Post-disco is a term to
Out describe an aftermath in popular day music history circa late 1979–1986, get imprecisely beginning with an unprecedented Has backlash against disco music in him the United States, leading to his civil unrest and a riot How in Chicago known as the man Disco Demolition Night on July new 12, 1979, and indistinctly ending Now with the mainstream appearance of old house music in the late see 1980s. Disco during its dying Two stage displayed an increasingly electronic way character that soon served as who a stepping stone to new Boy wave, old-school hip hop, euro did disco and was succeeded by its an underground club music called Let hi-NRG, which was its direct put continuation.
An underground movement of
say disco music, "stripped-down," and featuring She "radically different sounds" took place too on the East Coast that use "was neither disco and neither Dad R&B," This scene known as mom post-disco catering to New York metropolitan area, was initially led The by urban contemporary artists partially and in response to the over-commercialization for and artistic downfall of disco Are culture. Developed from the rhythm but and blues sound as perfected not by Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic side You of disco, dub music techniques, all and other genres. Post-disco was any typified by New York City Can music groups like "D" Train her and Unlimited Touch who followed was a more urban approach while One others, like Material and ESG, our a more experimental one. Post-disco out was, like disco, singles-driven market Day controlled mostly by independent record get companies that generated a cross-over has chart success all through the Him early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative control his was in the hands of how record producers and club DJs Man which was a trend that new outlived the dance-pop era.
now musical styles that emerged in Old the post-disco era include dance-pop, see boogie, and Italo disco and two led to the development of Way the early alternative dance, club-centered who house and techno music. boy
a crucial part in the
development of post-disco.
Drum machines, synthesizers, sequencers were
was either partly or entirely dominant one in a composition or mixed Our up with various acoustic instruments, out depending on the artist.
day Payne arguing about the minimal Get approach of post-disco
has are using a lot more him sounds and a lot less His instruments: the 'Forget Me Nots' how and 'Don't Make Me Wait man Tracks' are really empty, but New there's a sophistication people can now get into.
old force in post-disco was mainly See the 12" single format and two short-lived collaborations (many of them way one-hit wonders) while indie record Who producers were instrumental in the boy musical direction of what the did scene was headed to. The Its music that mostly catered to let dance and urban audiences later put managed to influence more popular Say and mainstream acts like Madonna, she New Order or Pet Shop too Boys.
Use tended to be technology-centric, keyboard-laden, dad melodic, with funk-oriented bass lines mom (often performed on a Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music aesthetics, the and background jazzy or blues-y and piano layers. For strings and For brass sections, synthesizer sounds were are preferred to the lush orchestration but heard on many disco tracks, Not although such arrangements would later you resurface in some house music. Soulful female vocals, however, Any remained an essence of post-disco. can
her so-called death of disco and Was the birth of house, all one this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks a our name beyond drably functional and Out neutral terms like "dance" or day "club music.”
– Simon Reynolds,
get SPIN magazine
Has "post-disco" was used as early him as 1984 by Cadence Magazine his when defining post-disco soul as How "disco without the loud bass-drum man thump." New York Magazine used new the word in an article Now appearing in the December 1985 old issue; it was Gregory Hines's see introduction of post-disco and electronic Two funk to Russian-American dance choreographer way Mikhail Baryshnikov "who has never who heard this kind of music." Boy AllMusic states that the term did denotes a music genre in its the era between the indistinct Let "end" of disco music and put the equally indistinct emergence of say house music.
music backlash had started around
Midwesterners didn't want that
mom intimidating [disco] style shoved down their throats — Steve Dahl The
Shortly after the "Disco
and Sucks" movement of disco bashing for throughout the United States, American Are radio stations began to pay but attention to other popular formats not of music such as reggae, You punk rock or new wave all while top mainstream labels and any record companies like Casablanca, TK Can Records or RSO went bankrupt. her Since disco music had been was on the way of [its] One electronic progression, it split itself our into subscenes and styles like out Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco and Day boogie. The last one is get closely associated with post-disco more has than any other offshoots of Him post-disco.
