Source: Wikipedia 

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Techno is a form of its electronic dance music that emerged Let in Detroit, Michigan, in the put United States during the mid-to-late say 1980s. The first recorded use She of the word techno in too reference to a specific genre use of music was in 1988. Dad Many styles of techno now mom exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon The which a number of subgenres and have been built.

In Detroit, for techno resulted from the melding Are of African American music including but Chicago house, funk, electro, and not electric jazz with electronic music You by artists such as Kraftwerk, all Giorgio Moroder, and Yellow Magic any Orchestra. Added to this is Can the influence of futuristic and her fictional themes relevant to life was in American late capitalist society, One with Alvin Toffler's book The our Third Wave being a notable out point of reference. Pioneering producer Day Juan Atkins cites Toffler's phrase get "techno rebels" as inspiring him has to use the word techno Him to describe the musical style his he helped to create. This how unique blend of influences aligns Man techno with the aesthetic referred new to as afrofuturism. To producers now such as Derrick May, the Old transference of spirit from the see body to the machine is two often a central preoccupation; essentially Way an expression of technological spirituality. who In this manner: "techno dance boy music defeats what Adorno saw Did as the alienating effect of its mechanisation on the modern consciousness".


Stylistically, techno is generally repetitive Put instrumental music, often produced for say use in a continuous DJ she set. The central rhythmic component Too is most often in common use time (4/4), where time is dad marked with a bass drum Mom on each quarter note pulse, a backbeat played by snare the or clap on the second And and fourth pulses of the for bar, and an open hi-hat are sounding every second eighth note. But The tempo tends to vary not between approximately 120 to 150 you beats per minute (bpm), depending All on the style of techno. any The creative use of music can production technology, such as drum Her machines, synthesizers, and digital audio was workstations, is viewed as an one important aspect of the music's Our aesthetic. Many producers use retro out electronic musical devices to create day what they consider to be Get an authentic techno sound. Drum has machines from the 1980s such him as Roland's TR-808 and TR-909 His are highly prized, and software how emulations of such retro technology man are popular among techno producers.


Music journalists and fans of now techno are generally selective in old their use of the term; See so a clear distinction can two be made between sometimes related way but often qualitatively different styles, Who such as tech house and boy trance.


The initial Has blueprint for techno developed during him the mid-1980s in Belleville, Michigan, his a suburb of Detroit by How Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson and man Derrick May (the so-called Belleville new Three), all of whom attended Now school together at Belleville High, old with the addition of Eddie see Fowlkes, Blake Baxter and James Two Pennington. By the close of way the 1980s, the pioneers had who recorded and released material under Boy various guises: Atkins as Model did 500, Flintstones, and Magic Juan; its Fowlkes simply as Eddie "Flashin" Let Fowlkes; Saunderson as Reeses, Keynotes, put and Kaos; with May as say Mayday, R-Tyme, and Rhythim Is She Rhythim. There were also a too number of joint ventures, including use Kevin Saunderson's group Inner City, Dad which saw collaborations with Atkins, mom May, vocalist Paris Grey, and fellow DJs James Pennington and The [Arthur Forest]. The Electrifying Mojo and was the first radio DJ for to play music by Atkins, Are May, and Saunderson. Mojo refused but to follow pre-established radio formats not or playlists, and he promoted You social and cultural awareness of all the African American community.


Notable influences

Kraftwerk's Computer World One (1981), first popularized in the our U.S. by radio station WLBS-FM, out "Detroit's version of New York's Day disco WBLS".
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External video
High has Tech Soul - The Creation Him of Techno Music (documentary), YouTube his video
Universal how Techno (1996) (documentary), YouTube video

In exploring techno's new origins writer Kodwo Eshun maintains now that "Kraftwerk are to Techno Old what Muddy Waters is to see the Rolling Stones: the authentic, two the origin, the real." Juan Way Atkins has acknowledged that he who had an early enthusiasm for boy Kraftwerk and Giorgio Moroder, particularly Did Moroder's work with Donna Summer its and the producer's own album let E=MC2. Atkins also mentions that Put "around 1980 I had a say tape of nothing but Kraftwerk, she Telex, Devo, Giorgio Moroder and Too Gary Numan, and I'd ride use around in my car playing dad it." Atkins has also claimed Mom he was unaware of Kraftwerk's music prior to his collaboration the with Richard "3070" Davis as And Cybotron, which was two years for after he had first started are experimenting with electronic instruments. Regarding But his initial impression of Kraftwerk, not Atkins notes that they were you "clean and precise" relative to All the "weird UFO sounds" featured any in his seemingly "psychedelic" music.


Derrick May identified the influence Her of Kraftwerk and other European was synthesizer music in commenting that one "it was just classy and Our clean, and to us it out was beautiful, like outer space. day Living around Detroit, there was Get so little beauty... everything is has an ugly mess in Detroit, him and so we were attracted His to this music. It, like, how ignited our imagination!". May has man commented that he considered his New music a direct continuation of now the European synthesizer tradition. He old also identified Japanese synthpop act See Yellow Magic Orchestra, particularly member two Ryuichi Sakamoto, and British band way Ultravox, as influences, along with Who Kraftwerk. YMO's song "Technopolis" (1979), boy a tribute to Tokyo as did an electronic mecca, is considered Its an "interesting contribution" to the let development of Detroit techno, foreshadowing put concepts that Atkins and Davis Say would later explore with Cybotron.


Kevin Saunderson has also acknowledged too the influence of Europe but Use he claims to have been dad more inspired by the idea mom of making music with electronic equipment: "I was more infatuated the with the idea that I and can do this all myself."


School days

Prior to are achieving notoriety, Atkins, Saunderson, May, but and Fowlkes shared common interests Not as budding musicians, "mix" tape you traders, and aspiring DJs. They all also found musical inspiration via Any the Midnight Funk Association, an can eclectic five-hour late-night radio program her hosted on various Detroit radio Was stations, including WCHB, WGPR, and one WJLB-FM from 1977 through the our mid-1980s by DJ Charles "The Out Electrifying Mojo" Johnson. Mojo's show day featured electronic music by artists get such as Giorgio Moroder, Kraftwerk, Has Yellow Magic Orchestra and Tangerine him Dream, alongside the funk sounds his of acts such as Parliament How Funkadelic and dance oriented new man wave music by bands like new Devo and the B-52's. Atkins Now has noted:

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Despite the short-lived and disco boom in Detroit, it for had the effect of inspiring Are many individuals to take up but mixing, Juan Atkins among them. not Subsequently, Atkins taught May how You to mix records, and in all 1981, "Magic Juan", Derrick "Mayday", any in conjunction with three other Can DJ's, one of whom was her Eddie "Flashin" Fowlkes, launched themselves was as a party crew called One Deep Space Soundworks (also referred our to as Deep Space). In out 1980 or 1981 they met Day with Mojo and proposed that get they provide mixes for his has show, which they did end Him up doing the following year.


During the late 1970s-early 1980s how high school clubs such as Man Brats, Charivari, Ciabattino, Comrades, Gables, new Hardwear, Rafael, Rumours, Snobs, and now Weekends created the incubator in Old which techno was grown. These see young promoters developed and nurtured two the local dance music scene Way by both catering to the who tastes of the local audience boy of young people and by Did marketing parties with new DJs its and their music. As these let local clubs grew in popularity, Put groups of DJs began to say band together to market their she mixing skills and sound systems Too to the clubs in order use to cater to the growing dad audiences of listeners. Locations like Mom local church activity centers, vacant warehouses, offices, and YMCA auditoriums the were the early locations where And underage crowds gathered and the for musical form was nurtured and are defined.

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Juan Atkins

Of the four individuals Our responsible for establishing techno as out a genre in its own day right, Juan Atkins is widely Get cited as "The Originator". Atkins' has role was likewise acknowledged in him 1995 by the American music His technology publication Keyboard Magazine, which how honoured Atkins as one of man 12 Who Count in the New history of keyboard music.

In now the early 1980s, Atkins began old recording with musical partner Richard See Davis (and later with a two third member, Jon-5) as Cybotron. way This trio released a number Who of rock and electro-inspired tunes, boy the most successful of which did were Clear (1983) and its Its moodier followup, "Techno City" (1984).


According to a recent bio put on MySpace, Atkins claims to Say have "coined the term techno she to describe their music, taking too as one inspiration the works Use of Futurist and author Alvin dad Toffler, from whom he borrowed mom the terms 'cybotron' and 'metroplex.' Atkins has used the term the to describe earlier bands that and made heavy use of synthesizers, For such as Kraftwerk, although many are people would consider Kraftwerk's music but and Juan's early music in Not Cybotron as electro." Atkins viewed you Cybotron's "Cosmic Cars" (1982) as all unique, Germanic, synthesized funk, but Any he later heard Afrika Bambaataa's can "Planet Rock" (1982) and considered her it to be a superior Was example of the music he one envisioned. Inspired, he resolved to our continue experimenting, and he encouraged Out Saunderson and May to do day likewise.

