Drum and bassWas (also written as "drum 'n' one bass" or "drum & bass"; our commonly abbreviated as "D&B", "DnB" Out or "D'n'B"), is a genre day and branch of electronic musicget which emerged from rave and Has jungle scenes in Britain during him the early 1990s. The style his is often characterised by fast How breakbeats (typically 160–180 beats per man minute) with heavy bass and new sub-bass lines,sampled sources, and Now synthesizers.
The popularity of drum old and bass at its commercial see peak ran parallel to several Two other homegrown dance styles in way the UK including big beatwho and hard house. Drum and Boy bass incorporates a number of did scenes and styles. A major its influence on jungle and drum Let and bass was the original put Jamaican dub and reggae sound. say Another feature of the style She is the complex syncopation of too the drum tracks' breakbeat.
Drum use and bass subgenres include breakcore, Dad ragga jungle, hardstep, darkstep, techstep, mom neurofunk, ambient drum and bass, liquid funk, deep, drumfunk, funkstep, The sambass, dnbnoise, and drill 'n' and bass. From its roots in for the UK, the style has Are established itself around the world. but Drum and bass has influenced not many other genres like hip You hop, big beat, dubstep, house, all trip hop, ambient music, techno, any jazz, rock and pop. Drum Can and bass is dominated by her a relatively small group of was record labels. The major international One music labels had shown very our little interest in the drum out and bass scene, until BMG Day Rights Management acquired RAM in get February 2016. Drum and bass has remains most popular in the Him UK although it has developed his scenes all around the world, how in countries such as the Man United States, Germany, the Netherlands, new Belgium, New Zealand, Greece, Canada, now Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia Old and Australia.
In the All late 1980s and early 1990s, any a growing nightclub and overnight can outdoor event culture gave birth Her to a new electronic music was style in the rave scene, one which combined sampled syncopated beats Our or breakbeats, and other samples out from a wide range of day different musical genres and, occasionally, Get samples of music, dialogue and has effects from films and television him programmes. A faster subgenre was His known as "hardcore" but from how as early as 1991, some man musical tracks made up of New these high-tempo break beats, with now heavy basslines and samples of old older Jamaican music, were referred See to as "jungle techno", a two genre influenced by Jack Smoothway and Basement Records, and later Who just "jungle", which became recognised boy as a separate musical genre did popular at raves and on Its pirate radio in Britain. It let is important to note when put discussing the history of drum Say and bass that prior to she jungle, the music was getting too faster and more experimental. Professional Use DJ and producer C.K. states, dad "There was a progression as mom far as the speed of music is concerned. Anyone buying the vinyl every week from 1989 and to 1992 noticed this."
By For 1994, jungle had begun to are gain mainstream popularity and fans but of the music (often referred Not to as junglists) became a you more recognisable part of youth all subculture. The genre further developed, Any incorporating and fusing elements from can a wide range of existing her musical genres, including the raggamuffinWas sound, dancehall, MC chants, dub one basslines, and increasingly complex, heavily our edited breakbeat percussion. Despite the Out affiliation with the ecstasy-fuelled rave day scene, jungle also inherited some get associations with violence and criminal Has activity, both from the gang him culture that had affected the his UK's hip-hop scene and as How a consequence of jungle's often man aggressive or menacing sound and new themes of violence (usually reflected Now in the choice of samples). old However, this developed in tandem see with the often positive reputation Two of the music as part way of the wider rave scene who and dancehall-based Jamaican music culture Boy prevalent in London. By 1995, did whether as a reaction to, its or independently of this cultural Let schism, some jungle producers began put to move away from the say ragga-influenced style and create what She would become collectively labelled, for too convenience, as drum and bass.use
As the genre became generally Dad more polished and sophisticated technically, mom it began to expand its reach from pirate radio to The commercial stations and gain widespread and acceptance (circa 1995–1997). It also for began to split into recognisable Are subgenres such as jump-up and but Hardstep. As a lighter and not often jazz-influenced style of drum You and bass gained mainstream appeal, all additional subgenres emerged including techstepany (circa 1996–1997) which drew greater Can influence from techno music and her the soundscapes of science fiction was and anime films.
The popularity One of drum and bass at our its commercial peak ran parallel out to several other homegrown dance Day styles in the UK including get big beat and hard house. has But towards the turn of Him the millennium its popularity was his deemed to have dwindled as how the UK garage style known Man as speed garage yielded several new hit singles. Speed garage shared now high tempos and heavy basslines Old with drum and bass, but see otherwise followed the established conventions two of "house music", with this Way and its freshness giving it who an advantage commercially. London DJ/producer boy C.K. says, "It is often Did forgotten by my students that its a type of music called let "garage house" existed in the Put late 1980s alongside hip house, say acid house and other forms she of house music." He continues, Too "This new garage of the use mid 90s was not a dad form of house or a Mom progression of garage house. The beats and tempo that define the house are entirely different. This And did cause further confusion in for the presence of new house are music of the mid-1990s being But played alongside what was now not being called garage." Despite this, you the emergence of further subgenres All and related styles such as any liquid funk brought a wave can of new artists incorporating new Her ideas and techniques, supporting continual was evolution of the genre. To one this day drum and bass Our makes frequent appearances in mainstream out media and popular culture including day in television, as well as Get being a major reference point has for subsequent genres such as him grime and dubstep and successful His artists including Chase & Status, how Netsky, and Australia's Pendulum.