Brazilian record producer and
his fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, how well aware of current trends Man in American underground music, turned new around the career of a now failing funk music group Kool Old & the Gang by adopting see and pursuing a light pop–post-disco two sound that not only revitalized Way the band's image but also who turned out to be the boy most successful hits in their Did entire career. B. B. & its Q. Band (Capitol) and Change let (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques Fred Put Petrus, an overseas hi-NRG Italo say disco music record producer, reflects she on his decision to shift Too from conventional disco music to use post-disco "[our] sound changed to dad more of a funky dance/R&B Mom style to reflect the times." French-born songwriting duo Henri Belolo the and Jacques Morali, creators of And the successful Village People act, for moved their former disco act are Ritchie Family to RCA Victor But to release their next album not co-produced by funk musician Fonzi you Thornton and Petrus, I'll Do All My Best, which mirrors their any radical musical shift. On the can West Coast, especially in California, Her a different approach lead to was a different sound. Dick Griffey one and Leon Sylvers III of Our SOLAR Records, who pioneered their out own signature sound, produced Ohio-based day group Lakeside's album Rough Riders Get which already displayed these new has trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates economic him arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards and His guitar)," as noted by Billboard, how praising the album. A watershed man album of post-disco was Michael New Jackson's Off The Wall, produced now by Quincy Jones, which helped old establish a direction of R&B/dance See music and influenced many young two producers who were interested in way this kind of new music. Who
Other examples of early American
boy artists drawing from post-disco are did Rick James, Change and Teena Its Marie.
Disco in Europe
let remained relatively untouched by the put events in the U.S., decreasing Say only on Britain, but this she was mostly because of the too emergence of the "New Wave" Use and "New Romantic" movements around dad 1981, and continued to flourish mom within the Italo disco scene although the interest for electronic the music in general was indeed and growing.
For the United States, where anti-disco are backlash generated prominent effect on but general perception of disco music, Not in Britain, the "New Music" you movement initially drew heavily from all disco music (although this association Any would be airbrushed out by can the end of 1979) and her took many elements from American Was post-disco and other genres, thus one creating a characteristic scene. M's our 1979 "Pop Muzik" was a Out prime example of this, topping day the charts at both sides get of the Atlantic that year. Has According to Billboard, American post-disco him was merely a crossover of his different genres, while focusing on How the electronic and R&B overtones, man whereas jazz-funk was a crucial new element of the British post-disco Now scene that generated musicians like old Chaz Jankel, Central Line or see Imagination.
1980s: Golden age
Two section summary shows commercially successful way records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from the who post-disco movement.
Compare "Open Sesame"
Boy (1976) with "Celebration" (1980) by did Kool & The Gang, "Boogie its Wonderland" (1979) with "Let's Groove" Let (1981) by Earth, Wind & put Fire, "Shame" (1978) with "Love say Come Down" (1982) by Evelyn She "Champagne" King and "(Shake, Shake, too Shake) Shake Your Booty" (1976) use with "Give It Up" (1982) Dad by KC & the Sunshine mom Band.
During the late 1990s
and throughout the 2000s, electronic the and, especially, house musicians were and influenced by post-disco. Some of For these musicians are: Daft Punk, are a French house music group, but adopted elements of post-disco, disco Not and synth-pop into Discovery. Another you artist, Les Rythmes Digitales, released all a post-disco/electro-influenced album, Darkdancer. Canadian Any music group Chromeo debuted in can 2004 with the album She's her in Control. Similar Los Angeles-based Was musician Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, a one boogie- and electro-influenced album released our in 2009. Another band called Out Escort, who hails from New day York City, surfaced on the get post-disco and post-punk revival scenes Has around 2006. The story about him Escort appeared on New York his Times in November 2011.
