she music had on ambient as Too a genre cannot be overstated; use as Ralf Hutter of early dad electronic pioneers Kraftwerk said in Mom a 1977 Billboard interview: "Electronics is beyond nations and colors...with the electronics everything is possible. The And only limit is with the for composer". Similarly, Eno said in are a 2013 interview with The But Guardian that "One of the not important things about the synthesizer you was that it came without All any baggage. A piano comes any with a whole history of can music...when you play an instrument Her that does not have any was such historical background you are one designing sound basically. You're designing Our a new instrument. That's what out a synthesizer is essentially. It's day a constantly unfinished instrument. You Get finish it when you tweak has it, and play around with him it, and decide how to His use it. You can combine how a number of cultural references man into one new thing."
New a genre, ambient music usually now focuses on creating a mood old or atmosphere through synthesizers and See timbral qualities. It often lacks two the presence of any net way composition, beat, or structured melody. Who Due to its relatively open boy style, ambient music often takes did influences from many other genres, Its ranging from house, dub, industrial let and new age, amongst several put others.
Ambient did not achieve
Say large commercial success, being criticized she as having a "boring" and too "over-intellectual" sound. Nevertheless, it has Use also attained a certain degree dad of acclaim throughout the years. mom It had its first wave of popularity in the 1970s, the yet saw a revival towards and the late 1980s with the For prominence of house and techno are music, growing a cult following but by the 1990s.
Not early 20th-century French composer, Erik you Satie used such Dadaist-inspired explorations all to create an early form Any of ambient / background music can that he labeled "furniture music" her (Musique d'ameublement). This he described Was as being the sort of one music that could be played our during a dinner to create Out a background atmosphere for that day activity, rather than serving as get the focus of attention. In Has his own words, he sought him to create "a music...which will his be part of the noises How of the environment, will take man them into consideration. I think new of it as melodious, softening Now the noises of the knives old and forks at dinner, not see dominating them, not imposing itself. Two It would fill up those way heavy silences that sometime fall who between friends dining together. It Boy would spare them the trouble did of paying attention to their its own banal remarks. And at Let the same time it would put neutralize the street noises which say so indiscreetly enter into the She play of conversation. To make too such music would be to use respond to a need." Like Dad Satie describes, Brian Eno notes mom a time when he was too sick to put on The music and got a friend and to come over and do for it for him. Listening to Are harp music on an old but stereo, he was unable to not hear it amidst the loud You sounds of the rain outside all his window. Initially this frustrated any him, but eventually he found Can it interesting the way the her music blended with the natural was rain sounds in a way One that made it not distinctly our apparent, and he set out out to create compositions that worked Day in a comparable way. Eno get went on to record 1975's has Discreet Music with this in Him mind, suggesting that it be his listened to at "comparatively low how levels, even to the extent Man that it frequently falls below new the threshold of audibility", referring now to Satie's quote about his Old musique d'ameublement.
Eno's 1973 collaboration
see with Robert Fripp (No Pussyfooting) two can be seen as Way an early experiment in ambient who music. Through the manipulation of boy reel-to-reel tape loops by Eno Did while Fripp played guitar over its them, the duo was able let to create multi-layered and dynamic Put pieces whose textures are similar say to those of later ambient she pieces, the genre not to Too be popularized by Eno until use years later. Their method of dad composition, involving the treatment and Mom experimentation of loops, would prove influential and has since been the emulated by modern artists such And as William Basinski, whose work for The Disintegration Loops consists of are a series of tape loops But that slowly deteriorate as the not songs progress, introducing noise and you cracks to the initially pristine All quality of sound. any
Erik Satie is
acknowledged as an important precursor
to modern ambient music and
influence to Brian Eno.
Brian Eno is generally
Our credited with coining the term out "Ambient Music" in the mid-1970s day to refer to music that, Get as he stated, can be has either "actively listened to with him attention or as easily ignored, His depending on the choice of how the listener", and that exists man on the "cusp between melody New and texture". Eno, who describes now himself as a "non-musician", termed old his experiments in sound as See "treatments" rather than as traditional two performances. Eno used the word way "ambient" to describe music that Who creates an atmosphere that puts boy the listener into a different did state of mind; having chosen Its the word based on the let Latin term "ambire", "to surround". put
The album notes accompanying Eno's
Say 1978 release Ambient 1: Music she for Airports include a manifesto too describing the philosophy behind his Use ambient music: "Ambient Music must dad be able to accommodate many mom levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular; it the must be as ignorable as and it is interesting."
