Source: Wikipedia 

Post-disco you is a term to describe all an aftermath in popular music Any history circa late 1979–1986, imprecisely can beginning with an unprecedented backlash her against disco music in the Was United States, leading to civil one unrest and a riot in our Chicago known as the Disco Out Demolition Night on July 12, day 1979, and indistinctly ending with get the mainstream appearance of house Has music in the late 1980s. him Disco during its dying stage his displayed an increasingly electronic character How that soon served as a man stepping stone to new wave, new old-school hip hop, euro disco Now and was succeeded by an old underground club music called hi-NRG, see which was its direct continuation. Two

An underground movement of disco way music, "stripped-down," and featuring "radically who different sounds" took place on Boy the East Coast that "was did neither disco and neither R&B," its This scene known as post-disco Let catering to New York metropolitan put area, was initially led by say urban contemporary artists partially in She response to the over-commercialization and too artistic downfall of disco culture. use Developed from the rhythm and Dad blues sound as perfected by mom Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic side of disco, dub music techniques, and The other genres. Post-disco was typified and by New York City music for groups like "D" Train and Are Unlimited Touch who followed a but more urban approach while others, not like Material and ESG, a You more experimental one. Post-disco was, all like disco, singles-driven market controlled any mostly by independent record companies Can that generated a cross-over chart her success all through the early-to-mid was 1980s. Most creative control was One in the hands of record our producers and club DJs which out was a trend that outlived Day the dance-pop era.

Other musical get styles that emerged in the has post-disco era include dance-pop, boogie, Him and Italo disco and led his to the development of the how early alternative dance, club-centered house Man and techno music.


Synthesizers played a crucial part the in the development of post-disco.

Drum machines, synthesizers, sequencers were for either partly or entirely dominant are in a composition or mixed But up with various acoustic instruments, not depending on the artist and you on the year. Electronic instruments All became more and more dominant any for each year during the can period and dominated the genre Her completely by the mid 1980s. was

Darryl Payne arguing about the one minimal approach of post-disco


Producers are using a lot out more sounds and a lot day less instruments: the 'Forget Me Get Nots' and 'Don't Make Me has Wait Tracks' are really empty, him but there's a sophistication people His can get into.

The how main force in post-disco was man mainly the 12" single format New and short-lived collaborations (many of now them one-hit wonders) while indie old record producers were instrumental in See the musical direction of what two the scene was headed to. way The music that mostly catered Who to dance and urban audiences boy later managed to influence more did popular and mainstream acts like Its Madonna, New Order or Pet let Shop Boys.

Musical elements


The music tended to be Say technology-centric, keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented she bass lines (often performed on too a Minimoog), synth riffs, dub Use music aesthetics, and background jazzy dad or blues-y piano layers. For mom strings and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the the lush orchestration heard on many and disco tracks, although such arrangements For would later resurface in some are house music.[citation needed] Soulful female but vocals, however, remained an essence Not of post-disco.

Term usage


Bridging the so-called death of all disco and the birth of Any house, all this early-to-mid-'80s music can lacks a name beyond drably her functional and neutral terms like Was "dance" or "club music."

— Simon Reynolds, one SPIN magazine

The term our "post-disco" was used as early Out as 1984 by Cadence Magazine day when defining post-disco soul as get "disco without the loud bass-drum Has thump." New York Magazine used him the word in an article his appearing in the December 1985 How issue; it was Gregory Hines's man introduction of post-disco and electronic new funk to Russian-American dance choreographer Now Mikhail Baryshnikov "who has never old heard this kind of music." see AllMusic states that the term Two denotes a music genre in way the era between the indistinct who "end" of disco music and Boy the equally indistinct emergence of did house music.

In other historical its instances the term had been Let used in a derisive manner. put Spy implicitly mocked the usage say of both the terms "post-punk" She and "post-disco" in their Spy's too Rock Critic-o-Matic article, whereas spoofing use various music reviews published by Dad Rolling Stone, The Village Voice mom and Spin. Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel Muñoz in his 1989 The novel Crazy Love, in a and passage where musicians after moving for to America discuss what their Are "style" may be, used the but term in a satirical manner. not


Background events

Disco music backlash had started all around 1977.