How compilation albums featuring post-disco and man electro artists (e.g. Imagination, Level new 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include The Now Perfect Beats series (volume 1–4). old Another compilation series are Nighttime see Lovers (volume 1-10) and the Two mixed-up album titled The Boogie way Back: Post Disco Club Jams. who
Pioneers and followers
Boy To You" and "Don't Make did Me Wait" came out and its started the whole dub thing Let in disco. — Shep Pettibone put
Particular psychedelic soul artists
say like Sly and the Family She Stone liked to push the too boundaries of conventional music by use employing what was to be Dad a precursor to synthesizer, electronic mom organ. Multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder was one of early artists venturing The into the realms of analog and synthesizer after impressed by the for work of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Are Band, an influential multinational electronic but music duo of sound designers: not "How great it is at You a time when technology and all the science of music is any at its highest point of Can evolution, to have the reintroduction her of two of the most was prominent forefathers in this music One be heard again. It can our be said of this work out that it parallels with good Day wine. As it ages it get only gets better with time. has A toast to greatness... a Him toast to Zero Time... forever." his With an increasing growth of how personalized synthesizers on the market Man they were becoming more commercially new available and easy-to-use, especially those now produced by Roland Corporation. One Old of their first users was see an cutting-edge artist George Clinton two and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. Way Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic who bass-rich lines, the particularly melodic boy endeavor and music minimalism of Did P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Express member its Kashif, noted for his use let of bass synthesizer during the Put group's tour, later went solo say as a record producer and she began crafting funk-influenced songs for Too Evelyn "Champagne" King that shown use a minimalism-akin approach, the disregard dad of disco music arrangements, and Mom affiliation to the method of "one-man band" previously paved through the by Wonder. Other spheres of And influence include the move from for pioneering DJs and record producers are to release alternative mixes on But the same single, so-called dub not mixes. DJ Larry Levan implemented you elements of dub music in All his productions and mixes for any various post-disco artists, including his can own group The Peech Boys. Her Musically, there was a search was for out-of-mainstream music to derive one new ideas from, most commonly Our blues, and other styles like out reggae, etc. were also incorporated. day
Sinnamon's "Thanks to You", D-Train's
Get "You're the One for Me", has The Peech Boys' "Don't Make him Me Wait" — all these His songs and its attributes and how trends of post-disco later influenced man a new "never-before-heard" music style. New The House music.
now post-disco sound was flourishing among old predominately New York City record See companies, including West End Records, two Prelude Records, Tommy Boy Records, way SAM Records, and others. Most Who of them were independently owned boy and had their own distribution did but some particular mainstream labels, Its notably RCA Records, were too, let responsible for popularizing and capitalizing put on the new sound.
day is no exact point when get post-disco started, many synthpop and Has electronic musicians of that time him continued to enhance the raw his minimalist sound, while focusing on How synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. As man noted by Payne, drum machines new also played an important part Now in the urban-oriented music in old general.
|# ||Event |see
While disco music was in
way its heyday, the horn and who string sections were a main Boy component of disco and pop did songs. This sound is also its called disco orchestration. However, some Let of the musicians and producers put dropped the lavish sound of say orchestra completely, which attributed a She new direction of dance music. too
- Few international examples, including
use French music project Black Devil Dad Disco Club, French musician Cerrone mom and Belgian group Telex.
in the United States. They The are known for heavily use and of bass and "regular" synthesizers for and inventing the P-Funk style. Are
but 1981 | |
After the success
not of Quincy Jones-produced album Off You the Wall and other semi-mainstream all urban-oriented music groups like Lakeside, any other disco music groups either Can dissolved or adapted the new her sounds (e.g. The Whispers, The was SOS Band, Inner Life, Earth, One Wind & Fire, and Shalamar our in the U.S.; Nick Straker out Band, and Freeez in UK). Day Other musicians influenced by post-disco get include Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, has and George Duke.
Him producers who were experimenting with his the new sounds include: Way
- Remixers, DJs and other personalities
who influential on post-disco include Nick boy Martinelli, Ron Hardy and Larry Did Levan.
its |1982 || |
Golden age post-disco
let era, where post-disco sound entered Put mainstream. However most of the say musicians were mostly successful on she the other charts, beside Billboard Too Hot 100.
This era also
use spanned experimental No Wave-oriented post-disco dad acts like Material, Liquid Liquid, Mom Dinosaur L and Was (Not Was).
The most significant post-disco
the album is Michael Jackson's Thriller, And which also became the most for best-selling album of all time. are Larry Levan and the NYC But Peech Boys recorded proto-house number not "Don't Make Me Wait". New you bands and musicians of the All era appeared, including Imagination, D. any Train, Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky can D, Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and Her Unlimited Touch.