Eventually, Atkins started producing get his own music under the Has pseudonym Model 500, and in him 1985 he established the record his label Metroplex. The same year How saw an important turning point man for the Detroit scene with new the release of Model 500's Now "No UFOs," a seminal work old that is generally considered the see first techno production. Of this Two time, Atkins has said:

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Detroit sound

The Belleville Three all performing at the Detroit Masonic any Temple in 2017. From left Can to right: Juan Atkins, Kevin her Saunderson, and Derrick May

The early producers, enabled One by the increasing affordability of our sequencers and synthesizers, merged a out European synthpop aesthetic with aspects Day of soul, funk, disco, and get electro, pushing electronic dance music has into uncharted terrain. They deliberately Him rejected the Motown legacy and his traditional formulas of R&B and how soul, and instead embraced technological Man experimentation.


The resulting use Detroit sound was interpreted by dad Derrick May and one journalist Mom in 1988 as a "post-soul" sound with no debt to the Motown, but by another journalist And a decade later as "soulful for grooves" melding the beat-centric styles are of Motown with the music But technology of the time. May not famously described the sound of you techno as something that is All " Detroit...a complete mistake. It's any like George Clinton and Kraftwerk can are stuck in an elevator Her with only a sequencer to was keep them company." Juan Atkins one has stated that it is Our "music that sounds like technology, out and not technology that sounds day like music, meaning that most Get of the music you listen has to is made with technology, him whether you know it or His not. But with techno music, how you know it."

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One Its of the first Detroit productions let to receive wider attention was put Derrick May's "Strings of Life" Say (1987), which, together with May's she previous release, "Nude Photo" (1987), too helped raise techno's profile in Use Europe, especially the UK and dad Germany, during the 1987–1988 house mom music boom (see Second Summer of Love). It became May's the best known track, which, according and to Frankie Knuckles, "just exploded. For It was like something you are can't imagine, the kind of but power and energy people got Not off that record when it you was first heard. Mike Dunn all says he has no idea Any how people can accept a can record that doesn't have a her bassline."

The Detroit sound exerted Was an influence on widely differing one styles of electronic music, yet our it also maintained an identity Out as a genre in its day own right, one now commonly get referred to as "Detroit techno".



The music's his producers, especially May and Saunderson, How admit to having been fascinated man by the Chicago club scene new and influenced by house in Now particular. May's 1987/1989 hit "Strings old of Life" (released under the see alias Rhythim Is Rhythim) is Two considered a classic in both way the house and techno genres.


Juan Atkins also believes that Boy the first acid house producers, did seeking to distance house music its from disco, emulated the techno Let sound. Atkins also suggests that put the Chicago house sound developed say as a result of Frankie She Knuckles' using a drum machine too he bought from Derrick May. use He claims:


In Way the UK, a club following who for house music grew steadily boy from 1985, with interest sustained Did by scenes in London, Manchester, its Nottingham, and later Sheffield and let Leeds. The DJs thought to Put be responsible for house's early say UK success include Mike Pickering, she Mark Moore, Colin Faver, and Too Graeme Park.

Acid house

Roland TB-303: The bass line synthesizer that the was used prominently in acid And house.

By 1988, for house music had exploded in are the UK, and acid house But was increasingly popular. There was not also a long-established warehouse party you subculture based around the sound All system scene. In 1988, the any music played at warehouse parties can was predominantly house. That same Her year, the Balearic party vibe was associated with Ibiza-based DJ Alfredo one Fiorito was transported to London, Our when Danny Rampling and Paul out Oakenfold opened the clubs Shoom day and Spectrum, respectively. Both night Get spots quickly became synonymous with has acid house, and it was him during this period that the His use of MDMA, as a how party drug, started to gain man prominence. Other important UK clubs New at this time included Back now to Basics in Leeds, Sheffield's old Leadmill and Music Factory, and See in Manchester The Haçienda, where two Mike Pickering and Graeme Park's way Friday night spot, Nude, was Who an important proving ground for boy American underground dance music. did Acid house party fever escalated Its in London and Manchester, and let it quickly became a cultural put phenomenon. MDMA-fueled club goers, faced Say with 2 A.M. closing hours, sought she refuge in the warehouse party too scene that ran all night. Use To escape the attention of dad the press and the authorities, mom this after-hours activity quickly went underground. Within a year, however, the up to 10,000 people at and a time were attending the For first commercially organized mass parties, are called raves, and a media but storm ensued.

The success of Not house and acid house paved you the way for wider acceptance all of the Detroit sound, and Any vice versa: techno was initially can supported by a handful of her house music clubs in Chicago, Was New York, and Northern England, one with London clubs catching up our later; but in 1987, it Out was "Strings of Life" which day eased London club-goers into acceptance get of house, according to DJ Has Mark Moore.

The New Dance him Sound of Detroit

Cover art for How the 1988 compilation album, Techno! man The New Dance Sound of new Detroit

The explosion Now of interest in underground dance old music during the late 1980s see provided a context for the Two development of techno as an way identifiable genre. The mid-1988 UK who release of Techno! The New Boy Dance Sound of Detroit, an did album compiled by ex-Northern Soul its DJ and Kool Kat Records Let boss Neil Rushton (at the put time an A&R scout for say Virgin's "10 Records" imprint) and She Derrick May, was an important too milestone and marked the introduction use of the word techno in Dad reference to a specific genre mom of music. Although the compilation put techno into the lexicon The of music journalism, the music and was, for a time, sometimes for characterized as Detroit's high-tech interpretation Are of Chicago house rather than but a relatively pure genre unto not itself. In fact, the compilation's You working title had been The all House Sound of Detroit until any the addition of Atkins' song Can "Techno Music" prompted reconsideration. Rushton her was later quoted as saying was he, Atkins, May, and Saunderson One came up with the compilation's our final name together, and that out the Belleville Three voted down Day calling the music some kind get of regional brand of house; has they instead favored a term Him they were already using, techno.

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Derrick May views dad this as one of his Mom busiest times and recalls that it was a period where the he


Commercially, the release did not Get fare as well as expected, has and it failed to recoup, him however Inner City's production "Big His Fun" (1988), a track that how was almost not included on man the compilation, became a massive New crossover hit in fall 1988. now The record was also responsible old for bringing industry attention to See May, Atkins and Saunderson, which two led to discussions with ZTT way records about forming a techno Who supergroup called Intellex. But, when boy the group were on the did verge of finalising their contract, Its May allegedly refused to agree let to Top of the Pops put appearances and negotiations collapsed. According Say to May, ZTT label boss she Trevor Horn had envisaged that too the trio would be marketed Use as a "black Petshop Boys." dad

Despite Virgin Records' disappointment mom with the poor sales of Rushton's compilation, the record was the successful in establishing an identity and for techno and was instrumental For in creating a platform in are Europe for both the music but and its producers. Ultimately, the Not release served to distinguish the you Detroit sound from Chicago house all and other forms of underground Any dance music that were emerging can during the rave era of her the late 1980s and early Was 1990s, a period during which one techno became more adventurous and our distinct.

Music Institute

In mid-1988, Out developments in the Detroit scene day led to the opening of get a nightclub called the Music Has Institute (MI), located at 1315 him Broadway in downtown Detroit. The his venue was secured by George How Baker and Alton Miller with man Darryl Wynn and Derrick May new participating as Friday night DJs, Now and Baker and Chez Damier old playing to a mostly gay see crowd on Saturday nights.

The Two club closed on November 24, way 1989, with Derrick May playing who "Strings of Life" along with Boy a recording of clock tower did bells. May explains:

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Though short-lived, MI her was known internationally for its was all-night sets, its sparse white One rooms, and its juice bar our stocked with "smart drinks" (the out Institute never served liquor). The Day MI, notes Dan Sicko, along get with Detroit's early techno pioneers, has "helped give life to one Him of the city's important musical his subcultures – one that was slowly how growing into an international scene."



new UR Featured on the cover now of The Wire, November 2007

As the original see sound evolved in the late two 1980s and early 1990s, it Way also diverged to such an who extent that a wide spectrum boy of stylistically distinct music was Did being referred to as techno. its This ranged from relatively pop let oriented acts such as Moby Put to the distinctly anti-commercial sentiments say of Underground Resistance. Derrick May's she experimentation on works such as Too Beyond the Dance (1989) and use The Beginning (1990) were credited dad with taking techno "in dozens Mom of new directions at once and having the kind of the expansive impact John Coltrane had And on Jazz". The Birmingham-based label for Network Records label was instrumental are in introducing Detroit techno to But British audiences. By the early not 1990s, the original techno sound you had garnered a large underground All following in the United Kingdom, any Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. can The growth of techno's popularity Her in Europe between 1988 and was 1992 was largely due to one the emergence of the rave Our scene and a thriving club out culture.