United States

Midwesterners any didn't want that intimidating [disco] Can style shoved down their throats

Shortly after the was "Disco Sucks" movement of disco One bashing throughout the United States, our American radio stations began to out pay attention to other popular Day formats of music such as get reggae, punk rock or new has wave while top mainstream labels Him and record companies like Casablanca, his TK Records or RSO went how bankrupt. Since disco music had Man been on the way of new [its] electronic progression, it split now itself into subscenes and styles Old like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco see and boogie. The last one two is closely associated with post-disco Way more than any other offshoots who of post-disco.

Brazilian record producer boy and fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Did Deodato, well aware of current its trends in American underground music, let turned around the career of Put a failing funk music group say Kool & the Gang by she adopting and pursuing a light Too pop–post-disco sound that not only use revitalized the band's image but dad also turned out to be Mom the most successful hits in their entire career. B. B. the & Q. Band (Capitol) and And Change (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques for Fred Petrus, an overseas hi-NRG are Italo disco music record producer, But reflects on his decision to not shift from conventional disco music you to post-disco "[our] sound changed All to more of a funky any dance/R&B style to reflect the can times." French-born songwriting duo Henri Her Belolo and Jacques Morali, creators was of the successful Village People one act, moved their former disco Our act Ritchie Family to RCA out Victor to release their next day album co-produced by funk musician Get Fonzi Thornton and Petrus, I'll has Do My Best, which mirrors him their radical musical shift. On His the West Coast, especially in how California, a different approach lead man to a different sound. Dick New Griffey and Leon Sylvers III now of SOLAR Records, who pioneered old their own signature sound, produced See Ohio-based group Lakeside's album Rough two Riders which already displayed these way new trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates Who economic arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards boy and guitar)," as noted by did Billboard, praising the album. A Its watershed album of post-disco was let Michael Jackson's Off The Wall, put produced by Quincy Jones, which Say helped establish a direction of she R&B/dance music and influenced many too young producers who were interested Use in this kind of new dad music.

Other examples of early mom American artists drawing from post-disco are Rick James, Change and the Teena Marie.


Disco and in Europe remained relatively untouched For by the events in the are U.S., decreasing only in Britain, but but this was mostly because Not of the emergence of the you new wave and new romantic all movements around 1981, and continued Any to flourish within the Italo can disco scene although the interest her for electronic music in general Was was indeed growing.

United one Kingdom

Unlike in the United our States, where anti-disco backlash generated Out prominent effect on general perception day of disco music, in Britain, get the new-wave movement initially drew Has heavily from disco music (although him this association would be airbrushed his out by the end of How 1979) and took many elements man from American post-disco and other new genres, thus creating a characteristic Now scene. According to Billboard, American old post-disco was merely a crossover see of different genres, while focusing Two on the electronic and R&B way overtones, whereas jazz-funk was a who crucial element of the British Boy post-disco scene that generated musicians did like Chaz Jankel, Central Line its or Imagination.

1980s: Golden Let age

This section summary shows put commercially successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) say from the post-disco movement.

Compare She "Open Sesame" (1976) with "Celebration" too (1980) by Kool & The use Gang, "Boogie Wonderland" (1979) with Dad "Let's Groove" (1981) by Earth, mom Wind & Fire, "Shame" (1978) with "Love Come Down" (1982) The by Evelyn "Champagne" King and and "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your for Booty" (1976) with "Give It Are Up" (1982) by KC & but the Sunshine Band.

not You Can was our out get has Him how Man new now Old see two Did its let Put she Too Mom the are But not you any can Her one Our out day has him His man now two boy did Its let put Say she Use dad mom the
Year Song Label Artist U.S. Dance U.S. R&B all U.S. Pop U.S. any M.R. U.K. Pop
1979 "I Wanna Be her Your Lover" Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41 One
1980 "Celebration" De-Lite Kool & the Gang #1 #1 #1 ('81) #7 Day
"He's So Shy" Planet The Pointer Sisters #26 #10 #3
"And the Beat Goes his On" SOLAR The Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2
1981 "Let's Groove" Columbia Earth, Wind & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3
"Get Down on It" De-Lite Kool & the Gang #4 #10 #3 Way
"Pull Up to who the Bumper" Island Records Grace boy Jones #2 #5 #12
1982 "Everybody" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #3 #107
"Forget Me Nots" Elektra say Records Patrice Rushen #2 #4 #23 #8
"Last Night a DJ Saved use My Life" Sound of New dad York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13
"Love Come Down" RCA Evelyn King #1 #1 #17 #7 And
"You Can Do for Magic" Capitol America #8 #59
1983 "Holiday" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #25 #16 #2
"Give It All Up" Meca KC #18 #1
"Billie Jean" Epic Michael Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1 was
1984 "Caribbean Queen" Jive Billy Ocean #1 #1 #1 #6
"Let's Dance" EMI David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1 Get
"Cool It Now" MCA New Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat" Epic Miami Sound how Machine #17 #6
"I'm So New Excited" Planet The Pointer Sisters #28 #46 #9 #11 old
1985 "Into the See Groove" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #19 #1 way
"Chain Reaction" RCA Who Records Diana Ross #7 #85 #66 #1
"Object of My Desire" Elektra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors" Jay Timex Social Club #1 #1 #8 #13
"Ain't Nothin' Goin' on too But the Rent" Polydor Records Gwen Guthrie #1 #1 #42 #5
1987 "Rhythm Is Gonna Get You" Epic Miami Sound Machine #27 #5 #16

