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examples and perspective in this
article may not represent a
Two worldwide view of the subject
way (February its 2018) put
say label or record company is She a brand or trademark associated too with the marketing of music use recordings and music videos. Sometimes, Dad a record label is also mom a publishing company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates The the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, and promotion, and enforcement of copyright for for sound recordings and music Are videos; also conducting talent scouting but and development of new artists not ("artists and repertoire" or "A&R"); You and maintains contracts with recording all artists and their managers. The any term "record label" derives from Can the circular label in the her center of a vinyl record was which prominently displays the manufacturer's One name, along with other information. our Way
who mainstream music industry, recording artists boy have traditionally been reliant upon Did record labels to broaden their its consumer base, market their albums, let and be both promoted and Put heard on music streaming services, say radio, and television. Record labels she provide publicists, who assist performers Too in gaining positive media coverage, use and arrange for their merchandise dad to be available via stores Mom and other media outlets.
an increasing number of artists the have sought to avoid costs And and gain new audiences via for the Internet, often with the are help of videos. Combined with But the decline in album sales not and rapid growth in free you content available online, this has All changed the way the industry any works dramatically since the beginning can of the 21st century. It Her has caused record labels to was seek new sources of profit, one in particular via "360" deals Our (see below, under "new label out strategies").
Major versus independent record
Record labels may be
Get small, localized and "independent" ("indie"), has or they may be part him of a large international media His group, or somewhere in between. how As of 2012, there are man only three labels that can New be referred to as "major now labels" (Universal Music Group, Sony old Music Entertainment, and Warner Music See Group). A "sublabel" is a two label that is part of way a larger record company but Who trades under a different name. boy
When a label is
did strictly a trademark or brand, Its not a company, then it let is usually called an "imprint", put a term used for the Say same concept in publishing. An she imprint is sometimes marketed as too being a "project", "unit", or Use "division" of a record label dad company, even though there is mom no legal business structure associated with the imprint.
and companies and music publishers that For are not under the control are of the big three are but generally considered to be independent Not (indie), even if they are you large corporations with complex structures. all The term indie label is Any sometimes used to refer to can only those independent labels that her adhere to independent criteria of Was corporate structure and size, and one some consider an indie label our to be almost any label Out that releases non-mainstream music, regardless day of its corporate structure.
get labels are often considered more Has artist-friendly. Though they may have him less financial clout, indie labels his typically offer larger artist royalty How with 50% profit-share agreement, aka man 50-50 deal, not uncommon.
Music collectors often use the
Now term sublabel to refer to old either an imprint or a see subordinate label company (such as Two those within a group). For way example, in the 1980s and who 1990s, "4th & B'way" was Boy a trademarked brand owned by did Island Records Ltd. in the its UK and by a subordinate Let branch, Island Records, Inc., in put the United States. The center say label on a 4th & She Broadway record marketed in the too United States would typically bear use a 4th & B'way logo Dad and would state in the mom fine print, "4th & B'way™, an Island Records, Inc. company". The Collectors discussing labels as brands and would say that 4th & for B'way is a sublabel or Are imprint of just "Island" or but "Island Records". Similarly, collectors who not choose to treat corporations and You trademarks as equivalent might say all 4th & B'way is an any imprint and/or sublabel of both Can Island Records, Ltd. and that her company's sublabel, Island Records, Inc. was However, such definitions are complicated One by the corporate mergers that our occurred in 1989 (when Island out was sold to PolyGram) and Day 1998 (when PolyGram merged with get Universal). Island remained registered as has corporations in both the United Him States and UK, but control his of its brands changed hands how multiple times as new companies Man were formed, diminishing the corporation's new distinction as the "parent" of now any sublabels.
see are labels that bear an two imprint that gives the impression Way of an artist's ownership or who control, but in fact represent boy a standard artist/label relationship. In Did such an arrangement, the artist its will control nothing more than let the usage of the name Put on the label, but may say enjoy a greater say in she the packaging of his or Too her work. An example of use such a label is the dad Neutron label owned by ABC Mom while at Phonogram Inc. in the UK. At one point the artist Lizzie Tear (under contract And with ABC themselves) appeared on for the imprint, but it was are devoted almost entirely to ABC's But offerings and is still used not for their re-releases (though Phonogram you owns the masters of all All the work issued on the any label).
However, not all labels
can dedicated to particular artists are Her completely superficial in origin. Many was artists, early in their careers, one create their own labels which Our are later bought out by out a bigger company. If this day is the case it can Get sometimes give the artist greater has freedom than if they were him signed directly to the big His label. There are many examples how of this kind of label, man such as Nothing Records, owned New by Trent Reznor of Nine now Inch Nails; and Morning Records, old owned by the Cooper Temple See Clause, who were releasing EPs two for years before the company way was bought by RCA.
