Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A record producer or man music producer oversees and manages new the sound recording and production Now of a band or performer's old music, which may range from see recording one song to recording Two a lengthy concept album. A way producer has many, varying roles who during the recording process. They Boy may gather musical ideas for did the project, collaborate with the its artists to select cover tunesLet or original songs by the put artist/group, work with artists and say help them to improve their She songs, lyrics or arrangements.
Coach the The singers and musicians in the and studio
The producer typically supervises for the entire process from preproduction, Are through to the sound recordingbut and mixing stages, and, in not some cases, all the way You to the audio mastering stage. all The producer may perform these any roles themself, or help select Can the engineer, and provide suggestions her to the engineer. The producer was may also pay session musicians One and engineers and ensure that our the entire project is completed out within the record label's budget. Day
A record producerMan or music producer has a new very broad role in overseeing now and managing the recording and Old production of a band or see performer's music. A producer has two many roles that may include, Way but are not limited to, who gathering ideas for the project, boy composing the music for the Did project, selecting songs or session its musicians, proposing changes to the let song arrangements, coaching the artist Put and musicians in the studio, say controlling the recording sessions, and she supervising the entire process through Too audio mixing (recorded music) and, use in some cases, to the dad audio mastering stage. Producers also Mom often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the the budget, schedules, contracts, and And negotiations. In the 2010s, the for recording industry has two kinds are of producers with different roles: But executive producer and music producer. not Executive producers oversee project finances you while music producers oversee the All creative process of recording songs any or albums. A record producer can who produces a song for Her another producer without receiving recognition was is a ghost producer.
In one most cases the music producer Our is also a competent arranger, out composer, musician or songwriter who day can bring fresh ideas to Get a project. As well as has making any songwriting and arrangement him adjustments, the producer often selects His or gives suggestions to the how mixing engineer, who takes the man raw recorded tracks and edits New and modifies them with hardware now and software tools and creates old a stereo or surround sound See "mix" of all the individual two voices sounds and instruments, which way is in turn given further Who adjustment by a mastering engineer. boy The producer will also liaise did with the recording engineer who Its concentrates on the technical aspects let of recording, whereas the executive put producer keeps an eye on Say the overall project's marketability.
Noted she producer Phil Ek described his too role as "the person who Use creatively guides or directs the dad process of making a record", mom like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the the designation is actually music and director. The music producer's job For is to create, shape, and are mold a piece of music. but The scope of responsibility may Not be one or two songs you or an artist's entire album all – in which case the Any producer will typically develop an can overall vision for the album her and how the various songs Was may interrelate.
At one the beginning of record industry, our the producer role was technically Out limited to record, in one day shot, artists performing live. The get immediate predecessors to record producers Has were the artists and repertoirehim executives of the late 1920s his and 1930s who oversaw the How "pop" product and often led man session orchestras. That was the new case of Ben Selvin at Now Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at old Victor Records and Bob Haring see at Brunswick Records. By the Two end of the 1930s, the way first professional recording studios not who owned by the major companies Boy were established, essentially separating the did roles of A&R man and its producer, although it wouldn't be Let until the late 1940s when put the term "producer" became widely say used in the industry.
The She role of producers changed progressively too over the 1950s and 1960s use due to technological developments. The Dad development of multitrack recording caused mom a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all The the elements of a song and (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm for section instrument accompaniment, solos and Are orchestral parts) had to be but performed simultaneously. All of these not singers and musicians had to You be assembled in a large all studio and the performance had any to be recorded. With multitrack Can recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm her section accompaniment parts such as was the bassline, drums, and rhythm One guitar could be recorded first, our and then the vocals and out solos could be added later, Day using as many "takes" (or get attempts) as it took. As has well, for a song that Him used 20 instruments, it was his no longer necessary to get how all the players in the Man studio at the same time. new A pop band could record now their backing tracks one week, Old and then a horn sectionsee could be brought in a two week later to add horn Way shots and punches, and then who a string section could be boy brought in a week after Did that.