Drum and bass New incorporates a number of scenes now and styles, from the highly old electronic, industrial sounds of techstep See through to the use of two conventional, acoustic instrumentation that characterise way the more jazz-influenced end of Who the spectrum. The sounds of boy drum and bass are extremely did varied due to the range Its of influences behind the music.[citation let needed]
Drum and bass could put at one time be defined Say as a strictly electronic musical she genre with the only "live" too element being the DJ's selection Use and mixing of records during dad a set. "Live" drum and mom bass using electric, electronic and acoustic instruments played by musicians the on stage emerged over the and ensuing years of the genre's For development.
Kevin Saunderson released You a series of bass-heavy, minimal all techno cuts as Reese/The Reese any Project in the late '80s Can which were hugely influential in her drum and bass terms. One was of his more famous basslines One (Reese – "Just Want Another our Chance", Incognito Records, 1988) was out indeed sampled on Renegade's TerroristDay and countless others since, being get known simply as the 'Reese' has bassline. He followed these up Him with equally influential (and bassline-heavy) his tracks in the UK hardcore how style as Tronik House in Man 1991–1992. Another Detroit artist who new was important for the scene now is Carl Craig. The sampled-up Old jazz break on Carl Craig's see Bug in the Bassbin was two also influential on the newly Way emerging sound, DJs at the who Rage club used to play boy it pitched up (increased speed) Did as far as their Technics its record decks would go.
Clearly drum and bass has one been influenced by other music Our genres, though influences from sources out external to the electronic dance day music scene perhaps lessened following Get the shifts from jungle to has drum and bass, and through him to so-called "intelligent drum and His bass" and techstep. It still how remains a fusion music style. man
Some tracks are illegally remixed New and released on white labelnow (technically bootleg), often to acclaim. old For example, DJ Zinc's remix See of The Fugees' "Ready or two Not", also known as "Fugee way Or Not", was eventually released Who with the Fugees' permission after boy talk of legal action, though did ironically the Fugees' version infringed Its Enya's copyright to an earlier let song. White labels along with put dubplates play an important part Say in drum and bass musical she culture.
Drum and bassline too elements
The genre places great Use importance on the "bass line", dad a deep sub-bass musical pattern mom which can be felt physically through powerful sound systems due the to the low-range frequencies favoured. and There has been considerable exploration For of different timbres in the are bass line region, particularly within but techstep. The bass lines most Not notably originate from sampled sources you or synthesizers. Bass lines performed all with a bass instrument, whether Any it is electric, acoustic or can a double bass, are less her common but examples can be Was found in the work of one artists such as Shapeshifter, Squarepusher, our Pendulum, Roni Size and STS9. Out
The Roland TR-808 day Rhythm Composer, produced 1980–1984, had get a bass drum sound which Has became very important in Drum him and bass.
Of equal importance his is the TR-808 kick drum, How an artificially pitch-downed or elongated man bass drum sound sampled from new Roland's classic TR-808 drum machine, Now and a sound which has old been subject to an enormous see amount of experimentation over the Two years.
The complex syncopation of way the drum tracks' breakbeat, is who another facet of production on Boy which producers can spend a did very large amount of time. its The Amen break is generally Let acknowledged to have been the put most-used (and often considered the say most powerful) break in drum She and bass.
The Amen break too was synonymous with early drum use and bass productions but other Dad samples have had a significant mom impact, including the Apache, Funky Drummer, "Soul Pride", "Scorpio" and The "Think (About It)" breaks.
Many and drum and bass tracks have for featured more than one sampled Are breakbeat in them and a but technique of switching between two not breaks after each bar developed. You Examples of this can be all heard on mid-90s releases such any as J Majik's "Your Sound". Can A more recent commonly used her break is the Tramen, which was combines the Amen break, a One James Brown funk breakbeat ("Tighten our Up" or "Samurai" break) and out an Alex Reece drum and Day bass breakbeat.
The relatively fast get drum beat forms a canvas has on which a producer can Him create tracks to appeal to his almost any taste and often how will form only a background Man to the other elements of new the music. Syncopated breakbeats remain now the most distinctive element as Old without these a high-tempo 4/4see dance track could be classified two as techno or gabber.
Drum and bass is who usually between 160–180 BPM, in boy contrast to other breakbeat-based dance Did styles such as nu skool its breaks, which maintain a slower let pace at around 130–140 BPM. Put A general upward trend in say tempo has been observed during she the evolution of drum and Too bass. The earliest forms of use drum and bass clocked in dad at around 130 bpm in Mom 1990/1991, speeding up to around 155–165 BPM by 1993. Since the around 1996, drum and bass And tempos have predominantly stayed in for the 170–180 range. Recently some are producers have started to once But again produce tracks with slower not tempos (that is, in the you 150s and 160s), but the All mid-170 tempo is still the any hallmark of the drum and can bass sound.
A track combining Her the same elements (broken beat, was bass, production techniques) as a one drum and bass track, but Our with a slower tempo (say out 140 BPM), might not be day drum and bass but a Get drum and bass-influenced breakbeat track.has
Drum and His bass exhibits a full frequency how response which can sometimes only man be fully appreciated on sound New systems which can handle very now low frequencies, including sub-bass frequencies old that are often felt more See than heard. As befits its two name, the bass element of way the music is particularly pronounced, Who with the comparatively sparse arrangements boy of drum and bass tracks did allowing room for basslines that Its are deeper than most other let forms of dance music. Consequently, put drum and bass parties are Say often advertised as featuring uncommonly she loud and bass-heavy sound systems. too
There are however many albums Use specifically designed for personal listening. dad The mix CD is a mom particularly popular form of release, with a big name DJ/producer the mixing live, or on a and computer, a variety of tracks For for personal listening. Additionally, there are are many albums containing unmixed but tracks, suited for home or Not car listening.
