Post-discoyou is a term to describe all an aftermath in popular music Any history circa late 1979–1986, imprecisely can beginning with an unprecedented backlash her against disco music in the Was United States, leading to civil one unrest and a riot in our Chicago known as the Disco Out Demolition Night on July 12, day 1979, and indistinctly ending with get the mainstream appearance of house Has music in the late 1980s.him Disco during its dying stage his displayed an increasingly electronic character How that soon served as a man stepping stone to new wave, new old-school hip hop, euro discoNow and was succeeded by an old underground club music called hi-NRG, see which was its direct continuation. Two
An underground movement of disco way music, "stripped-down," and featuring "radically who different sounds" took place on Boy the East Coast that "was did neither disco and neither R&B,"its This scene known as post-discoLet catering to New York metropolitan put area, was initially led by say urban contemporary artists partially in She response to the over-commercialization and too artistic downfall of disco culture. use Developed from the rhythm and Dad blues sound as perfected by mom Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic side of disco, dub music techniques, and The other genres. Post-disco was typified and by New York City music for groups like "D" Train and Are Unlimited Touch who followed a but more urban approach while others, not like Material and ESG, a You more experimental one. Post-disco was, all like disco, singles-driven market controlled any mostly by independent record companies Can that generated a cross-over chart her success all through the early-to-mid was 1980s. Most creative control was One in the hands of record our producers and club DJs which out was a trend that outlived Day the dance-pop era.
Synthesizers played a crucial part the in the development of post-disco.
Drum machines, synthesizers, sequencers were for either partly or entirely dominant are in a composition or mixed But up with various acoustic instruments, not depending on the artist and you on the year. Electronic instruments All became more and more prevalent any for each year during the can period and dominated the genre Her completely by the mid 1980s. was
Darryl Payne arguing about the one minimal approach of post-disco
The man main force in post-disco was New mainly the 12" single format now and short-lived collaborations (many of old them one-hit wonders) while indie See record producers were instrumental in two the musical direction of what way the scene was headed to. Who The music that mostly catered boy to dance and urban audiences did later managed to influence more Its popular and mainstream acts like let Madonna, New Order or Pet put Shop Boys.
The music tended to be she technology-centric, keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented too bass lines (often performed on Use a Minimoog), synth riffs, dub dad music aesthetics, and background jazzymom or blues-y piano layers. For strings and brass sections, synthesizer the sounds were preferred to the and lush orchestration heard on many For disco tracks, although such arrangements are would later resurface in some but house music.Soulful female Not vocals, however, remained an essence you of post-disco.
Bridging the so-called death of Any disco and the birth of can house, all this early-to-mid-'80s music her lacks a name beyond drably Was functional and neutral terms like one "dance" or "club music."
— Simon Reynolds, our SPIN magazine
The term Out "post-disco" was used as early day as 1984 by Cadence Magazineget when defining post-disco soul as Has "disco without the loud bass-drum him thump."New York Magazine used his the word in an article How appearing in the December 1985 man issue; it was Gregory Hines's new introduction of post-disco and electronic Now funk to Russian-American dance choreographer old Mikhail Baryshnikov "who has never see heard this kind of music."Two AllMusic states that the term way denotes a music genre in who the era between the indistinct Boy "end" of disco music and did the equally indistinct emergence of its house music.
In other historical Let instances the term had been put used in a derisive manner. say Spy implicitly mocked the usage She of both the terms "post-punk" too and "post-disco" in their Spy's use Rock Critic-o-Matic article, whereas spoofing Dad various music reviews published by mom Rolling Stone, The Village Voiceand Spin. Cuban-American writer Elías The Miguel Muñoz in his 1989 and novel Crazy Love, in a for passage where musicians after moving Are to America discuss what their but "style" may be, used the not term in a satirical manner.You
Disco music backlash had started any around 1977.
Midwesterners Can didn't want that intimidating [disco] her style shoved down their throats
Shortly after the One "Disco Sucks" movement of disco our bashing throughout the United States, out American radio stations began to Day pay attention to other popular get formats of music such as has reggae, punk rock or new Him wave while top mainstream labels his and record companies like Casablanca, how TK Records or RSO went Man bankrupt. Since disco music had new been on the way of now [its] electronic progression, it split Old itself into subscenes and styles see like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo discotwo and boogie. The last one Way is closely associated with post-disco who more than any other offshoots boy of post-disco.