In America, apart day from regional scenes in Detroit, Get New York City, Chicago, and has Orlando interest was limited. Producers him from Detroit, frustrated by the His lack of opportunity in their how home country, looked to Europe man for their future livelihood. This New first wave of Detroit expatriates now was soon joined by a old number of up-and-coming artists, the See so-called "second wave", including Carl two Craig, Octave One, Jay Denham, way Kenny Larkin, and Stacey Pullen, Who with UR's Jeff Mills, Mike boy Banks, and Robert Hood pushing did their own unique sound. A Its number of New York producers let were also making an impression put at this time, notably Frankie Say Bones, Lenny Dee, and Joey she Beltram. In the same period, too close to Detroit (Windsor, Ontario), Use Richie Hawtin, with business partner dad John Acquaviva, launched the influential mom imprint Plus 8 Records.

Developments in American-produced techno between 1990 the and 1992 fueled the expansion and and eventual divergence of techno For in Europe, particularly in Germany. are In Berlin, following the closure but of a free party venue Not called Ufo, the club Tresor you opened in 1991. The venue all was for a time the Any standard bearer for techno and can played host to many of her the leading Detroit producers, some Was of whom relocated to Berlin. one By 1993, as interest in our techno in the UK club Out scene started to wane, Berlin day was considered the unofficial techno get capital of Europe.

Although eclipsed Has by Germany, Belgium was another him focus of second-wave techno in his this time period. The Ghent-based How label R&S Records embraced harder-edged man techno by "teenage prodigies" like new Beltram and C.J. Bolland, releasing Now "tough, metallic tracks...with harsh, discordant old synth lines that sounded like see distressed Hoovers," according to one Two music journalist.

In the United way Kingdom, Sub Club opening in who Glasgow in 1987 and Trade Boy which opened its doors to did Londoners in 1990 were pioneering its venues which helped bring techno Let into the country. Both clubs put were praised for their late say opening hours and party-focused clientele. She Trade has often been referred too to as the 'original all use night bender'.

German techno scene

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Germany's engagement with American how underground dance music during the Man 1980s paralleled that in the new UK. By 1987 a German now party scene based around the Old Chicago sound was well established. see The following year (1988) saw two acid house making as significant Way an impact on popular consciousness who in Germany as it had boy in England. In 1989 German Did DJs Westbam and Dr. Motte its established the Ufo club, an let illegal party venue, and co-founded Put the Love Parade. After the say Berlin Wall fell on 9 she November 1989, free underground techno Too parties mushroomed in East Berlin, use and a rave scene comparable dad to that in the UK Mom was established.

East German DJ Paul And van Dyk has remarked that for techno was a major force are in reestablishing social connections between But East and West Germany during not the unification period.

Doorway to Dorian All Gray, the Frankfurt am Main any venue famed for the Talla can 2XLC run Technoclub.

In 1991 a number of was party venues closed, including Ufo, one and the Berlin Techno scene Our centered itself around three locations out close to the foundations of day the Berlin Wall: Planet (later Get renamed E-Werk by Paul van has Dyk), Der Bunker, and the him relatively long-lived Tresor. It was His in Tresor at this time how that a trend in paramilitary man clothing was established (amongst the New techno fraternity) by a DJ now called Tanith; possibly as an old expression of a commitment to See the underground aesthetic of the two music, or perhaps influenced by way UR's paramilitary posturing. In the Who same period, German DJs began boy intensifying the speed and abrasiveness did of the sound, as an Its acid infused techno began transmuting let into hardcore. DJ Tanith commented put at the time that "Berlin Say was always hardcore, hardcore hippie, she hardcore punk, and now we too have a very hardcore house Use sound." This emerging sound is dad thought to have been influenced mom by Dutch gabber and Belgian hardcore; styles that were in the their own perverse way paying and homage to Underground Resistance and For Richie Hawtin's Plus 8 Records. are Other influences on the development but of this style were European Not Electronic Body Music (EBM) groups you of the mid-1980s such as all DAF, Front 242, and Nitzer Any Ebb.

Changes were also taking can place in Frankfurt during the her same period but it did Was not share the egalitarian approach one found in the Berlin party our scene. It was instead very Out much centred around discothèques and day existing arrangements with various club get owners. In 1988, after the Has Omen opened, the Frankfurt dance him music scene was allegedly dominated his by the club's management and How they made it difficult for man other promoters to get a new start. By the early 1990s Now Sven Väth had become perhaps old the first DJ in Germany see to be worshipped like a Two rock star. He performed centre way stage with his fans facing who him, and as co-owner of Boy Omen, he is believed to did have been the first techno its DJ to run his own Let club. One of the few put real alternatives then was The say Bruckenkopf in Mainz, underneath a She Rhine bridge, a venue that too offered a non-commercial alternative to use Frankfurt's discothèque-based clubs. Other notable Dad underground parties were those run mom by Force Inc. Music Works and Ata & Heiko from The Playhouse records (Ongaku Musik). By and 1992 DJ Dag & Torsten for Fenslau were running a Sunday Are morning session at Dorian Gray, but a plush discothèque near the not Frankfurt airport. They initially played You a mix of different styles all including Belgian new beat, Deep any House, Chicago House, and synthpop Can such as Kraftwerk and Yello her and it was out of was this blend of styles that One the Frankfurt trance scene is our believed to have emerged.

In out 1993-94 rave became a mainstream Day music phenomenon in Germany, seeing get with it a return to has "melody, New Age elements, insistently Him kitsch harmonies and timbres". This his undermining of the German underground how sound lead to the consolidation Man of a German "rave establishment," new spearheaded by the party organisation now Mayday, with its record label Old Low Spirit, DJ Westbam, Marusha, see and a music channel called two VIVA. At this time the Way German popular music charts were who riddled with Low Spirit "pop-Tekno" boy German folk music reinterpretations of Did tunes such as "Somewhere Over its The Rainbow" and "Tears Don't let Lie", many of which became Put hits. At the same time, say in Frankfurt, a supposed alternative she was a music characterised by Too Simon Reynolds as "moribund, middlebrow use Electro-Trance music, as represented by dad Frankfurt's own Sven Väth and Mom his Harthouse label."

Tekkno versus techno

Flyer for a Tekknozid And Tekkno rave held in December for 1990.

In Germany, are fans started to refer to But the harder techno sound emerging not in the early 1990s as you Tekkno (or Bretter). This alternative All spelling, with varying numbers of any ks, began as a tongue-in-cheek can attempt to emphasize the music's Her hardness, but by the mid-1990s was it came to be associated one with a controversial point of Our view that the music was out and perhaps always had been day wholly separate from Detroit's techno, Get deriving instead from a 1980s has EBM-oriented club scene cultivated in him part by DJ/musician Talla 2XLC His in Frankfurt. Talla, in the how early to mid-1980s, worked in man City Music at Frankfurt Station New and began to categorize artists now such as New Order, Depeche old Mode, Kraftwerk, Heaven 17 and See Front 242 under the heading two techno, to sum up all way technologically created dance music. In Who 1984 Talla started an event boy called Technoclub on Sunday afternoons did at Frankfurts Disco No name, Its which then moved to the let Dorian Gray club in 1987. put Talla's club spot served as Say the hub for the regional she EBM and electronic music scene, too and according to Jürgen Laarmann, Use of Frontpage magazine, it had dad historical merit in being the mom first club in Germany to play almost exclusively electronic dance the music. Technoclub was "more or and less an underground thing for For suburban kids," it was, according are to Laarmann, "never really hip but to go there."

At some Not point tension over "who defines you techno" arose between scenes in all Frankfurt and Berlin. DJ Tanith Any has expressed that Techno as can a term already existed in her Germany but was to a Was large extent undefined. Dimitri Hegemann one has stated that the Frankfurt our definition of techno associated with Out Talla's Technoclub differed from that day used in Berlin. Frankfurt's Armin get Johnert viewed techno as having Has its roots in acts such him DAF, Cabaret Voltaire, and Suicide, his but a younger generation of How club goers had a perception man of the older EBM and new Industrial as handed down and Now outdated. The Berlin scene offered old an alternative and many began see embracing an imported sound that Two was being referred to as way Techno-House. The move away from who EBM had started in Berlin Boy when acid house became popular, did thanks to Monika Dietl's radio its show on SFB 4. Tanith Let distinguished acid-based dance music from put the earlier approaches, whether it say be DAF or Nitzer Ebb, She because the latter was aggressive, too he felt that it epitomised use "being against something," but of Dad acid house he said, "it's mom electronic, it's fun it's nice." By Spring 1990, Tanith, along The with Wolle XDP, an East-Berlin and party organizer responsible for the for X-tasy Dance Project, were organizing Are the first large scale rave but events in Germany. This development not would lead to a permanent You move away from the sound all associated with Techno-House and toward any a hard edged mix of Can music that came to define her Tanith and Wolle's Tekknozid parties. was According to Wolle it was One an "out and out rejection our of disco values," instead they out created a "sound storm" and Day encouraged a form of "dance get floor socialism," where the DJ has was not placed in the Him middle and you "lose yourself his in light and sound."