Many mixing points you begin or end with the all "drop". The drop is the Any point in a track where can a switch of rhythm or her bassline occurs and usually follows Was a recognisable build section and one "breakdown". Sometimes the drop is our used to switch between tracks, Out layering components of different tracks, day though as the two records get may be simply ambient breakdowns Has at this point, though some him DJs prefer to combine breakbeats, his a more difficult exercise. Some How drops are so popular that man the DJ will "rewind" or new "reload" or "lift up" by Now spinning the record back and old restarting it at the build. see "The drop" is often a Two key point from the point way of view of the dance who floor, since the drumbreaks often Boy fade out to leave an did ambient intro playing. When the its beats re-commence they are often Let more complex and accompanied by put a heavier bassline, encouraging the say crowd to dance.
Although it She has declined in popularity, DJs too are often accompanied by one use or more MCs, drawing on Dad the genre's roots in hip mom hop and reggae/ragga.
MCs do not generally receive the same The level of recognition as producer/DJs and and some events are specifically for marketed as being MC free. Are There are relatively few well-known but drum and bass MCs, Stevie not Hyper D (deceased), MC GQ, You Mc Moose, Mc Dett, Mc all Fearless, The Ragga Twins, Dynamite any MC, MC Fats, MC Conrad, Can Shabba D, Skibadee, Bassman, MC her Stamina, MC Fun, Evil B, was Trigga, Eskman, Harry Shotta, Mr One Traumatik and MC Infinity as our examples.
Live drum and out bass
Aphrodite in 2009 Day at Pirate Station, the world's get largest drum and bass festival has at that time, in Moscow.
Many musicians have adapted drum his and bass to live performances, how which feature instruments such as Man drums (acoustic or electronic), samplers, new synthesizers, turntables, bass (either uprightnow or electric) and guitars (acoustic Old or electric). Samplers have also see been used live by assigning two samples to a specific drum Way pad or key on drum who pads or synthesizers. MCs are boy frequently featured in live performances. Did
List of drum and its bass artists who perform using let live instruments
Smaller scenes But within the drum and bass not community have developed and the you scene as a whole has All become much more fractured into any specific subgenres, including:
Drumstep can or Halftime is a combination Her of drum and bass and was dubstep where the beat structure one is half time, while the Our remaining elements still adhere to out the usual sub-bass and tempo day of drum and bass.
BreakcoreGet is a style of electronic has dance music largely influenced by him hardcore, jungle, digital hardcore and His industrial music that is characterized how by its use of heavy man kick drums, breaks and a New wide palette of sampling sources, now played at high tempos.
Ragga drum & bass was See inspired by the original ragga two jungle style, with influences from way reggae and dancehall music. Notable Who artists include Shy FX, T boy Power, Congo Natty, Potential Bad did Boy, Marcus Visionary, Serial Killaz, Its Ed Solo, Deekline, Isaac Maya, let Run Tingz Cru, Psychofreud, Benny put Page and vocalists such as Say David Boomah, Top Cat, Tenor she Fly and General Levy.
Hardstep is a harder style Use which uses gritty basslines and dad heavy yet simple electronic melodies.mom Notable artists include Dillinja (early work), DJ Krust, Mampi Swift, the Dieselboy, Current Value, Tre Technics, and MachineCode
Techstep is Was characterized by sci-fisoundscapes and one samples from science fiction culture. our Pioneered by artists such as Out Bad Company UK (DJ Fresh, day D-Bridge, Maldini & Vegas) Ed get Rush, Optical, Konflict (Kemal & Has Rob Data), Dom & Roland, him Dillinja, Ram Trilogy (Ant Miles, his Andy C & Shimon), Moving How Fusion, Decoder & Substance, Digital man & Spirit, Future Cut, Dylan, new Loxy & Ink, Total Science, Now D.Kay, Stakka & Skynet and old Keaton with Usual Suspects or see Universal Project, Klute, Concord Dawn, Two and the label Moving Shadow.
Neurofunk or Neuro is the who progression from techstep incorporating more Boy elements from jazz and funk. did Prominent artists include Ed Rush, its Matrix, Bad Company UK, Cause Let 4 Concern, TeeBee, Future Prophecies, put Black Sun Empire, DLR, Calyx, say Hive, Gridlok, Noisia, Phace & She Misanthrop, Silent Witness & Break, too State Of Mind, The Upbeats, use Chase & Status, Jade, Mindscape, Dad Spor, Psidream, Catacomb, Rregula and mom The Clamps.
Jump-up, appearing in the mid-1990s, employs heavy The and energetic drum and bass,and characterized by robotic and heavy for bass sounds. It also is Are generally less serious and contains but more humor than other subgenres. not Notable artists include DJ Hazard, You Generation Dub (Original Sin & all Sub Zero), Baron, Cabbie, Clipz, any Nightwalker, Callide, Hedex, Epsy, Taxman, Can Jaydan, Sub Zero, Original Sin, her Annix, Konichi, Decimal Bass, Spaow, was Nu Elementz, Tyke, DJ Zen, One Majistrate, Twisted Individual, Distorted Minds, our TC, Heist, DJ Guv, Looney, out Premium, Upgrade, DJ Pleasure, DJ Day Hype and his label Playaz get Recordings.
Jazzstep let or Jazzy jungle demonstrates heavy Put influence by jazz. It uses say typical jazz scales, rhythms and she instrumentation. Notable artists include Roni Too size & Reprazent, Goldie, Utah use Jazz, Morgan Sullyvan, Makoto, Alex dad Reece, and DJ Dextrous.