Brazilian record producer Did and fusion jazz pioneer Eumir its Deodato, well aware of current let trends in American underground music, Put turned around the career of say a failing funk music group she Kool & the Gang by Too adopting and pursuing a light use pop–post-disco sound that not only dad revitalized the band's image but Mom also turned out to be the most successful hits in the their entire career.B. B. And & Q. Band (Capitol) and for Change (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques are Fred Petrus, a French-Italian hi-NRG But Italo disco music record producer, not reflects on his decision to you shift from conventional disco music All to post-disco "[our] sound changed any to more of a funky can dance/R&B style to reflect the Her times." French-born songwriting duo Henri was Belolo and Jacques Morali, creators one of the successful Village PeopleOur act, moved their former disco out act Ritchie Family to RCA day Victor to release their next Get album co-produced by funk musician has Fonzi Thornton and Petrus, I'll him Do My Best, which mirrors His their radical musical shift. On how the West Coast, especially in man California, a different approach lead New to a different sound. Dick now Griffey and Leon Sylvers IIIold of SOLAR Records, who pioneered See their own signature sound, produced two Ohio-based group Lakeside's album Rough way Riders which already displayed these Who new trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates boy economic arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards did and guitar)," as noted by Its Billboard, praising the album. A let watershed album of post-disco was put Michael Jackson's Off The Wall, Say produced by Quincy Jones, which she helped establish a direction of too R&B/dance music and influenced many Use young producers who were interested dad in this kind of new mom music.
Other examples of early American artists drawing from post-disco the are Rick James, Change and and Teena Marie.
Disco For in Europe remained relatively untouched are by the events in the but U.S., decreasing only in Britain, Not but this was mostly because you of the emergence of the all new wave and new romanticAny movements around 1981, and continued can to flourish within the Italo her disco scene although the interest Was for electronic music in general one was indeed growing.
United our Kingdom
Unlike in the United Out States, where anti-disco backlash generated day prominent effect on general perception get of disco music, in Britain, Has the new-wave movement initially drew him heavily from disco music (although his this association would be airbrushed How out by the end of man 1979) and took many elements new from American post-disco and other Now genres, thus creating a characteristic old scene. According to Billboard, American see post-disco was merely a crossover Two of different genres, while focusing way on the electronic and R&B who overtones, whereas jazz-funk was a Boy crucial element of the British did post-disco scene that generated musicians its like Chaz Jankel, Central LineLet or Imagination.
1980s: Golden put age
This section summary shows say commercially successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) She from the post-disco movement.
Contemporary compilation albums featuring post-disco who and electro artists (e.g. Imagination, Boy Level 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include did The Perfect Beats series (volume its 1–4). Another compilation series are Let Nighttime Lovers (volume 1-10) and put the mixed-up album titled The say Boogie Back: Post Disco Club She Jams.
Pioneers and followers
Thanks To You" and "Don't use Make Me Wait" came out Dad and started the whole dub mom thing in disco.
Particular psychedelic soul artists like The Sly and the Family Stoneand liked to push the boundaries for of conventional music by employing Are what was to be a but precursor to synthesizer, electronic organ. not Multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder was one You of early artists venturing into all the realms of analog synthesizer any after impressed by the work Can of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Band, her an influential multinational electronic music was duo of sound designers: "How One great it is at a our time when technology and the out science of music is at Day its highest point of evolution get [...] A toast to greatness, has a toast to Zero Time, Him forever." With an increasing growth his of personalized synthesizers on the how market they were becoming more Man commercially available and easy-to-use, especially new those produced by Roland Corporation. now One of their first users Old was an cutting-edge artist George see Clinton and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective two project. Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, Way synthetic bass-rich lines, the particularly who melodic endeavor and music minimalism boy of P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit ExpressDid member Kashif, noted for his its use of bass synthesizer during let the group's tour, later went Put solo as a record producer say and began crafting funk-influenced songs she for Evelyn "Champagne" King that Too shown a minimalism-akin approach, the use disregard of disco music arrangements, dad and affiliation to the method Mom of "one-man band" previously paved through by Wonder. Other spheres the of influence include the move And from pioneering DJs and record for producers to release alternative mixes are on the same single, so-called But dub mixes. DJ Larry Levannot implemented elements of dub music you in his productions and mixes All for various post-disco artists, including any his own group The Peech can Boys. Musically, there was a Her search for out-of-mainstream music to was derive new ideas from, most one commonly blues, and other styles Our like reggae, etc. were also out incorporated.
The New new post-disco sound was flourishing now among predominately New York City old record companies, including West End See Records, Prelude Records, Tommy Boy two Records, SAM Records, and others.way Most of them were independently Who owned and had their own boy distribution but some particular mainstream did labels, notably RCA Records, were Its too, responsible for popularizing and let capitalizing on the new sound. put
Although all there is no exact point Any when post-disco started, many synthpop can and electronic musicians of that her time continued to enhance the Was raw minimalist sound, while focusing one on synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. our As noted by Payne, drum Out machines also played an important day part in the urban-oriented music get in general.
While disco music was his in its heyday, the horn How and string sections were a man main component of disco and new pop songs. This sound is Now also called disco orchestration. However, old some of the musicians and see producers dropped the lavish sound Two of orchestra completely, which attributed way a new direction of dance who music.
During this era, Her post-disco was at its highest was peak. Meanwhile Madonna's commercially successful one debut album was released, which Our was produced by Reggie Lucasout of Mtume and Jellybean, another day producers of this movement.