For acknowledged the influence of Erik are Satie and John Cage. In but particular, Eno was aware of Not Cage's use of chance such you as throwing the I Ching all to directly affect the creation Any of a musical composition. Eno can then utilised a similar method her of weaving randomness into his Was compositional structures. This approach was one manifested in Eno's creation of our Oblique Strategies, where he used Out a set of specially designed day cards to create various sound get dilemmas that in turn, were Has resolved by exploring various open him ended paths, until a resolution his to the musical composition revealed How itself. Eno also acknowledged influences man of the drone music of new La Monte Young (of whom Now he said, "La Monte Young old is the daddy of us see all") and of the mood Two music of Miles Davis and way Teo Macero, especially their 1974 who epic piece, "He Loved Him Boy Madly" (from Get Up with did It), about which Eno wrote, its "that piece seemed to have Let the 'spacious' quality that I put was after...it became a touchstone say to which I returned frequently." She
Eno has also been outspoken
too about the role of the use recording studio in ambient music, Dad notably in the freedom it mom gives in crafting textures of sound. He notes "When I The first started recording I didn't and have the background of a for musician, and in fact it Are was only because of the but recording studio and because of not the technology that existed there You that I was ever able all to become a musician of any any kind...the recording studio allows Can you to become a painter her with sound, that's really what was you do in a studio, One you make pictures with sound..." our
Beyond the major influence of
out Brian Eno, other musicians and Day bands added to the growing get nucleus of music that evolved has around the development of "Ambient Him Music". While not an exhaustive his list, one cannot ignore the how parallel influences of Wendy Carlos, Man who produced the original music new piece called "Timesteps" which was now then used as the filmscore Old to A Clockwork Orange, as see well as her later work two Sonic Seasonings. Other significant artists Way such as Mike Oldfield, Jean who Michel Jarre and Vangelis, also boy Russian electronic music pioneer Mikhail Did Chekalin, have all added to its or directly influenced the evolution let of ambient music. Pink Floyd's Put last album The Endless River say falls into the ambient genre. she The Yellow Magic Orchestra developed Too a distinct style of ambient use electronic music that would later dad be developed into ambient house Mom music.
While muzak can be
seen akin to ambient music the in that they are both And meant to be heard in for the background, Eno describes some are notable differences between them: "Whereas But the extant canned music companies not proceed from the basis of you regularizing environments by blanketing their All acoustic and atmospheric idiosyncrasies, Ambient any Music is intended to enhance can these. Whereas conventional background music Her is produced by stripping away was all sense of doubt and one uncertainty (and thus all genuine Our interest) from the music, Ambient out Music retains these qualities. And day whereas their intention is to Get "brighten" the environment by adding has stimulus to it...Ambient Music is him intended to produce calm and His a space to think."
how developments man
By the early 1990s, artists
New such as The Orb, Aphex now Twin, Seefeel, the Irresistible Force, old Geir Jenssen's Biosphere, and the See Higher Intelligence Agency were being two referred to by the popular way music press as ambient house, Who ambient techno, IDM or simply boy "ambient" according to the liner did notes of Brian Eno's Ambient Its 1: Music for Airports:
|“ ||Ambient Music is |put intended to induce calm and Say a space to think. |” |she
So-called 'Chillout' began
too as a term deriving from Use British ecstasy culture which was dad originally applied in relaxed downtempo mom 'chillout rooms' outside of the main dance floor where ambient, the dub and downtempo beats were and played to ease the tripping For mind.
The London scene artists,
are such as Aphex Twin (specifically: but Selected Ambient Works Volume II, Not 1994), Global Communication (76:14, 1994), you The Future Sound of London all (Lifeforms, 1994, ISDN, 1994), The Any Black Dog (Temple of Transparent can Balls, 1993), Autechre (Incunabula, 1993, her Amber, 1994), Boards of Canada, Was and The KLF's seminal Chill one Out, 1990, all took a our part in popularising and diversifying Out ambient music where it was day used as a calming respite get from the intensity of the Has hardcore and techno popular at him that time.