While this facilitated the its recording process and allow multiple let takes, the multitrack recording had Put another profound effect on music say production it enabled producers she and audio engineers to create Too new sounds that would be use impossible to do in a dad live performance style ordering. Examples Mom include the psychedelic rock sound effects of the 1960s, e.g. the playing back the sound of And recorded instruments backward changing the for tape to produce unique sound are effects. During the same period, But the instruments of popular music not began to shift from the you acoustic instruments of traditional musicAll (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, any strings, brass and wind instruments) can to electric piano, electronic organ, Her synthesizer, electric bass and electric was guitar. These new instruments were one electric or electronic, and thus Our they used instrument amplifiers and out speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to day create sound.
Electric and electronic Get instruments and amplifiers enabled performers has and producers to change the him tone and sound of instruments His to produce unique electric sounds how that would be impossible to man achieve with acoustic instruments and New live performers, such as having now a singer do her own old backup vocals or having a See guitarist play 15 layers of two backing parts to her own way solo.
New technologies like multitracking Who changed the goal of recording: boy A producer could blend together did multiple takes and edit together Its different sections to create the let desired sound. For example, in put jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' Say album Bitches Brew, the producer she cut and edited sections together too from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like mom Phil Spector and George Martinwere soon creating recordings that the were, in practical terms, almost and impossible to realize in live For performance. Producers became creative figures are in the studio. Other examples but of such engineers includes Joe Not Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, you and Biddu.
Another can related phenomenon in the 1960s her was the emergence of the Was performer-producer. As pop acts like one The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, our The Beach Boys and The Out Kinks gained expertise in studio day recording techniques, many of these get groups eventually took over as Has (frequently uncredited) producers of their him own work. Many recordings by his acts such as The Rolling How Stones, The Kinks and The man Who are officially credited to new their various producers at the Now time, but a number of old these performers have since asserted see that many of their recordings Two in this period were, either way wholly self-produced (e.g. The Rolling who Stones' Decca recordings) or collaborations Boy between the group and their did recording engineer (e.g. The Small its Faces' Immediate recordings, which were Let made with Olympic Studios engineer put Glyn Johns).
The Beach Boys say are probably the best example She of the trend of artists too becoming producers – within two use years of the band's commercial Dad breakthrough, group leader Brian Wilson mom had taken over from his father Murry, and he was The the sole producer of all and their recordings between 1963 and for 1967. Alongside The Beatles and Are Martin, Wilson also pioneered many but production innovations – by 1964 not he had developed Spector's techniques You to a new level of all sophistication, using multiple studios and any multiple "takes" of instrumental and Can vocal components to capture the her best possible combinations of sound was and performance, and then using One tape editing extensively to assemble our a perfect composite performance from out these elements.
At the end Day of the 20th century, digital get recording and producing tools, then has widespread availability of relatively affordable Him computers with music software made his music producing more accessible.
Equipment and technology
Mixing Man console.
There are numerous technologies new utilized by record producers. In now modern-day recordings, recording and mixing Old tasks are commonly centralized within see computers using digital audio workstationstwo such as Pro Tools, Logic Way Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and FL who Studio, which all are often boy used with third party virtual Did studio technology plugins. Logic Pro its and Pro Tools are considered let the industry standard DAWs. However, Put there is also the main say mixer, outboard effects gear, MIDIshe controllers, and the recording device Too itself.
While most music production use is done using sophisticated software, dad some musicians and producers prefer Mom the minutiae of older analog technology. Professor Albin Zak claims the that the increased automation of And both newer processes and newer for instruments reduces the level of are control and manipulation available to But musicians and producers.
Studio not application
Production has changed drastically you over the years with advancing All technology. Where the producer's role any has changed, they have always can been seen as a jack Her of all trades, as their was duties require a broad knowledge one of the recording process.
Tracking Our is the act of recording out audio to a DAW (digital day audio workstation) or in some Get cases to tape. Even though has digital technologies have widely supplanted him the use of tape in His studios, the older term "track" how is still used in the man 2010s. Tracking audio is primarily New the role of the audio now engineer. Producers work side by old side with the artists while See they play or sing their two part and coach them on way how to perform it and Who how to get the best boy technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). In did some cases, the producer will Its even sing a backup vocal let or play an instrument.
Many put artists are also beginning to Say produce and write their own she music.
