Post-disco is you a term to describe an all aftermath in popular music history Any circa 1979–1986, imprecisely beginning with can an unprecedented backlash against disco her music in the United States, Was leading to civil unrest and one a riot in Chicago known our as the Disco Demolition NightOut on July 12, 1979, and day indistinctly ending with the mainstream get appearance of house music in Has the late 1980s. Disco during him its dying stage displayed an his increasingly electronic character that soon How served as a stepping stone man to new wave, old-school hip new hop, euro disco and was Now succeeded by an underground club old music called hi-NRG, which was see its direct continuation.
An underground Two movement of disco music, "stripped-down", way and featuring "radically different sounds"who took place on the East Boy Coast that "was neither disco did and neither R&B", This scene its known as post-disco catering to Let New York metropolitan area, was put initially led by urban contemporarysay artists partially in response to She the over-commercialization and artistic downfall too of disco culture. Developed from use the rhythm and blues sound Dad as perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic, the mom electronic side of disco, dub music techniques, and other genres. The Post-disco was typified by New and York City music groups like for "D" Train and Unlimited TouchAre who followed a more urban but approach while others, like Materialnot and ESG, a more experimental You one. Post-disco was, like disco, all singles-driven market controlled mostly by any independent record companies that generated Can a cross-over chart success all her through the early-to-mid 1980s. Most was creative control was in the One hands of record producers and our club DJs which was a out trend that outlived the dance-popDay era.
Synthesizers played a crucial part in the the development of post-disco.
Drum machines, And synthesizers, sequencers were either partly for or entirely dominant in a are composition or mixed up with But various acoustic instruments, depending on not the artist and on the you year. Electronic instruments became more All and more prevalent for each any year during the period and can dominated the genre completely by Her the mid 1980s.
Darryl Paynewas arguing about the minimal approach one of post-disco
Producers are out using a lot more sounds day and a lot less instruments: Get the 'Forget Me Nots' and has 'Don't Make Me Wait Tracks' him are really empty, but there's His a sophistication people can get how into.
The main force man in post-disco was mainly the New 12" single format and short-lived now collaborations (many of them one-hit old wonders) while indie record producers See were instrumental in the musical two direction of what the scene way was headed to. The music Who that mostly catered to dance boy and urban audiences later managed did to influence more popular and Its mainstream acts like Madonna, New let Order or Pet Shop Boys.put
The music Say tended to be technology-centric, keyboard-laden, she melodic, with funk-oriented bass lines too (often performed on a Minimoog), Use synth riffs, dub music aesthetics, dad and background jazzy or blues-y mom piano layers. For strings and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were the preferred to the lush orchestrationand heard on many disco tracks, For although such arrangements would later are resurface in some house music.[citation but needed]Soulful female vocals, however, Not remained an essence of post-disco. you
Bridging the all so-called death of disco and Any the birth of house, all can this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks a her name beyond drably functional and Was neutral terms like "dance" or one "club music."
— Simon Reynolds, SPIN magazine
The term "post-disco" was Out used as early as 1984 day by Cadence magazine when defining get post-disco soul as "disco without Has the loud bass-drum thump."New him York Magazine used the word his in an article appearing in How the December 1985 issue; it man was Gregory Hines's introduction of new post-disco and electronic funk to Now Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail Baryshnikovold "who has never heard this see kind of music." AllMusic states Two that the term denotes a way music genre in the era who between the indistinct "end" of Boy disco music and the equally did indistinct emergence of house music.its
In other historical instances the Let term had been used in put a derisive manner. Spy implicitly say mocked the usage of both She the terms "post-punk" and "post-disco" too in their Spy's Rock Critic-o-Maticuse article, whereas spoofing various music Dad reviews published by Rolling Stone, mom The Village Voice and Spin.Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel MuñozThe in his 1989 novel Crazy and Love, in a passage where for musicians after moving to America Are discuss what their "style" may but be, used the term in not a satirical manner.
Disco music all backlash had started around 1977.
