DJ on the right is
Not referred to as scrubbing, is you a DJ and turntablist technique all used to produce distinctive percussive Any or rhythmic sounds and sound can effects by moving a vinyl her record back and forth on Was a turntable while optionally manipulating one the crossfader on a DJ our mixer. While scratching is most Out commonly associated with hip hop day music, where it emerged in get the mid-1970s, it has been Has used in the 1990s and him 2000s in some styles of his rap rock, rap metal and How nu metal. Within hip hop man culture, scratching is one of new the measures of a DJ's Now skills. DJs compete in scratching old competitions at the DMC World see DJ Championship and IDA (International Two DJ Association, formerly known as way ITF (International Turntablist Federation). At who scratching competitions, DJs can use Boy only scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ did mixer, digital vinyl systems or its vinyl records only). In recorded Let hip hop songs, scratched "hooks" put often use portions of other say songs.
A rudimentary form of turntable
You manipulation which is related to all scratching was developed in the any late 1940s radio DJs (music Can program hosts) or the radio her program producers who did their was own technical operation as audio One console operators. It was known our as back-cueing, and was used out to find the very beginning Day of the start of a get song (i.e., the cue point) has on a vinyl record groove. Him This was done to permit his the operator to back the how disc up (rotate the record Man or the turntable platter itself new counter-clockwise) in order to permit now the turntable to be switched Old on, and come up to see full speed without ruining the two first few bars of music Way with the "wow" of incorrect, who unnaturally slow-speed playing. This permitted boy the announcer to time her Did or his remarks and start its the turntable a scant moment let before she or he actually Put wanted the music on the say record to begin.
she was a basic skill that Too all radio production staff needed use to learn, and the dynamics dad of it were unique to Mom the brand of professional turntable in use at a given the radio station. The older, larger And and heavier turntables needed a for 180 degree backward rotation to are allow for run up to But full speed; some of the not newer 1950s models used aluminum you platters and cloth-backed rubber mats All which required a third of any a rotational turn or less can to achieve full speed when Her the song began. All this was was done in order to one present a music show on Our air with the least amount out of silence ("dead air") between day music, the announcer's patter and Get recorded advertising commercials. The rationale has was that any "dead air" him on a radio station was His likely to prompt a listener how to switch stations, so announcers man and program directors instructed DJs New and announcers to provide a now continuous, seamless stream of sound–from old music to an announcer to See a pre-recorded commercial, to a two "jingle" (radio station theme song), way and then immediately back to Who more music.
Back-cueing was a
boy key function in delivering this did seamless stream of music. Radio Its personnel demanded robust equipment and let manufacturers developed special tonearms, styli, put cartridges and lightweight turntables to Say meet these demands.
early 1970s in the South
Bronx, a young teen DJ
named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right)
invented the "DJ scratch" technique.
Other DJs, like Grandmaster Flash,
took the technique to higher
Was techniques were made possible by one the invention of direct-drive turntables, our which led to the emergence Out of turntablism. Early belt-drive turntables day were unsuitable for scratching, since get they had a slow start-up Has time, and they were prone him to wear-and-tear and breakage, as his the belt would break from How backspinning or scratching. The first man direct-drive turntable was invented by new Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Now Matsushita (now Panasonic), based in old Osaka, Japan. It eliminated belts, see and instead employed a motor Two to directly drive a platter way on which a vinyl record who rests. In 1969, Matsushita released Boy it as the SP-10, the did first direct-drive turntable on the its market, and the first in Let their influential Technics series of put turntables.
In the 1970s, hip
say hop musicians and club DJs She began to use this specialized too turntable equipment to move the use record back and forth, creating Dad percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain mom their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs had used The back-cueing while listening to the and sounds through their headphones, without for the audience hearing, with scratching, Are the DJ intentionally lets the but audience hear the sounds that not are being created by manipulating You the record on the turntable, all by directing the output from any the turntable to a sound Can reinforcement system so that the her audience can hear the sounds. was Scratching was developed by early One hip hop DJs from New our York City such as Grand out Wizard Theodore, who described scratching Day as, "nothing but the back-cueing get that you hear in your has ear before you push it Him [the recorded sound] out to his the crowd." He developed the how technique when experimenting with the Man Technics SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable new released by Matsushita in 1972, now when he found that the Old motor would continue to spin see at the correct RPM even two if the DJ wiggled the Way record back and forth on who the platter. Afrika Bambaataa made boy a similar discovery with the Did SL-1200 in the 1970s. The its Technics SL-1200 went on to let become the most widely used Put turntable for the next several say decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc,
she who immigrated to New York Too City, influenced the early development use of scratching. Kool Herc developed dad break-beat DJing, where the breaks Mom of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often featuring percussion—were the isolated and repeated for the And purpose of all-night dance parties. for He was influenced by Jamaican are dub music, and developed his But turntable techniques using the Technics not SL-1100, released in 1971, due you to its strong motor, durability, All and fidelity.