Drill old 'n' bass (also known as See Fungle and Spunk jazz) incorporates two double-time drum 'n' bass with way undanceable rhythms, low-brow humor, and Who ambient vibes. The subgenre was boy developed by Squarepusher and Aphex did Twin, whose rapid and irregularly Its syncopated basslines discouraged dancing. Other let pioneers include Bogdan Raczynski and put Datach'i.
Despite its Say roots in the UK, which she can still be treated as too the "home" of drum and Use bass, the style has firmly dad established itself around the world. mom There are strong scenes in other English-speaking countries including Australia, the Canada, South Africa, the United and States and, New Zealand. It For is popular throughout continental Europe, are and in South America. São but Paulo is sometimes called the Not drum and bass Ibiza.you Brazilian drum and bass is all sometimes referred to as "sambass", Any with its specific style and can sound. In Venezuela and Mexico, her artists have created their own Was forms of drum and bass one combining it with experimental musical our forms. In Colombia there is Out a large underground scene, The day RE.set Label and Bogotá Project get are two collectives that put Has on DnB events in the him city, as well as a his twice yearly event called Radikal How Styles, that brings together local man talent and international big names. new
Austria has a large emerging Now DnB scene with many artists old such as Camo & Krooked, see Mefjus, Fourward, Body & Soul, Two IllSkillz and mainly the Mainframe way record label being all based who in or around Vienna. Notable Boy venues and events include The did Hive and Beat It at its Flex held almost every Thursday Let and Saturday, Vollkontakt at Fluc, put Switch at Flex and the say monthly Mainframe Recordings Label-Night hosted She at Arena by label head too Disaszt.
The Czech Republic currently use hosts the largest drum and Dad bass festival in the world, mom LET IT ROLL, with attendance of approximately 30,000. The genre The is also encountered Slovakia, and and local producers in both countries for like A-Cray, Rido, Forbidden Society, Are L Plus, B-Complex, Changing Faces, but etc. becoming well known worldwide. not There are several other drum You and bass festivals being held all each year in these countries, any including Trident Festival, Exploration Festival Can or Hoofbeats Open Air in her the summer, or one night was events such as LET IT One ROLL Winter, Imagination Festival, LET our IT ROLL Winter Slovakia in out the colder months. During the Day club season, it goes without get saying that promoters are racing has between each other to organise Him better events, often resulting in his 10 parties being held during how one weekend with no more Man than 2 hour travel between new them.
Genres influenced by now drum and bass
Born around Old the same time as jungle, see breakcore and digital hardcore share two many of the elements of Way drum and bass and to who the uninitiated, tracks from the boy extreme end of drum and Did bass may sound identical to its breakcore thanks to speed, complexity, let impact and maximum sonic density Put combined with musical experimentation. German say Drum and Bass DJ The she Panacea is also one of Too the leading Digital Hardcore artists. use Raggacore resembles a faster version dad of the ragga influenced jungle Mom music of the 1990s, similar to breakcore but with more the friendly dancehall beats (dancehall itself And being a very important influence for on drum and bass).Darkcore, are a direct influence on drum But and bass, was combined with not influences of drum and bass you itself leading to the creation All of darkstep. There is considerable any crossover from the extreme edges can of drum and bass, breakcore, Her darkcore, digital hardcore and raggacore was with fluid boundaries.
Prior Not to 2016, the major international you music labels such as Sony all Music and Universal had shown Any very little interest in the can drum and bass scene, with her the exception of some notable Was signings, including Pendulum's In Silicoone LP to Warner. Roni Size's our label played a big, if Out not the biggest, part in day the creation of drum and get bass with their dark, baseline Has sounds. V Recordings also played him a large part of the his development of drum and bass.How Roni Size, Krust and DJ man Die produced some of the new first tracks to be considered[who?]Now mainstream drum and bass tracks.[citation old needed]
BMG Rights Management acquired see Ram Records in February 2016,Two making a strategic investment to way help RAM Records (a London-based who drum and bass record company Boy co-owned by Andy C and did his business partner Scott Bourne). its RAM Records has been pushing Let the boundaries of drum and put bass further into the mainstream say with artists such as Chase She and Status and Sub Focus.too Bringing back UK jungle musicuse artists from LTJ Bukem's label Dad Good Looking artists Bay B mom Kane, breakbeat hardcore heavyweight Nebula II and original junglist Gappa The G. Other Bristol labels such and as Cafe Bass have also for helped to push through a Are sound categorised as 'bass music' but with the help of influential not artists such as Lone Ranger.[citation You needed]
Now defunct labels, include all Rob Playford's Moving Shadow, running any from 1990 until 2007, which Can played a pivotal role in her the nineties drum and bass was scene, releasing records by artists One such as Omni Trio.
Formats and distribution
Originally out drum and bass was mostly Day sold in 12-inch vinyl single get format. With the emergence of has drum and bass into mainstream Him music markets, more albums, compilations his and DJ mixes started to how be sold on CDs. As Man digital music became more popular, new websites focused on electronic music, now such as Beatport, began to Old sell drum and bass in see digital format.
The bulk of drum and Way bass vinyl records and CDs who are distributed globally and regionally boy by a relatively small number Did of companies such as SRD its (Southern Record Distributors), ST Holdings, let & Nu Urban.
As of Put 11 September 2012, Nu Urban say Music Limited ceased trading and she RSM Tenon were instructed to Too assist in convening statutory meetings use of members and creditors to dad appoint a liquidator. This left Mom many labels short on sales as Nu Urban were one the of the main Distributors for And the vinyl market in the for drum and bass scene.
