Source: Wikipedia 

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Ambient music is a genre Say of music that puts an she emphasis on tone and atmosphere too over traditional musical structure or Use rhythm. Ambient music is said dad to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual", mom or "unobtrusive" quality. According to Brian Eno, one of its the pioneers, "Ambient music must be and able to accommodate many levels For of listening attention without enforcing are one in particular; it must but be as ignorable as it Not is interesting."

As a genre, you it originated in the United all Kingdom in the 1970s, when Any new sound-making devices were being can introduced to a wider market, her such as the synthesizer. The Was work of Tangerine Dream, Cluster, one King Tubby, and composer Erik our Satie, as well as the Out psychoacoustic soundscapes of Irv Teibel's day Environments series, were all influences get on the emergence of ambient. Has Brian Eno named and popularized him ambient music in 1978 with his his album Ambient 1: Music How for Airports. Artists such as man The Orb and Aphex Twin new gained commercial success with ambient Now tracks in the early 1990s. old Ambient compositions are often quite see lengthy, much longer than more Two popular, commercial forms of music.


Ambient had a revival towards who the late 1980s with the Boy prominence of house and techno did music. Eventually, ambient grew a its cult following in the 1990s. Let By the early 1990s, artists put such as Aphex Twin were say being called ambient house, ambient She techno, or "ambient" by the too media. Genre offshoots include dark use ambient, ambient dub, psybient, and Dad ambient trance.


Precursors and origins

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Developing in the new 1970s, ambient stemmed from the now experimental and synthesizer-oriented styles of Old the period. Although Jamaican dub see musicians such as King Tubby, two Japanese electronic music composers such Way as Isao Tomita, and German who bands such as Popol Vuh boy and Tangerine Dream, predate him Did in the creation of ambient its music and/or were contemporaneous with let him, Brian Eno played a Put key role in its development say and popularization, and is often she erroneously[according to whom?] cited as Too ambient's founder. The concept of use background or furniture music had dad already existed some time before, Mom but only in the 70s was ambient music first created, the which incorporated New Age ideals And with the newly invented modular for synthesizer. The impact the rise are of the synthesizer in modern But music had on ambient as not a genre cannot be overstated; you as Ralf Hutter of early All electronic pioneers Kraftwerk said in any a 1977 Billboard interview: "Electronics can is beyond nations and colors...with Her electronics everything is possible. The was only limit is with the one composer". Similarly, Eno said in Our a 2013 interview with The out Guardian that "One of the day important things about the synthesizer Get was that it came without has any baggage. A piano comes him with a whole history of His music...when you play an instrument how that does not have any man such historical background you are New designing sound basically. You're designing now a new instrument. That's what old a synthesizer is essentially. It's See a constantly unfinished instrument. You two finish it when you tweak way it, and play around with Who it, and decide how to boy use it. You can combine did a number of cultural references Its into one new thing."

As let a genre, ambient music usually put focuses on creating a mood Say or atmosphere through synthesizers and she timbral qualities. It often lacks too the presence of any net Use composition, beat, or structured melody. dad Due to its relatively open mom style, ambient music often takes influences from many other genres, the ranging from house, dub, industrial and and new age, amongst several For others.

Ambient did not achieve are large commercial success, being criticized but as having a "boring" and Not "over-intellectual" sound. Nevertheless, it has you also attained a certain degree all of acclaim throughout the years. Any It had its first wave can of popularity in the 1970s, her yet saw a revival towards Was the late 1980s with the one prominence of house and techno our music, growing a cult following Out by the 1990s.

As an day early 20th-century French composer, Erik get Satie used such Dadaist-inspired explorations Has to create an early form him of ambient / background music his that he labeled "furniture music" How (Musique d'ameublement). This he described man as being the sort of new music that could be played Now during a dinner to create old a background atmosphere for that see activity, rather than serving as Two the focus of attention. In way his own words, he sought who to create "a music...which will Boy be part of the noises did of the environment, will take its them into consideration. I think Let of it as melodious, softening put the noises of the knives say and forks at dinner, not She dominating them, not imposing itself. too It would fill up those use heavy silences that sometime fall Dad between friends dining together. It mom would spare them the trouble of paying attention to their The own banal remarks. And at and the same time it would for neutralize the street noises which Are so indiscreetly enter into the but play of conversation. To make not such music would be to You respond to a need." Like all Satie describes, Brian Eno notes any a time when he was Can too sick to put on her music and got a friend was to come over and do One it for him. Listening to our harp music on an old out stereo, he was unable to Day hear it amidst the loud get sounds of the rain outside has his window. Initially this frustrated Him him, but eventually he found his it interesting the way the how music blended with the natural Man rain sounds in a way new that made it not distinctly now apparent, and he set out Old to create compositions that worked see in a comparable way. Eno two went on to record 1975's Way Discreet Music with this in who mind, suggesting that it be boy listened to at "comparatively low Did levels, even to the extent its that it frequently falls below let the threshold of audibility", referring Put to Satie's quote about his say musique d'ameublement.