2000s: Post-disco revival

During the For late 1990s and throughout the are 2000s, electronic and, especially, house but musicians were influenced by post-disco. Not Some of these musicians are: you Daft Punk, a French house all music group, adopted elements of Any post-disco, disco and synth-pop into can Discovery. Another artist, Les Rythmes her Digitales, released a post-disco/electro-influenced album, Was Darkdancer. Canadian music group Chromeo one debuted in 2004 with the our album She's in Control. Similar Out Los Angeles-based musician Dâm-Funk recorded day Toeachizown, a boogie- and electro-influenced get album released in 2009. Another Has band called Escort, who hails him from New York City, surfaced his on the post-disco and post-punk How revival scenes around 2006. The man story about Escort appeared on new New York Times in November Now 2011.

Contemporary compilation albums featuring old post-disco and electro artists (e.g. see Imagination, Level 42, Afrika Bambaataa) Two include The Perfect Beats series way (volume 1–4). Another compilation series who are Nighttime Lovers (volume 1-10) Boy and the mixed-up album titled did The Boogie Back: Post Disco its Club Jams.

Pioneers and Let followers

Thanks To You" and put "Don't Make Me Wait" came say out and started the whole She dub thing in disco.


Particular psychedelic soul artists use like Sly and the Family Dad Stone liked to push the mom boundaries of conventional music by employing what was to be The a precursor to synthesizer, electronic and organ. Multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder was for one of early artists venturing Are into the realms of analog but synthesizer after impressed by the not work of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head You Band, an influential multinational electronic all music duo of sound designers: any "How great it is at Can a time when technology and her the science of music is was at its highest point of One evolution [...] A toast to our greatness, a toast to Zero out Time, forever." With an increasing Day growth of personalized synthesizers on get the market they were becoming has more commercially available and easy-to-use, Him especially those produced by Roland his Corporation. One of their first how users was an cutting-edge artist Man George Clinton and his Parliament-Funkadelic new collective project. Funk rhythms, psychedelic now guitars, synthetic bass-rich lines, the Old particularly melodic endeavor and music see minimalism of P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit two Express member Kashif, noted for Way his use of bass synthesizer who during the group's tour, later boy went solo as a record Did producer and began crafting funk-influenced its songs for Evelyn "Champagne" King let that shown a minimalism-akin approach, Put the disregard of disco music say arrangements, and affiliation to the she method of "one-man band" previously Too paved through by Wonder. Other use spheres of influence include the dad move from pioneering DJs and Mom record producers to release alternative mixes on the same single, the so-called dub mixes. DJ Larry And Levan implemented elements of dub for music in his productions and are mixes for various post-disco artists, But including his own group The not Peech Boys. Musically, there was you a search for out-of-mainstream music All to derive new ideas from, any most commonly blues, and other can styles like reggae, etc. were Her also incorporated.

Sinnamon's "Thanks to was You", D-Train's "You're the One one for Me", The Peech Boys' Our "Don't Make Me Wait" — out all these songs and its day attributes and trends of post-disco Get later influenced a new "never-before-heard" has music style. The House music. him

The new post-disco sound was His flourishing among predominately New York how City record companies, including West man End Records, Prelude Records, Tommy New Boy Records, SAM Records, and now others. Most of them were old independently owned and had their See own distribution but some particular two mainstream labels, notably RCA Records, way were too, responsible for popularizing Who and capitalizing on the new boy sound.


did Use are

Although there is no exact but point when post-disco started, many Not synthpop and electronic musicians of you that time continued to enhance all the raw minimalist sound, while Any focusing on synthesizers, and keyboard can instruments. As noted by Payne, her drum machines also played an Was important part in the urban-oriented one music in general.

our Out put Him not
# Event

While disco music day was in its heyday, the get horn and string sections were Has a main component of disco him and pop songs. This sound his is also called disco orchestration. How However, some of the musicians man and producers dropped the lavish new sound of orchestra completely, which Now attributed a new direction of old dance music.