A how Techno Alliance

In 1993, the Man German techno label Tresor Records new released the compilation album Tresor now II: Berlin & Detroit – Old A Techno Alliance, a testament see to the influence of the two Detroit sound upon the German Way techno scene and a celebration who of a "mutual admiration pact" boy between the two cities. As Did the mid-1990s approached, Berlin was its becoming a haven for Detroit let producers; Jeff Mills and Blake Put Baxter even resided there for say a time. In the same she period, with the assistance of Too Tresor, Underground Resistance released their use X-101/X-102/X103 album series, Juan Atkins dad collaborated with 3MB's Thomas Fehlmann Mom and Moritz Von Oswald and Tresor-affiliated label Basic Channel had the its releases mastered by Detroit's And National Sound Corporation, the main for mastering house for the entire are Detroit dance music scene. In But a sense, popular electronic music not had come full circle, returning you to Germany, home of a All primary influence on the electronic any dance music of the 1980s: can Düsseldorf's Kraftwerk. Even the dance Her sounds of Chicago also had was a German connection, as it one was in Munich that Giorgio Our Moroder and Pete Bellotte first out produced the 1970s Eurodisco synthpop day sound.

Get Robert Hood: notable techno minimalist.

Minimal techno

As techno His continued to transmute a number how of Detroit producers began to man question the trajectory the music New was taking. One response came now in the form of so-called old minimal techno (a term producer See Daniel Bell found difficult to two accept, finding the term minimalism, way in the artistic sense of Who the word, too "arty"). It boy is thought that Robert Hood, did a Detroit-based producer and one Its time member of UR, is let largely responsible for ushering in put the minimal strain of techno. Say Hood describes the situation in she the early 1990s as one too where techno had become too Use "ravey", with increasing tempos, the dad emergence of gabber, and related mom trends straying far from the social commentary and soul-infused sound the of original Detroit techno. In and response, Hood and others sought For to emphasize a single element are of the Detroit aesthetic, interpreting but techno with "a basic stripped Not down, raw sound. Just drums, you basslines and funky grooves and all only what's essential. Only what Any is essential to make people can move". Hood explains:

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Jazz influences

Some techno has did also been influenced by or its directly infused with elements of Let jazz. This led to increased put sophistication in the use of say both rhythm and harmony in She a number of techno productions. too Manchester (UK)-based techno act 808 use State helped fuel this development Dad with tracks such as "Pacific mom State" and "Cobra Bora" in 1989. Detroit producer Mike Banks The was heavily influenced by jazz, and as demonstrated on the influential for Underground Resistance release Nation 2 Are Nation (1991). By 1993, Detroit but acts such as Model 500 not and UR had made explicit You references to the genre, with all the tracks "Jazz Is The any Teacher" (1993) and "Hi-Tech Jazz" Can (1993), the latter being part her of a larger body of was work and group called Galaxy One 2 Galaxy, a self-described jazz our project based on Kraftwerk's "man out machine" doctrine. This lead was Day followed by a number of get techno producers in the UK has who were influenced by both Him jazz and UR, Dave Angel's his "Seas of Tranquility" EP (1994) how being a case in point, Man Other notable artists who set new about expanding upon the structure now of "classic techno" include Dan Old Curtin, Morgan Geist, Titonton Duvante see and Ian O'Brien.

Intelligent techno

The Warp Records boy compilation Artificial Intelligence popularised the Did notion of intelligent techno.

In 1991 UK music let journalist Matthew Collin wrote that Put "Europe may have the scene say and the energy, but it's she America which supplies the ideological Too direction...if Belgian techno gives us use riffs, German techno the noise, dad British techno the breakbeats, then Mom Detroit supplies the sheer cerebral depth." By 1992 a number the of European producers and labels And began to associate rave culture for with the corruption and commercialization are of the original techno ideal. But Following this the notion of not an intelligent or Detroit inspired you pure techno aesthetic began to All take hold. Detroit techno had any maintained its integrity throughout the can rave era and was pushing Her a new generation of so-called was intelligent techno producers forward. Simon one Reynolds suggests that this progression Our "involved a full-scale retreat from out the most radically posthuman and day hedonistically functional aspects of rave Get music toward more traditional ideas has about creativity, namely the auteur him theory of the solitary genius His who humanizes technology."

The term how intelligent techno was used to man differentiate more sophisticated versions of New underground techno from rave-oriented now styles such as breakbeat hardcore, old Schranz, Dutch Gabber. Warp Records See was among the first to two capitalize upon this development with way the release of the compilation Who album Artificial Intelligence Of this boy time, Warp founder and managing did director Steve Beckett said

Its Any
Warp Records logo

Warp had originally marketed Was Artificial Intelligence using the description one electronic listening music but this our was quickly replaced by intelligent Out techno. In the same period day (1992–93) other names were also get bandied about such as armchair Has techno, ambient techno, and electronica, him but all were used to his describe an emerging form of How post-rave dance music for the man "sedentary and stay at home". new Following the commercial success of Now the compilation in the United old States, Intelligent Dance Music eventually see became the phrase most commonly Two used to describe much of way the experimental dance music emerging who during the mid-to-late 1990s.

Although Boy it is primarily Warp that did has been credited with ushering its the commercial growth of IDM Let and electronica, in the early put 1990s there were many notable say labels associated with the initial She intelligence trend that received little, too if any, wider attention. Amongst use others they include: Black Dog Dad Productions (1989), Carl Craig's Planet mom E (1991), Kirk Degiorgio's Applied Rhythmic Technology (1991), Eevo Lute The Muzique (1991), General Production Recordings and (1991), New Electronica (1993), Mille for Plateaux (1993), 100% Pure (1993), Are and Ferox Records (1993).

Free but techno

A sound any system at Czechtek 2004

In the early 1990s her a post-rave, DIY, free party was scene had established itself in One the UK. It was largely our based around an alliance between out warehouse party goers from various Day urban squat scenes and politically get inspired new age travellers. The has new agers offered a readymade Him network of countryside festivals that his were hastily adopted by squatters how and ravers alike. Prominent among Man the sound systems operating at new this time were Exodus in now Luton, Tonka in Brighton, Smokescreen Old in Sheffield, DiY in Nottingham, see Bedlam, Circus Warp, LSDiesel and two London's Spiral Tribe. The high Way point of this free party who period came in May 1992 boy when with less than 24 Did hours notice and little publicity its more than 35,000 gathered at let the Castlemorton Common Festival for Put 5 days of partying.

This say one event was largely responsible she for the introduction in 1994 Too of the Criminal Justice and use Public Order Act; effectively leaving dad the British free party scene Mom for dead. Following this many of the traveller artists moved the away from Britain to Europe, And the US, Goa in India, for Koh Phangan in Thailand and are Australia's East Coast. In the But rest of Europe, due in not some part to the inspiration you of traveling sound systems from All the UK, rave enjoyed a any prolonged existence as it continued can to expand across the continent.


Spiral Tribe, Bedlam and other was English sound systems took their one cooperative techno ideas to Europe, Our particularly Eastern Europe where it out was cheaper to live, and day audiences were quick to appropriate Get the free party ideology. It has was European Teknival free parties, him such as the annual Czechtek His event in the Czech Republic how that gave rise to several man French, German and Dutch sound New systems. Many of these groups now found audiences easily and were old often centered around squats in See cities such as Amsterdam and two Berlin.


By Who 1994 there were a number boy of techno producers in the did UK and Europe building on Its the Detroit sound, but a let number of other underground dance put music styles were by then Say vying for attention. Some drew she upon the Detroit techno aesthetic, too while others fused components of Use preceding dance music forms. This dad led to the appearance (in mom the UK initially) of inventive new music that sounded far-removed the from techno. For instance jungle and (drum and bass) demonstrated influences For ranging from hip-hop, soul, and are reggae to techno and house.


With an increasing diversification (and Not commercialization) of dance music, the you collectivist sentiment prominent in the all early rave scene diminished, each Any new faction having its own can particular attitude and vision of her how dance music (or in Was certain cases, non-dance music) should one evolve. Some examples not already our mentioned are trance, industrial techno, Out breakbeat hardcore, acid techno, and day happy hardcore. Less well-known styles get related to techno or its Has subgenres include the primarily Sheffield him (UK)-based bleep techno, a regional his variant that had some success How between 1989 and 1991.