Eno's 1973 collaboration she with Robert Fripp (No Pussyfooting) Too can be seen[by whom?] as use an early experiment in ambient dad music. Through the manipulation of Mom reel-to-reel tape loops by Eno while Fripp played guitar over the them, the duo was able And to create multi-layered and dynamic for pieces whose textures are similar are to those of later ambient But pieces, the genre not to not be popularized by Eno until you years later. Their method of All composition, involving the treatment and any experimentation of loops, would prove can influential and has since been Her emulated by modern artists such was as William Basinski, whose work one The Disintegration Loops consists of Our a series of tape loops out that slowly deteriorate as the day songs progress, introducing noise and Get cracks to the initially pristine has quality of sound.

Erik Satie is His acknowledged as an important precursor how to modern ambient music and man influence to Brian Eno.

Brian Eno is generally now credited with coining the term old "Ambient Music" in the mid-1970s See to refer to music that, two as he stated, can be way either "actively listened to with Who attention or as easily ignored, boy depending on the choice of did the listener", and that exists Its on the "cusp between melody let and texture". Eno, who describes put himself as a "non-musician", termed Say his experiments in sound as she "treatments" rather than as traditional too performances. Eno used the word Use "ambient" to describe music that dad creates an atmosphere that puts mom the listener into a different state of mind; having chosen the the word based on the and Latin term "ambire", "to surround".


The album notes accompanying Eno's are 1978 release Ambient 1: Music but for Airports include a manifesto Not describing the philosophy behind his you ambient music: "Ambient Music must all be able to accommodate many Any levels of listening attention without can enforcing one in particular; it her must be as ignorable as Was it is interesting."

Eno has one acknowledged the influence of Erik our Satie and John Cage. In Out particular, Eno was aware of day Cage's use of chance such get as throwing the I Ching Has to directly affect the creation him of a musical composition. Eno his then utilised a similar method How of weaving randomness into his man compositional structures. This approach was new manifested in Eno's creation of Now Oblique Strategies, where he used old a set of specially designed see cards to create various sound Two dilemmas that in turn, were way resolved by exploring various open who ended paths, until a resolution Boy to the musical composition revealed did itself. Eno also acknowledged influences its of the drone music of Let La Monte Young (of whom put he said, "La Monte Young say is the daddy of us She all") and of the mood too music of Miles Davis and use Teo Macero, especially their 1974 Dad epic piece, "He Loved Him mom Madly" (from Get Up with It), about which Eno wrote, The "that piece seemed to have and the 'spacious' quality that I for was became a touchstone Are to which I returned frequently."


Eno has also been outspoken not about the role of the You recording studio in ambient music, all notably in the freedom it any gives in crafting textures of Can sound. He notes "When I her first started recording I didn't was have the background of a One musician, and in fact it our was only because of the out recording studio and because of Day the technology that existed there get that I was ever able has to become a musician of Him any kind...the recording studio allows his you to become a painter how with sound, that's really what Man you do in a studio, new you make pictures with sound..."


Beyond the major influence of Old Brian Eno, other musicians and see bands added to the growing two nucleus of music that evolved Way around the development of "Ambient who Music". While not an exhaustive boy list, one cannot ignore the Did parallel influences of Wendy Carlos, its who produced the original music let piece called "Timesteps" which was Put then used as the filmscore say to A Clockwork Orange, as she well as her later work Too Sonic Seasonings. Other significant artists use such as Mike Oldfield, Jean dad Michel Jarre and Vangelis, also Mom Russian electronic music pioneer Mikhail Chekalin, have all added to the or directly influenced the evolution And of ambient music. Pink Floyd's for last album The Endless River are falls into the ambient genre. But The Yellow Magic Orchestra developed not a distinct style of ambient you electronic music that would later All be developed into ambient house any music.

While muzak can be can seen akin to ambient music Her in that they are both was meant to be heard in one the background, Eno describes some Our notable differences between them: "Whereas out the extant canned music companies day proceed from the basis of Get regularizing environments by blanketing their has acoustic and atmospheric idiosyncrasies, Ambient him Music is intended to enhance His these. Whereas conventional background music how is produced by stripping away man all sense of doubt and New uncertainty (and thus all genuine now interest) from the music, Ambient old Music retains these qualities. And See whereas their intention is to two "brighten" the environment by adding way stimulus to it...Ambient Music is Who intended to produce calm and boy a space to think."