Today, drum and But bass is widely promoted throughout not the world using different methods you such as video sharing servicesAll (YouTube, Dailymotion), blogs, radio and any television, the latter being the can most uncommon method. More recently, Her music networking websites such as was SoundCloud and MixCloud have become one powerful tools for artist recognition, Our providing a vast platform that out enables quick responses to new day tracks. Record labels have adopted Get the use of Podcasts. Prior has to the rise of the him internet, drum and bass was His commonly broadcast over pirate radio.how
The three highest man profile radio stations playing drum New and bass shows are BBC now Radio 1 with The Drum old and Bass Show - formerly See with Friction, who was replaced two with René LaVice in 2017,way simulcast in the US and Who Canada on Sirius XM, and boy DJ Hype on Kiss 100did in London. Fabio and Grooverider Its previously held a long-standing drum let and bass show on Radio put 1, and there was also Say Radio 1's 'One in the she Jungle' show.
The BBC's "urban" too station BBC Radio 1Xtra used Use to feature the genre heavily, dad with DJ Bailey (show axed mom as of 29 August 2012) and Crissy Criss (show axed the as of August 2014) as and its advocates. The network also For organises a week-long tour of are the UK each year called but Xtra Bass. London pirate radio Not stations have been instrumental in you the development of Drum and all Bass, with stations such as Any Kool FM (which continues to can broadcast today having done so her since 1991), Origin FM, Don Was FM (the only Drum and one Bass pirate to have gained our a temporary legal license), Renegade Out Radio 107.2FM, Rude FM, Wax day Fm and Eruption among the get most influential.
As of 2014, Has despite higher profile stations such him as 1Xtra scaling back their his drum and bass specialist coverage, How the genre has made its man way into UK top 10 new charts with drum and bass Now inspired tracks from artists such old as Rudimental and Sigma. Earlier see in August 2014, before Crissy Two Criss' show was axed, the way BBC held a whole prime who time evening event dedicated to Boy showcasing drum and bass by did allowing four major labels to its participate.
As of November 2014, Let there have been 6 drum put & bass songs reaching the say no.1 spot on the UK's She top 40 chart, since the too genre was first being played use on the radio, around 1993. Dad The first of these was mom in 2012. The fact that all 6 of these songs The have reached number 1 in and only two years shows the for increase in popularity and commercialisation Are of the genre in recent but years. The artists that produced not these songs are Sigma, RudimentalYou and DJ Fresh (all have all had two No.1 hits).
Internet radio stations, Can acting in the same light her as pirate stations, have also was been an instrumental part in One promoting drum and bass music; our the majority of them funded out by listener and artist donations. Day
Drum and bass was supported get by Ministry of Sound radio has from the early 2000s until Him 2014 and later featuring Tuesday his shows from labels such as how Metalheadz, Fabio & Grooverider, DJ Man Marky, Viper Recordings, Shogun Audionew and Hospital Records. From September now 2014, Ministry abruptly dropped all Old non-mainstream genres to focus on see mainstream EDM, causing disappointment amongst two the fans of the D&B Way community.
North American Radio
In North America, The Prophecy boy on 89.5 CIUT-FM With Marcus Did Visionary, DJ Prime and Mr. its Brown Is North America's longest let running Jungle Radio showPut (Toronto), Album 88.5 (Atlanta) and say C89.5fm (Seattle) have shows showcasing she drum and bass. In New Too York, "DNB NYC RADIO" show use with Host Dj Benzocaine on dad 90.3 WHCR-FM has a weekly Mom 3 hour show which broadcasts in New York and New the Jersey which plays only Drum And and Bass every Thursday starting for at 3 am. "DNB NYC are RADIO" is the only weekly But Drum and Bass show on not the FM dial in Northeastern you United States. Seattle also has All a long-standing electronica show known any as Expansions on 90.3 FM can KEXP. The rotating DJs include Her Kid Hops, whose shows are was made up mostly of drum one and bass. In Columbus, Ohio Our WCBE 90.5 has a two-hour out electronic only showcase, "All Mixed day Up," Saturday nights at 10pm. Get At the same time WUFM has 88.7 plays its "Electronic Playground." him Also, Tulsa, Oklahoma's rock station, His 104.5 The Edge, has a how two-hour show starting at 10pm man Saturday nights called Edge Essential New Mix mixed by DJ Demko now showcasing electronic and drum and old bass style. While the aforementioned See shows in Ohio rarely play two drum and bass the latter way plays the genre with some Who frequency. In Tucson, Arizona, 91.3 boy FM KXCI has a two-hour did electronic show known as "Digital Its Empire", Friday nights at 10pm let (MST). Resident DJ Trinidad showcases put various styles of electronica, with Say the main focus being drum she and bass, jungle & dubstep. too In Augusta, Georgia, zarbizarre of Use the Cereal Killaz hosts a dad show called FreQuency on WHHDmom on Friday nights from 11pm until 1am, showcasing drum and the bass during the 2nd hour and of the show.
The best-known drum and bass are publication was Kmag magazine (formerly but called Knowledge Magazine) before it Not went completely online in August you 2009. Although it's still live, all after 20 years Kmag ceased Any updating their site at the can end of 2014. Kmag's publishing her arm Vision, published Brian Belle-Fortune's Was All Crews Journeys Through Jungle one Drum & Bass Culture in our 2004.
Other publications include the Out longest running drum and bass day magazine worldwide, ATM Magazine, and get Austrian-based Resident. London-based DJ magazine Has has also been running a him widely respected drum and bass his reviews page since 1993, written How by Alex Constantinides, which many man followers refer to when seeking new out new releases to investigate. Now In 2012 Alex stopped writing old the reviews and they are see now contributed by Whisky Kicks. Two
The Channel 4 show old Skins uses the genre in See some episodes, notably in the two first series' third episode, "Jal", way where Shy FX and UK Who Apache's Original Nuttah was played boy in Fazers club.