It Get also began to interfere with has garage house and freestyle music, him thus successfully shaping post-disco into His electro. This change could be how also heard in breakdancing- and man hip-hop -themed movies like Beat New Street and Breakin'.
The 1980s post-disco sounds can also inspired many Norwegiandance her music producers. Some rappers such Was as Ice Cube or EPMDone built their careers on funk-oriented our post-disco music (they were inspired Out for example by dance-floor favorites day like Zapp and Cameo). Also get Sean "Puffy" Combs has been Has influenced by R&B-oriented post-disco music him in an indirect way.
Boogie (or electro-funk)man is a post-disco subgenre with new way more funk influences that Now had a minor exposure in old the early to mid-1980s. Sean see P. described it as "largely Two been ignored, or regarded as way disco's poor cousin — too who slow, too electronic, too R&B... Boy too black, even."
Another post-disco its movement is merely connected with Let post-punk/no wave genres with fewer put R&B/funk influences. An example of say this "post-disco" is Gina X's She "No G.D.M." and artists like too Liquid Liquid, Polyrock,Dinosaur L, use and Disco Not Disco Dad compilation album. This movement also mom connects with dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in his book Popular The Music in America defines that and genre as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell for also cited Robert Christgau, who Are described dance-oriented rock (or DOR) but as umbrella term used by not various DJs in the 1980s.You
Dance-pop is a dance-oriented pop any music that appeared slightly after Can the demise of disco and her the first appearance of "stripped-down" was post-disco. One of the first One dance-pop songs were "Last Night our a D.J. Saved My Life" out by Indeep and "Love Come Day Down" by Evelyn "Champagne" King, get whereas the latter crossed over has to Billboard charts including Adult Him Contemporary, while peaking at number his 17 on the pop chart how in 1982. Another crossover post-disco Man song was "Juicy Fruit" by new Mtume, peaking at number 45 now on the Hot 100 in Old 1983. Same year also saw see the release of Madonna's eponymous two album that incorporated post-disco, urban Way and club sounds. British variation who of dance-pop, pioneered by Stock boy Aitken Waterman, was more influenced Did by house and hi-NRG and its sometimes was labeled as "eurobeat."let
Italo disco is say a disco subgenre, influenced by she post-disco, hi-NRG, electronic rock, and Too European music. Originally music mostly use played by Italian musicians, but dad it soon made its way Mom to Canada and United States. One of the earliest post–disco-oriented the groups were Klein + M.B.O.And and Kano, while New York-based for Bobby Orlando was located abroad.are
Various Out terms to describe the sound day of what seemed to be get post-disco were introduced, such as, Has but not limited to, "dance," him "club music," "R&B," and "disco." his The last, however, become an How unfashionable term, hence the increasing man use of "dance" vis-à-vis the new word "disco."
Rodgers, Nile (2011). Le Freak: An Upside Down Story The of Family, Disco, and Destiny. and Random House LLC. p. 42. ISBN0679644032. for By now "dance" was a Are loaded word for me. The but Disco Sucks backlash had given not me a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, and You I'd vowed not to write all any songs with that word any in them for a long Can time. I was shamed out her of using a word—"dance."
Goldschmitt, Kariann Elaine (2004). One Foreign bodies: innovation, repetition, and our corporeality in electronic dance music out (Digitized 13 Sep 2010). University Day of California, San Diego. p. 256. get ISBN0-8153-1880-4.
^ Parliament/Funkadelic. has (2009). In Student's EncyclopædiaArchivedHim 2009-04-21 at the Wayback Machine.: his "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic guitar, how and group harmonies with jazzed-up Man horns, Clinton and his ever-evolving new bands set the tone for now many post-disco and post-punk groups Old of the 1980s and 1990s.". see Retrieved August 15, 2009, from two Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
Too Smay, David & Cooper, Kim use (2001). Bubblegum Music Is the dad Naked Truth: The Dark History Mom of Prepubescent Pop, from the Banana Splits to Britney Spears: the "... think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and And Kylie Minogue. Dance pop, that's for what they call it now are — Post-Disco, post-new wave and But incorporating elements of both." Feral not House: Publisher, p. 327. ISBN0-922915-69-5.you
Haggerty, George E. All (2000). Gay Histories and Cultures: any An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. can p. 256. ISBN0-8153-1880-4. House music is Her a form of post-disco dance was music made popular in the one mid-1980s in Chicago clubs..."
