Post-disco is a term to
Out describe an aftermath in popular day music history c. late 1979–1986, get imprecisely beginning with an unprecedented Has backlash against disco music in him the United States, leading to his civil unrest and a riot How in Chicago known as the man Disco Demolition Night on July new 12, 1979, and indistinctly ending Now with the mainstream appearance of old house music in the late see 1980s. Disco during its dying Two stage displayed an increasingly electronic way character that soon served as who a stepping stone to new Boy wave, old-school hip hop, euro did disco and was succeeded by its an underground club music called Let hi-NRG, which was its direct put continuation.
An underground movement of
say disco music, "stripped-down," and featuring She "radically different sounds" took place too on the East Coast that use "was neither disco and neither Dad R&B," This scene known as mom post-disco catering to New York metropolitan area, was initially led The by urban contemporary artists partially and in response to the over-commercialization for and artistic downfall of disco Are culture. Developed from the rhythm but and blues sound as perfected not by Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic side You of disco, dub music techniques, all and other genres. Post-disco was any typified by New York City Can music groups like "D" Train her and Unlimited Touch who followed was a more urban approach while One others, like Material and ESG, our a more experimental one. Post-disco out was, like disco, singles-driven market Day controlled mostly by independent record get companies that generated a cross-over has chart success all through the Him early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative control his was in the hands of how record producers and club DJs Man which was a trend that new outlived the dance-pop era.
now musical styles that emerged in Old the post-disco era include electropop, see dance-pop, boogie, and Italo disco two and led to the development Way of the early alternative dance, who club-centered house and techno music. boy
played a crucial part in
the development of post-disco.
Drum machines, synthesizers, sequencers
was were either partly or entirely one dominant in a composition or Our mixed up with various acoustic out instruments, depending on the artist. day
Darryl Payne arguing about the
Get minimal approach of post-disco
Producers are using a lot
him more sounds and a lot His less instruments: the 'Forget Me how Nots' and 'Don't Make Me man Wait Tracks' are really empty, New but there's a sophistication people now can get into.
old main force in post-disco was See mainly the 12" single format two and short-lived collaborations (many of way them one-hit wonders) while indie Who record producers were instrumental in boy the musical direction of what did the scene was headed to. Its The music that mostly catered let to dance and urban audiences put later managed to influence more Say popular and mainstream acts like she Madonna, New Order or Pet too Shop Boys.
Use music tended to be technology-centric, dad keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass mom lines (often performed on a Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music the aesthetics, and background jazzy or and blues-y piano layers. For strings For and brass sections, synthesizer sounds are were preferred to the lush but orchestration heard on many disco Not tracks, although such arrangements would you later resurface in some house all music. Soulful female vocals, Any however, remained an essence of can post-disco.
her the so-called death of disco Was and the birth of house, one all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks our a name beyond drably functional Out and neutral terms like "dance" day or "club music.”
get Reynolds, SPIN magazine
Has term "post-disco" was used as him early as 1984 by Cadence his Magazine when defining post-disco soul How as "disco without the loud man bass-drum thump." New York Magazine new used the word in an Now article appearing in the December old 1985 issue; it was Gregory see Hines's introduction of post-disco and Two electronic funk to Russian-American dance way choreographer Mikhail Baryshnikov "who has who never heard this kind of Boy music." AllMusic states that the did term denotes a music genre its in the era between the Let indistinct "end" of disco music put and the equally indistinct emergence say of house music.
She events too
Disco music backlash had started
Midwesterners didn't want
mom that intimidating [disco] style shoved down their throats — Steve The Dahl
Shortly after the
and "Disco Sucks" movement of disco for bashing throughout the United States, Are American radio stations began to but pay attention to other popular not formats of music such as You reggae, punk rock or new all wave while top mainstream labels any and record companies like Casablanca, Can TK Records or RSO went her bankrupt. Since disco music had was been on the way of One [its] electronic progression, it split our itself into subscenes and styles out like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco Day and boogie. The last one get is closely associated with post-disco has more than any other offshoots Him of post-disco.