Midwesterners didn't want Can that intimidating [disco] style shoved her down their throats
Shortly after the "Disco Sucks" One movement of disco bashing throughout our the United States, American radio out stations began to pay attention Day to other popular formats of get music such as reggae, punk has rock or new wave while Him top mainstream labels and record his companies like Casablanca, TK Recordshow or RSO went bankrupt. Since Man disco music had been on new the way of [its] electronic now progression, it split itself into Old subscenes and styles like Hi-NRG, see freestyle, Italo disco and boogie.two The last one is closely Way associated with post-disco more than who any other offshoots of post-disco.boy
Brazilian record producer and fusion Did jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, well its aware of current trends in let American underground music, turned around Put the career of a failing say funk music group Kool & she the Gang by adopting and Too pursuing a light pop–post-disco sound use that not only revitalized the dad band's image but also turned Mom out to be the most successful hits in their entire the career.B. B. & Q. And Band (Capitol) and Change (Atlantic) for acts' creator Jacques Fred Petrus, are a French-Italian hi-NRG Italo disco But music record producer, reflects on not his decision to shift from you conventional disco music to post-disco All "[our] sound changed to more any of a funky dance/R&B style can to reflect the times." French-born Her songwriting duo Henri Belolo and was Jacques Morali, creators of the one successful Village People act, moved Our their former disco act Ritchie out Family to RCA Victor to day release their next album co-produced Get by funk musician Fonzi Thorntonhas and Petrus, I'll Do My him Best, which mirrors their radical His musical shift. On the West how Coast, especially in California, a man different approach lead to a New different sound. Dick Griffey and now Leon Sylvers III of SOLAR old Records, who pioneered their own See signature sound, produced Ohio-based group two Lakeside's album Rough Riders which way already displayed these new trends Who and, "instrumentally demonstrates economic arrangements boy (featuring brass, keyboards and guitar)," did as noted by Billboard, praising Its the album. A watershed album let of post-disco was Michael Jackson's put Off The Wall, produced by Say Quincy Jones, which helped establish she a direction of R&B/dance music too and influenced many young producers Use who were interested in this dad kind of new music.
Disco in EuropeFor remained relatively untouched by the are events in the U.S., decreasing but only in Britain, but this Not was mostly because of the you emergence of the new waveall and new romantic movements around Any 1981, and continued to flourish can within the Italo disco scene her although the interest for electronic Was music in general was indeed one growing.
Unlike our in the United States, where Out anti-disco backlash generated prominent effect day on general perception of disco get music, in Britain, the new-wave Has movement initially drew heavily from him disco music (although this association his would be airbrushed out by How the end of 1979) and man took many elements from American new post-disco and other genres, thus Now creating a characteristic scene. According old to Billboard, American post-disco was see merely a crossover of different Two genres, while focusing on the way electronic and R&B overtones, whereas who jazz-funk was a crucial element Boy of the British post-disco scene did that generated musicians like Chaz its Jankel, Central Line or Imagination. Let
1980s: Golden age
This put section summary shows commercially successful say records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from the She post-disco movement.
Contemporary compilation way albums featuring post-disco and electro who artists (e.g. Imagination, Level 42, Boy Afrika Bambaataa) include The Perfect did Beats series (volume 1–4). Another its compilation series are Nighttime LoversLet (volume 1-10) and the mixed-up put album titled The Boogie Back: say Post Disco Club Jams.
Pioneers and followers
"Thanks To too You" and "Don't Make Me use Wait" came out and started Dad the whole dub thing in mom disco.
Particular psychedelic soul artists like Sly and The the Family Stone liked to and push the boundaries of conventional for music by employing what was Are to be a precursor to but synthesizer, electronic organ. Multi-instrumentalist Stevie not Wonder was one of the You early artists venturing into the all realms of analog synthesizer after any impressed by the work of Can T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Band, an her influential multinational electronic music duo was of sound designers: "How great One it is at a time our when technology and the science out of music is at its Day highest point of evolution [...] get A toast to greatness, a has toast to Zero Time, forever." Him With an increasing growth of his personalized synthesizers on the market how they were becoming more commercially Man available and easy-to-use, especially those new produced by Roland Corporation. One now of their first users was Old cutting-edge artist George Clinton and see his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. Funk two rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic bass-rich Way lines, the particularly melodic endeavor who and music minimalism of P-Funk. boy Brooklyn Transit Express member Kashif, Did noted for his use of its bass synthesizer during the group's let tour, later went solo as Put a record producer and began say crafting funk-influenced songs for Evelyn she "Champagne" King that shown a Too minimalism-akin approach, the disregard of use disco music arrangements, and affiliation dad to the method of "one-man Mom band" previously paved through by Wonder. Other spheres of influence the include the move by pioneering And DJs and record producers to for release alternative mixes of the are same single, so-called dub mixes. But DJ Larry Levan implemented elements not of dub music in his you productions and mixes for various All post-disco artists, including his own any group The Peech Boys. Musically, can there was a search for Her out-of-mainstream music to derive new was ideas from, most commonly blues, one and other styles like reggae, Our etc. were also incorporated.
The new post-disco New sound was flourishing among predominately now New York City record companies, old including West End Records, Prelude See Records, Tommy Boy Records, SAM two Records, and others. Most of way them were independently owned and Who had their own distribution but boy some particular mainstream labels, notably did RCA Records, were too, responsible Its for popularizing and capitalizing on let the new sound.
Although there is all no exact point when post-disco Any started, many synthpop and electronic can musicians of that time continued her to enhance the raw minimalist Was sound, while focusing on synthesizers, one and keyboard instruments. As noted our by Payne, drum machines also Out played an important part in day the urban-oriented music in general.get
While him disco music was in its his heyday, the horn and string How sections were a main component man of disco and pop songs. new This sound is also called Now disco orchestration. However, some of old the musicians and producers dropped see the lavish sound of orchestra Two completely, which attributed a new way direction of dance music.