^ Demers, Joanna (2006). out "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Dance Revolution', day Cybernetic Dance, and Musical Taste". Get Popular Music. Cambridge University Press. has 25 (3): 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. him "In terms of its song His repertoire, DDR is rooted in how disco and post-disco forms such man as techno and house. But New DDR can be read as now the ultimate postmodern dance experience old because the game displays various See forms of dance imagery without two stylistic or historical continuity (Harvey way 1990, p. 62,...)
put Campbell, Michael (2008). Popular Music Say in America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. she ISBN0-495-50530-7. Glossary: techno – post-disco too dance music in which most Use or all of the sounds dad are electronically generated
mom AllMusic - explore music...House: "House music grew out of the the post-disco dance club culture and of the early '80s." Retrieved For on 12-27-2009
St. are John, Graham George Michael, (2004), but Rave Culture and Religion, p. Not 50, ISBN0-415-31449-6, "[sic] house music. you As a post-disco party music, all house features a repetitive 4/4 Any beat and a speed of can 120 or more beats per her minute..."
"Though it Was makes sense to classify any one form of dance music made our since disco as post-disco, each Out successive movement has had its day own characteristics to make it get significantly different from the initial Has post-disco era, whether it's dance-pop him or techno or trance." — his Allmusic
^ "The How Music Steps Beyond Disco: Where man The Beat Meets The Street/Danceable new Rock Generates First Bevy of Now Crossover Stars". Billboard. Nielsen Business old Media, Inc (94). 19 Jun see 1982. ISSN0006-2510.
Nelson, George Boy (2003). The Death of Rhythm did and Blues. Penguin. ISBN1101160675. Synthesizers its of every description, drum machines, Let and plain old electric keyboards put began making MFSB and other say human rhythm sessions nonessential to She the recording process. For producers, too a control-oriented bunch, this was use heaven. No more rehearsals. Low Dad session fees. An artist who mom envisioned himself as a future Stevie Wonder—the first great one-man The synthesizer band—could express his creativity and in the basement or the for bathroom.
New York was Magazine (New York Media, LLC). One 18: 121. 2 December 1985. our ISSN0028-7369.Missing or empty |title=out (help)
"That's the Day Way (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) I Like get It - introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC has (by David Bourgeois)". Spy. Sussex Him Publishers, LLC: 33. May 1992. his ISSN0890-1759. "In their first album how since their eponymous effort of Man last year, Donald and the new Vulgarians, without a doubt one now of the best post-punk groups Old of the 1980s, return with see their latest release, I Who two Have Nothing and Other Songs Way for the Nineties. Filled with who self-absorbed Trinidadian soca, the album boy screams post-punk/post-disco art-school pop with Did its use of guitar riff its sawing".
* Julian:let "Now we're going American. What's Put the name they've given this say new thing we're doing?
Joe:she "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco. . ."
Roli: "post-country Too -post-rapping - post-post- post-Beatles."
Ro, Ronin our (1999). Have Gun Will Travel: Out The Spectacular Rise and Violent day Fall of Death Row Records. get Broadway Books. p. 40. ISBN978-0-3854-9135-8. SOLAR Has (...), which grew out of him an association between promoter Griffey his and Soul Train host Don How Cornelius, released a string of man post-disco hits that included Shalamar's new "The Second Time Around" and Now the Whispers' "And the Beat old Goes On."
Soul see > LP > Earth Wind Two & Fire: Raise!: Earth Wind way & Fire hits the 80s who -- and never misses a Boy beat! Turns out that the did group's older style of jazzy its funk was a perfect fit Let for the boogie-styled rhythms of put the post-disco era". Dusty Groove. say Retrieved on August 12, 2009.She
Lester, Paul but (11 March 2014). "Yumi Zouma not (No 1,717)". The Guardian. Retrieved You 17 December 2014. Patrice Rushen's all postdisco classic Forget Me Notsany
Grow, Kory (May Can 2008). Revolver Magazine article: Why her The Most Dangerous Band Of was The Decade, True Norwegian, Black One Metallers, Gorgoroth, Turned On Itselfour - "When the post-disco classic out "Last Night a DJ Saved Day My Life" by early-'80s New get York crew Indeep comes on, has King asks what the singer Him means by the bizarre titular his statement.". No. 68. ISSN 1527-408X.how
Hoffmann, see W. Frank & Ferstler, Howard two (2005). Encyclopedia of Recorded SoundWay (Publication no. 2): "He [Harry who Casey] briefly returned to the boy public eye billed as KCDid with the release of KC its Ten (Meca 8301; 1984: #93), let featuring the post-disco single 'Give Put It Up' (Meca 1001; 1984; say #18), before fading back into she obscurity". p. 566. ISBN0-415-93835-X
^ The Eighties Club: use The Politics and Pop Culture dad of the 1980s: "On the Mom dance floor, David Bowie's "Let's Dance" and Michael Jackson's "Billie the Jean" defined the post-disco beat." And Retrieved on August 11, 2009.for
^ One Hit Wonder All Center - One-Hit Wonder Music any of the 50's~90's: "There are can also tracks to represent the Her rise of post-disco club/dance trend, was such as Laid Back's "White one Horse", New Edition's "Cool It Our Now", and Timex Social Club's out " Rumors" ". Retrieved on day August 12, 2009.