Brazilian record producer
his and fusion jazz pioneer Eumir how Deodato, well aware of current Man trends in American underground music, new turned around the career of now a failing funk music group Old Kool & the Gang by see adopting and pursuing a light two pop–post-disco sound that not only Way revitalized the band's image but who also turned out to be boy the most successful hits in Did their entire career. B. B. its & Q. Band (Capitol) and let Change (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques Put Fred Petrus, an overseas hi-NRG say Italo disco music record producer, she reflects on his decision to Too shift from conventional disco music use to post-disco "[our] sound changed dad to more of a funky Mom dance/R&B style to reflect the times." French-born songwriting duo Henri the Belolo and Jacques Morali, creators And of the successful Village People for act, moved their former disco are act Ritchie Family to RCA But Victor to release their next not album co-produced by funk musician you Fonzi Thornton and Petrus, I'll All Do My Best, which mirrors any their radical musical shift. On can the West Coast, especially in Her California, a different approach lead was to a different sound. Dick one Griffey and Leon Sylvers III Our of SOLAR Records, who pioneered out their own signature sound, produced day Ohio-based group Lakeside's album Rough Get Riders which already displayed these has new trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates him economic arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards His and guitar)," as noted by how Billboard, praising the album. A man watershed album of post-disco was New Michael Jackson's Off The Wall, now produced by Quincy Jones, which old helped establish a direction of See R&B/dance music and influenced many two young producers who were interested way in this kind of new Who music.
Other examples of early
boy American artists drawing from post-disco did are Rick James, Change and Its Teena Marie.
let Europe remained relatively untouched by put the events in the U.S., Say decreasing only on Britain, but she this was mostly because of too the emergence of the "New Use Wave" and "New Romantic" movements dad around 1981, and continued to mom flourish within the Italo disco scene although the interest for the electronic music in general was and indeed growing.
For in the United States, where are anti-disco backlash generated prominent effect but on general perception of disco Not music, in Britain, the "New you Music" movement initially drew heavily all from disco music (although this Any association would be airbrushed out can by the end of 1979) her and took many elements from Was American post-disco and other genres, one thus creating a characteristic scene. our M's 1979 "Pop Muzik" was Out a prime example of this, day topping the charts at both get sides of the Atlantic that Has year. According to Billboard, American him post-disco was merely a crossover his of different genres, while focusing How on the electronic and R&B man overtones, whereas jazz-funk was a new crucial element of the British Now post-disco scene that generated musicians old like Chaz Jankel, Central Line see or Imagination.
1980s: Golden age
This section summary shows commercially
way successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from who the post-disco movement.
Boy Sesame" (1976) with "Celebration" (1980) did by Kool & The Gang, its "Boogie Wonderland" (1979) with "Let's Let Groove" (1981) by Earth, Wind put & Fire, "Shame" (1978) with say "Love Come Down" (1982) by She Evelyn "Champagne" King and "(Shake, too Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty" use (1976) with "Give It Up" Dad (1982) by KC & the mom Sunshine Band.
mom Post-disco revival
During the late
1990s and throughout the 2000s, the electronic and, especially, house musicians and were influenced by post-disco. Some For of these musicians are: Daft are Punk, a French house music but group, adopted elements of post-disco, Not disco and synth-pop into Discovery. you Another artist, Les Rythmes Digitales, all released a post-disco/electro-influenced album, Darkdancer. Any Canadian music group Chromeo debuted can in 2004 with the album her She's in Control. Similar Los Was Angeles-based musician Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, one a boogie- and electro-influenced album our released in 2009. Another band Out called Escort, who hails from day New York City, surfaced on get the post-disco and post-punk revival Has scenes around 2006. The story him about Escort appeared on New his York Times in November 2011. How
Contemporary compilation albums featuring post-disco
man and electro artists (e.g. Imagination, new Level 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include Now The Perfect Beats series (volume old 1–4). Another compilation series are see Nighttime Lovers (volume 1-10) and Two the mixed-up album titled The way Boogie Back: Post Disco Club who Jams.