Related and derivative
Ambient dub involves
man the genre melding of dub new styles. It was pioneered by Now King Tubby and other Jamaican old sound artists from the 1960s see to the early 1970s, using Two DJ-inspired ambient electronica, complete with way all the inherent drop-outs, echo, who equalization and psychedelic electronic effects. Boy It often features layering techniques did and incorporates elements of world its music, deep bass lines and Let harmonic sounds. According to David put Toop, "Dub music is like say a long echo delay, looping She through time...turning the rational order too of musical sequences into an use ocean of sensation." Notable artists Dad within the genre include Dreadzone, mom Higher Intelligence Agency, The Orb, Ott, Loop Guru, Woob and The Transglobal Underground as well as and Banco de Gaia.
Are house is a musical category but founded in the late 1980s not that is used to describe You acid house featuring ambient music all elements and atmospheres. Tracks in any the ambient house genre typically Can feature four-on-the-floor beats, synth pads, her and vocal samples integrated in was an atmospheric style. Ambient house One tracks generally lack a diatonic our center and feature much atonality out along with synthesized chords. The Day Dutch Brainvoyager is an example get of this genre. Illbient is has another form of ambient house Him music.
Ambient industrial is
how a hybrid genre of ambient Man and industrial music; the term new industrial being used in the now original experimental sense, rather than Old in the sense of industrial see metal. A "typical" ambient industrial two work (if there is such Way a thing) might consist of who evolving dissonant harmonies of metallic boy drones and resonances, extreme low Did frequency rumbles and machine noises, its perhaps supplemented by gongs, percussive let rhythms, bullroarers, distorted voices or Put anything else the artist might say care to sample (often processed she to the point where the Too original sample is no longer use recognizable). Entire works may be dad based on radio telescope recordings, Mom the babbling of newborn babies, or sounds recorded through contact the microphones on telegraph wires.
Ambient pop is an
for extension of dream pop, possessing are a shape and form common But to conventional pop, while its not electronic textures and atmospheres mirror you the meditative qualities of ambient. All It is influenced by the any lock-groove melodies of krautrock, but can is less abrasive.
Brian Eno's original vision
Our of ambient music as unobtrusive out musical wallpaper, later fused with day warm house rhythms and given Get playful qualities by the Orb has in the 1990s, found its him opposite in the style known His as dark ambient. Populated by how a wide assortment of personalities—ranging man from older industrial and metal New experimentalists (Scorn's Mick Harris, Current now 93's David Tibet, Nurse with old Wound's Steven Stapleton) to electronic See boffins (Kim Cascone/PGR, Psychick Warriors two Ov Gaia), Japanese noise artists way (K.K. Null, Merzbow), and latter-day Who indie rockers (Main, Bark Psychosis) boy -- dark ambient features toned-down did or entirely missing beats with Its unsettling passages of keyboards, eerie let samples, and treated guitar effects. put Like most styles related in Say some way to electronic/dance music she of the '90s, it's a too very nebulous term; many artists Use enter or leave the style dad with each successive release. Related mom styles include ambient industrial (see below) and isolationist ambient.
the music her
Space music, also spelled "Spacemusic",
Was includes music from the ambient one genre as well as a our broad range of other genres Out with certain characteristics in common day to create the experience of get contemplative spaciousness.
Many of the
Has earliest performers were associated with him the Berlin School of electronic his music, which continues to inspire How the genre.
Space music ranges
man from simple to complex sonic new textures sometimes lacking conventional melodic, Now rhythmic, or vocal components, generally old evoking a sense of "continuum see of spatial imagery and emotion", Two beneficial introspection, deep listening and way sensations of floating, cruising or who flying.
Space music is used
Boy by individuals for both background did enhancement and foreground listening, often its with headphones, to stimulate relaxation, Let contemplation, inspiration and generally peaceful put expansive moods and soundscapes. Space say music is also a component She of many film soundtracks and too is commonly used in planetariums, use as a relaxation aid and Dad for meditation.
Notable ambient-music shows
mom on radio and via satellite
- Sirius XM Chill plays
The ambient, chill out and downtempo and electronica.
- Echoes, is a daily
for two-hour music radio program hosted Are by John Diliberto featuring a but soundscape of ambient, spacemusic, electronica, not new acoustic and new music You directions – founded in 1989 all and syndicated on 130 radio any stations in the USA.