  • Few international see examples, including French music project Two Black Devil Disco Club, French way musician Cerrone and Belgian group who Telex.
  • Parliament-Funkadelic in the United Boy States. They are known for did heavily use of bass and its "regular" synthesizers and inventing the Let P-Funk style.

After the success of say Quincy Jones-produced album Off the She Wall and other semi-mainstream urban-oriented too music groups like Lakeside, other use disco music groups either dissolved Dad or adapted the new sounds mom (e.g. The Whispers, The SOS Band, Inner Life, Earth, Wind The & Fire, and Shalamar in and the U.S.; Nick Straker Band, for and Freeez in UK). Other Are musicians influenced by post-disco include but Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, and not George Duke.


Golden age post-disco era, his where post-disco sound entered mainstream. how However most of the musicians Man were mostly successful on the new other charts, beside Billboard Hot now 100.

This era also spanned Old experimental No Wave-oriented post-disco acts see like Material, Liquid Liquid, Dinosaur two L and Was (Not Was). Way

The most significant post-disco album who is Michael Jackson's Thriller, which boy also became the most best-selling Did album of all time. Larry its Levan and the NYC Peech let Boys recorded proto-house number "Don't Put Make Me Wait". New bands say and musicians of the era she appeared, including Imagination, D. Train, Too Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky D, use Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and Unlimited dad Touch.


During this you era, post-disco was at its All highest peak. Meanwhile Madonna's commercially any successful debut album was released, can which was produced by Reggie Her Lucas of Mtume and Jellybean, was another producers of this movement. one

It also began to interfere Our with garage house and freestyle out music, thus successfully shaping post-disco day into electro. This change could Get be also heard in breakdancing- has and hip-hop -themed movies like him Beat Street and Breakin'.


During this era, post-disco had way been dissolved in various music Who fields and scenes, including


As the post-disco reached let its climax, overdubbing techniques as put recorded by Peech Boys and Say other early-1980s artists were almost she omitted by then and replaced too by synthpop variants instead. The Use movement survived as a post-disco–freestyle dad crossover music that spanned Raww, mom Hanson & Davis, Timex Social Club, Starpoint and Miami Sound the Machine.


Michael Jackson 1988
Madonna 1990
Michael Jackson and Madonna are For the most successful artists of are post-disco.

The 1980s post-disco sounds but also inspired many Norwegian dance Not music producers. Some rappers such you as Ice Cube or EPMD all built their careers on funk-oriented Any post-disco music (they were inspired can for example by dance-floor favorites her like Zapp and Cameo). Also Was Sean "Puffy" Combs has been one influenced by R&B-oriented post-disco music our in an indirect way.


Related genres


Boogie (or electro-funk) get is a post-disco subgenre with Has way more funk influences that him had a minor exposure in his the early to mid-1980s. Sean How P. described it as "largely man been ignored, or regarded as new disco's poor cousin — too Now slow, too electronic, too R&B... old too black, even."



Another post-disco Two movement is merely connected with way post-punk/no wave genres with fewer who R&B/funk influences. An example of Boy this "post-disco" is Gina X's did "No G.D.M." and artists like its Liquid Liquid, Polyrock, Dinosaur L, Let and Disco Not Disco [2000] put compilation album. This movement also say connects with dance-oriented rock; Michael She Campbell, in his book Popular too Music in America defines that use genre as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell Dad also cited Robert Christgau, who mom described dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as umbrella term used by The various DJs in the 1980s. and



Dance-pop is a dance-oriented pop Are music that appeared slightly after but the demise of disco and not the first appearance of "stripped-down" You post-disco. One of the first all dance-pop songs were "Last Night any a D.J. Saved My Life" Can by Indeep and "Love Come her Down" by Evelyn "Champagne" King, was whereas the latter crossed over One to Billboard charts including Adult our Contemporary, while peaking at number out 17 on the pop chart Day in 1982. Another crossover post-disco get song was "Juicy Fruit" by has Mtume, peaking at number 45 Him on the Hot 100 in his 1983. Same year also saw how the release of Madonna's eponymous Man album that incorporated post-disco, urban new and club sounds. British variation now of dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Old Aitken Waterman, was more influenced see by house and hi-NRG and two sometimes was labeled as "eurobeat." Way