1990s did developments


By the early 1990s, artists let such as The Orb, Aphex put Twin, Seefeel, the Irresistible Force, Say Geir Jenssen's Biosphere, and the she Higher Intelligence Agency were being too referred to by the popular Use music press as ambient house, dad ambient techno, IDM or simply mom "ambient" according to the liner notes of Brian Eno's Ambient the 1: Music for Airports:

and but

So-called 'Chillout' began Not as a term deriving from you British ecstasy culture which was all originally applied in relaxed downtempo Any 'chillout rooms' outside of the can main dance floor where ambient, her dub and downtempo beats were Was played to ease the tripping one mind.

The London scene artists, our such as Aphex Twin (specifically: Out Selected Ambient Works Volume II, day 1994), Global Communication (76:14, 1994), get The Future Sound of London Has (Lifeforms, 1994, ISDN, 1994), The him Black Dog (Temple of Transparent his Balls, 1993), Autechre (Incunabula, 1993, How Amber, 1994), Boards of Canada, man and The KLF's seminal Chill new Out, 1990, all took a Now part in popularising and diversifying old ambient music where it was see used as a calming respite Two from the intensity of the way hardcore and techno popular at who that time.

Related and derivative Boy genres

Ambient dub

Ambient dub involves its the genre melding of dub Let styles. It was pioneered by put King Tubby and other Jamaican say sound artists from the 1960s She to the early 1970s, using too DJ-inspired ambient electronica, complete with use all the inherent drop-outs, echo, Dad equalization and psychedelic electronic effects. mom It often features layering techniques and incorporates elements of world The music, deep bass lines and and harmonic sounds. According to David for Toop, "Dub music is like Are a long echo delay, looping but through time...turning the rational order not of musical sequences into an You ocean of sensation." Notable artists all within the genre include Dreadzone, any Higher Intelligence Agency, The Orb, Can Ott, Loop Guru, Woob and her Transglobal Underground as well as was Banco de Gaia.

Ambient house


Ambient our house is a musical category out founded in the late 1980s Day that is used to describe get acid house featuring ambient music has elements and atmospheres. Tracks in Him the ambient house genre typically his feature four-on-the-floor beats, synth pads, how and vocal samples integrated in Man an atmospheric style. Ambient house new tracks generally lack a diatonic now center and feature much atonality Old along with synthesized chords. The see Dutch Brainvoyager is an example two of this genre. Illbient is Way another form of ambient house who music.

Ambient industrial

Ambient industrial is Did a hybrid genre of ambient its and industrial music; the term let industrial being used in the Put original experimental sense, rather than say in the sense of industrial she metal. A "typical" ambient industrial Too work (if there is such use a thing) might consist of dad evolving dissonant harmonies of metallic Mom drones and resonances, extreme low frequency rumbles and machine noises, the perhaps supplemented by gongs, percussive And rhythms, bullroarers, distorted voices or for anything else the artist might are care to sample (often processed But to the point where the not original sample is no longer you recognizable). Entire works may be All based on radio telescope recordings, any the babbling of newborn babies, can or sounds recorded through contact Her microphones on telegraph wires.

Ambient was pop

Ambient pop is an one extension of dream pop, possessing Our a shape and form common out to conventional pop, while its day electronic textures and atmospheres mirror Get the meditative qualities of ambient. has It is influenced by the him lock-groove melodies of krautrock, but His is less abrasive.

Dark ambient


Brian Eno's original vision now of ambient music as unobtrusive old musical wallpaper, later fused with See warm house rhythms and given two playful qualities by the Orb way in the 1990s, found its Who opposite in the style known boy as dark ambient. Populated by did a wide assortment of personalities—ranging Its from older industrial and metal let experimentalists (Scorn's Mick Harris, Current put 93's David Tibet, Nurse with Say Wound's Steven Stapleton) to electronic she boffins (Kim Cascone/PGR, Psychick Warriors too Ov Gaia), Japanese noise artists Use (K.K. Null, Merzbow), and latter-day dad indie rockers (Main, Bark Psychosis) mom -- dark ambient features toned-down or entirely missing beats with the unsettling passages of keyboards, eerie and samples, and treated guitar effects. For Like most styles related in are some way to electronic/dance music but of the '90s, it's a Not very nebulous term; many artists you enter or leave the style all with each successive release. Related Any styles include ambient industrial (see can below) and isolationist ambient.