Similarly, although The Beatles' the productions were credited to George and Martin throughout their recording career, For many sources now attest that are Lennon and McCartney in particular but had an increasing influence on Not the production process as the you group's career progressed, and especially all after the band retired from Any touring in 1966. In an can extreme example of this, Martin her actually went on a two-week Was vacation as The Beatles were one recording The White Album; production our of several completed tracks on Out the album were credited to day The Beatles on internal paperwork get at Abbey Road Studios, although Has the released LP gave sole him production credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). how Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, Man and culture," by timothy D. new taylor. Current Musicology, , 159-180.now
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Old Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record see Producers' Best Practices For Artistic two Direction—From Light Coaching To Deeper Way Collaboration With Musicians." Journal of who New Music Research 42.4 (2013): boy 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Web. Did 7 Sept. 2015.
A record label, or How record company, is a brand man or trademark associated with the new marketing of music recordings and Now music videos. Sometimes, a record old label is also a publishingsee company that manages such brands Two and trademarks, coordinates the production, way manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and who enforcement of copyright for sound Boy recordings and music videos; also did conducting talent scouting and development its of new artists ("artists and Let repertoire" or "A&R"); and maintains put contracts with recording artists and say their managers. The term "record She label" derives from the circular too label in the center of use a vinyl record which prominently Dad displays the manufacturer's name, along mom with other information.
Within the how mainstream music industry, recording artists Man have traditionally been reliant upon new record labels to broaden their now consumer base, market their albums, Old and be both promoted and see heard on music streaming services, two radio, and television. Record labels Way provide publicists, who assist performers who in gaining positive media coverage, boy and arrange for their merchandise Did to be available via stores its and other media outlets.
But let an increasing number of artists Put have sought to avoid costs say and gain new audiences via she the Internet, often with the Too help of videos. Combined with use the decline in album sales dad and rapid growth in free Mom content available online, this has changed the way the industry the works dramatically since the beginning And of the 21st century. It for has caused record labels to are seek new sources of profit, But in particular via "360" deals not (see below, under "new label you strategies").
A "sublabel" is a label boy that is part of a did larger record company but trades Its under a different name.
A label used as put a trademark or brand and Say not a company is called she an imprint, a term used too for the same concept in Use publishing. An imprint is sometimes dad marketed as being a "project", mom "unit", or "division" of a record label company, even though the there is no legal business and structure associated with the imprint. For
Record companies and but music publishers that are not Not under the control of the you big three are generally considered all to be independent (indie), even Any if they are large corporations can with complex structures. The term her indie label is sometimes used Was to refer to only those one independent labels that adhere to our independent criteria of corporate structure Out and size, and some consider day an indie label to be get almost any label that releases Has non-mainstream music, regardless of its him corporate structure.
Independent labels are his often considered more artist-friendly. Though How they may have less financial man clout, indie labels typically offer new larger artist royalty with 50% Now profit-share agreement, aka 50-50 deal, old not uncommon.
Music see collectors often use the term Two sublabel to refer to either way an imprint or a subordinate who label company (such as those Boy within a group). For example, did in the 1980s and 1990s, its "4th & B'way" was a Let trademarked brand owned by Island put Records Ltd. in the UK say and by a subordinate branch, She Island Records, Inc., in the too United States. The center label use on a 4th & Broadway Dad record marketed in the United mom States would typically bear a 4th & B'way logo and The would state in the fine and print, "4th & B'way™, an for Island Records, Inc. company". Collectors Are discussing labels as brands would but say that 4th & B'way not is a sublabel or imprint You of just "Island" or "Island all Records". Similarly, collectors who choose any to treat corporations and trademarks Can as equivalent might say 4th her & B'way is an imprint was and/or sublabel of both Island One Records, Ltd. and that company's our sublabel, Island Records, Inc. However, out such definitions are complicated by Day the corporate mergers that occurred get in 1989 (when Island was has sold to PolyGram) and 1998 Him (when PolyGram merged with Universal). his Island remained registered as corporations how in both the United StatesMan and UK, but control of new its brands changed hands multiple now times as new companies were Old formed, diminishing the corporation's distinction see as the "parent" of any two sublabels.