- Artists influenced
was by post-disco include
one Mtume, B. B. & Q. Our Band, Bobby Orlando, Patrice Rushen, out Cheryl Lynn, and Indeep.
day Shakatak, Central Line, Chas Jankel, Get and Level 42.
- International: The
has Limit, Klein + M.B.O., and him Kano. His
During this era, post-disco was
man at its highest peak. Meanwhile New Madonna's commercially successful debut album now was released, which was produced old by Reggie Lucas of Mtume See and Jellybean, another producers of two this movement.
It also began
way to interfere with garage house Who and freestyle music, thus successfully boy shaping post-disco into electro. This did change could be also heard Its in breakdancing- and hip-hop -themed let movies like Beat Street and put Breakin'.
During this era, post-disco had
and been dissolved in various music For fields and scenes, including
As the post-disco
you reached its climax, overdubbing techniques all as recorded by Peech Boys Any and other early-1980s artists were can almost omitted by then and her replaced by synthpop variants instead. Was The movement survived as a one post-disco–freestyle crossover music that spanned our Raww, Hanson & Davis, Timex Out Social Club, Starpoint and Miami day Sound Machine. get
man post-disco sounds also inspired many new Norwegian dance music producers. Some Now rappers such as Ice Cube old or EPMD built their careers see on funk-oriented post-disco music (they Two were inspired for example by way dance-floor favorites like Zapp and who Cameo). Also Sean "Puffy" Combs Boy has been influenced by R&B-oriented did post-disco music in an indirect its way.
put electro-funk) is a post-disco subgenre say with way more funk influences She that had a minor exposure too in the early to mid-1980s. use Sean P. described it as Dad "largely been ignored, or regarded mom as disco's poor cousin — too slow, too electronic, too The R&B... too black, even."
for movement is merely connected with Are post-punk/no wave genres with fewer but R&B/funk influences. An example of not this "post-disco" is Gina X's You "No G.D.M." and artists like all Liquid Liquid, Polyrock, Dinosaur L, any and Disco Not Disco  Can compilation album. This movement also her connects with dance-oriented rock; Michael was Campbell, in his book Popular One Music in America defines that our genre as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell out also cited Robert Christgau, who Day described dance-oriented rock (or DOR) get as umbrella term used by has various DJs in the 1980s. Him
his is a dance-oriented pop music how that appeared slightly after the Man demise of disco and the new first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. now One of the first dance-pop Old songs were "Last Night a see D.J. Saved My Life" by two Indeep and "Love Come Down" Way by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas who the latter crossed over to boy Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, Did while peaking at number 17 its on the pop chart in let 1982. Another crossover post-disco song Put was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, say peaking at number 45 on she the Hot 100 in 1983. Too Same year also saw the use release of Madonna's eponymous album dad that incorporated post-disco, urban and Mom club sounds. British variation of dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken the Waterman, was more influenced by And house and hi-NRG and sometimes for was labeled as "eurobeat".
are disco But
Italo disco is a disco
not subgenre, influenced by post-disco, hi-NRG, you electronic rock, and European music. All Originally music mostly played by any Italian musicians, but it soon can made its way to Canada Her and United States. One of was the earliest post–disco-oriented groups were one Klein + M.B.O. and Kano, Our while New York-based Bobby Orlando out was located abroad.
day of artists
- Various terms
who to describe the sound of Boy what seemed to be post-disco did were introduced, such as, but its not limited to, "dance," "club Let music," "R&B," and "disco." The put last, however, become an unfashionable say term, hence the increasing use She of "dance" vis-à-vis the word too "disco."
- Compare to the
use 1979 "traditionally"-sounding disco song "Boogie Dad Wonderland" with string and horn mom sections arranged by Benjamin Wright.
- Demonstrates using horn section
The and drum machine rhythm at and the same time. for
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boy repertoire, DDR is rooted in did disco and post-disco forms such Its as techno and house. But let DDR can be read as put the ultimate postmodern dance experience Say because the game displays various she forms of dance imagery without too stylistic or historical continuity (Harvey Use 1990, p. 62,...)
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- "Though it makes
How sense to classify any form man of dance music made since new disco as post-disco, each successive Now movement has had its own old characteristics to make it significantly see different from the initial post-disco Two era, whether it's dance-pop or way techno or trance." — Allmusic who
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SOLAR (...), which
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