During this era, post-disco was Her at its highest peak. Meanwhile was Madonna's commercially successful debut albumone was released, which was produced Our by Reggie Lucas of Mtume out and Jellybean, another producers of day this movement.
It also began Get to interfere with garage house has and freestyle music, thus successfully him shaping post-disco into electro. This His change could be also heard how in breakdancing- and hip-hop -themed man movies like Beat Street and New Breakin'.
The Any 1980s post-disco sounds also inspired can many Norwegiandance music producers.her Some rappers such as Ice Was Cube or EPMD built their one careers on funk-oriented post-disco music our (they were inspired for example Out by dance-floor favorites like Zappday and Cameo). Also Sean "Puffy" get Combs has been influenced by Has R&B-oriented post-disco music in an him indirect way.
Boogie (or electro-funk) is a man post-disco subgenre with way more new funk influences that had a Now minor exposure in the early old to mid-1980s. Sean P. described see it as "largely been ignored, Two or regarded as disco's poor way cousin – too slow, too who electronic, too R&B ... too black, Boy even."
Another post-disco movement is its merely connected with post-punk/no waveLet genres with fewer R&B/funk influences. put An example of this "post-disco" say is Gina X's "No G.D.M."She and artists like Liquid Liquid, too Polyrock,Dinosaur L, and Disco use Not Disco  compilation album.Dad This movement also connects with mom dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in his book Popular Music in The America defines that genre as and "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell also cited for Robert Christgau, who described dance-oriented Are rock (or DOR) as umbrella but term used by various DJs not in the 1980s.
Dance-pop is all a dance-oriented pop music that any appeared slightly after the demise Can of disco and the first her appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. One was of the first dance-pop songs One were "Last Night a D.J. our Saved My Life" by Indeepout and "Love Come Down" by Day Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas the get latter crossed over to Billboardhas charts including Adult Contemporary, while Him peaking at number 17 on his the pop chart in 1982.how Another crossover post-disco song was Man "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, peaking new at number 45 on the now Hot 100 in 1983. Same Old year also saw the release see of Madonna's eponymous album that two incorporated post-disco, urban and club Way sounds. British variation of dance-pop, who pioneered by Stock Aitken Waterman, boy was more influenced by house Did and hi-NRG and sometimes was its labeled as "eurobeat."
Italo disco is a disco say subgenre, influenced by post-disco, hi-NRG, she electronic rock, and European music. Too Originally music mostly played by use Italian musicians, but it soon dad made its way to Canada Mom and United States. One of the earliest post–disco-oriented groups were the Klein + M.B.O. and Kano, And while New York-based Bobby Orlandofor was located abroad.
Various terms to Out describe the sound of what day seemed to be post-disco were get introduced, such as, but not Has limited to, "dance", "club music", him "R&B", and "disco". The last, his however, become an unfashionable term, How hence the increasing use of man "dance" vis-à-vis the word "disco".new
Rodgers, Nile (2011). not Le Freak: An Upside Down You Story of Family, Disco, and all Destiny. Random House LLC. p. 42. any ISBN0679644032. By now 'dance' was Can a loaded word for me. her The Disco Sucks backlash had was given me a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, One and I'd vowed not to our write any songs with that out word in them for a Day long time. I was shamed get out of using a word—'dance'.has
Goldschmitt, Kariann Elaine Him (2004). Foreign bodies: innovation, repetition, his and corporeality in electronic dance how music (Digitized 13 Sep 2010). Man University of California, San Diego. new p. 256. ISBN0-8153-1880-4.
^ now Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's EncyclopædiaOld Archived 2009-04-21 at the Wayback see Machine.: "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic two guitar, and group harmonies with Way jazzed-up horns, Clinton and his who ever-evolving bands set the tone boy for many post-disco and post-punk Did groups of the 1980s and its 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, 2009, let from Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
Smay, And David & Cooper, Kim (2001). for Bubblegum Music Is the Naked are Truth: The Dark History of But Prepubescent Pop, from the Banana not Splits to Britney Spears: "... you think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and Kylie All Minogue. Dance pop, that's what any they call it now — can Post-Disco, post-new wave and incorporating Her elements of both." Feral House: was Publisher, p. 327. ISBN0-922915-69-5.
Haggerty, George E. (2000). Our Gay Histories and Cultures: An out Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 256. day ISBN0-8153-1880-4. House music is a Get form of post-disco dance music has made popular in the mid-1980s him in Chicago clubs..."