Italo disco

Italo disco is boy a disco subgenre, influenced by Did post-disco, hi-NRG, electronic rock, and its European music. Originally music mostly let played by Italian musicians, but Put it soon made its way say to Canada and United States. she One of the earliest post–disco-oriented Too groups were Klein + M.B.O. use and Kano, while New York-based dad Bobby Orlando was located abroad. Mom

Non-exhaustive list of artists


Prominent record labels


His how New Its put she
Released Album Label Info
2000 VA – Disco man Not Disco Strut compilation
2002 VA – Disco now Not Disco 2 Strut compilation old
2002–2008 VA – See Opération Funk Vol. 1–5
(mixed by two Kheops)
mix album, compilation way
2004 VA – Who Choice: A Collection of Classics
(mixed boy by Danny Tenaglia)
Azuli mix did album, compilation
2004–2009 VA – Nighttime Lovers Vol. let 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA – Disco Not Say Disco 3 Strut compilation
2009 VA – too Night Dubbin'
(mixed by Dimitri Use from Paris)
BBE mix album, dad compilation
2009 VA mom The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams
(compiled by the DJ Spinna)
BBE mix album, and compilation
2010 VA For Boogie's Gonna Getcha: '80s are New York Boogie BreakBeats compilation but

See also


  1. Various terms to can describe the sound of what her seemed to be post-disco were Was introduced, such as, but not one limited to, "dance," "club music," our "R&B," and "disco." The last, Out however, become an unfashionable term, day hence the increasing use of get "dance" vis-à-vis the word "disco." Has
  2. Compare to the him 1979 "traditionally"-sounding disco song "Boogie his Wonderland" with string and horn How sections arranged by Benjamin Wright. man
  3. Demonstrates using horn new section and drum machine rhythm Now at the same time.
  4. old