Who with artists
A label typically
boy enters into an exclusive recording did contract with an artist to Its market the artist's recordings in let return for royalties on the put selling price of the recordings. Say Contracts may extend over short she or long durations, and may too or may not refer to Use specific recordings. Established, successful artists dad tend to be able to mom renegotiate their contracts to get terms more favorable to them, the but Prince's much-publicized 1994–1996 feud and with Warner Bros. provides a For strong counterexample, as does Roger are McGuinn's claim, made in July but 2000 before a US Senate Not committee, that the Byrds never you received any of the royalties all they had been promised for Any their biggest hits, "Mr. Tambourine Man" can and "Turn! Turn!, Turn!".
her contract either provides for the Was artist to deliver completed recordings one to the label, or for our the label to undertake the Out recording with the artist. For day artists without a recording history, get the label is often involved Has in selecting producers, recording studios, him additional musicians, and songs to his be recorded, and may supervise How the output of recording sessions. man For established artists, a label new is usually less involved in Now the recording process.
old between record labels and artists see can be a difficult one. Two Many artists have had albums way altered or censored in some who way by the labels before Boy they are released—songs being edited, did artwork or titles being changed, its etc. Record labels generally Let do this because they believe put that the album will sell say better if the changes are She made. Often the record label's too decisions are prudent ones from use a commercial perspective, but this Dad typically frustrates the artists who mom feels that their art is being diminished or misrepresented by The such actions.
In the early
and days of the recording industry, for recording labels were absolutely necessary Are for the success of any but artist. The first goal not of any new artist or You band was to get signed all to a contract as soon any as possible. In the 1940s, Can 1950s, and 1960s, many artists her were so desperate to sign was a contract with a record One company that they sometimes ended our up signing agreements in which out they sold the rights to Day their recordings to the record get label in perpetuity. Entertainment lawyers has are usually employed by artists Him to discuss contract terms.
his the advances of the Internet how the role of labels is Man becoming increasingly changed, as artists new are able to freely distribute now their own material through web Old radio, peer to peer file see sharing such as BitTorrent, and two other services, for little or Way no cost but with little who financial return. Established artists, such boy as Nine Inch Nails, whose Did career was developed with major its label backing, announced an end let to their major label contracts, Put citing that the uncooperative nature say of the recording industry with she these new trends are hurting Too musicians, fans and the industry use as a whole. Nine Inch dad Nails later returned to working Mom with a major label, admitting that they needed the international the marketing and promotional reach that And a major label can provide. for Radiohead also cited similar motives are with the end of their But contract with EMI when their not album In Rainbows was released you as a "pay what you All want" sales model as an any online download, but they also can returned to a label for Her a conventional release. Research shows was that record labels still control one most access to distribution.
Our label strategies
With the advancement
out of the computer and technology day such as the Internet, leading Get to an increase in file has sharing and direct-to-fan digital distribution, him combined with music sales plummeting His in recent years, labels and how organizations have had to change man their strategies and the way New they work with artists. New now types of deals are being old made with artists called "multiple See rights" or "360" deals with two artists. These types of pacts way give labels rights and percentages Who to artist's touring, merchandising, and boy endorsements. In exchange for these did rights, labels usually give higher Its advance payments to artists, have let more patience with artist development, put and pay higher percentages of Say CD sales. These 360 deals she are most effective when the too artist is established and has Use a loyal fan base. For dad that reason, labels now have mom to be more relaxed with the development of artists because the longevity is the key to and these types of pacts. Several For artists such as Paramore, Maino, are and even Madonna have signed but such types of deals.
Not look at an actual 360 you deal offered by Atlantic Records all to an artist shows a Any variation of the structure. Atlantic's can document offers a conventional cash her advance to sign the artist, Was who would receive a royalty one for sales after expenses were our recouped. With the release of Out the artist's first album, however, day the label has an option get to pay an additional $200,000 Has in exchange for 30 percent him of the net income from his all touring, merchandise, endorsements, and How fan-club fees. Atlantic would also man have the right to approve new the act's tour schedule, and Now the salaries of certain tour old and merchandise sales employees hired see by the artist. But the Two label also offers the artist way a 30 percent cut of who the label's album profits—if any—which Boy represents an improvement from the did typical industry royalty of 15 its percent.