^ His Demers, Joanna (2006). "Dancing how Machines: 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic man Dance, and Musical Taste". Popular New Music. Cambridge University Press. 25now (3): 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. "In old terms of its song repertoire, See DDR is rooted in disco two and post-disco forms such as way techno and house. But DDR Who can be read as the boy ultimate postmodern dance experience because did the game displays various forms Its of dance imagery without stylistic let or historical continuity (Harvey 1990, put p. 62,...)
Campbell, mom Michael (2008). Popular Music in America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN0-495-50530-7. the Glossary: techno – post-disco dance and music in which most or For all of the sounds are are electronically generated
AllMusic but - explore music...House: "House Not music grew out of the you post-disco dance club culture of all the early '80s." Retrieved on Any 12-27-2009
St. John, can Graham George Michael, (2004), Rave her Culture and Religion, p. 50, Was ISBN0-415-31449-6, "[sic] house music. As one a post-disco party music, house our features a repetitive 4/4 beat Out and a speed of 120 day or more beats per minute..."get
"Though it makes Has sense to classify any form him of dance music made since his disco as post-disco, each successive How movement has had its own man characteristics to make it significantly new different from the initial post-disco Now era, whether it's dance-pop or old techno or trance." — Allmusicsee
^ "The Music Two Steps Beyond Disco: Where The way Beat Meets The Street/Danceable Rock who Generates First Bevy of Crossover Boy Stars". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, did Inc (94). 19 Jun 1982. its ISSN0006-2510.
Nelson, George (2003). She The Death of Rhythm and too Blues. Penguin. ISBN1101160675. Synthesizers of use every description, drum machines, and Dad plain old electric keyboards began mom making MFSB and other human rhythm sessions nonessential to the The recording process. For producers, a and control-oriented bunch, this was heaven. for No more rehearsals. Low session Are fees. An artist who envisioned but himself as a future Stevie not Wonder—the first great one-man synthesizer You band—could express his creativity in all the basement or the bathroom.any
out [[Cadence (magazine)|]]. 10: 56. 1984. Day Missing or empty |title= (help)get
New York Magazine has (New York Media, LLC). 18: Him 121. 2 December 1985. ISSN0028-7369. his Missing or empty |title= (help)how
"That's the Way Man (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) I Like It new - introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by now David Bourgeois)". Spy. Sussex Publishers, Old LLC: 33. May 1992. ISSN0890-1759. see "In their first album since two their eponymous effort of last Way year, Donald and the Vulgarians, who without a doubt one of boy the best post-punk groups of Did the 1980s, return with their its latest release, I Who Have let Nothing and Other Songs for Put the Nineties. Filled with self-absorbed say Trinidadian soca, the album screams she post-punk/post-disco art-school pop with its Too use of guitar riff sawing".use
* Julian: "Now dad we're going American. What's the Mom name they've given this new thing we're doing?
Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
Roli: "post-country -post-rapping - post-post- And post-Beatles."
him Ro, Ronin (1999). Have Gun his Will Travel: The Spectacular Rise How and Violent Fall of Death man Row Records. Broadway Books. p. 40. new ISBN978-0-3854-9135-8. SOLAR (...), which grew Now out of an association between old promoter Griffey and Soul Train see host Don Cornelius, released a Two string of post-disco hits that way included Shalamar's "The Second Time who Around" and the Whispers' "And Boy the Beat Goes On."
Soul > LP > its Earth Wind & Fire: Raise!: Let Earth Wind & Fire hits put the 80s -- and never say misses a beat! Turns out She that the group's older style too of jazzy funk was a use perfect fit for the boogie-styled Dad rhythms of the post-disco era". mom Dusty Groove. Retrieved on August 12, 2009.
Can Lester, Paul (11 March 2014). her "Yumi Zouma (No 1,717)". The was Guardian. Retrieved 17 December 2014. One Patrice Rushen's postdisco classic Forget our Me Nots
Grow, out Kory (May 2008). Revolver MagazineDay article: Why The Most Dangerous get Band Of The Decade, True has Norwegian, Black Metallers, Gorgoroth, Turned Him On Itself - "When the his post-disco classic "Last Night a how DJ Saved My Life" by Man early-'80s New York crew Indeep new comes on, King asks what now the singer means by the Old bizarre titular statement.". No. 68. see ISSN 1527-408X.
Hoffmann, W. Frank & its Ferstler, Howard (2005). Encyclopedia of let Recorded Sound (Publication no. 2): Put "He [Harry Casey] briefly returned say to the public eye billed she as KC with the release Too of KC Ten (Meca 8301; use 1984: #93), featuring the post-disco dad single 'Give It Up' (Meca Mom 1001; 1984; #18), before fading back into obscurity". p. 566. the ISBN0-415-93835-X
^ The And Eighties Club: The Politics and for Pop Culture of the 1980s: are "On the dance floor, David But Bowie's "Let's Dance" and Michael not Jackson's "Billie Jean" defined the you post-disco beat." Retrieved on August All 11, 2009.