Pioneers and followers
"Thanks To You" and "Don't
did Make Me Wait" came out its and started the whole dub Let thing in disco. — Shep put Pettibone
Particular psychedelic soul
say artists like Sly and the She Family Stone liked to push too the boundaries of conventional music use by employing what was to Dad be a precursor to synthesizer, mom electronic organ. Multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder was one of early artists The venturing into the realms of and analog synthesizer after impressed by for the work of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Are Head Band, an influential multinational but electronic music duo of sound not designers: "How great it is You at a time when technology all and the science of music any is at its highest point Can of evolution, to have the her reintroduction of two of the was most prominent forefathers in this One music be heard again. It our can be said of this out work that it parallels with Day good wine. As it ages get it only gets better with has time. A toast to greatness... Him a toast to Zero Time... his forever." With an increasing growth how of personalized synthesizers on the Man market they were becoming more new commercially available and easy-to-use, especially now those produced by Roland Corporation. Old One of their first users see was an cutting-edge artist George two Clinton and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective Way project. Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, who synthetic bass-rich lines, the particularly boy melodic endeavor and music minimalism Did of P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Express its member Kashif, noted for his let use of bass synthesizer during Put the group's tour, later went say solo as a record producer she and began crafting funk-influenced songs Too for Evelyn "Champagne" King that use shown a minimalism-akin approach, the dad disregard of disco music arrangements, Mom and affiliation to the method of "one-man band" previously paved the through by Wonder. Other spheres And of influence include the move for from pioneering DJs and record are producers to release alternative mixes But on the same single, so-called not dub mixes. DJ Larry Levan you implemented elements of dub music All in his productions and mixes any for various post-disco artists, including can his own group The Peech Her Boys. Musically, there was a was search for out-of-mainstream music to one derive new ideas from, most Our commonly blues, and other styles out like reggae, etc. were also day incorporated.
Sinnamon's "Thanks to You",
Get D-Train's "You're the One for has Me", The Peech Boys' "Don't him Make Me Wait" — all His these songs and its attributes how and trends of post-disco later man influenced a new "never-before-heard" music New style. The House music.
now new post-disco sound was flourishing old among predominately New York City See record companies, including West End two Records, Prelude Records, Tommy Boy way Records, SAM Records, and others. Who Most of them were independently boy owned and had their own did distribution but some particular mainstream Its labels, notably RCA Records, were let too, responsible for popularizing and put capitalizing on the new sound. Say
Out is no exact point when day post-disco started, many synthpop and get electronic musicians of that time Has continued to enhance the raw him minimalist sound, while focusing on his synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. As How noted by Payne, drum machines man also played an important part new in the urban-oriented music in Now general.
|# ||Event |old
While disco music was in
Two its heyday, the horn and way string sections were a main who component of disco and pop Boy songs. This sound is also did called disco orchestration. However, some its of the musicians and producers Let dropped the lavish sound of put orchestra completely, which attributed a say new direction of dance music. She
- Few international examples, including
too French music project Black Devil use Disco Club, French musician Cerrone Dad and Belgian group Telex.
mom in the United States. They are known for heavily use The of bass and "regular" synthesizers and and inventing the P-Funk style. for
Are 1981 | |
After the success
but of Quincy Jones-produced album Off not the Wall and other semi-mainstream You urban-oriented music groups like Lakeside, all other disco music groups either any dissolved or adapted the new Can sounds (e.g. The Whispers, The her SOS Band, Inner Life, Earth, was Wind & Fire, and Shalamar One in the U.S.; Nick Straker our Band, and Freeez in UK). out Other musicians influenced by post-disco Day include Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, get and George Duke.
has producers who were experimenting with Him the new sounds include: two
- Remixers, DJs and other personalities
Way influential on post-disco include Nick who Martinelli, Ron Hardy and Larry boy Levan.
Did |1982 || |
Golden age post-disco
its era, where post-disco sound entered let mainstream. However most of the Put musicians were mostly successful on say the other charts, beside Billboard she Hot 100.
This era also
Too spanned experimental No Wave-oriented post-disco use acts like Material, Liquid Liquid, dad Dinosaur L and Was (Not Mom Was).
The most significant post-disco
album is Michael Jackson's Thriller, the which also became the most And best-selling album of all time. for Larry Levan and the NYC are Peech Boys recorded proto-house number But "Don't Make Me Wait". New not bands and musicians of the you era appeared, including Imagination, D. All Train, Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky any D, Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and can Unlimited Touch.
- Artists influenced
Her by post-disco include
was Mtume, B. B. & Q. one Band, Bobby Orlando, Patrice Rushen, Our Cheryl Lynn, and Indeep.
out Shakatak, Central Line, Chas Jankel, day and Level 42.