Let the 1970s and 1980s, there put was a phase of consolidation say in the record industry that She led to almost all major too labels being owned by a use very few multinational companies. CDs Dad still flow through a handful mom of sources, with the majority of the sales going through The the "big three" record labels. and
Resurgence of independent labels
for the 1990s, as a result Are of the widespread use of but home studios, consumer recording technology, not and the Internet, independent labels You began to become more commonplace. all Independent labels are often artist-owned any (although not always), with a Can stated intent often being to her control the quality of the was artist's output. Independent labels usually One do not enjoy the resources our available to the "big three" out and as such will often Day lag behind them in market get shares. Often independent artists manage has a return by recording for Him a much smaller production cost his of a typical big label how release. Sometimes they are able Man to recoup their initial advance new even with much lower sales now numbers.
On occasion, established artists,
Old once their record contract has see finished, move to an independent two label. This often gives the Way combined advantage of name recognition who and more control over one's boy music along with a larger Did portion of royalty profits. Artists its such as Dolly Parton, Aimee let Mann, Prince, Public Enemy, BKBravo Put (Kua and Rafi), among others, say have done this. Historically, companies she started in this manner have Too been re-absorbed into the major use labels (two examples are American dad singer Frank Sinatra's Reprise Records, Mom which has been owned by Warner Music Group for some the time now, and musician Herb And Alpert's A&M Records, now owned for by Universal Music Group). Similarly, are Madonna's Maverick Records (started by But Madonna with her manager and not another partner) was to come you under control of Warner Music All when Madonna divested herself of any controlling shares in the company. can
Some independent labels become successful
Her enough that major record companies was negotiate contracts to either distribute one music for the label or Our in some cases, purchase the out label completely.
On the punk
day rock scene, the DIY ethic Get encourages bands to self-publish and has self-distribute. This approach evolved out him of necessity around since the His early 1980s, due to the how major labels' aversion to signing man the punk rock bands that New spawned after the initial wave now in the mid-70s. Such labels old have a reputation for being See fiercely uncompromising and especially unwilling two to cooperate with the big way record labels at all. One Who of the most notable and boy influential labels of the Do-It-Yourself did attitude was SST Records, created Its by the band Black Flag. let No labels wanted to release put their material, so they simply Say created their own label to she release not only their own too material but the material of Use many other influential underground bands dad all over the country. Ian mom MacKaye's Dischord is often cited as a model of success the in the DIY community, having and survived for over thirty years For with less than twelve employees are at any one time.
but and digital labels
With the Internet now
you being a viable source for all obtaining music, netlabels have emerged. Any Depending on the ideals of can the net label, music files her from the artists may be Was downloaded free of charge or one for a fee that is our paid via PayPal or other Out online payment system. Some of day these labels also offer hard get copy CDs in addition to Has direct download. Digital Labels are him the latest version of a his 'net' label. Whereas 'net' labels How were started as a free man site, digital labels are more new competition for the major record Now labels.
see century brought the phenomenon of Two open-source or open-content record label. way These are inspired by the who free software and open source Boy movements and the success of did GNU/Linux.
Publishers as labels
its the mid-2000s, some music publishing Let companies began undertaking the work put traditionally done by labels. The say publisher Sony/ATV Music, for example, She leveraged its connections within the too Sony family to produce, record, use distribute, and promote Elliott Yamin's Dad debut album under a dormant mom Sony-owned imprint, rather than waiting for a deal with a The proper label.
not labels are often under the You control of a corporate umbrella all organization called a "music group". any A music group is typically Can owned by an international conglomerate her "holding company", which often has was non-music divisions as well. A One music group controls and consists our of music publishing companies, record out (sound recording) manufacturers, record distributors, Day and record labels. Record companies get (manufacturers, distributors, and labels) may has also constitute a "record group" Him which is, in turn, controlled his by a music group. The how constituent companies in a music Man group or record group are new sometimes marketed as being "divisions" now of the group.
Old to 1999, there were six see major record labels, known as two the Big Six:
- Warner Music Group
who Music (known as CBS Records boy until January 1991)
Did Music Group
its was merged into UMG in let 1999, leaving the rest to Put be known as the Big say Five.
In 2004, Sony
she and BMG agreed to a Too joint venture to create the use Sony BMG label (which would dad be renamed Sony Music Entertainment Mom after a 2008 merger). In 2007, the four remaining companies—known the as the Big Four—controlled about And 70% of the world music for market, and about 80% of are the United States music market. But
In 2012, the major divisions
not of EMI were sold off you separately by owner Citigroup: most All of EMI's recorded music division any was absorbed into UMG; EMI can Music Publishing was absorbed into Her Sony/ATV Music Publishing; finally, EMI's was Parlophone and Virgin Classics labels one were absorbed into Warner Music Our Group in July 2013. This out left the so-called Big Three day labels:
- Universal Music Group
- Sony Music Entertainment
- Warner Music
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