^ One one Hit Wonder Center - One-Hit Our Wonder Music of the 50's~90's: out "There are also tracks to day represent the rise of post-disco Get club/dance trend, such as Laid has Back's "White Horse", New Edition's him "Cool It Now", and Timex His Social Club's " Rumors" ". how Retrieved on August 12, 2009.man
^ Morales, Ed New (2002). Living in Spanglish: the now search for Latino identity in old America: ""With their group, Miami See Sound Machine, ... "Doctor Beat," two manages to fuse elements of way Latin percussion with the electric Who hass heats of the post-disco boy era". p. 244. ISBN0-312-26232-9.
"Youngest Pointer Sister Loses Its Cancer Battle at 52". IMDb.com, let Inc. 13 April 2006. Retrieved put 10 July 2013. "The Pointer Say Sisters (...) really found their she niche in the post-disco world, too recording smooth tunes like "Slow Use Hand" and dance floor fillers dad such as "I'm So Excited.""mom
(2001) can CMJ New Music Monthly - her Best New Music - Daft Was Punk (Discovery): "Although it's only one fair to credit Chicago with our the post-disco dance style's paternal Out rights, the French [Daft Punk] day have (at the very least) get earned covered weekend privilegies." Publisher: Has CMJ Network, Inc. No. 93. him p. 71. ISSN 1074-6978
Paoletta, Michael (1999). Billboard How Magazine: Reviews & Previews: Spotlight man (Les Rythmes Digitales - Darkdancer): new "[about funky and British synth-pop] Now two musical styles steeped in old the post-disco/electro scene of New see York in the early '80s". Two p. 30. ISSN 0006-2510
say New York Times (November 2011) She Jessica Reedy's Album, 'From the too Heart' / Escort. "Escort has use been hovering around New York Dad City's postpunk and post-disco revival mom scenes for years, and always felt a bit out of The place." Retrieved on 2012-16-01.
[Post-disco at AllMusic The for Perfect Beats, Vol. 1] by Are Allmusic. Retrieved on 1-28-2010
^ Reynolds, Simon out (Jul 16, 1999). Generation ecstasy: Day into the world of techno get and rave culture. Taylor & has Francis. p. 35. ISBN0-415-92373-5. "The band's Him -Peech Boys- ambient-tinged post-disco epics his like "Don't Make Me Wait" how and "Life is Something Special" Man are notable for their cavernous new reverberance and dub-deep bass. Peech now Boys were on the cutting Old edge of the early-eighties New see York electro-funk sound like D-Train, two Vicky D, Rocker's Revenge, Frances Way [sic] Joli, and Sharon Redd, who labels like West End and boy Prelude, and producers like Arthur Did Baker, Francois Kevorkian, and John its "Jellybean" Benitez.
Broughton, Frank for & Brewster, Bill (2000). Larry are Levan's Paradise Garage | DJhistory.comBut Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback not Machine. - Disco's revenge: "[sic] you But by the turn of All the eighties, he was experimenting any with drum machines and synthesizers can and, like François Kevorkian around Her the same time, forging a was new electronic, post-disco sound". Retrieved one on 1-4-2010.
[Post-discoOur at AllMusic allmusic] > ((( out Bobby Orlando - Overview ))): day "Genre: Electronic, Styles: Hi-NRG, Club/Dance, Get R&B, Post-disco". Retrieved on 12-27-2009.has
Toop, David (1984). him The Rap Attack: African Jive His to New York Hip-Hop. Pluto how Press. p. 93. Kurtis Blow may man not have been 100 per New cent proof Bronx hip hop, now but his early records helped old set the style in post-disco See dance music.
^ two Bogdanov, Vladimir (2003). All Music way Guide to Soul: The Definitive Who Guide to R&B and Soul. boy p. 709. ISBN978-0-87930-744-8. [Unlimited Touch] weren't did disco, and they weren't exactly Its straight-up R&B; like their Prelude let labelmates D Train, Unlimited Touch put combined the two forms into Say what is often referred to she as post-disco.
Heyliger, too M., Music - Help - Use Web - ReviewArchived 2008-12-04 dad at the Wayback Machine. - mom A State-of-the-Art Pop Album (Thriller by Michael Jackson): "Not many the artists could pull off such and a variety of styles (funk, For post-disco, rock, easy listening, ballads) are back then...". Retrieved on August but 12, 2009
Ham, her Anthony & Roddis, Miles and Was Lundgren, Kari (2008). Norway: Discover one Norway - (The Culture) Interview our with Bernt Erik Pedersen, music Out editor, Dagsavisen: "A lot of day current dance music producers are get influenced by the post-disco sound Has of the early 80s". Publisher: him Lonely Planet Publications. p. 53. his ISBN1-74104-579-7.