Vanity labels who are labels that bear an boy imprint that gives the impression Did of an artist's ownership or its control, but in fact represent let a standard artist/label relationship. In Put such an arrangement, the artist say will control nothing more than she the usage of the name Too on the label, but may use enjoy a greater say in dad the packaging of his or Mom her work. An example of such a label is the the Neutron label owned by ABCAnd while at Phonogram Inc. in for the UK. At one point are artist Lizzie Tear (under contract But with ABC themselves) appeared on not the imprint, but it was you devoted almost entirely to ABC's All offerings and is still used any for their re-releases (though Phonogram can owns the masters of all Her the work issued on the was label).
However, not all labels one dedicated to particular artists are Our completely superficial in origin. Many out artists, early in their careers, day create their own labels which Get are later bought out by has a bigger company. If this him is the case it can His sometimes give the artist greater how freedom than if they were man signed directly to the big New label. There are many examples now of this kind of label, old such as Nothing Records, owned See by Trent Reznor of Nine two Inch Nails; and Morning Records, way owned by the Cooper Temple Who Clause, who were releasing EPs boy for years before the company did was bought by RCA.
Relationship with artists
A label let typically enters into an exclusive put recording contract with an artist Say to market the artist's recordings she in return for royalties on too the selling price of the Use recordings. Contracts may extend over dad short or long durations, and mom may or may not refer to specific recordings. Established, successful the artists tend to be able and to renegotiate their contracts to For get terms more favorable to are them, but Prince's much-publicized 1994–1996 but feud with Warner Bros. RecordsNot provides a strong counterexample, as you does Roger McGuinn's claim, made all in July 2000 before a Any US Senate committee, that the can Byrds never received any of her the royalties they had been Was promised for their biggest hits, one "Mr. Tambourine Man" and "Turn! Turn!, our Turn!".
A contract either provides Out for the artist to deliver day completed recordings to the label, get or for the label to Has undertake the recording with the him artist. For artists without a his recording history, the label is How often involved in selecting producers, man recording studios, additional musicians, and new songs to be recorded, and Now may supervise the output of old recording sessions. For established artists, see a label is usually less Two involved in the recording process. way
The relationship between record labels who and artists can be a Boy difficult one. Many artists have did had albums altered or censored its in some way by the Let labels before they are released—songs put being edited, artwork or titles say being changed, etc. Record She labels generally do this because too they believe that the album use will sell better if the Dad changes are made. Often the mom record label's decisions are prudent ones from a commercial perspective, The but this typically frustrates the and artists who feels that their for art is being diminished or Are misrepresented by such actions.
In but the early days of the not recording industry, recording labels were You absolutely necessary for the success all of any artist. The any first goal of any new Can artist or band was to her get signed to a contract was as soon as possible. In One the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, our many artists were so desperate out to sign a contract with Day a record company that they get sometimes ended up signing agreements has in which they sold the Him rights to their recordings to his the record label in perpetuity. how Entertainment lawyers are usually employed Man by artists to discuss contract new terms.
Through the advances of now the Internet the role of Old labels is becoming increasingly changed, see as artists are able to two freely distribute their own material Way through web radio, peer to who peer file sharing such as boy BitTorrent, and other services, for Did little or no cost but its with little financial return. Established let artists, such as Nine Inch Put Nails, whose career was developed say with major label backing, announced she an end to their major Too label contracts, citing that the use uncooperative nature of the recording dad industry with these new trends Mom are hurting musicians, fans and the industry as a whole.the Nine Inch Nails later returned And to working with a major for label, admitting that they needed are the international marketing and promotional But reach that a major label not can provide. Radiohead also cited you similar motives with the end All of their contract with EMIany when their album In Rainbowscan was released as a "pay Her what you want" sales model was as an online download, but one they also returned to a Our label for a conventional release.out Research shows that record labels day still control most access to Get distribution.
New label strategies
With the advancement of the him computer and technology such as His the Internet, leading to an how increase in file sharing and man direct-to-fan digital distribution, combined with New music sales plummeting in recent now years, labels and organizations have old had to change their strategies See and the way they work two with artists. New types of way deals are being made with Who artists called "multiple rights" or boy "360" deals with artists. These did types of pacts give labels Its rights and percentages to artist's let touring, merchandising, and endorsements. In put exchange for these rights, labels Say usually give higher advance payments she to artists, have more patience too with artist development, and pay Use higher percentages of CD sales. dad These 360 deals are most mom effective when the artist is established and has a loyal the fan base. For that reason, and labels now have to be For more relaxed with the development are of artists because longevity is but the key to these types Not of pacts. Several artists such you as Paramore, Maino, and even all Madonna have signed such types Any of deals.