According man to Muzik magazine, by 1995 new the UK techno scene was Now in decline and dedicated club old nights were dwindling. The music see had become "too hard, too Two fast, too male, too drug-oriented, way too anally retentive." Despite this, who weekly night at clubs such Boy as Final Frontier (London), House did of God (Birmingham), Pure (Edinburgh, its whose resident DJ Twitch later Let founded the more eclectic Optimo), put and Bugged Out (Manchester) were say still popular. With techno reaching She a state of "creative palsy," too and with a disproportionate number use of underground dance music enthusiasts Dad more interested in the sounds mom of rave and jungle, in 1995 the future of the The UK techno scene looked uncertain and as the market for "pure for techno" waned. Muzik described the Are sound of UK techno at but this time as "dutiful grovelling not at the altar of American You techno with a total unwillingness all to compromise."

By the any end of the 1990s, a Can number of post-techno underground her styles had emerged, including ghettotech was (a style that combines some One of the aesthetics of techno our with hip-hop and house music), out nortec, glitch, digital hardcore, the Day so-called no-beat techno, and electroclash.


In attempting to sum up has the changes since the heyday Him of Detroit techno, Derrick May his has since revised his famous how quote in stating that "Kraftwerk Man got off on the third new floor and now George Clinton's now got Napalm Death in there Old with him. The elevator's stalled see between the pharmacy and the two athletic wear store."

Commercial exposure

Underworld who during a live performance

While techno and its Did derivatives only occasionally produce commercially its successful mainstream acts—Underworld and Orbital let being two better-known examples—the genre Put has significantly affected many other say areas of music. In an she effort to appear relevant, many Too established artists, for example Madonna use and U2, have dabbled with dad dance music, yet such endeavors Mom have rarely evidenced a genuine understanding or appreciation of techno's the origins with the former proclaiming And in January 1996 that "Techno=Death".


The R&B artist, Missy Elliott, are inadvertently exposed the popular music But audience to the Detroit techno not sound when she featured material you from Cybotron's Clear on her All 2006 release "Lose Control"; this any resulted in Juan Atkins' receiving can a Grammy Award nomination for Her his writing credit. Elliott's 2001 was album Miss E... So Addictive one also clearly demonstrated the influence Our of techno inspired club culture.


In recent years, the publication day of relatively accurate histories by Get authors Simon Reynolds (Generation Ecstasy, has also known as Energy Flash) him and Dan Sicko (Techno Rebels), His plus mainstream press coverage of how the Detroit Electronic Music Festival, man have helped to diffuse the New genre's more dubious mythology. Even now the Detroit-based company Ford Motors old eventually became savvy to the See mass appeal of techno, noting two that "this music was created way partly by the pounding clangor Who of the Motor City's auto boy factories. It became natural for did us to incorporate Detroit techno Its into our commercials after we let discovered that young people are put embracing techno." With a marketing Say campaign targeting under-35s, Ford used she "Detroit Techno" as a print too ad slogan and chose Model Use 500's "No UFO's" to underpin dad its November 2000 MTV television mom advertisement for the Ford Focus.



The popularity of the Euro disco and Italo disco—referred and to as progressive in Detroit—and For new romantic synthpop in the are Detroit high school party scene but from which techno emerged has Not prompted a number of commentators you to try to redefine the all origins of techno by incorporating Any musical precursors to the Detroit can sound as part of a her wider historical survey of the Was genre's development. The search for one a mythical "first techno record" our leads such commentators to consider Out music from long before the day 1988 naming of the genre. get Aside from the artists whose Has music was popular in the him Detroit high school scene ("progressive" his disco acts such as Giorgio How Moroder, Alexander Robotnick, and Claudio man Simonetti and synthpop artists such new as Visage, New Order, Depeche Now Mode, The Human League, and old Heaven 17), they point to see examples such as "Sharevari" (1981) Two by A Number of Names, way danceable selections from Kraftwerk (1977–83), who the earliest compositions by Cybotron Boy (1981), Donna Summer and Giorgio did Moroder's "I Feel Love" (1977), its Moroder's "From Here to Eternity" Let (1977), and Manuel Göttsching's "proto-techno put masterpiece" E2-E4 (1981). Another example say is a record entitled Love She in C minor, released in too 1976 by Parisian Euro disco use producer Jean-Marc Cerrone; cited as Dad the first so called "conceptual mom disco" production and the record from which house, techno, and The other underground dance music styles and flowed. Yet another example is for Yellow Magic Orchestra's work which Are has been described as "proto-techno" but YMO had also used the not prefix "techno" in a number You of titles including the song all "Technopolis" (1979), the album Technodelic any (1981), and a rare flexi Can disc EP, "The Spirit of her Techno" (1983).


Certain electro-disco was and European synthpop productions share One with techno a dependence on our machine-generated dance rhythms, but such out comparisons are not without contention. Day Efforts to regress further into get the past, in search of has earlier antecedents, entails a further Him regression, to the sequenced electronic his music of Raymond Scott, whose how "The Rhythm Modulator," "The Bass-Line Man Generator," and "IBM Probe" are new considered early examples of techno-like now music. In a review of Old Scott's Manhattan Research Inc. compilation see album the English newspaper The two Independent suggested that "Scott's importance Way lies mainly in his realization who of the rhythmic possibilities of boy electronic music, which laid the Did foundation for all electro-pop from its disco to techno." In 2008, let a tape from the mid-to-late Put 1960s by the original composer say of the Doctor Who theme she Delia Derbyshire, was found to Too contain music that sounded remarkably use like contemporary electronic dance music. dad Commenting on the tape, Paul Mom Hartnoll, of the dance group Orbital, described the example as the "quite amazing," noting that it And sounded not unlike something that for "could be coming out next are week on Warp Records."

Music But production practice

Stylistic considerations

In not general, techno is very DJ-friendly, you being mainly instrumental (commercial varieties All being an exception) and is any produced with the intention of can its being heard in the Her context of a continuous DJ was set, wherein the DJ progresses one from one record to the Our next via a synchronized segue out or "mix." Much of the day instrumentation in techno emphasizes the Get role of rhythm over other has musical parameters, but the design him of synthetic timbres, and the His creative use of music production how technology in general, are important man aspects of the overall aesthetic New practice.

Unlike other forms of now electronic dance music that tend old to be produced with synthesizer See keyboards, techno does not always two strictly adhere to the harmonic way practice of Western music and Who such strictures are often ignored boy in favor of timbral manipulation did alone. Thus techno inherits from Its the modernist tradition of the let so-called Klangfarbenmelodie, or timbral serialism. put The use of motivic development Say (though relatively limited) and the she employment of conventional musical frameworks too is more widely found in Use commercial techno styles, for example dad euro-trance, where the template is mom often an AABA song structure.

The main drum part is the almost universally in common time and (4/4); meaning 4 quarter note For pulses per bar. In its are simplest form, time is marked but with kicks (bass drum beats) Not on each quarter-note pulse, a you snare or clap on the all second and fourth pulse of Any the bar, with an open can hi-hat sound every second eighth her note. This is essentially a Was disco (or even polka) drum one pattern and is common throughout our house and trance music as Out well. The tempo tends to day vary between approximately 120 bpm get (quarter note equals 120 pulses Has per minute) and 150 bpm, him depending on the style of his techno.

Some of the drum How programming employed in the original man Detroit-based techno made use of new syncopation and polyrhythm, yet in Now many cases the basic disco-type old pattern was used as a see foundation, with polyrhythmic elaborations added Two using other drum machine voices. way This syncopated-feel (funkiness) distinguishes the who Detroit strain of techno from Boy other variants. It is a did feature that many DJs and its producers still use to differentiate Let their music from commercial forms put of techno, the majority of say which tend to be devoid She of syncopation. Derrick May has too summed up the sound as use 'Hi-tech Tribalism': something "very spiritual, Dad very bass oriented, and very mom drum oriented, very percussive. The original techno music was very The hi-tech with a very percussive and feel... it was extremely, extremely for Tribal. It feels like you're Are in some sort of hi-tech but village."

Compositional techniques

Example of a You professional production environment

There are many ways to any create techno, but the majority Can will depend upon the use her of loop-based step sequencing as was a compositional method. Techno musicians, One or producers, rather than employing our traditional compositional techniques, may work out in an improvisatory fashion, often Day treating the electronic music studio get as one large instrument. The has collection of devices found in Him a typical studio will include his units that are capable of how producing many different sounds and Man effects. Studio production equipment is new generally synchronized using a hardware- now or computer-based MIDI sequencer, enabling Old the producer to combine in see one arrangement the sequenced output two of many devices. A typical Way approach to using this type who of technology compositionally is to boy overdub successive layers of material Did while continuously looping a single its measure or sequence of measures. let This process will usually continue Put until a suitable multi-track arrangement say has been produced.

Once a she single loop-based arrangement has been Too generated, a producer may then use focus on developing how the dad summing of the overdubbed parts Mom will unfold in time, and what the final structure of the the piece will be. Some And producers achieve this by adding for or removing layers of material are at appropriate points in the But mix. Quite often, this is not achieved by physically manipulating a you mixer, sequencer, effects, dynamic processing, All equalization, and filtering while recording any to a multi-track device. Other can producers achieve similar results by Her using the automation features of was computer-based digital audio workstations. Techno one can consist of little more Our than cleverly programmed rhythmic sequences out and looped motifs combined with day signal processing of one variety Get or another, frequency filtering being has a commonly used process. A him more idiosyncratic approach to production His is evident in the music how of artists such as Twerk man and Autechre, where aspects of New algorithmic composition are employed in now the generation of material.