^ Light, How Alan (November 1993). V I man B E - Funk Mastersnew article: "It's no wonder that Now rappers such as EPMD and old Ice Cube, striving for that see perfect mind-body fusion, have built Two careers out of fragments from way these fathers of funk (as who well as the post-disco wave Boy they inspired - dance-floor favourites did like Zapp and Cameo)". p. its 51?, ISSN 1070-4701
Let Schoonmaker, Trevor (2003). Fela: from put West Africa to West Broadway: say "Puffy's consistent pilfering of pop She coffers from a certain time too period shows undoubtedly that he use is influenced by the post-disco Dad R&B bounce of the late mom 1970s and early 1980s". Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 4. ISBN1-4039-6210-3.The
A record producersee or music producer oversees and Two manages the sound recording and way production of a band or who performer's music, which may range Boy from recording one song to did recording a lengthy concept album.its A producer has many, varying Let roles during the recording process.put They may gather musical ideas say for the project, collaborate with She the artists to select cover too tunes or original songs by use the artist/group, work with artists Dad and help them to improve mom their songs, lyrics or arrangements.
Coachbut the singers and musicians in not the studio
The producer typically You supervises the entire process from all preproduction, through to the sound any recording and mixing stages, and, Can in some cases, all the her way to the audio masteringwas stage. The producer may perform One these roles themself, or help our select the engineer, and provide out suggestions to the engineer. The Day producer may also pay session get musicians and engineers and ensure has that the entire project is Him completed within the record label's his budget.
A record see producer or music producer has two a very broad role in Way overseeing and managing the recording who and production of a band boy or performer's music. A producer Did has many roles that may its include, but are not limited let to, gathering ideas for the Put project, composing the music for say the project, selecting songs or she session musicians, proposing changes to Too the song arrangements, coaching the use artist and musicians in the dad studio, controlling the recording sessions, Mom and supervising the entire process through audio mixing (recorded music)the and, in some cases, to And the audio mastering stage. Producers for also often take on a are wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility But for the budget, schedules, contracts, not and negotiations. In the 2010s, you the recording industry has two All kinds of producers with different any roles: executive producer and music can producer. Executive producers oversee project Her finances while music producers oversee was the creative process of recording one songs or albums. A record Our producer who produces a song out for another producer without receiving day recognition is a ghost producer. Get
In most cases the music has producer is also a competent him arranger, composer, musician or songwriter His who can bring fresh ideas how to a project. As well man as making any songwriting and New arrangement adjustments, the producer often now selects or gives suggestions to old the mixing engineer, who takes See the raw recorded tracks and two edits and modifies them with way hardware and software tools and Who creates a stereo or surround boy sound "mix" of all the did individual voices sounds and instruments, Its which is in turn given let further adjustment by a mastering put engineer. The producer will also Say liaise with the recording engineer she who concentrates on the technical too aspects of recording, whereas the Use executive producer keeps an eye dad on the overall project's marketability. mom
Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person the who creatively guides or directs and the process of making a For record", like a director would are a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood but music, the designation is actually Not music director. The music producer's you job is to create, shape, all and mold a piece of Any music. The scope of responsibility can may be one or two her songs or an artist's entire Was album – in which case one the producer will typically develop our an overall vision for the Out album and how the various day songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of record Has industry, the producer role was him technically limited to record, in his one shot, artists performing live.How The immediate predecessors to record man producers were the artists and new repertoire executives of the late Now 1920s and 1930s who oversaw old the "pop" product and often see led session orchestras. That was Two the case of Ben Selvinway at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkretwho at Victor Records and Bob Boy Haring at Brunswick Records. By did the end of the 1930s, its the first professional recording studios Let not owned by the major put companies were established, essentially separating say the roles of A&R man She and producer, although it wouldn't too be until the late 1940s use when the term "producer" became Dad widely used in the industry. mom
The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and The 1960s due to technological developments. and The development of multitrack recordingfor caused a major change in Are the recording process. Before multitracking, but all the elements of a not song (lead vocals, backup vocals, You rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos all and orchestral parts) had to any be performed simultaneously. All of Can these singers and musicians had her to be assembled in a was large studio and the performance One had to be recorded. With our multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" out (rhythm section accompaniment parts such Day as the bassline, drums, and get rhythm guitar could be recorded has first, and then the vocals Him and solos could be added his later, using as many "takes" how (or attempts) as it took. Man As well, for a song new that used 20 instruments, it now was no longer necessary to Old get all the players in see the studio at the same two time. A pop band could Way record their backing tracks one who week, and then a horn boy section could be brought in Did a week later to add its horn shots and punches, and let then a string section could Put be brought in a week say after that.