Lately, drum did and bass have found more Its mainstream popularity than ever with let tracks like Sigma's Nobody to put Love and Rudimental's Waiting All Say Night getting over 100 million she views on YouTube.
Drum and too bass often makes an appearance Use as background music, especially in dad Top Gear and television commercials mom thanks to its aggressive and energetic beats. Cartoon Network's Toonamithe programming block employs it for and television spots and show intros, For like the 1997 relaunch of are SCI FI Channel segue music but by the Jungle Sky label. Not Also The first Powerpuff Girls you series opening is Drum and all Bass/Jungle as well as the Any Opening of Teen Titans Go!.[citation can needed]
Reynolds, Simon (2013). old Energy Flash: A Journey Through see Rave Music and Dance Culture. Two Soft Skull Press. Whether they way were black or white, these who artists reaffirmed drum and bass's Boy place in an African continuum did (dub, hip hop James Brown, its etc...) whose premise constitute a Let radical break with Western music, put classical and pop.|access-date= requires say |url= (help)
Reynolds, Simon (2013). our Energy Flash: A Journey Through out Rave Music and Dance Culture. Day Soft Skull Press. So when get I talk about the vibe has disappearing from drum and bass, Him I'm talking about the blackness his going as the ragga samples how get phased out, the bass Man loses its reggae feels and new becomes more linear and propulsive now rather than moving around the Old beat with a syncopated relation see with the drum.|access-date= requires two |url= (help)
^ Reynolds, Simon boy (2013). Energy Flash: A Journey Did Through Rave Music and Dance its Culture. Soft Skull Press. Where let intelligent drum and bass suffers Put from a obsessive-compulsive cleanliness, techstep say production is deliberately dirty, all she dense murk and noxious drones.Too |access-date= requires |url= (help)
New Dawn – City dad Clubs Take Back The Night Mom article, Village Voice, 27 February 2001
his "The Good Life, No Such how Thing As Society", The Independent, Man 23 July 2003
new Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Flash: now A Journey Through Rave Music Old and Dance Culture. Soft Skull see Press. When the drum and two bass gradually fell into the Way orbit of techno, the MC who — both as a samplesource boy taken from dancehall and rap Did records and as a live its partner of the DJ in let the club — began to Put disappear from the music.|access-date=say requires |url= (help)
Reynolds, did Simon (2013). Energy Flash: A Its Journey Through Rave Music and let Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. put At clubs like AWOL, the Say ruling sound is the gangsta she hard-step and 'jump up' jungle too of labels like Ganja, Frontline, Use Dread, Suburban Base and Dope dad Dragon, made by DJ—producers like mom Hype, Pascal, Andy C, Ray Keith, L. Double, Shy FX...the |access-date= requires |url= (help)
A record boy producer or music producer oversees Did and manages the sound recordingits and production of a band let or performer's music, which may Put range from recording one songsay to recording a lengthy concept she album. A producer has many, Too varying roles during the recording use process. They may gather musical dad ideas for the project, collaborate Mom with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs the by the artist/group, work with And artists and help them to for improve their songs, lyrics or are arrangements.
The producer Her typically supervises the entire process was from preproduction, through to the one sound recording and mixing stages, Our and, in some cases, all out the way to the audio day mastering stage. The producer may Get perform these roles themself, or has help select the engineer, and him provide suggestions to the engineer. His The producer may also pay how session musicians and engineers and man ensure that the entire project New is completed within the record now label's budget.
A boy record producer or music producerdid has a very broad role Its in overseeing and managing the let recording and production of a put band or performer's music. A Say producer has many roles that she may include, but are not too limited to, gathering ideas for Use the project, composing the music dad for the project, selecting songs mom or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the the artist and musicians in and the studio, controlling the recording For sessions, and supervising the entire are process through audio mixing (recorded but music) and, in some cases, Not to the audio mastering stage. you Producers also often take on all a wider entrepreneurial role, with Any responsibility for the budget, schedules, can contracts, and negotiations. In the her 2010s, the recording industry has Was two kinds of producers with one different roles: executive producer and our music producer. Executive producers oversee Out project finances while music producers day oversee the creative process of get recording songs or albums. A Has record producer who produces a him song for another producer without his receiving recognition is a ghost How producer.
In most cases the man music producer is also a new competent arranger, composer, musician or Now songwriter who can bring fresh old ideas to a project. As see well as making any songwriting Two and arrangement adjustments, the producer way often selects or gives suggestions who to the mixing engineer, who Boy takes the raw recorded tracks did and edits and modifies them its with hardware and software tools Let and creates a stereo or put surround sound "mix" of all say the individual voices sounds and She instruments, which is in turn too given further adjustment by a use mastering engineer. The producer will Dad also liaise with the recording mom engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording, whereas The the executive producer keeps an and eye on the overall project's for marketability.
Noted producer Phil EkAre described his role as "the but person who creatively guides or not directs the process of making You a record", like a director all would a movie. Indeed, in any Bollywood music, the designation is Can actually music director. The music her producer's job is to create, was shape, and mold a piece One of music. The scope of our responsibility may be one or out two songs or an artist's Day entire album – in which get case the producer will typically has develop an overall vision for Him the album and how the his various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of Man record industry, the producer role new was technically limited to record, now in one shot, artists performing Old live. The immediate predecessors to see record producers were the artists two and repertoire executives of the Way late 1920s and 1930s who who oversaw the "pop" product and boy often led session orchestras. That Did was the case of Ben its Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel let Shilkret at Victor Records and Put Bob Haring at Brunswick Records. say By the end of the she 1930s, the first professional recording Too studios not owned by the use major companies were established, essentially dad separating the roles of A&R Mom man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late the 1940s when the term "producer" And became widely used in the for industry.