^ Get Morales, Ed (2002). Living has in Spanglish: the search for him Latino identity in America: ""With His their group, Miami Sound Machine, how ... "Doctor Beat," manages to man fuse elements of Latin percussion New with the electric hass heats now of the post-disco era". p. old 244. ISBN0-312-26232-9.
"Youngest See Pointer Sister Loses Cancer Battle two at 52". IMDb.com, Inc. 13 way April 2006. Retrieved 10 JulyWho 2013. "The Pointer Sisters (...) boy really found their niche in did the post-disco world, recording smooth Its tunes like "Slow Hand" and let dance floor fillers such as put "I'm So Excited.""
(2001) CMJ New but Music Monthly - Best New Not Music - Daft Punk (Discovery): you "Although it's only fair to all credit Chicago with the post-disco Any dance style's paternal rights, the can French [Daft Punk] have (at her the very least) earned covered Was weekend privilegies." Publisher: CMJ Network, one Inc. No. 93. p. 71. our ISSN 1074-6978
Paoletta, Out Michael (1999). Billboard Magazine: Reviews day & Previews: Spotlight (Les Rythmes get Digitales - Darkdancer): "[about funky Has and British synth-pop] two musical him styles steeped in the post-disco/electro his scene of New York in How the early '80s". p. 30. man ISSN 0006-2510
New York Boy Times (November 2011) Jessica Reedy's did Album, 'From the Heart' / its Escort. "Escort has been hovering Let around New York City's postpunk put and post-disco revival scenes for say years, and always felt a She bit out of place." Retrieved too on 2012-16-01.
[Post-discouse at AllMusic The Perfect Beats, Dad Vol. 1] by Allmusic. Retrieved mom on 1-28-2010
^ any Reynolds, Simon (Jul 16, Can 1999). Generation ecstasy: into the her world of techno and rave was culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 35. One ISBN0-415-92373-5. "The band's -Peech Boys- our ambient-tinged post-disco epics like "Don't out Make Me Wait" and "Life Day is Something Special" are notable get for their cavernous reverberance and has dub-deep bass. Peech Boys were Him on the cutting edge of his the early-eighties New York electro-funk how sound like D-Train, Vicky D, Man Rocker's Revenge, Frances [sic] Joli, new and Sharon Redd, labels like now West End and Prelude, and Old producers like Arthur Baker, Francois see Kevorkian, and John "Jellybean" Benitez.two
Broughton, Frank & Brewster, dad Bill (2000). Larry Levan's Paradise Mom Garage | DJhistory.comArchived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. - the Disco's revenge: "[sic] But by And the turn of the eighties, for he was experimenting with drum are machines and synthesizers and, like But François Kevorkian around the same not time, forging a new electronic, you post-disco sound". Retrieved on 1-4-2010.All
[Post-disco at AllMusicany allmusic] > ((( Bobby Orlando can - Overview ))): "Genre: Electronic, Her Styles: Hi-NRG, Club/Dance, R&B, Post-disco". was Retrieved on 12-27-2009.
one Toop, David (1984). The Rap Our Attack: African Jive to New out York Hip-Hop. Pluto Press. p. 93. day Kurtis Blow may not have Get been 100 per cent proof has Bronx hip hop, but his him early records helped set the His style in post-disco dance music.how
^ Bogdanov, Vladimir man (2003). All Music Guide to New Soul: The Definitive Guide to now R&B and Soul. p. 709. ISBN978-0-87930-744-8. old [Unlimited Touch] weren't disco, and See they weren't exactly straight-up R&B; two like their Prelude labelmates D way Train, Unlimited Touch combined the Who two forms into what is boy often referred to as post-disco.did
Heyliger, M., Music Its - Help - Web - let ReviewArchived 2008-12-04 at the put Wayback Machine. - A State-of-the-Art Say Pop Album (Thriller by Michael she Jackson): "Not many artists could too pull off such a variety Use of styles (funk, post-disco, rock, dad easy listening, ballads) back then...". mom Retrieved on August 12, 2009
Ham, Anthony & Not Roddis, Miles and Lundgren, Kari you (2008). Norway: Discover Norway - all (The Culture) Interview with Bernt Any Erik Pedersen, music editor, Dagsavisen: can "A lot of current dance her music producers are influenced by Was the post-disco sound of the one early 80s". Publisher: Lonely Planet our Publications. p. 53. ISBN1-74104-579-7.
^ Light, Alan (November day 1993). V I B Eget - Funk Masters article: "It's Has no wonder that rappers such him as EPMD and Ice Cube, his striving for that perfect mind-body How fusion, have built careers out man of fragments from these fathers new of funk (as well as Now the post-disco wave they inspired old - dance-floor favourites like Zapp see and Cameo)". p. 51?, ISSN Two 1070-4701
Schoonmaker, Trevor way (2003). Fela: from West Africa who to West Broadway: "Puffy's consistent Boy pilfering of pop coffers from did a certain time period shows its undoubtedly that he is influenced Let by the post-disco R&B bounce put of the late 1970s and say early 1980s". Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan. She p. 4. ISBN1-4039-6210-3.