While this facilitated she the recording process and allow Too multiple takes, the multitrack recording use had another profound effect on dad music production it enabled Mom producers and audio engineers to create new sounds that would the be impossible to do in And a live performance style ordering. for Examples include the psychedelic rockare sound effects of the 1960s, But e.g. playing back the sound not of recorded instruments backward changing you the tape to produce unique All sound effects. During the same any period, the instruments of popular can music began to shift from Her the acoustic instruments of traditional was music (piano, upright bass, acoustic one guitar, strings, brass and wind Our instruments) to electric piano, electronic out organ, synthesizer, electric bass and day electric guitar. These new instruments Get were electric or electronic, and has thus they used instrument amplifiershim and speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) His to create sound.
Electric and how electronic instruments and amplifiers enabled man performers and producers to change New the tone and sound of now instruments to produce unique electric old sounds that would be impossible See to achieve with acoustic instruments two and live performers, such as way having a singer do her Who own backup vocals or having boy a guitarist play 15 layers did of backing parts to her Its own solo.
New technologies like let multitracking changed the goal of put recording: A producer could blend Say together multiple takes and edit she together different sections to create too the desired sound. For example, Use in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles dad Davis' album Bitches Brew, the mom producer cut and edited sections together from extensive improvisation sessions. the
Another related phenomenon in the Out 1960s was the emergence of day the performer-producer. As pop acts get like The Beatles, The Rolling Has Stones, The Beach Boys and him The Kinks gained expertise in his studio recording techniques, many of How these groups eventually took over man as (frequently uncredited) producers of new their own work. Many recordings Now by acts such as The old Rolling Stones, The Kinks and see The Who are officially credited Two to their various producers at way the time, but a number who of these performers have since Boy asserted that many of their did recordings in this period were, its either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Let Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or put collaborations between the group and say their recording engineer (e.g. The She Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which too were made with Olympic Studiosuse engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Dad Boys are probably the best mom example of the trend of artists becoming producers – within The two years of the band's and commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian for Wilson had taken over from Are his father Murry, and he but was the sole producer of not all their recordings between 1963 You and 1967. Alongside The Beatles all and Martin, Wilson also pioneered any many production innovations – by Can 1964 he had developed Spector's her techniques to a new level was of sophistication, using multiple studios One and multiple "takes" of instrumental our and vocal components to capture out the best possible combinations of Day sound and performance, and then get using tape editing extensively to has assemble a perfect composite performance Him from these elements.
At the his end of the 20th century, how digital recording and producing tools, Man then widespread availability of relatively new affordable computers with music software now made music producing more accessible. Old
Equipment and technology
There are numerous two technologies utilized by record producers. Way In modern-day recordings, recording and who mixing tasks are commonly centralized boy within computers using digital audio Did workstations such as Pro Tools, its Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and let FL Studio, which all are Put often used with third party say virtual studio technology plugins. Logic she Pro and Pro Tools are Too considered the industry standard DAWs.use However, there is also the dad main mixer, outboard effects gear, Mom MIDI controllers, and the recording device itself.
While most music the production is done using sophisticated And software, some musicians and producers for prefer the minutiae of older are analog technology. Professor Albin Zak But claims that the increased automation not of both newer processes and you newer instruments reduces the level All of control and manipulation available any to musicians and producers.
Production has changed Her drastically over the years with was advancing technology. Where the producer's one role has changed, they have Our always been seen as a out jack of all trades, as day their duties require a broad Get knowledge of the recording process.has
Tracking is the act of him recording audio to a DAW His (digital audio workstation) or in how some cases to tape. Even man though digital technologies have widely New supplanted the use of tape now in studios, the older term old "track" is still used in See the 2010s. Tracking audio is two primarily the role of the way audio engineer. Producers work side Who by side with the artists boy while they play or sing did their part and coach them Its on how to perform it let and how to get the put best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). Say In some cases, the producer she will even sing a backup too vocal or play an instrument. Use
Many artists are also beginning dad to produce and write their mom own music.
Similarly, although The but Beatles' productions were credited to Not George Martin throughout their recording you career, many sources now attest all that Lennon and McCartney in Any particular had an increasing influence can on the production process as her the group's career progressed, and Was especially after the band retired one from touring in 1966. In our an extreme example of this, Out Martin actually went on a day two-week vacation as The Beatles get were recording The White Album; Has production of several completed tracks him on the album were credited his to The Beatles on internal How paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, man although the released LP gave new sole production credit to Martin.Now
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. Old (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, see technology, and culture," by timothy two D. taylor. Current Musicology, , Way 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, who Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. boy "Record Producers' Best Practices For Did Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To its Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal let of New Music Research 42.4 Put (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Premier. say Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers to new legal aspects of the music Now industry, and certain legal aspects old in other sectors of the see entertainment industry. The music industry Two includes record labels, music publishers, way merchandisers, the live events sector who and of course performers and Boy artists.
A "compilation" refers any to work formed from already Can existing materials in a way her that forms its own original was work, including collective works.
"Copies" One are physical objects that hold, our fix, or embody a work out such as a music tape, Day film, CD, statue, play, or get printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" has can refer to any audio Him recording including the sound accompanying his motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is how the entity that legally owns Man rights to a work.