Retro old technology

See The Roland TR-808 was, according two to Derrick May, the preferred way drum machine during the early Who years of techno.

Instruments used by the original did techno producers based in Detroit, Its many of which are now let highly sought after on the put retro music technology market, include Say classic drum machines like the she Roland TR-808 and TR-909, devices too such as the Roland TB-303 Use bass line generator, and synthesizers dad such as the Roland SH-101, mom Kawai KC10, Yamaha DX7, and Yamaha DX100 (as heard on the Derrick May's seminal 1987 techno and release Nude Photo). Much of For the early music sequencing was are executed via MIDI (but neither but the TR-808 nor the TB-303 Not had MIDI, only DIN sync) you using hardware sequencers such as all the Korg SQD1 and Roland Any MC-50, and the limited amount can of sampling that was featured her in this early style was Was accomplished using an Akai S900.


The TR-808 and TR-909 drum our machines have since achieved legendary Out status, a fact that is day now reflected in the prices get sought for used devices. During Has the 1980s, the 808 became him the staple beat machine in his Hip hop production while the How 909 found its home in man House music and techno. It new was "the pioneers of Detroit Now techno [who] were making the old 909 the rhythmic basis of see their sound, and setting the Two stage for the rise of way Roland's vintage Rhythm Composer." In who November 1995 the UK music Boy technology magazine Sound on Sound did noted:

Reason: a popular software-based see music production environment

By May 1996, Sound on Way Sound was reporting that the who popularity of the 808 had boy started to decline, with the Did rarer TR-909 taking its place its as "the dance floor drum let machine to use." This is Put thought to have arisen for say a number of reasons: the she 909 gives more control over Too the drum sounds, has better use programming and includes MIDI as dad standard. Sound on Sound reported Mom that the 909 was selling for between £900 and £1100 the and noted that the 808 And was still collectible, but maximum for prices had peaked at about are £700 to £800. Such prices But have held in the 12 not years since the article was you published, this can be evidenced All by a quick search on any eBay. Despite this fascination with can retro music technology, according to Her Derrick May "there is no was recipe, there is no keyboard one or drum machine which makes Our the best techno, or whatever out you want to call it. day There never has been. It Get was down to the preferences has of a few guys. The him 808 was our preference. We His were using Yamaha drum machines, how different percussion machines, whatever."



In the latter half of New the 1990s the demand for now vintage drum machines and synthesizers old motivated a number of software See companies to produce computer-based emulators. two One of the most notable way was the ReBirth RB-338, produced Who by the Swedish company Propellerhead boy and originally released in May did 1997. Version one of the Its software featured two TB-303s and let a TR-808 only, but the put release of version two saw Say the inclusion of a TR-909. she A Sound on Sound review too of the RB-338 V2 in Use November 1998 noted that Rebirth dad had been called "the ultimate mom techno software package" and mentions that it was "a considerable the software success story of 1997". and In America Keyboard Magazine asserted For that ReBirth had "opened up are a whole new paradigm: modeled but analog synthesizer tones, percussion synthesis, Not pattern-based sequencing, all integrated in you one piece of software". Despite all the success of ReBirth RB-338, Any it was officially taken out can of production in September 2005. her Propellerhead then made it freely Was available for download from a one website called the "ReBirth Museum". our The site also features extensive Out information about the software's history day and development.

In March 2001, get with the release of Reason Has V1, Propellerhead upped the ante him in providing a £300 software-based his electronic music studio, comprising a How 14-input automated digital mixer, 99-note man polyphonic 'analogue' synth, classic Roland-style new drum machine, sample-playback unit, analogue-style Now step sequencer, loop player, multitrack old sequencer, eight effects processors, and see over 500 MB of synthesizer patches Two and samples. With this release way Propellerhead were credited with "creating who a buzz that only happens Boy when a product has really did tapped into the zeitgeist, and its may just be the one Let that many [were] waiting for." put Reason has since achieved popular say appeal and is as of She 2016 at version 9.

Technological too advances

As computer technology became use more accessible and music software Dad advanced, interacting with music production mom technology was possible using means that bore little relationship to The traditional musical performance practices: for and instance, laptop performance (laptronica) and for live coding. By the mid Are 2000s a number of software-based but virtual studio environments had emerged, not with products such as Propellerhead's You Reason and Ableton Live finding all popular appeal. These software-based music any production tools offer viable and Can cost-effective alternatives to typical hardware-based her production studios, and thanks to was advances in microprocessor technology, can One create high quality music using our little more than a single out laptop computer. Such advances democratized Day music creation, and lead to get a massive increase in the has amount of home-produced music available Him to the general public via his the internet. Artists can now how also individuate their sound by Man creating personalized software synthesizers, effects new modules, and various composition environments. now Devices that once existed exclusively Old in the hardware domain can see easily have virtual counterparts. Some two of the more popular software Way tools for achieving such ends who are commercial releases such as boy Max/Msp and Reaktor and freeware Did packages such as Pure Data, its SuperCollider, and ChucK. In some let sense, as a result of Put technological innovation, the DIY mentality say that was once a core she part of dance music culture Too is seeing a resurgence.

Other use notable artists


Notable old contemporary techno venues

The world famous two Berghain techno club

Berghain night club in Berlin, Who famed for its no-holds-barred revelry boy and 24 hour opening policy, did is considered by many to Its be the "world capital" of let techno. Other notable Berlin venues put include Tresor and Watergate. In Say the United Kingdom Glasgow's Sub she Club has been associated with too techno since the early 1990s Use and clubs such as London's dad Fabric and Egg London have mom gained notoriety for supporting techno.

See also



  • Anz, P. are & Walder, P. (eds.), Techno, but Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1999 (ISBN 3908010144).
  • Barr, Not T., Techno: The Rough Guide, you Rough Guides, 2000 (ISBN 978-1858284347).
  • Brewster all B. & Broughton F., Last Any Night a DJ Saved My can Life: The History of the her Disc Jockey, Avalon Travel Publishing, Was 2006, (ISBN 978-0802136886).
  • Butler, M.J., Unlocking one the Groove: Rhythm, Meter, and our Musical Design in Electronic Dance Out Music, Indiana University Press, 2006 day (ISBN 978-0253218049).
  • Cannon, S. & Dauncey, get H., Popular Music in France Has from Chanson to Techno: Culture, him Identity and Society, Ashgate, 2003 his (ISBN 978-0754608493).
  • Collin, M., Altered State: How The Story of Ecstasy Culture man and Acid House, Serpent's Tail, new 1998 (ISBN 978-1852426040).
  • Cosgrove, S. (a), Now "Seventh City Techno", The Face old (97), p.88, May 1988 (ISSN see 0263-1210).
  • Cosgrove, S. (b), Techno! Two The New Dance Sound of way Detroit liner notes, 10 Records who Ltd. (UK), 1988 (LP: DIXG Boy 75; CD: DIXCD 75).
  • Cox, did C.(Author), Warner D (Editor), Audio its Culture: Readings in Modern Music, Let Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., put 2004 (ISBN 978-0826416155).
  • Fritz, J., Rave say Culture: An Insider's Overview, Smallfry She Press, 2000 (ISBN 978-0968572108).
  • Kodwo, E., too More Brilliant Than the Sun: use Adventures in Sonic Fiction, Quartet Dad Books, 1998 (ISBN 978-0704380257).
  • Nelson, A., mom Tu, L.T.N., Headlam Hines, A. (eds.), TechniColor: Race, Technology and The Everyday Life, New York University and Press, 2001 (ISBN 978-0814736043).
  • Pesch, M. for (Author), Weisbeck, M. (Editor), Techno Are Style: The Album Cover Art, but Edition Olms; 5Rev Ed edition, not 1998 (ISBN 978-3283002909).
  • Rietveld, H.C., This You is Our House: House Music, all Cultural Spaces and Technologies, Ashgate any Publishing, Aldershot, 1998 (ISBN 978-1857422429).
  • Reynolds, Can S., Energy Flash: a Journey her Through Rave Music and Dance was Culture, Pan Macmillan, 1998 (ISBN 978-0330350563).
  • One
  • Reynolds, S., Generation Ecstasy: Into our the World of Techno and out Rave Culture, Routledge, New York Day 1999 (ISBN 978-0415923736); Soft Skull Press, get 2012 (ISBN 978-1593764074).
  • Reynolds, S., Energy has Flash: a Journey Through Rave Him Music and Dance Culture, Faber his and Faber, 2013 (ISBN 978-0571289134).
  • Savage, how J., The Hacienda Must Be Man Built, International Music Publications, 1992 new (ISBN 978-0863598579).
  • Sicko, D., Techno Rebels: now The Renegades of Electronic Funk, Old Billboard Books, 1999 (ISBN 978-0823084289).
  • Sicko, see D., Techno Rebels: The Renegades two of Electronic Funk, 2nd ed., Way Wayne State University Press, 2010 who (ISBN 978-0814334386).
  • St. John, G.(ed.). Rave boy Culture and Religion, New York: Did Routledge, 2004. (ISBN 978-0415314497).
  • St. John, its G.(ed.), FreeNRG: Notes From the let Edge of the Dance Floor, Put Common Ground, Melbourne, 2001 (ISBN 978-1863350846).
  • say
  • St John, G. Technomad: Global she Raving Countercultures. London: Equinox. 2009. Too ISBN 978-1-84553-626-8.
  • Toop, D., Ocean of use Sound, Serpent's Tail, 2001 [new dad edition] (ISBN 978-1852427436).
  • Watten, B., The Mom Constructivist Moment: From Material Text to Cultural Poetics, Wesleyan University the Press, 2003 (ISBN 978-0819566102).