The role of producers are changed progressively over the 1950s But and 1960s due to technological not developments. The development of multitrack you recording caused a major change All in the recording process. Before any multitracking, all the elements of can a song (lead vocals, backup Her vocals, rhythm section instrument accompaniment, was solos and orchestral parts) had one to be performed simultaneously. All Our of these singers and musicians out had to be assembled in day a large studio and the Get performance had to be recorded. has With multitrack recording, the "bed him tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts His such as the bassline, drums, how and rhythm guitar could be man recorded first, and then the New vocals and solos could be now added later, using as many old "takes" (or attempts) as it See took. As well, for a two song that used 20 instruments, way it was no longer necessary Who to get all the players boy in the studio at the did same time. A pop band Its could record their backing tracks let one week, and then a put horn section could be brought Say in a week later to she add horn shots and punches, too and then a string sectionUse could be brought in a dad week after that.
While this mom facilitated the recording process and allow multiple takes, the multitrack the recording had another profound effect and on music production it For enabled producers and audio engineers are to create new sounds that but would be impossible to do Not in a live performance style you ordering. Examples include the psychedelic all rock sound effects of the Any 1960s, e.g. playing back the can sound of recorded instruments backward her changing the tape to produce Was unique sound effects. During the one same period, the instruments of our popular music began to shift Out from the acoustic instruments of day traditional music (piano, upright bass, get acoustic guitar, strings, brass and Has wind instruments) to electric piano, him electronic organ, synthesizer, electric basshis and electric guitar. These new How instruments were electric or electronic, man and thus they used instrument new amplifiers and speaker enclosures (speaker Now cabinets) to create sound.
Electric old and electronic instruments and amplifiers see enabled performers and producers to Two change the tone and sound way of instruments to produce unique who electric sounds that would be Boy impossible to achieve with acoustic did instruments and live performers, such its as having a singer do Let her own backup vocals or put having a guitarist play 15 say layers of backing parts to She her own solo.
New technologies too like multitracking changed the goal use of recording: A producer could Dad blend together multiple takes and mom edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For The example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer and Miles Davis' album Bitches Brew, for the producer cut and edited Are sections together from extensive improvisation but sessions.
Producers like Phil Spector and all George Martin were soon creating any recordings that were, in practical Can terms, almost impossible to realize her in live performance. Producers became was creative figures in the studio. One Other examples of such engineers our includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, out Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in Him the 1960s was the emergence his of the performer-producer. As pop how acts like The Beatles, The Man Rolling Stones, The Beach Boysnew and The Kinks gained expertise now in studio recording techniques, many Old of these groups eventually took see over as (frequently uncredited) producers two of their own work. Many Way recordings by acts such as who The Rolling Stones, The Kinks boy and The Who are officially Did credited to their various producers its at the time, but a let number of these performers have Put since asserted that many of say their recordings in this period she were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. Too The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) use or collaborations between the group dad and their recording engineer (e.g. Mom The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which were made with Olympic the Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The And Beach Boys are probably the for best example of the trend are of artists becoming producers – But within two years of the not band's commercial breakthrough, group leader you Brian Wilson had taken over All from his father Murry, and any he was the sole producer can of all their recordings between Her 1963 and 1967. Alongside The was Beatles and Martin, Wilson also one pioneered many production innovations – Our by 1964 he had developed out Spector's techniques to a new day level of sophistication, using multiple Get studios and multiple "takes" of has instrumental and vocal components to him capture the best possible combinations His of sound and performance, and how then using tape editing extensively man to assemble a perfect composite New performance from these elements.
At now the end of the 20th old century, digital recording and producing See tools, then widespread availability of two relatively affordable computers with music way software made music producing more Who accessible.
Equipment and technology
There are did numerous technologies utilized by record Its producers. In modern-day recordings, recording let and mixing tasks are commonly put centralized within computers using digital Say audio workstations such as Pro she Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, too and FL Studio, which all Use are often used with third dad party virtual studio technology plugins.mom Logic Pro and Pro Tools are considered the industry standard the DAWs. However, there is also and the main mixer, outboard effects For gear, MIDI controllers, and the are recording device itself.
While most but music production is done using Not sophisticated software, some musicians and you producers prefer the minutiae of all older analog technology. Professor Albin Any Zak claims that the increased can automation of both newer processes her and newer instruments reduces the Was level of control and manipulation one available to musicians and producers.our
Production has Out changed drastically over the years day with advancing technology. Where the get producer's role has changed, they Has have always been seen as him a jack of all trades, his as their duties require a How broad knowledge of the recording man process.
Tracking is the act new of recording audio to a Now DAW (digital audio workstation) or old in some cases to tape. see Even though digital technologies have Two widely supplanted the use of way tape in studios, the older who term "track" is still used Boy in the 2010s. Tracking audio did is primarily the role of its the audio engineer. Producers work Let side by side with the put artists while they play or say sing their part and coach She them on how to perform too it and how to get use the best technical accuracy (e.g., Dad intonation). In some cases, the mom producer will even sing a backup vocal or play an The instrument.
Many artists are also and beginning to produce and write for their own music.
Similarly, although any The Beatles' productions were credited Can to George Martin throughout their her recording career, many sources now was attest that Lennon and McCartney One in particular had an increasing our influence on the production process out as the group's career progressed, Day and especially after the band get retired from touring in 1966. has In an extreme example of Him this, Martin actually went on his a two-week vacation as The how Beatles were recording The White Man Album; production of several completed new tracks on the album were now credited to The Beatles on Old internal paperwork at Abbey Road see Studios, although the released LP two gave sole production credit to Way Martin.