A look at can an actual 360 deal offered her by Atlantic Records to an Was artist shows a variation of one the structure. Atlantic's document offers our a conventional cash advance to Out sign the artist, who would day receive a royalty for sales get after expenses were recouped. With Has the release of the artist's him first album, however, the label his has an option to pay How an additional $200,000 in exchange man for 30 percent of the new net income from all touring, Now merchandise, endorsements, and fan-club fees. old Atlantic would also have the see right to approve the act's Two tour schedule, and the salaries way of certain tour and merchandise who sales employees hired by the Boy artist. But the label also did offers the artist a 30 its percent cut of the label's Let album profits—if any—which represents an put improvement from the typical industry say royalty of 15 percent.
In the too 1970s and 1980s, there was use a phase of consolidation in Dad the record industry that led mom to almost all major labels being owned by a very The few multinational companies. CDs still and flow through a handful of for sources, with the majority of Are the sales going through the but "big three" record labels.
Resurgence of independent labels
In You the 1990s, as a result all of the widespread use of any home studios, consumer recording technology, Can and the Internet, independent labels her began to become more commonplace. was Independent labels are often artist-owned One (although not always), with a our stated intent often being to out control the quality of the Day artist's output. Independent labels usually get do not enjoy the resources has available to the "big three" Him and as such will often his lag behind them in market how shares. Often independent artists manage Man a return by recording for new a much smaller production cost now of a typical big label Old release. Sometimes they are able see to recoup their initial advance two even with much lower sales Way numbers.
On occasion, established artists, who once their record contract has boy finished, move to an independent Did label. This often gives the its combined advantage of name recognition let and more control over one's Put music along with a larger say portion of royalty profits. Artists she such as Dolly Parton, Aimee Too Mann, Prince, Public Enemy, BKBravo use (Kua and Rafi), among others, dad have done this. Historically, companies Mom started in this manner have been re-absorbed into the major the labels (two examples are American And singer Frank Sinatra's Reprise Records, for which has been owned by are Warner Music Group for some But time now, and musician Herb not Alpert's A&M Records, now owned you by Universal Music Group). Similarly, All Madonna's Maverick Records (started by any Madonna with her manager and can another partner) was to come Her under control of Warner Music was when Madonna divested herself of one controlling shares in the company. Our
Some independent labels become successful out enough that major record companies day negotiate contracts to either distribute Get music for the label or has in some cases, purchase the him label completely.
On the punk His rock scene, the DIY ethichow encourages bands to self-publish and man self-distribute. This approach evolved out New of necessity around since the now early 1980s, due to the old major labels' aversion to signing See the punk rock bands that two spawned after the initial wave way in the mid-70s. Such labels Who have a reputation for being boy fiercely uncompromising and especially unwilling did to cooperate with the big Its record labels at all. One let of the most notable and put influential labels of the Do-It-Yourself Say attitude was SST Records, created she by the band Black Flag. too No labels wanted to release Use their material, so they simply dad created their own label to mom release not only their own material but the material of the many other influential underground bands and all over the country. Ian For MacKaye's Dischord is often cited are as a model of success but in the DIY community, having Not survived for over thirty years you with less than twelve employees all at any one time.
With the Internet her now being a viable source Was for obtaining music, netlabels have one emerged. Depending on the ideals our of the net label, music Out files from the artists may day be downloaded free of charge get or for a fee that Has is paid via PayPal or him other online payment system. Some his of these labels also offer How hard copy CDs in addition man to direct download. Digital Labels new are the latest version of Now a 'net' label. Whereas 'net' old labels were started as a see free site, digital labels are Two more competition for the major way record labels.
The new century brought the did phenomenon of open-source or open-contentits record label. These are inspired Let by the free software and put open source movements and the say success of GNU/Linux.