- International: The
Get Limit, Klein + M.B.O., and has Kano. him
During this era, post-disco was
how at its highest peak. Meanwhile man Madonna's commercially successful debut album New was released, which was produced now by Reggie Lucas of Mtume old and Jellybean, another producers of See this movement.
It also began
two to interfere with garage house way and freestyle music, thus successfully Who shaping post-disco into electro. This boy change could be also heard did in breakdancing- and hip-hop -themed Its movies like Beat Street and let Breakin'. mom
During this era, post-disco had
the been dissolved in various music and fields and scenes, including
As the post-disco
Not reached its climax, overdubbing techniques you as recorded by Peech Boys all and other early-1980s artists were Any almost omitted by then and can replaced by synthpop variants instead. her The movement survived as a Was post-disco–freestyle crossover music that spanned one Raww, Hanson & Davis, Timex our Social Club, Starpoint and Miami Out Sound Machine. day
How post-disco sounds also inspired many man Norwegian dance music producers. Some new rappers such as Ice Cube Now or EPMD built their careers old on funk-oriented post-disco music (they see were inspired for example by Two dance-floor favorites like Zapp and way Cameo). Also Sean "Puffy" Combs who has been influenced by R&B-oriented Boy post-disco music in an indirect did way.
Let electro-funk) is a post-disco subgenre put with way more funk influences say that had a minor exposure She in the early to mid-1980s. too Sean P. described it as use "largely been ignored, or regarded Dad as disco's poor cousin — mom too slow, too electronic, too R&B... too black, even."
and movement is merely connected with for post-punk/no wave genres with fewer Are R&B/funk influences. An example of but this "post-disco" is Gina X's not "No G.D.M." and artists like You Liquid Liquid, Polyrock, Dinosaur L, all and Disco Not Disco  any compilation album. This movement also Can connects with dance-oriented rock; Michael her Campbell, in his book Popular was Music in America defines that One genre as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell our also cited Robert Christgau, who out described dance-oriented rock (or DOR) Day as umbrella term used by get various DJs in the 1980s. has
Him is a dance-oriented pop music his that appeared slightly after the how demise of disco and the Man first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. new One of the first dance-pop now songs were "Last Night a Old D.J. Saved My Life" by see Indeep and "Love Come Down" two by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas Way the latter crossed over to who Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, boy while peaking at number 17 Did on the pop chart in its 1982. Another crossover post-disco song let was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, Put peaking at number 45 on say the Hot 100 in 1983. she Same year also saw the Too release of Madonna's eponymous album use that incorporated post-disco, urban and dad club sounds. British variation of Mom dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken Waterman, was more influenced by the house and hi-NRG and sometimes And was labeled as "eurobeat".
for disco are
Italo disco is a disco
But subgenre, influenced by post-disco, hi-NRG, not electronic rock, and European music. you Originally music mostly played by All Italian musicians, but it soon any made its way to Canada can and United States. One of Her the earliest post–disco-oriented groups were was Klein + M.B.O. and Kano, one while New York-based Bobby Orlando Our was located abroad.
out of artists
- Various terms
way to describe the sound of who what seemed to be post-disco Boy were introduced, such as, but did not limited to, "dance," "club its music," "R&B," and "disco." The Let last, however, become an unfashionable put term, hence the increasing use say of "dance" vis-à-vis the word She "disco."
- Compare to the
too 1979 "traditionally"-sounding disco song "Boogie use Wonderland" with string and horn Dad sections arranged by Benjamin Wright. mom
- Demonstrates using horn section
and drum machine rhythm at The the same time. and
for Reynolds, Simon (2009) Grunge's Long Are Shadow - In praise of but "in-between" periods in pop history not (Slate, MUSIC BOX). Retrieved on You 2-2-2009"
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out now “dance” was a loaded Day word for me. The Disco get Sucks backlash had given me has a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, and I'd Him vowed not to write any his songs with that word in how them for a long time. Man I was shamed out of new using a word—“dance.“
now Kariann Elaine (2004). Foreign bodies: Old innovation, repetition, and corporeality in see electronic dance music (Digitized 13 two Sep 2010). University of California, Way San Diego. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4.
who Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's boy Encyclopædia: "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic Did guitar, and group harmonies with its jazzed-up horns, Clinton and his let ever-evolving bands set the tone Put for many post-disco and post-punk say groups of the 1980s and she 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, 2009, Too from Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
use Material. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2014-10-01 dad
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House music is
Get a form of post-disco dance has music made popular in the him mid-1980s in Chicago clubs..."