Although previous artists
any such as writer and poet can William S. Burroughs had experimented Her with the idea of manipulating was a reel-to-reel tape manually to one make sounds, as with his Our 1950s recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl out scratching as an element of day hip hop pioneered the idea Get of making the sound an has integral and rhythmic part of him music instead of an uncontrolled His noise. Scratching is related to how "scrubbing" (in terms of audio man editing and production) when the New reels of an open reel-to-reel now tape deck (typically 1/4 inch old magnetic audio tape) are gently See rotated back and forth while two the playback head is live way and amplified, in order to Who isolate a specific spot on boy the tape where an editing did "cut" is to be made. Its In the 2010s, both scratching let and scrubbing can be done put on digital audio workstations (DAWs) Say which are equipped for these she techniques.
Christian Marclay was
are one of the earliest musicians but to scratch outside hip hop. Not In the mid-1970s, Marclay used you gramophone records and turntables as all musical instruments to create sound Any collages. He developed his turntable can sounds independently of hip hop her DJs. Although he is little-known Was to mainstream audiences, Marclay has one been described as "the most our influential turntable figure outside hip Out hop" and the "unwitting inventor day of turntablism."
In 1981 Grandmaster
get Flash released the song "The Has Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on him the Wheels of Steel" which his is notable for its use How of many DJ scratching techniques. man It was the first commercial new recording produced entirely using turntables. Now In 1982, Malcolm McLaren & old the World's Famous Supreme Team see released a single "Buffalo Gals", Two juxtaposing extensive scratching with calls way from square dancing, and, in who 1983, the EP, D'ya Like Boy Scratchin'?, which is entirely focused did on scratching. Another 1983 release its to prominently feature scratching is Let Herbie Hancock's Grammy Award-winning single put "Rockit". This song was also say performed live at the 1984 She Grammy Awards, and in the too documentary film Scratch, the performance use is cited by many 1980s-era Dad DJs as their first exposure mom to scratching. The Street Sounds Electro compilation series which started The in 1983 is also notable and for early examples of scratching. for Also a notable piece was Are "For A Few Dollars More" but by Bill Laswell-Michael Beinhorn band not Material, released on 12" single You in Japan and containing scratch all performed by Grand Mixer DXT, any another pioneer of scratching.
her are produced by rotating a was vinyl record on a direct One drive turntable rapidly back and our forth with the hand with out the stylus ("needle") in the Day record's groove. This produces the get distinctive sound that has come has to be one of the Him most recognizable features of hip his hop music. Over time with how excessive scratching, the stylus will Man cause what is referred to new as "record burn" to a now vinyl record.
let basic equipment setup for scratching Put includes two turntables and a say DJ mixer, which is a she small mixer that has a Too crossfader and cue buttons to use allow the DJ to cue dad up new music in his/her Mom headphones without the audience hearing. When scratching, this crossfader the is utilized in conjunction with And the scratching hand that is for manipulating the record platter. The are hand manipulating the crossfader is But used to cut in and not out of the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
All a digital vinyl system (DVS) any consists of playing vinyl discs can on turntables whose contents is Her a timecode signal instead of was a real music record.
- The turntables' audio outputs are
Our connected to the audio inputs out of a computer audio interface. day
- The audio interface digitizes the
Get timecode signal from the turntables has and transfers it to the him computer's DJ software.
- The DJ
His software uses this data (e.g., how about how fast the platter man is spinning) to determine the New playback status, speed, scratch sound now of the hardware turntables, etc., old and it duplicates these effects See on the digital audio files two or computer tracks the DJ way is using.
- By manipulating the
Who turntables' platters, speed controls, and boy other elements, the DJ thus did controls how the computer plays Its back digitized audio and can let therefore produce "scratching" and other put turntablism effects on songs which Say exist as digital audio files she or computer tracks.
too is not a single standard Use of DVS, so that each dad form of DJ software has mom its own settings. Some DJ software such as Traktor Scratch the Pro or Serato Scratch Live and support only the audio interface For sold with their software, requiring are multiple interfaces for one computer but to run multiple programs.