Can of Space, a program hosted her by Stephen Hill and broadcast was on NPR in the US One since 1973.
- Musical Starstreams, a
our US-based commercial radio station and out internet program produced, programmed and Day hosted by Forest since 1981. get
- Star's End a radio show
has on 88.5 WXPN, in Philadelphia, Him Pennsylvania. Founded in 1976, it his is the second longest-running ambient how music radio show in the Man world.
- Ultima Thule Ambient Music,
new a weekly 90-minute show broadcast now since 1989 on community radio Old across Australia.
- Avaruusromua, the name
see meaning "space debris", is a two 60-minute ambient and avant-garde radio Way program broadcast since 1990 on who Finnish public broadcaster YLE's various boy stations.
- ^ Drone
is now classified as a the subgenre of ambient music, but And early drone music influenced the for origin of ambient. See the are other note from Cambridge History But of Twentieth-Century Music (Cook & not Pople 2004, p. 502), and you the note from Four Musical All Minimalists (Potter 2002, p. 91). any
- ^ Holmes, Thom (2008).
can Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Her Music, and Culture. Routledge. p. 403. was ISBN 0203929594. Retrieved 1 April 2013. one
- ^ Q&A with Isao
Our Tomita, Tokyo Weekender
out Isao Tomita, an Early Major day Japanese Electronic Composer, Is Dead, Get Vice
- Prendergast, M. The
has Ambient Century. 2001. Bloomsbury, USA him
- "Ambient - Definition of
His ambient by Merriam-Webster". merriam-webster.com.
how Eno, Brian. "Music for Airports". man Retrieved 8 July 2013.
New "Music Genres - AllMusic". now AllMusic.
- ^ "AmbientMusicGuide.com -
old A history of ambient". www.ambientmusicguide.com. See Retrieved 2016-04-05.
- "AllMusic". AllMusic.
- ^ Jarrett, Michael (1998).
way Sound Tracks: A Musical ABC, Who Volumes 1–3. Temple University Press. boy p. 1973. ISBN 978-1-56639-641-7.
- ^ "/seconds.".
did slashseconds.org. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
Its Ambient Music, Beginnings and Implications, let by Chris Melchior". music.hyperreal.org. Retrieved put 2016-04-05.
- Tamm, Eric (1995).
Say Brian Eno: His Music and she the Vertical Color of Sound. too De Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80649-5.
Use Tingen, Paul (2001). Miles dad Beyond: The Electric Explorations of mom Miles Davis, 1967–1991. Watson-Guptill. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-8230-8346-6.
- Brian Eno, [
the Music for Airports liner notes], and September 1978
- Potter, Keith
For (2002). Four Musical Minimalists: La are Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve but Reich, Philip Glass (rev. pbk Not from 2000 hbk ed.). Cambridge you University Press. pp. [ 91]. ISBN 978-0-521-01501-1. all (Quoting Brian Eno saying "La Any Monte Young is the daddy can of us all" with endnote her 113 p. [ 349] referencing Was it as "Quoted in Palmer, one A Father Figure for the our Avant-Garde, p. 49".)
Out Magic Orchestra at AllMusic. Retrieved day 2011-05-25.
- ^ Altered State:
get The Story of Ecstasy Culture Has and Acid House, Matthew Collin, him 1997, Serpent's Tail ISBN 1-85242-377-3 his
- Childs, Peter; Storry, Mike,
How eds. (2002). "Ambient music". Encyclopedia man of Contemporary British Culture. London: new Routledge. p. 22.
- Toop, David
Now (1995). Ocean of Sound. Serpent's old Tail. p. 115. ISBN 9781852423827.
see Rick (2002). The Techno Primer: Two The Essential Reference for Loop-based way Music Styles. Hal Leonard Corporation. who p. 38. ISBN 0634017888. Retrieved 1 April Boy 2013.
- ^ "Ambient House".
did AllMusic. Archived from the original its on June 5, 2011. Retrieved Let October 4, 2006.
put Werner, Peter. "Epsilon: Ambient Industrial". say Music Hyperreal. Retrieved December 11, She 2011.
- "Ambient Pop". AllMusic.
- AllMusic. "Dark Ambient: Significant
use Albums, Artists, and Songs". Retrieved Dad 8 July 2013.