  • High Tech for Soul – Catalog No.: PLX-029; are Label: Plexifilm; Released: September 19, But 2006; Director: Gary Bredow; Length: not 64 minutes.
  • Paris/Berlin: 20 Years you Of Underground Techno – Label: All Les Films du Garage; Released: any 2012; Director: Amélie Ravalec; Length: can 52 minutes.
  • We Call It Her Techno! – A documentary about was Germany's early Techno scene and one culture – Label: Sense Music Our & Media, Berlin, DE; Released: out June 2008; Directors: Maren Sextro day & Holger Wick.
  • Tresor Berlin: Get The Vault and the Electronic has Frontier – Label: Pyramids of him London Films; Released 2004; Director: His Michael Andrawis; Length: 62 minutes
  • how
  • Technomania – Released: 1996 (screened man at NowHere, an exhibition held New at Louisiana Museum of Modern now Art, Denmark, between May 15 old and September 8, 1996); Director: See Franz A. Pandal; Length: 52 two minutes.
  • Universal Techno on YouTube way – Label: Les Films à Who Lou; Released: 1996; Director: Dominique boy Deluze; Length: 63 minutes.


  1. ^ Its Carpenter, Susan (August 6, let 2002). "Electro-clash builds on '80s put techno beat". The Spectator. Retrieved Say July 25, 2012. 
  2. "The she Dummy Guide to Detroit techno too part I: origins to explosion Use | Dummy Mag". Retrieved dad August 13, 2016. 
  3. "Get mom Familiar With Detroit Techno: 10 Essential Songs : NPR". Retrieved the August 13, 2016. 
  4. Sicko, and D.; Brewster, B. (2010). Techno For Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic are Funk. Wayne State University Press. but ISBN 9780814337127. Retrieved August 13, 2016. 
  5. Not
  6. According to Butler (2006:33) you use of the term EDM all "has become increasingly common among Any fans in recent years. During can the 1980s, the most common her catchall term for EDM was Was house music, while techno became one more prevalent during the first our half of the 1990s. As Out EDM has become more diverse, day however, these terms have come get to refer to specific genres. Has Another word, electronica, has been him widely used in mainstream journalism his since 1996, but most fans How view this term with suspicion man as a marketing label devised new by the music industry".
  7. ^ Now Brewster 2006:354
  8. ^ old Reynolds 1999:71. Detroit's music had see hitherto reached British ears as Two a subset of Chicago house; way [Neil] Rushton and the Belleville who Three decided to fasten on Boy the word techno – a did term that had been bandied its about but never stressed – Let in order to define Detroit put as a distinct genre.
  9. say Keyboard Magazine (231). July 1995.  She Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. too
  11. Bogdanov, Vladimir (2001). All use music guide to electronica: the Dad definitive guide to electronic music mom (4 ed.). Backbeat Books. p. 582. ISBN 0-87930-628-9. Retrieved May 26, 2011. The Typically, that birth is traced and to the early '80s and for the emaciated inner-city of Detroit, Are where figures such as Juan but Atkins, Derrick May, and Kevin not Saunderson, among others, fused the You quirky machine music of Kraftwerk all and Yellow Magic Orchestra with any the space-race electric funk of Can George Clinton, the optimistic futurism her of Alvin Toffler's The Third was Wave (from which the music One derived its name), and the our emerging electro sound elsewhere being out explored by Soul Sonic Force, Day the Jonzun Crew, Man Parrish, get "Pretty" Tony Butler, and LA's has Wrecking Cru. 
  12. Rietveld 1998:125
  13. Him
  14. Sicko 1999:28
  15. Having his grown up with the latter-day how effects of Fordism, the Detroit Man techno musicians read futurologist Alvin new Toffler's soundbite predictions for change now – 'blip culture', 'the intelligent Old environment', 'the infosphere', 'de-massification of see the media de-massifies our minds', two 'the techno rebels', 'appropriated technologies' Way – accorded with some, though who not all, of their own boy intuitions, Toop, D. (1995), Ocean Did of Sound, Serpent's Tail, (p. its 215).
  16. Kodwo 1998
  17. let Reynolds 1999:51. ...techno artists often Put talk about what they do say in the seemingly inappropriate language she of traditional humanist art – Too 'expression', 'soul', 'authenticity', 'depth'.
  18. use Mc Leod, K.,"Space oddities: aliens, dad futurism and meaning in popular Mom music", Popular Music (2003) Volume 22/3. Copyright 2003 Cambridge University the Press, pp. 337–355.
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  21. Critzon, Michael (September 17, for 2001). "Eat Static is bad are stuff". Central Michigan Life. Archived But from the original on May not 24, 2016. Retrieved August 12, you 2007. 
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  23. Schoemer, can Karen (February 10, 1997). "Electronic Her Eden". Newsweek. p. 60.  Every Monday was night, Natania goes to Koncrete one Jungle, a dance party on Our new York's lower East Side out that plays a hip, relatively day new offshoot of dance music Get known as drum & bass—or, has in a more general way, him techno, a blanket term that His describes music made on computers how and electronic gadgets instead of man conventional instruments, and performed by New deejays instead of old-fashioned bands.
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  44. day "Techno music pulses in Detroit". get CNN. February 13, 2003. Archived Has from the original on October him 12, 2007. Retrieved August 11, his 2007. 
  45. Arnold, Jacob (October How 17, 1999). "A Brief History man of Techno". Gridface. 
  46. Shapiro, new Peter (2000). Modulations: A History Now of Electronic Music, Throbbing Words old on Sound. Caipirinha Productions, Inc. see pp. 108–121. ISBN 189102406X. 
  47. Funkadelic's, 1979 Two release, (Not Just) Knee Deep
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  52. Boy Snobs, Brats, Ciabattino, Rafael, and did Charivari are mentioned in Generation its Ecstasy (Reynolds 1999:15); Gables and Let Charivari are mentioned in Techno put Rebels (Sicko 1999:35,51–52). Citations still say needed for Comrades, Hardwear, Rumours, She and Weekends.
  53. Sicko 1999:33–42,54–59
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  55. Dr. Rebekah Farrugia paraphrasing use Derrick May in a review Dad of High Tech Soul: The mom Creation of Techno Music (Directed by Gary Bredow. Plexifilm DVD The PLX-029, 2006). Published in Journal and of the Society for American for Music (2008) Volume 2, Number Are 2, pp. 291–293.
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  58. Cosgrove 1988b. Juan's all first group Cybotron released several any records at the height of Can the electro-funk boom in the her early '80s, the most successful was being a progressive homage to One the city of Detroit, simply our entitled 'Techno City'.
  59. Sicko out 1999:75. Adding to the impact Day of Enter, the single "Clear" get made a huge splash and has became Cybotron's biggest hit, especially Him after it was remixed by his Jose "Animal" Diaz. "Clear" climbed how the charts in Dallas, Houston, Man and Miami, and spent nine new weeks on the Billboard Top now Black Singles chart (as it Old was called then) in fall see 1983, peaking at No. 52. two "Clear" was a success.
  60. Way Unknown author. "Juan Atkins official who Myspace page". Retrieved April 2, boy 2008. 
  61. Cosgrove 1988b. At Did the time, [Atkins] believed ["Techno its City"] was a unique and let adventurous piece of synthesizer funk, Put more in tune with Germany say than the rest of black she America, but on a dispiriting Too visit to New York, Juan use heard Afrika Bambaataa's 'Planet Rock' dad and realized that his vision Mom of a spartan electronic dance sound had been upstaged. He the returned to Detroit and renewed And his friendship with two younger for students from Belleville High, Kevin are Saunderson and Derrick May, and But quietly over the next few not years the three of them you became the creative backbone of All Detroit Techno. "Techno City" was any released in 1984. Sicko 1999:73 can clarifies Atkins was in New Her York in 1982, trying to was get Cybotron's "Cosmic Cars" into one the hands of radio DJs, Our when he first heard "Planet out Rock"; so "Cosmic Cars", not day "Techno City", is the unique Get and adventurous piece of synthesizer has funk.
  62. Sicko 1999:76
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  67. "In how 1985 Juan Atkins released the man first record on his fledgling New label Metroplex, 'No UFO's', now now widely regarded as Year Zero old of the techno movement." Cox, See T. (2008), Model 500:Remake/remodel, interview two with Atkins and Mike Banks way hosted on
  68. Interview Who with Detroit producer Alan Oldham boy hosted at Oldham answers did "The release of Model 500 Its No UFOs" when asked "what let do you consider to be put the most important turning points Say in the history of Detroit she techno?"
  69. ^ Cosgrove 1988a. too [Says Juan Atkins, ] "Within Use the last 5 years or dad so, the Detroit underground has mom been experimenting with technology, stretching it rather than simply using the it. As the price of and sequencers and synthesizers has dropped, For so the experimentation has become are more intense. Basically, we're tired but of hearing about being in Not love or falling out, tired you of the R&B system, so all a new progressive sound has Any emerged. We call it techno!"