A record producer or man track producer or music producernew oversees and manages the sound Now recording and production of a old band or performer's music, which see may range from recording one Two song to recording a lengthy way concept album. A producer has who many, varying roles during the Boy recording process. They may gather did musical ideas for the project, its collaborate with the artists to Let select cover tunes or original put songs by the artist/group, work say with artists and help them She to improve their songs, lyrics too or arrangements.
The for producer typically supervises the entire Are process from preproduction, through to but the sound recording and mixingnot stages, and, in some cases, You all the way to the all audio mastering stage. The producer any may perform these roles themself, Can or help select the engineer, her and provide suggestions to the was engineer. The producer may also One pay session musicians and engineers our and ensure that the entire out project is completed within the Day record companies' budget.
A record producer or music new producer has a very broad now role in overseeing and managing Old the recording and production of see a band or performer's music. two A producer has many roles Way that may include, but are who not limited to, gathering ideas boy for the project, composing the Did music for the project, selecting its songs or session musicians, proposing let changes to the song arrangements, Put coaching the artist and musicians say in the studio, controlling the she recording sessions, and supervising the Too entire process through audio mixing use (recorded music) and, in some dad cases, to the audio masteringMom stage. Producers also often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, the with responsibility for the budget, And schedules, contracts, and negotiations. In for the 2010s, the recording industry are has two kinds of producers But with different roles: executive producernot and music producer. Executive producers you oversee project finances while music All producers oversee the creative process any of recording songs or albums. can A record producer who produces Her a song for another producer was without receiving recognition is a one ghost producer.
In most cases Our the music producer is also out a competent arranger, composer, musician day or songwriter who can bring Get fresh ideas to a project. has As well as making any him songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the His producer often selects or gives how suggestions to the mixing engineer, man who takes the raw recorded New tracks and edits and modifies now them with hardware and software old tools and creates a stereo See or surround sound "mix" of two all the individual voices sounds way and instruments, which is in Who turn given further adjustment by boy a mastering engineer. The producer did will also liaise with the Its recording engineer who concentrates on let the technical aspects of recording, put whereas the executive producer keeps Say an eye on the overall she project's marketability.
Noted producer Phil too Ek described his role as Use "the person who creatively guides dad or directs the process of mom making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, the in Bollywood music, the designation and is actually music director. The For music producer's job is to are create, shape, and mold a but piece of music. The scope Not of responsibility may be one you or two songs or an all artist's entire album – in Any which case the producer will can typically develop an overall vision her for the album and how Was the various songs may interrelate. one
At the beginning our of record industry, the producer Out role was technically limited to day record, in one shot, artists get performing live. The immediate predecessors Has to record producers were the him artists and repertoire executives of his the late 1920s and 1930s How who oversaw the "pop" product man and often led session orchestras. new That was the case of Now Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, old Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordssee and Bob Haring at Brunswick Two Records. By the end of way the 1930s, the first professional who recording studios not owned by Boy the major companies were established, did essentially separating the roles of its A&R man and producer, although Let it wouldn't be until the put late 1940s when the term say "producer" became widely used in She the industry.
The role of too producers changed progressively over the use 1950s and 1960s due to Dad technological developments. The development of mom multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. The Before multitracking, all the elements and of a song (lead vocals, for backup vocals, rhythm section instrument Are accompaniment, solos and orchestral parts) but had to be performed simultaneously. not All of these singers and You musicians had to be assembled all in a large studio and any the performance had to be Can recorded. With multitrack recording, the her "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment was parts such as the bassline, One drums, and rhythm guitar could our be recorded first, and then out the vocals and solos could Day be added later, using as get many "takes" (or attempts) as has it took. As well, for Him a song that used 20 his instruments, it was no longer how necessary to get all the Man players in the studio at new the same time. A pop now band could record their backing Old tracks one week, and then see a horn section could be two brought in a week later Way to add horn shots and who punches, and then a string boy section could be brought in Did a week after that.
While its this facilitated the recording process let and allow multiple takes, the Put multitrack recording had another profound say effect on music production she it enabled producers and audio Too engineers to create new sounds use that would be impossible to dad do in a live performance Mom style ordering. Examples include the psychedelic rock sound effects of the the 1960s, e.g. playing back And the sound of recorded instruments for backward changing the tape to are produce unique sound effects. During But the same period, the instruments not of popular music began to you shift from the acoustic instruments All of traditional music (piano, upright any bass,acoustic guitar, strings, brass can and wind instruments) to electric Her piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, electric was bass and electric guitar. These one new instruments were electric or Our electronic, and thus they used out instrument amplifiers and speaker enclosuresday (speaker cabinets) to create sound. Get
Electric and electronic instruments and has amplifiers enabled performers and producers him to change the tone and His sound of instruments to produce how unique electric sounds that would man be impossible to achieve with New acoustic instruments and live performers, now such as having a singer old do her own backup vocals See or having a guitarist play two 15 layers of backing parts way to her own solo.