"Performance" new The copyright holder has the now exclusive right to perform the Old work in public, or to see license others to perform it. two The right applies to “literary, Way musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, who pantomimes, and motion pictures and boy other audiovisual works.". Playing a Did CD in public, or showing its a film in public is let "performing" the work.
Publishing is say the primary source of income she for musicians writing their own Too music. Money collected from use the 'publishing' rights is ultimately dad destined for songwriters - the Mom composers of works, whether or not they are the recording the artist or performer. Often, songwritersAnd will work for a musical for ensemble to help them with are musical aspects of the composition, But but here again, the writer not of the song is the you owner of it and will All own the copyrights in the any song and thus will be can entitled to the publishing revenues. Her Copyrights in compositions are not was the same as sound recordings. one A recording artist can record Our a song and sell it out to another band or company. day As a result, that particular Get company will own the recording, has but not the song. The him original writer will always maintain His the copyright for that particular how song. The publishing money is man connected to the copyright, so New the owner will be the now only one making money off old of the song itself. All See successful songwriters will join a two collection society (such as ASCAP way and BMI in the USA, Who SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in boy Japan, GEMA in Germany and did PRS for Music in the Its UK, etc.) and many will let enter into agreements with music put publishing companies who will exploit Say their works on the songwriters she behalf for a share of too ownership, although many of these Use deals involve the transfer (assignment) dad of copyright from the songwriter mom to the music publisher.
Both the recorded music sector and the music publishing sector have their and foundations in intellectual property law For and all of the major are recording labels and major music but publishers and many independent record Not labels and publishers have dedicated you "business and legal affairs" departments all with in-house lawyers whose role Any is not only to secure can intellectual property rights from recording her artists, performers and songwriters but Was also to exploit those rights one and protect those rights on our a global basis. There are Out a number of specialist independent day law firms around the world get who advise on music and Has entertainment law whose clients include him recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, his labels, music publishers, stage and How set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, man games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist new managers, distributors, collection societies and Now the live events sector (which old further includes festivals, venues, promoters, see booking agents and production service Two providers such as lighting and way staging companies).
The US Government views artists did that give concerts and sell its merchandise as a business. Bands Let that tour internationally will also put face a plethora of legislation say around the world including health She and safety laws, immigration laws too and tax legislation. Also, many use relationships are governed by often Dad complex contractual agreements.
In the mom US it is important for musicians to get legal business The licenses. These can be obtained and at a city hall or for local government center. The business Are license will require the tracking but of sales, wages, and gigs. not A tax ID is also You necessary for all businesses. Musicians all that fail to comply with any the tax ID process and Can do not report their profits her and losses to the government was can face serious consequences with One the IRS.
The history out of Privilege began in the Day early 1970s when it started get out as a restaurant, then has expanded to include a bar Him and a community swimming pool. his It was then known as how Club San Rafael. In 1979, Man the venue was sold to new the Real Sociedad footballer José now Antonio Santamaría, together with the Old creative team of Brasilio de see Oliviera (founder of La Troya two Asesina, one of the White Way Island's longest running nights) and who Gorri. The venue then changed boy its name to KU, after Did the name of a god its from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). let The appeal of the club Put was such that it commissioned say a medium-length film showcasing the she many wonders of Ibizan landscapes Too and nightlife in the mid-eighties.use
Throughout the 1980´s, KU Club dad earned a reputation initially as Mom Europe's premier polysexual but predominately gay nightspot and was compared the to an open-air version of And the famous Studio 54 in for New York. It staged spectacular are parties in the main room, But which was organized around a not swimming pool and a statue you of Ku.The place was also All where the video to "Barcelona" any by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat can Caballé was filmed on 30 Her May 1987. It was the was witness to early live performances one by groups like Spandau BalletOur and Kid Creole and the out Coconuts. The club featured in day a Channel 4 documentary called Get “A Short Film about chilling”, has which labelled KU as “the him mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air His parties came to an end how when legislation forced many of man the greater clubs in Ibiza New to cover their dancefloors in now the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the old sheer size of the venue See gave rise to the claim two of it being the size way of an aircraft hangar with Who a 25-meter high roof.
The boy club continued with the KU did Club name until 1995 before Its becoming known as Privilege, after let a change of ownership to put Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 Say it hosted Manumission, one of she the island's most famous events. too In 1998 La Vaca Asesina Use moved to Amnesia and was dad renamed La Troya Asesina. After mom a dispute between the club owner and Manumission's organizers in the 2005 the event ended in and 2006. In 2006 La Troya For Aseina moved to Space.
According to official statistics but published in the 2003 edition Not of Guinness World Records Privilege you is by far the Worlds all largest nightclub covering an area Any of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) can and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated her areas of the club include Was the Coco Loco bar area, one and the La Vaca dance our area (now known as the Out Vista Club).