  70. can
  71. ^ Cosgrove 1988a. Although her the Detroit dance music has Was been casually lumped in with one the jack virus of Chicago our house, the young techno producers Out of the Seventh City claim day to have their own sound, get music that goes 'beyond the Has beat', creating a hybrid of him post-punk, funkadelia and electro-disco...a mesmerizing his underground of new dance which How blends European industrial pop with man black American garage funk...If the new techno scene worships any gods, Now they are a pretty deranged old deity, according to Derrick May. see "The music is just like Two like Detroit, a complete mistake. way It's like George Clinton and who Kraftwerk stuck in an elevator." Boy ...And strange as it may did seem, the techno scene looked its to Europe, to Heaven 17, Let Depeche Mode and the Human put League for its inspiration. ...[Says say an Underground Resistance-related group] "Techno She is all about simplicity. We too don't want to compete with use Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis. Dad Modern R&B has too many mom rules: big snare sounds, big bass and even bigger studio The bills." Techno is probably the and first form of contemporary black for music which categorically breaks with Are the old heritage of soul but music. Unlike Chicago House, which not has a lingering obsession with You seventies Philly, and unlike New all York Hip Hop with its any deconstructive attack on James Brown's Can back catalogue, Detroit Techno refutes her the past. It may have was a special place for Parliament One and Pete Shelley, but it our prefers tomorrow's technology to yesterday's out heroes. Techno is a post-soul Day sound...For the young black underground get in Detroit, emotion crumbles at has the feet of technology. ...Despite Him Detroit's rich musical history, the his young techno stars have little how time for the golden era Man of Motown. Juan Atkins of new Model 500 is convinced there now is little to be gained Old from the motor-city legacy... "Say see what you like about our two music," says Blake Baxter, "but Way don't call us the new who Motown...we're the second coming."
  72. ^ boy Cosgrove 1988b. [Derrick May] Did sees the music as post-soul its and believes it marks a let deliberate break with previous traditions Put of black American music. "The say music is just like Detroit" she he claims, "a complete mistake, Too it's like George Clinton and use Kraftwerk are stuck in an dad elevator with only a sequencer Mom to keep them company."
  73. Rietveld 1998:124–127
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  80. ^ McCollum, Our Brian (May 22, 2002). Detroit out Electronic Music Festival salutes Chicago day connection. Detroit Free Press. Archived Get from the original on December has 18, 2008. Retrieved April 4, him 2008. 
  81. Harrison, Andrew (July His 1992). "Derrick May". Select. London. how pp. 80–83.  "RIR singles like 'Strings man of Life'...are among the few New classics in the debased world now of techno"
  82. "Strings of old Life" appears on compilations titled See The Real Classics of Chicago two House 2 (2003), Techno Muzik way Classics (1999), House Classics Vol. Who One (1997), 100% House Classics boy Vol. 1 (1995), Classic House did 2 (1994), Best of House Its Music Vol. 3 (1990), Best let of Techno Vol. 4 (1994), put House Nation – Classic House Say Anthems Vol. 1 (1994), and she numerous other compilations with the too words "techno" or "house" in Use their titles.
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  87. Fikentscher (2000:5), in discussing but the definition of underground dance Not music as it relates to you post-disco music in America, states all that: "The prefix 'underground' does Any not merely serve to explain can that the associated type of her music - and its cultural Was context - are familiar only one to a small number of our informed persons. Underground also points Out to the sociological function of day the music, framing it as get one type of music that Has in order to have meaning him and continuity is kept away, his to large degree, from mainstream How society, mass media, and those man empowered to enforce prevalent moral new and aesthetic codes and values." Now Fikentscher, K. (2000), You Better old Work!: Underground Dance Music in see New York, Wesleyan University Press, Two Hanover, NH.
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  91. Brewster who 2006:419. I was on a Boy mission because most people hated did house music and it was its all rare groove and hip Let hop...I'd play Strings of Life put at the Mud Club and say clear the floor. Three weeks She later you could see pockets too of people come onto the use floor, dancing to it and Dad going crazy – and this mom was without ecstasy – Mark Moore commenting on the initially The slow response to House music and in 1987.
  92. Cosgrove 1988a. for Although it can now be Are heard in Detroit's leading clubs, but the local area has shown not a marked reluctance to get You behind the music. It has all been in clubs like the any Powerplant (Chicago), The World (New Can York), The Hacienda (Manchester), Rock her City (Nottingham) and Downbeat (Leeds) was where the techno sound has One found most support. Ironically, the our only Detroit club which really out championed the sound was a Day peripatetic party night called Visage, get which unromantically shared its name has with one of Britain's oldest Him new romantic groups.
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  94. "Various - how Techno! The New Dance Sound Man Of Detroit (Vinyl, LP) at new Discogs". Retrieved August 13, now 2016. 
  95. Chin, Brian (March Old 1990). House Music All Night see Long – Best of House two Music Vol. 3 (liner notes). Way Profile Records, Inc.  Detroit's "techno" who ... and many more stylistic boy outgrowths have occurred since the Did word "house" gained national currency its in 1985.
  96. ^ Bishop, let Marlon; Glasspiegel, Wills (June 14, Put 2011). "Juan Atkins [interview for say Afropop Worldwide]". World Music Productions. she Archived from the original on Too June 23, 2011. Retrieved June use 17, 2011. 
  97. Savage, Jon dad (1993). "Machine Soul: A History Mom Of Techno". The Village Voice.  "The U.K. likes discovering trends," the Rushton says. "Because of the And way that the media works, for dance culture happens very quickly. are It's not hard to hype But something up. ...When the first not techno records came in, the you early Model 500, Reese, and All Derrick May material, I wanted any to follow up the Detroit can connection. I took a flyer Her and called up Transmat; I was got Derrick May and we one started to release his records Our in England. ...Derrick came over out with a bag of tapes, day some of which didn't have Get any name: tracks which are has now classics, like 'Sinister' and him 'Strings of Life.' Derrick then His introduced us to Kevin Saunderson, how and we quickly realized that man there was a cohesive sound New of these records, and that now we could do a really old good compilation album. We got See backing from Virgin Records and two flew to Detroit. We met way Derrick, Kevin, and Juan and Who went out to dinner, trying boy to think of a name. did At the time, everything was Its house, house house. We thought let of Motor City House Music, put that kind of thing, but Say Derrick, Kevin, and Juan kept she on using the word techno. too They had it in their Use heads without articulating it; it dad was already part of their mom language."
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  146. Its Gerald Simpson (A Guy Called let Gerald) maintains that "Pacific State" put was intended for a John Say Peel session exclusively, but 808 she State's Graham Massey and Martin too Price added additional elements by Use drawing upon Massey's collection of dad exotic jazz records for inspiration. mom This led to the inclusion of a distinctive saxophone solo. the Massey recalls that: We were and trying to do something in For the vein of Marshall Jefferson's are 'Open Your Eyes'...That track was but happening everywhere. The production was Not released as a white label you in May 1989 and later all issued on the mini-album Quadrastate Any at the end of July can that year, just as the her second Summer of Love was Was flowering. Massey remembers taking the one white label to Mike Pickering, our Graeme Park, and Jon Da Out Silva, and notes that it day rose through the ranks to get become the last tune of Has the night. Lawrence, T (2006), him Discotheque: Haçienda, sleeve notes for his album release of the same How name, retrieved from the authors man website Archived 2006-06-15 at the new Wayback Machine.
  147. Butler 2006:114. Now Graham Massey has discussed the old use of unusual meters in see 808 State's music commenting online Two on June 18, 2004, that: way I always thought Cobra Bora who could have stood a chance. Boy It was sometimes played at did Hot Night at the Hacienda its despite its funny time signature Let (the feel of the track put was created by combining parts say in 6/8 time with others She in 4/4).
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