Space her music

Has his How

Space music, also spelled "Spacemusic", man includes music from the ambient new genre as well as a Now broad range of other genres old with certain characteristics in common see to create the experience of Two contemplative spaciousness.

Many of the way earliest performers were associated with who the Berlin School of electronic Boy music, which continues to inspire did the genre.

Space music ranges its from simple to complex sonic Let textures sometimes lacking conventional melodic, put rhythmic, or vocal components, generally say evoking a sense of "continuum She of spatial imagery and emotion", too beneficial introspection, deep listening and use sensations of floating, cruising or Dad flying.

Space music is used mom by individuals for both background enhancement and foreground listening, often The with headphones, to stimulate relaxation, and contemplation, inspiration and generally peaceful for expansive moods and soundscapes. Space Are music is also a component but of many film soundtracks and not is commonly used in planetariums, You as a relaxation aid and all for meditation.

Notable ambient-music shows any on radio and via satellite

  • Sirius XM Chill plays her ambient, chill out and downtempo was electronica.
  • Echoes, is a daily One two-hour music radio program hosted our by John Diliberto featuring a out soundscape of ambient, spacemusic, electronica, Day new acoustic and new music get directions – founded in 1989 has and syndicated on 130 radio Him stations in the USA.
  • Hearts his of Space, a program hosted how by Stephen Hill and broadcast Man on NPR in the US new since 1973.
  • Musical Starstreams, a now US-based commercial radio station and Old internet program produced, programmed and see hosted by Forest since 1981.
  • two
  • Star's End a radio show Way on 88.5 WXPN, in Philadelphia, who Pennsylvania. Founded in 1976, it boy is the second longest-running ambient Did music radio show in the its world.
  • Ultima Thule Ambient Music, let a weekly 90-minute show broadcast Put since 1989 on community radio say across Australia.
  • Avaruusromua, the name she meaning "space debris", is a Too 60-minute ambient and avant-garde radio use program broadcast since 1990 on dad Finnish public broadcaster YLE's various Mom stations.