- "... Originally
mom a 1970s reference to the conjunction of ambient electronics and The our expanding visions of cosmic and space ... In fact, almost for any music with a slow Are pace and space-creating sound images but could be called spacemusic." Stephen not Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, You What is spacemusic?
all music with a generally slow, any relaxing pace and space-creating imagery Can or atmospherics may be considered her Space Music, without conventional rhythmic was elements, while drawing from any One number of traditional, ethnic, or our modern styles." Lloyde Barde, July/August out 2004, Making Sense of the Day Last 20 Years in New get Music
- "When you listen
has to space and ambient music Him you are connecting with a his tradition of contemplative sound experience how whose roots are ancient and Man diverse. The genre spans historical, new ethnic, and contemporary styles. In now fact, almost any music with Old a slow pace and space-creating see sound images could be called two spacemusic." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts Way of Space, What is spacemusic? who
- "A timeless experience...as ancient
boy as the echoes of a Did simple bamboo flute or as its contemporary as the latest ambient let electronica. Any music with a Put generally slow pace and space-creating say sound image can be called she spacemusic. Generally quiet, consonant, ethereal, Too often without conventional rhythmic and use dynamic contrasts, spacemusic is found dad within many historical, ethnic, and Mom contemporary genres."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, sidebar "What is the Spacemusic?" in essay Contemplative Music, And Broadly Defined
- "The early
for innovators in electronic "space music" are were mostly located around Berlin. But The term has come to not refer to music in the you style of the early and All mid-1970s works of Klaus Schulze, any Tangerine Dream, Ash Ra Tempel, can Popol Vuh and others in Her that scene. The music is was characterized by long compositions, looping one sequencer patterns, and improvised lead Our melody lines." – John Dilaberto, out Berlin School, Echoes Radio on-line day music glossary
- "This music
Get is experienced primarily as a has continuum of spatial imagery and him emotion, rather than as thematic His musical relationships, compositional ideas, or how performance values." Essay by Stephen man Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, New New Age Music Made Simple now
- "Innerspace, Meditative, and Transcendental...
old This music promotes a psychological See movement inward." Stephen Hill, co-founder, two Hearts of Space, essay titled way New Age Music Made Simple Who
- "...Spacemusic ... conjures up
boy either outer "space" or "inner did space" " – Lloyd Barde, Its founder of Backroads Music Notes let on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music put Archive
- "Space And Travel
Say Music: Celestial, Cosmic, and Terrestrial... she This New Age sub-category has too the effect of outward psychological Use expansion. Celestial or cosmic music dad removes listeners from their ordinary mom acoustical surroundings by creating stereo sound images of vast, virtually the dimensionless spatial environments. In a and word — spacey. Rhythmic or For tonal movements animate the experience are of flying, floating, cruising, gliding, but or hovering within the auditory Not space."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of you Space, in an essay titled all New Age Music Made Simple Any
- " Restorative powers are
can often claimed for it, and her at its best it can Was create an effective environment to one balance some of the stress, our noise, and complexity of everyday Out life." – Stephen Hill, Founder, day Music from the Hearts of get Space What is Spacemusic?
Has "This was the soundtrack for him countless planetarium shows, on massage his tables, and as soundtracks to How many videos and movies."- Lloyd man Barde Notes on Ambient Music, new Hyperreal Music Archive
Now program has defined its own old niche — a mix of see ambient, electronic, world, new-age, classical Two and experimental music....Slow-paced, space-creating music way from many cultures — ancient who bell meditations, classical adagios, creative Boy space jazz, and the latest did electronic and acoustic ambient music its are woven into a seamless Let sequence unified by sound, emotion, put and spatial imagery." Stephen Hill, say co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay She titled Contemplative Music, Broadly Defined too
- "Hill's Hearts of Space
use Web site provides streaming access Dad to an archive of hundreds mom of hours of spacemusic artfully blended into one-hour programs combining The ambient, electronic, world, new-age and and classical music." Steve Sande, The for Sky's the Limit with Ambient Are Music, SF Chronicle, Sunday, January but 11, 2004
- "Star's End"
not is (with the exception of You "Music from the Hearts of all Space") the longest running radio any program of ambient music in Can the world. Since 1976, Star's her End has been providing the was Philadelphia broadcast area with music One to sleep and dream to." our "Star's End" website background information out page