  1. ^ see Reynolds, Simon (2009) Grunge's Two Long Shadow - In praise way of "in-between" periods in pop who history (Slate, MUSIC BOX). Retrieved Boy on 2-2-2009"
  2. ^ did "Explore music...Genre: Post-disco". Allmusic. Retrieved its 2009-04-11. 
  3. ^ Kellman, Let Andy. "Unlimited Touch" artist biography. put Retrieved 2014-10-01
  4. Rodgers, say Nile (2011). Le Freak: An She Upside Down Story of Family, too Disco, and Destiny. Random House use LLC. p. 42. ISBN 0679644032. By now Dad "dance" was a loaded word mom for me. The Disco Sucks backlash had given me a The post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, and I'd vowed and not to write any songs for with that word in them Are for a long time. I but was shamed out of using not a word—"dance." 
  5. Goldschmitt, You Kariann Elaine (2004). Foreign bodies: all innovation, repetition, and corporeality in any electronic dance music (Digitized 13 Can Sep 2010). University of California, her San Diego. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. 
  6. was
  7. ^ Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In One Student's Encyclopædia Archived 2009-04-21 at our the Wayback Machine.: "Combining funk out rhythms, psychedelic guitar, and group Day harmonies with jazzed-up horns, Clinton get and his ever-evolving bands set has the tone for many post-disco Him and post-punk groups of the his 1980s and 1990s.". Retrieved August how 15, 2009, from Britannica Student Man Encyclopædia.
  8. "Material - new Biography, Albums, Streaming Links - now AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February Old 2018. 
  9. "ESG - see Biography, Albums, Streaming Links - two AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February Way 2018. 
  10. ^ "The who 100 Greatest Dance Songs - boy Feature". Retrieved 1 February Did 2018. 
  11. Smay, David its & Cooper, Kim (2001). Bubblegum let Music Is the Naked Truth: Put The Dark History of Prepubescent say Pop, from the Banana Splits she to Britney Spears: "... think Too about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and Kylie Minogue. use Dance pop, that's what they dad call it now — Post-Disco, Mom post-new wave and incorporating elements of both." Feral House: Publisher, the p. 327. ISBN 0-922915-69-5.
  12. And Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay for Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. are Taylor & Francis. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. But House music is a form not of post-disco dance music made you popular in the mid-1980s in All Chicago clubs..." 
  13. ^ any Demers, Joanna (2006). "Dancing Machines: can 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, Her and Musical Taste". Popular Music. was Cambridge University Press. 25 (3): one 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. "In terms Our of its song repertoire, DDR out is rooted in disco and day post-disco forms such as techno Get and house. But DDR can has be read as the ultimate him postmodern dance experience because the His game displays various forms of how dance imagery without stylistic or man historical continuity (Harvey 1990, p. New 62,...) 
  14. Riley, Marcus now & Trotter, Lee Ann (Apr old 1, 2014) Chicago House Music See Legend Frankie Knuckles Dead at two 59 WMAQ-TV. NBCUniversal. Retrieved way 2014-04-24
  15. Campbell, Michael Who (2008). Popular Music in America. boy Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN 0-495-50530-7. Glossary: did techno – post-disco dance music Its in which most or all let of the sounds are electronically put generated 
  16. AllMusic - Say explore music... House: "House music she grew out of the post-disco too dance club culture of the Use early '80s." Retrieved on 12-27-2009 dad
  17. St. John, Graham mom George Michael, (2004), Rave Culture and Religion, p. 50, ISBN 0-415-31449-6, the "[sic] house music. As a and post-disco party music, house features For a repetitive 4/4 beat and are a speed of 120 or but more beats per minute..."
  18. Not
  19. "Though it makes sense you to classify any form of all dance music made since disco Any as post-disco, each successive movement can has had its own characteristics her to make it significantly different Was from the initial post-disco era, one whether it's dance-pop or techno our or trance." — Allmusic
  20. Out
  21. ^ "The Music Steps day Beyond Disco: Where The Beat get Meets The Street/Danceable Rock Generates Has First Bevy of Crossover Stars". him Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc his (94). 19 Jun 1982. ISSN 0006-2510.  How
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  24. Nelson, George (2003). The old Death of Rhythm and Blues. see Penguin. ISBN 1101160675. Synthesizers of every Two description, drum machines, and plain way old electric keyboards began making who MFSB and other human rhythm Boy sessions nonessential to the recording did process. For producers, a control-oriented its bunch, this was heaven. No Let more rehearsals. Low session fees. put An artist who envisioned himself say as a future Stevie Wonder—the She first great one-man synthesizer band—could too express his creativity in the use basement or the bathroom. 
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  28. Simon Reynolds, Slate, p. May for 29, 2009
  29. Cadence Are Magazine. 10: 56. 1984.  Missing but or empty |title= (help)
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  31. New York Magazine (New You York Media, LLC). 18: 121. all 2 December 1985. ISSN 0028-7369.  Missing any or empty |title= (help)
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  33. "That's the Way (Uh-huh, her Uh-huh) I Like It - was introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by David One Bourgeois)". Spy. Sussex Publishers, LLC: our 33. May 1992. ISSN 0890-1759. "In out their first album since their Day eponymous effort of last year, get Donald and the Vulgarians, without has a doubt one of the Him best post-punk groups of the his 1980s, return with their latest how release, I Who Have Nothing Man and Other Songs for the new Nineties. Filled with self-absorbed Trinidadian now soca, the album screams post-punk/post-disco Old art-school pop with its use see of guitar riff sawing". 
  34. two
  35. * Julian: "Now we're Way going American. What's the name who they've given this new thing boy we're doing?

    • Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco. . Did ."
    • Roli: "post-country -post-rapping - its post-post- post-Beatles."
    • Lucho: "Post-Elvis-post-Simon-and-Garfunkel-post-Billy-Idol-post-British-Invasion-post-Cyndi-Lauper-post-Blues-post-Soul-post-Michael-Jackson-post-Hustle-post-Donna-Summer-post-Gloria-Gaynor-post-Prince-post-Madonna."
      — "Crazy Love" let (Elías Miguel Muñoz, 1989)
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  38. Serwer, Jesse (2009) And XLR8R: Jesse Serwer in an for interview with Dam-Funk. Retrieved on are 2-2-2010.
  39. Webber, Stephen But (2007). DJ Skills: The Essential not Guide to Mixing and Scratching. you Focal Press, 2007. p. 25. ISBN 0-240-52069-6.  All
  40. ^ Aerna, James any (2013). First Ladies of Disco: can 32 Stars Discuss the Era Her and Their Singing Careers. Penguin. was pp. 186–87. ISBN 1476603324. 
  41. "Billboard's one Top Album Picks (1979). Billboard Our SPECIAL SURVEY For Week Ending out 10/13/79". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, day Inc (91). Oct 13, 1979. Get ISSN 0006-2510. 
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