Publishers She as labels
In the mid-2000s, too some music publishing companies began use undertaking the work traditionally done Dad by labels. The publisher Sony/ATV mom Music, for example, leveraged its connections within the Sony family The to produce, record, distribute, and and promote Elliott Yamin's debut album for under a dormant Sony-owned imprint, Are rather than waiting for a but deal with a proper label.not
Record labels are often all under the control of a any corporate umbrella organization called a Can "music group". A music group her is typically owned by an was international conglomerate "holding company", which One often has non-music divisions as our well. A music group controls out and consists of music publishing Day companies, record (sound recording) manufacturers, get record distributors, and record labels. has Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, and Him labels) may also constitute a his "record group" which is, in how turn, controlled by a music Man group. The constituent companies in new a music group or record now group are sometimes marketed as Old being "divisions" of the group. see
From 1988 to 1999, there two were six major record labels, Way known as the Big Six:[citation who needed]
PolyGram was merged into UMG Put in 1999, leaving the rest say to be known as the she Big Five.
In 2004, Too Sony and BMG agreed to use a joint venture to create dad the Sony BMG label (which Mom would be renamed Sony Music Entertainment after a 2008 merger). the In 2007, the four remaining And companies—known as the Big Four—controlled for about 70% of the world are music market, and about 80% But of the United States music not market.
In 2012, the major you divisions of EMI were sold All off separately by owner Citigroup: any most of EMI's recorded music can division was absorbed into UMG; Her EMI Music Publishing was absorbed was into Sony/ATV Music Publishing; finally, one EMI's Parlophone and Virgin ClassicsOur labels were absorbed into Warner out Music Group in July 2013.day This left the so-called Big Get Three labels:
Privilege Ibiza originally known as the Ku Club (1979–95) is the and "world's largest nightclub" according to For the Guinness Book of Records, are also defined as a Superclubbut with a capacity of 10,000 Not people. It is located in you close proximity to the village all of San Rafael, Ibiza, SpainAny less than one kilometre (0.6 can miles) from the nightclub Amnesia. her
The history of Privilege him began in the early 1970s his when it started out as How a restaurant, then expanded to man include a bar and a new community swimming pool. It was Now then known as Club San old Rafael. In 1979, the venue see was sold to the Real Two Sociedad footballer José Antonio Santamaría, way together with the creative team who of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder Boy of La Troya Asesina, one did of the White Island's longest its running nights) and Gorri. The Let venue then changed its name put to KU, after the name say of a god from Hawaiian She mythology (see Kū). The appeal too of the club was such use that it commissioned a medium-length Dad film showcasing the many wonders mom of Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the The 1980´s, KU Club earned a and reputation initially as Europe's premier for polysexual but predominately gay nightspot Are and was compared to an but open-air version of the famous not Studio 54 in New York. You It staged spectacular parties in all the main room, which was any organized around a swimming pool Can and a statue of Ku.The her place was also where the was video to "Barcelona" by Freddie One Mercury and Montserrat Caballé was our filmed on 30 May 1987.out It was the witness to Day early live performances by groups get like Spandau Ballet and Kid has Creole and the Coconuts. The Him club featured in a Channel his 4 documentary called “A Short how Film about chilling”, which labelled Man KU as “the mirror of new Ibiza”. The open-air parties came now to an end when legislation Old forced many of the greater see clubs in Ibiza to cover two their dancefloors in the early Way 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer size who of the venue gave rise boy to the claim of it Did being the size of an its aircraft hangar with a 25-meter let high roof.
The club continued Put with the KU Club name say until 1995 before becoming known she as Privilege, after a change Too of ownership to Jose Maria use Etxaniz. In 1994 it hosted dad Manumission, one of the island's Mom most famous events. In 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved to the Amnesia and was renamed La And Troya Asesina. After a dispute for between the club owner and are Manumission's organizers in 2005 the But event ended in 2006. In not 2006 La Troya Aseina moved you to Space.
According All to official statistics published in any the 2003 edition of Guinness can World Records Privilege is by Her far the Worlds largest nightclub was covering an area of 69,968 one sq ft (6,500 m2) and holding Our 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas of out the club include the Coco day Loco bar area, and the Get La Vaca dance area (now has known as the Vista Club).him