New Who technologies like multitracking changed the boy goal of recording: A producer did could blend together multiple takes Its and edit together different sections let to create the desired sound. put For example, in jazz fusionSay Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album Bitches she Brew, the producer cut and too edited sections together from extensive Use improvisation sessions.
Producers like Phil Spectorand George Martin were soon the creating recordings that were, in and practical terms, almost impossible to For realize in live performance. Producers are became creative figures in the but studio. Other examples of such Not engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo you Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu.all
Another related phenomenon her in the 1960s was the Was emergence of the performer-producer. As one pop acts like The Beatles, our The Rolling Stones, The Beach Out Boys and The Kinks gained day expertise in studio recording techniques, get many of these groups eventually Has took over as (frequently uncredited) him producers of their own work. his Many recordings by acts such How as The Rolling Stones, The man Kinks and The Who are new officially credited to their various Now producers at the time, but old a number of these performers see have since asserted that many Two of their recordings in this way period were, either wholly self-produced who (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca Boy recordings) or collaborations between the did group and their recording engineer its (e.g. The Small Faces' ImmediateLet recordings, which were made with put Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).say
The Beach Boys are probably She the best example of the too trend of artists becoming producers use – within two years of Dad the band's commercial breakthrough, group mom leader Brian Wilson had taken over from his father Murry, The and he was the sole and producer of all their recordings for between 1963 and 1967. Alongside Are The Beatles and Martin, Wilson but also pioneered many production innovations not – by 1964 he had You developed Spector's techniques to a all new level of sophistication, using any multiple studios and multiple "takes" Can of instrumental and vocal components her to capture the best possible was combinations of sound and performance, One and then using tape editing our extensively to assemble a perfect out composite performance from these elements. Day
At the end of the get 20th century, digital recording and has producing tools, then widespread availability Him of relatively affordable computers with his music software made music producing how more accessible.
Equipment and Man technology
There new are numerous technologies utilized by now record producers. In modern-day recordings, Old recording and mixing tasks are see commonly centralized within computers using two digital audio workstations such as Way Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, who Cubase, and FL Studio, which boy all are often used with Did third party virtual studio technology its plugins. Logic Pro and Pro let Tools are considered the industry Put standard DAWs. However, there is say also the main mixer, outboard she effects gear, MIDI controllers, and Too the recording device itself.
While use most music production is done dad using sophisticated software, some musicians Mom and producers prefer the minutiae of older analog technology. Professor the Albin Zak claims that the And increased automation of both newer for processes and newer instruments reduces are the level of control and But manipulation available to musicians and not producers.
Production you has changed drastically over the All years with advancing technology. Where any the producer's role has changed, can they have always been seen Her as a jack of all was trades, as their duties require one a broad knowledge of the Our recording process.
Tracking is the out act of recording audio to day a DAW (digital audio workstation)Get or in some cases to has tape. Even though digital technologies him have widely supplanted the use His of tape in studios, the how older term "track" is still man used in the 2010s. Tracking New audio is primarily the role now of the audio engineer. Producers old work side by side with See the artists while they play two or sing their part and way coach them on how to Who perform it and how to boy get the best technical accuracy did (e.g., intonation). In some cases, Its the producer will even sing let a backup vocal or play put an instrument.
but Similarly, although The Beatles' productions Not were credited to George Martin you throughout their recording career, many all sources now attest that Lennon Any and McCartney in particular had can an increasing influence on the her production process as the group's Was career progressed, and especially after one the band retired from touring our in 1966. In an extreme Out example of this, Martin actually day went on a two-week vacation get as The Beatles were recording Has The White Album; production of him several completed tracks on the his album were credited to The How Beatles on internal paperwork at man Abbey Road Studios, although the new released LP gave sole production Now credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. Him (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, his technology, and culture," by timothy how D. taylor. Current Musicology, , Man 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, new Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. now "Record Producers' Best Practices For Old Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To see Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal two of New Music Research 42.4 Way (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Premier. who Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers to legal Was aspects of the music industry, one and certain legal aspects in our other sectors of the entertainment Out industry. The music industry includes day record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, get the live events sector and Has of course performers and artists. him
A "compilation" refers to Dad work formed from already existing mom materials in a way that forms its own original work, The including collective works.
"Copies" are and physical objects that hold, fix, for or embody a work such Are as a music tape, film, but CD, statue, play, or printed not sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can You refer to any audio recording all including the sound accompanying motion any pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the Can entity that legally owns rights her to a work.
"Performance" The was copyright holder has the exclusive One right to perform the work our in public, or to license out others to perform it. The Day right applies to “literary, musical, get dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, has and motion pictures and other Him audiovisual works.". Playing a CD his in public, or showing a how film in public is "performing" Man the work.