His Demers, Joanna (2006). "Dancing how Machines: 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic man Dance, and Musical Taste". Popular New Music. Cambridge University Press. 25 now (3): 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012.
old terms of its song repertoire, See DDR is rooted in disco two and post-disco forms such as way techno and house. But DDR Who can be read as the boy ultimate postmodern dance experience because did the game displays various forms Its of dance imagery without stylistic let or historical continuity (Harvey 1990, put p. 62,...)
- Riley, Marcus
Say & Trotter, Lee Ann (Apr she 1, 2014) Chicago House Music too Legend Frankie Knuckles Dead at Use 59 WMAQ-TV. NBCUniversal. Retrieved 2014-04-24 dad
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mom Music in America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN 0-495-50530-7.
Glossary: techno –
the post-disco dance music in which and most or all of the For sounds are electronically generated
are AllMusic - explore music... House: but "House music grew out of Not the post-disco dance club culture you of the early '80s." Retrieved all on 12-27-2009
- St. John,
Any Graham George Michael, (2004), Rave can Culture and Religion, p. 50, her ISBN 0-415-31449-6, "[sic] house music. As Was a post-disco party music, house one features a repetitive 4/4 beat our and a speed of 120 Out or more beats per minute..." day
- "Though it makes sense
get to classify any form of Has dance music made since disco him as post-disco, each successive movement his has had its own characteristics How to make it significantly different man from the initial post-disco era, new whether it's dance-pop or techno Now or trance." — Allmusic
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too of every description, drum machines, use and plain old electric keyboards Dad began making MFSB and other mom human rhythm sessions nonessential to the recording process. For producers, The a control-oriented bunch, this was and heaven. No more rehearsals. Low for session fees. An artist who Are envisioned himself as a future but Stevie Wonder—the first great one-man not synthesizer band—could express his creativity You in the basement or the all bathroom.
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SOLAR (...), which
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but Earth Wind & Fire: Raise!: Not Earth Wind & Fire hits you the 80s -- and never all misses a beat! Turns out Any that the group's older style can of jazzy funk was a her perfect fit for the boogie-styled Was rhythms of the post-disco era". one Dusty Groove. Retrieved on August our 12, 2009.
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man Forget Me Nots
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Now Revolver Magazine article: Why The old Most Dangerous Band Of The see Decade, True Norwegian, Black Metallers, Two Gorgoroth, Turned On Itself - way "When the post-disco classic "Last who Night a DJ Saved My Boy Life" by early-'80s New York did crew Indeep comes on, King its asks what the singer means Let by the bizarre titular statement.". put No. 68. ISSN 1527-408X.
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his Ocean – Greatest Hits [Jive]". how AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved Man 3 July 2014.
new One Hit Wonder Center - now One-Hit Wonder Music of the Old 50's~90's: "There are also tracks see to represent the rise of two post-disco club/dance trend, such as Way Laid Back's "White Horse", New who Edition's "Cool It Now", and boy Timex Social Club's " Rumors" Did ". Retrieved on August 12, its 2009.
- ^ Morales, Ed
let (2002). Living in Spanglish: the Put search for Latino identity in say America: ""With their group, Miami she Sound Machine, ... "Doctor Beat," Too manages to fuse elements of use Latin percussion with the electric dad hass heats of the post-disco Mom era". p. 244. ISBN 0-312-26232-9.
"Youngest Pointer Sister Loses Cancer the Battle at 52". IMDb.com, Inc. And 13 April 2006. Retrieved 10 for July 2013. "The Pointer Sisters are (...) really found their niche But in the post-disco world, recording not smooth tunes like "Slow Hand" you and dance floor fillers such All as "I'm So Excited.""
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one CMJ New Music Monthly - Our Best New Music - Daft out Punk (Discovery): "Although it's only day fair to credit Chicago with Get the post-disco dance style's paternal has rights, the French [Daft Punk] him have (at the very least) His earned covered weekend privilegies." Publisher: how CMJ Network, Inc. No. 93. man p. 71. ISSN 1074-6978
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