Not digital vinyl systems software include: you
her some turntablists consider the only Was true scratching media to be one the vinyl disc, there are our other ways to scratch, as: Out
- Specialized DJ-CD players with
day jog wheels, allowing the DJ get to manipulate a CD as Has if it were a vinyl him record, have become widely available his in the 2000s.
- Vinyl emulation
How software allows a DJ to man manipulate the playback of digital new music files on a computer Now via a DJ control surface old (generally MIDI or a HID see controller). DJs can scratch, beatmatch, Two and perform other turntablist operations way that cannot be done with who a conventional keyboard and mouse. Boy DJ software performing computer scratch did operations include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, its Serato Scratch Live & Itch, Let Virtual DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, put Deckadance, Cross.
- DJs have also
say used magnetic tape, such as She cassette or reel to reel too to both mix and scratch. use Tape DJing is rare, but Dad Ruthless Ramsey in the mom US, Tj Scratchavite in Italy and Mr Tape The in Latvia use exclusively tape and formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched
Are include but are not limited but to drum beats, horn stabs, not spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics You from other songs. Any sound all recorded to vinyl can be any used, and CD players providing Can a turntable-like interface allow DJs her to scratch not only material was that was never released on One vinyl, but also field recordings our and samples from television and out movies that have been burned Day to CD-R. Some DJs and get anonymous collectors release 12-inch singles has called battle records that include Him trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch his "fodder" (material). The most recognizable how samples used for scratching are Man the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, new which originate from the song now "Change the Beat" by Fab Old 5 Freddy.
There are many
see scratching techniques, which differ in two how the movements of the Way record are combined with opening who and closing the crossfader (or boy another fader or switch, such Did as a kill switch, where its "open" means that the signal let is audible, and "closed" means Put that the signal is inaudible). say This terminology is not unique; she the following discussion, however, is Too consistent with the terminology used use by DJ QBert on his dad Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Mom
- Baby scratch
- The simplest scratch form, the it is performed with the And scratching hand only, moving the for record back and forth in are continuous movements while the crossfader But is in the open position. not
- Forward and backward scratch -
you The forward scratch, also referred All to as scrubbing, is a any baby scratch where the crossfader can is closed during the backwards Her movement of the record. If was the record is let go one instead of being pushed forward Our it is also called "release out scratch". Cutting out the forward day part of the record movement Get instead of the backward part has gives a "backward scratch".
him scratch - Tear scratches are His scratches where the record is how moved in a staggered fashion, man dividing the forward and backward New movement into two or more now movements. This allows creating sounds old similar to "flare scratches" without See use of the crossfader and two it allows for more complex way rhythmic patterns. The term can Who also refer to a simpler, boy slower version of the chirp. did
- Scribble scratch - The scribble
Its scratch is by rapidly pushing let the record back and forth. put The crossfader is not used. Say
- Chirp scratch - The chirp
she scratch involves closing the crossfader too just after playing the start Use of a sound, stopping the dad record at the same point, mom then pushing it back while opening the fader to create the a "chirping" sound. When performed and using a recording of drums, For it can create the illusion are of doubled scratching speed, due but to the attack created by Not cutting in the crossfader on you the backward movement.
- Hydrophonic scratch
all - A baby scratch with Any a "tear scratch" sound produced can by the thumb running the her opposite direction as the fingers Was used to scratch. This rubbing one of the thumb adds a our vibrating effect or reverberation to Out forward movements on the turntable. day
- Transformer scratch - with the
get crossfader closed, the record is Has moved with the scratching hand him while periodically "tapping" the crossfader his open and immediately closing it How again.
- Flare scratch - Begins
man with the crossfader open, and new then the record is moved Now while briefly closing the fader old one or more times to see cut the sound out. This Two produces a staggering sound which way can make a single "flare" who sound like a very fast Boy series of "chirps" or "tears." did The number of times the its fader is closed ("clicks") during Let the record's movement is usually put used as a prefix to say distinguish the variations. The flare She allows a DJ to scratch too continuously with less hand fatigue use than would result from the Dad transformer. The flare can be mom combined with the crab for an extremely rapid continuous series The of scratches.