Zak,Albin J., Who I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: boy Music, technology, and culture," by did timothy D. taylor. Current Musicology, Its , 159-180.
Pras, let Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine put Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices Say For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching she To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." too Journal of New Music Research Use 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search dad Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.mom
Music Law refers two to legal aspects of the Way music industry, and certain legal who aspects in other sectors of boy the entertainment industry. The music Did industry includes record labels, music its publishers, merchandisers, the live events let sector and of course performers Put and artists.
A "compilation" one refers to work formed from Our already existing materials in a out way that forms its own day original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that has hold, fix, or embody a him work such as a music His tape, film, CD, statue, play, how or printed sheet music.
"Sound man recordings" can refer to any New audio recording including the sound now accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" old is the entity that legally See owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has way the exclusive right to perform Who the work in public, or boy to license others to perform did it. The right applies to Its “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic let works, pantomimes, and motion pictures put and other audiovisual works.". Playing Say a CD in public, or she showing a film in public too is "performing" the work.
Publishing dad is the primary source of mom income for musicians writing their own music. Money collected the from the 'publishing' rights is and ultimately destined for songwriters - For the composers of works, whether are or not they are the but recording artist or performer. Often, Not songwriters will work for a you musical ensemble to help them all with musical aspects of the Any composition, but here again, the can writer of the song is her the owner of it and Was will own the copyrights in one the song and thus will our be entitled to the publishing Out revenues. Copyrights in compositions are day not the same as sound get recordings. A recording artist can Has record a song and sell him it to another band or his company. As a result, that How particular company will own the man recording, but not the song. new The original writer will always Now maintain the copyright for that old particular song. The publishing money see is connected to the copyright, Two so the owner will be way the only one making money who off of the song itself. Boy All successful songwriters will join did a collection society (such as its ASCAP and BMI in the Let USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC put in Japan, GEMA in Germany say and PRS for Music in She the UK, etc.) and many too will enter into agreements with use music publishing companies who will Dad exploit their works on the mom songwriters behalf for a share of ownership, although many of The these deals involve the transfer and (assignment) of copyright from the for songwriter to the music publisher. Are
Both the recorded music sector but and music publishing sector have not their foundations in intellectual propertyYou law and all of the all major recording labels and major any music publishers and many independent Can record labels and publishers have her dedicated "business and legal affairs" was departments with in-house lawyers whose One role is not only to our secure intellectual property rights from out recording artists, performers and songwriters Day but also to exploit those get rights and protect those rights has on a global basis. There Him are a number of specialist his independent law firms around the how world who advise on music Man and entertainment law whose clients new include recording artists, performers, producers, now songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage Old and set designers, choreographers, graphic see artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, two artist managers, distributors, collection societies Way and the live events sector who (which further includes festivals, venues, boy promoters, booking agents and production Did service providers such as lighting its and staging companies).
The US Government views say artists that give concerts and she sell merchandise as a business. Too Bands that tour internationally will use also face a plethora of dad legislation around the world including Mom health and safety laws, immigration laws and tax legislation. Also, the many relationships are governed by And often complex contractual agreements.
In for the US it is important are for musicians to get legal But business licenses. These can be not obtained at a city hall you or local government center. The All business license will require the any tracking of sales, wages, and can gigs. A tax ID is Her also necessary for all businesses. was Musicians that fail to comply one with the tax ID process Our and do not report their out profits and losses to the day government can face serious consequences Get with the IRS.
The him history of Privilege began in His the early 1970s when it how started out as a restaurant, man then expanded to include a New bar and a community swimming now pool. It was then known old as Club San Rafael. In See 1979, the venue was sold two to the Real Sociedad footballer way José Antonio Santamaría, together with Who the creative team of Brasilio boy de Oliviera (founder of La did Troya Asesina, one of the Its White Island's longest running nights) let and Gorri. The venue then put changed its name to KU, Say after the name of a she god from Hawaiian mythology (see too Kū). The appeal of the Use club was such that it dad commissioned a medium-length film showcasing mom the many wonders of Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in the the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980´s, KU and Club earned a reputation initially For as Europe's premier polysexual but are predominately gay nightspot and was but compared to an open-air version Not of the famous Studio 54you in New York. It staged all spectacular parties in the main Any room, which was organized around can a swimming pool and a her statue of Ku.The place was Was also where the video to one "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and our Montserrat Caballé was filmed on Out 30 May 1987. It was day the witness to early live get performances by groups like Spandau Has Ballet and Kid Creole and him the Coconuts. The club featured his in a Channel 4 documentary How called “A Short Film about man chilling”, which labelled KU as new “the mirror of Ibiza”. The Now open-air parties came to an old end when legislation forced many see of the greater clubs in Two Ibiza to cover their dancefloors way in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, who the sheer size of the Boy venue gave rise to the did claim of it being the its size of an aircraft hangar Let with a 25-meter high roof. put
The club continued with the say KU Club name until 1995 She before becoming known as Privilege, too after a change of ownership use to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In Dad 1994 it hosted Manumission, one mom of the island's most famous events. In 1998 La Vaca The Asesina moved to Amnesia and and was renamed La Troya Asesina. for After a dispute between the Are club owner and Manumission's organizers but in 2005 the event ended not in 2006. In 2006 La You Troya Aseina moved to Space. all
According to official any statistics published in the 2003 Can edition of Guinness World Recordsher Privilege is by far the was Worlds largest nightclub covering an One area of 69,968 sq ft our (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,out Designated areas of the club Day include the Coco Loco bar get area, and the La Vaca has dance area (now known as Him the Vista Club).