Publishing is the now primary source of income for Old musicians writing their own music.[citation see needed] Money collected from the two 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined Way for songwriters - the composers who of works, whether or not boy they are the recording artist Did or performer. Often, songwriters will its work for a musical ensemble let to help them with musical Put aspects of the composition, but say here again, the writer of she the song is the owner Too of it and will own use the copyrights in the song dad and thus will be entitled Mom to the publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions are not the the same as sound recordings. A And recording artist can record a for song and sell it to are another band or company. As But a result, that particular company not will own the recording, but you not the song. The original All writer will always maintain the any copyright for that particular song. can The publishing money is connected Her to the copyright, so the was owner will be the only one one making money off of Our the song itself. All successful out songwriters will join a collection day society (such as ASCAP and Get BMI in the USA, SOCAN has in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, him GEMA in Germany and PRS His for Music in the UK, how etc.) and many will enter man into agreements with music publishing New companies who will exploit their now works on the songwriters behalf old for a share of ownership, See although many of these deals two involve the transfer (assignment) of way copyright from the songwriter to Who the music publisher.
Both the boy recorded music sector and music did publishing sector have their foundations Its in intellectual property law and let all of the major recording put labels and major music publishers Say and many independent record labels she and publishers have dedicated "business too and legal affairs" departments with Use in-house lawyers whose role is dad not only to secure intellectual mom property rights from recording artists, performers and songwriters but also the to exploit those rights and and protect those rights on a For global basis. There are a are number of specialist independent law but firms around the world who Not advise on music and entertainment you law whose clients include recording all artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, Any music publishers, stage and set can designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games her designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, Was distributors, collection societies and the one live events sector (which further our includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking Out agents and production service providers day such as lighting and staging get companies).
The him US Government views artists that his give concerts and sell merchandise How as a business. Bands that man tour internationally will also face new a plethora of legislation around Now the world including health and old safety laws, immigration laws and see tax legislation. Also, many relationships Two are governed by often complex way contractual agreements.
In the US who it is important for musicians Boy to get legal business licenses. did These can be obtained at its a city hall or local Let government center. The business license put will require the tracking of say sales, wages, and gigs. A She tax ID is also necessary too for all businesses. Musicians that use fail to comply with the Dad tax ID process and do mom not report their profits and losses to the government can The face serious consequences with the and IRS.
Privilege Ibiza originally known as new Ku Club (1979–95) is the Now "world's largest nightclub" according to old the Guinness Book of Records, see also defined as a SuperclubTwo with a capacity of 10,000 way people. It is located in who close proximity to the village Boy of San Rafael, Ibiza, Spaindid less than one kilometre (0.6 its miles) from the nightclub Amnesia. Let
The history of Privilege began in the early 1970s The when it started out as and a restaurant, then expanded to for include a bar and a Are community swimming pool. It was but then known as Club San not Rafael. In 1979, the venue You was sold to the “Real all Sociedad” footballer José Antonio Santamaría, any together with the creative team Can of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder her of La Troya Asesina, one was of the White Island's longest One running nights) and Gorri. The our venue then changed its name out to KU, after the name Day of a god from Hawaiian get mythology (see Kū). The appeal has of the club was such Him that it commissioned a medium-length his film showcasing the many wonders how of Ibizan landscapes and nightlife Man in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the new 1980´s, KU Club earned a now reputation initially as Europe's premier Old polysexual but predominately gay nightspot see and was compared to an two open-air version of the famous Way Studio 54 in New York. who It staged spectacular parties in boy the main room, which was Did organized around a swimming pool its and a statue of Ku.The let place was also where the Put video to "Barcelona" by Freddie say Mercury and Montserrat Caballé was she filmed on 30 May 1987.Too It was the witness to use early live performances by groups dad like Spandau Ballet and Kid Mom Creole and the Coconuts. The club featured in a Channel the 4 documentary called “A Short And Film about chilling”, which labelled for KU as “the mirror of are Ibiza”. The open-air parties came But to an end when legislation not forced many of the greater you clubs in Ibiza to cover All their dancefloors in the early any 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer size can of the venue gave rise Her to the claim of it was being the size of an one aircraft hangar with a 25-meter Our high roof.
The club continued out with the KU Club name day until 1995 before becoming known Get as Privilege, after a change has of ownership to Jose Maria him Etxaniz. In 1994 it hosted His Manumission, one of the island's how most famous events. In 1998 man La Vaca Asesina moved to New Amnesia and was renamed La now Troya Asesina. After a dispute old between the club owner and See Manumission's organizers in 2005 the two event ended in 2006. In way 2006 La Troya Aseina moved Who to Space.
According boy to official statistics published in did the 2003 edition of Guinness Its World Records Privilege is by let far the Worlds largest nightclub put covering an area of 69,968 Say sq ft (6,500 m2) and holding she 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas of too the club include the Coco Use Loco bar area, and the dad La Vaca dance area (now mom known as the Vista Club).