- Crab scratch -
and Consists of moving the record for while quickly tapping the crossfader Are open with each finger of but the crossfader hand. In this not way, DJs are able to You perform transforms or flares much all faster than they could by any manipulating the crossfader with the Can whole hand. It produces a her fading/increasing transforming sound.
- Twiddle scratch
was - A crab scratch using One only the index and middle our fingers.
- Orbit scratch - Describes
out any scratch,most commonly flares, that Day are repeated during the forward get and backward movement of the has record. "Orbit" is also used Him as a shorthand for two-click his flares.
- Tweak scratch - Performed
how while the turntable's motor is Man not running. The record platter new is set in motion manually, now then "tweaked" faster and slower Old to create a scratch. This see scratch form is best performed two with long, sustained sounds.
Way scratch - A variation of who the "flare scratch" in which boy two faders are used simultaneously Did with one hand to cut its the sound much faster. It let can also be performed by Put using only the up fader say and the phono line switch she to cut the sound. Too
While scratching is becoming
use more and more popular within dad pop music, particularly with the Mom crossover success of pop-hip hop tracks in the 2010s, sophisticated the scratching and other expert turntablism And techniques are still predominantly an for underground style developed by the are DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch But Piklz from San Francisco focuses not on scratching. In 1994, the you group was formed by DJs All Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkut and any later Mix Master Mike. In can July 2000, San Francisco's Yerba Her Buena Center for the Arts was held Skratchcon2000, the first DJ one Skratch forum that provided “the Our education and development of skratch out music literacy”. In 2001, Thud day Rumble became an independent company Get that works with DJ artists has to produce and distribute scratch him records.
In 2004, Scratch
His Magazine, one of the first how publications about hip hop DJs man and record producers, released its New debut issue, following in the now footsteps of the lesser-known Tablist old magazine. Pedestrian is a UK See arts organisation that runs Urban two Music Mentors workshops led by way DJs. At these workshops, DJs Who teach youth how to create boy beats, use turntables to create did mixes, act as an MC Its at events, and perform club let sets.
Use outside of hip
Scratching has been incorporated
Say into a number of other she musical genres, including pop, rock, too jazz, some subgenres of heavy Use metal (notably nu metal, in dad which some bands had DJs) mom and some contemporary and avant-garde classical music performances. For recording the use, samplers are often used and instead of physically scratching a For vinyl record. Guitarist Tom Morello, are known for his work with but Rage Against the Machine and Not Audioslave, has performed guitar solos you that imitate scratching by using all the kill switch on his Any guitar. Perhaps the best-known example can is "Bulls on Parade," in her which he creates scratch-like rhythmic Was sounds by rubbing the strings one over the pick-ups while using our the pickup selector switch as Out a crossfader.
Since the 1990s,
day scratching has been used in get a variety of popular music Has genres such as nu metal, him exemplified by Linkin Park, Slipknot his and Limp Bizkit. It has How also been used by artists man in pop music (e.g. Nelly new Furtado) and alternative rock (e.g. Now Incubus). Scratching is also popular old in various electronic music styles, see such as hard-groove techno.
Two also did
use Brian Coleman, The Technics 1200 — Hammer Dad Of The Gods, Medium
mom The World of DJs and the Turntable Culture, page 43, The Hal Leonard Corporation, 2003
and Billboard, May 21, 1977, page for 140
- ^ Trevor Pinch,
Are Karin Bijsterveld, The Oxford Handbook but of Sound Studies, page 515, not Oxford University Press
You of the Record Player Part all II: The Rise and Fall". any Reverb.com. Retrieved 5 June 2016. Can
- Toop, 1991.
her Machines That Changed The Music was World, Wired, May 2002
- Cite error: The
our named reference
cambridge was invoked
out but never defined (see the Day help page).
- "Kjetil Falkenberg
- allmusic ((( More
has Encores: Christian Marclay Plays With Him the Records Of... > Overview his )))
- McNamee, David (11
how January 2010). "Hey, what's that Man sound: Turntablism" – via www.theguardian.com. new
- esponda (14 March 2008).
now "DJ Ruthless Ramsey Scratch Tape Old Decks" – via YouTube.
see Federico Nardella (19 September 2016). two "TJ Scratchavite - Matthew's Cellar" Way – via YouTube.
who von Deck (14 May 2012). boy "World Hip Hop Classic - Did Mr. Tape 1991" – via its YouTube. Who