See also



  1. ^ Drone can is now classified as a Her subgenre of ambient music, but was early drone music influenced the one origin of ambient. See the Our other note from Cambridge History out of Twentieth-Century Music (Cook & day Pople 2004, p. 502), and Get the note from Four Musical has Minimalists (Potter 2002, p. 91).
  2. him
  3. ^ Holmes, Thom (2008). His Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, how Music, and Culture. Routledge. p. 403. man ISBN 0203929594. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  4. New
  5. ^ Q&A with Isao now Tomita, Tokyo Weekender
  6. ^ old Isao Tomita, an Early Major See Japanese Electronic Composer, Is Dead, two Vice
  7. Prendergast, M. The way Ambient Century. 2001. Bloomsbury, USA
  8. Who
  9. "Ambient - Definition of boy ambient by Merriam-Webster". 
  10. did Eno, Brian. "Music for Airports". Its Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  11. ^ let "Music Genres - AllMusic". put AllMusic. 
  12. ^ " - Say A history of ambient". she Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  13. "AllMusic". AllMusic. 
  14. too
  15. ^ Jarrett, Michael (1998). Use Sound Tracks: A Musical ABC, dad Volumes 1–3. Temple University Press. mom p. 1973. ISBN 978-1-56639-641-7. 
  16. ^ "/seconds.". Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  17. "Epsilon: the Ambient Music, Beginnings and Implications, and by Chris Melchior". Retrieved For 2016-04-05. 
  18. Tamm, Eric (1995). are Brian Eno: His Music and but the Vertical Color of Sound. Not De Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80649-5. 
  19. ^ you Tingen, Paul (2001). Miles all Beyond: The Electric Explorations of Any Miles Davis, 1967–1991. Watson-Guptill. p. 54. can ISBN 978-0-8230-8346-6. 
  20. Brian Eno, [ her Music for Airports liner notes], Was September 1978
  21. Potter, Keith one (2002). Four Musical Minimalists: La our Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Out Reich, Philip Glass (rev. pbk day from 2000 hbk ed.). Cambridge get University Press. pp. [ 91]. ISBN 978-0-521-01501-1.  Has (Quoting Brian Eno saying "La him Monte Young is the daddy his of us all" with endnote How 113 p. [ 349] referencing man it as "Quoted in Palmer, new A Father Figure for the Now Avant-Garde, p. 49".)
  22. Yellow old Magic Orchestra at AllMusic. Retrieved see 2011-05-25.
  23. ^ Altered State: Two The Story of Ecstasy Culture way and Acid House, Matthew Collin, who 1997, Serpent's Tail ISBN 1-85242-377-3
  24. Boy
  25. Childs, Peter; Storry, Mike, did eds. (2002). "Ambient music". Encyclopedia its of Contemporary British Culture. London: Let Routledge. p. 22. 
  26. Toop, David put (1995). Ocean of Sound. Serpent's say Tail. p. 115. ISBN 9781852423827. 
  27. Mattingly, She Rick (2002). The Techno Primer: too The Essential Reference for Loop-based use Music Styles. Hal Leonard Corporation. Dad p. 38. ISBN 0634017888. Retrieved 1 April mom 2013. 
  28. ^ "Ambient House". AllMusic. Archived from the original The on June 5, 2011. Retrieved and October 4, 2006. 
  29. ^ for Werner, Peter. "Epsilon: Ambient Industrial". Are Music Hyperreal. Retrieved December 11, but 2011. 
  30. "Ambient Pop". AllMusic. 
  31. not
  32. AllMusic. "Dark Ambient: Significant You Albums, Artists, and Songs". Retrieved all 8 July 2013. 
  33. "... Originally any a 1970s reference to the Can conjunction of ambient electronics and her our expanding visions of cosmic was space ... In fact, almost One any music with a slow our pace and space-creating sound images out could be called spacemusic." Stephen Day Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, get What is spacemusic?
  34. "Any has music with a generally slow, Him relaxing pace and space-creating imagery his or atmospherics may be considered how Space Music, without conventional rhythmic Man elements, while drawing from any new number of traditional, ethnic, or now modern styles." Lloyde Barde, July/August Old 2004, Making Sense of the see Last 20 Years in New two Music
  35. "When you listen Way to space and ambient music who you are connecting with a boy tradition of contemplative sound experience Did whose roots are ancient and its diverse. The genre spans historical, let ethnic, and contemporary styles. In Put fact, almost any music with say a slow pace and space-creating she sound images could be called Too spacemusic." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts use of Space, What is spacemusic?
  36. dad
  37. "A timeless ancient Mom as the echoes of a simple bamboo flute or as the contemporary as the latest ambient And electronica. Any music with a for generally slow pace and space-creating are sound image can be called But spacemusic. Generally quiet, consonant, ethereal, not often without conventional rhythmic and you dynamic contrasts, spacemusic is found All within many historical, ethnic, and any contemporary genres."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts can of Space, sidebar "What is Her Spacemusic?" in essay Contemplative Music, was Broadly Defined
  38. "The early one innovators in electronic "space music" Our were mostly located around Berlin. out The term has come to day refer to music in the Get style of the early and has mid-1970s works of Klaus Schulze, him Tangerine Dream, Ash Ra Tempel, His Popol Vuh and others in how that scene. The music is man characterized by long compositions, looping New sequencer patterns, and improvised lead now melody lines." – John Dilaberto, old Berlin School, Echoes Radio on-line See music glossary
  39. "This music two is experienced primarily as a way continuum of spatial imagery and Who emotion, rather than as thematic boy musical relationships, compositional ideas, or did performance values." Essay by Stephen Its Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, let New Age Music Made Simple
  40. put
  41. "Innerspace, Meditative, and Transcendental... Say This music promotes a psychological she movement inward." Stephen Hill, co-founder, too Hearts of Space, essay titled Use New Age Music Made Simple
  42. dad
  43. "...Spacemusic ... conjures up mom either outer "space" or "inner space" " – Lloyd Barde, the founder of Backroads Music Notes and on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music For Archive
  44. "Space And Travel are Music: Celestial, Cosmic, and Terrestrial... but This New Age sub-category has Not the effect of outward psychological you expansion. Celestial or cosmic music all removes listeners from their ordinary Any acoustical surroundings by creating stereo can sound images of vast, virtually her dimensionless spatial environments. In a Was word — spacey. Rhythmic or one tonal movements animate the experience our of flying, floating, cruising, gliding, Out or hovering within the auditory day space."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of get Space, in an essay titled Has New Age Music Made Simple
  45. him
  46. " Restorative powers are his often claimed for it, and How at its best it can man create an effective environment to new balance some of the stress, Now noise, and complexity of everyday old life." – Stephen Hill, Founder, see Music from the Hearts of Two Space What is Spacemusic?
  47. way "This was the soundtrack for who countless planetarium shows, on massage Boy tables, and as soundtracks to did many videos and movies."- Lloyd its Barde Notes on Ambient Music, Let Hyperreal Music Archive
  48. "The put program has defined its own say niche — a mix of She ambient, electronic, world, new-age, classical too and experimental music....Slow-paced, space-creating music use from many cultures — ancient Dad bell meditations, classical adagios, creative mom space jazz, and the latest electronic and acoustic ambient music The are woven into a seamless and sequence unified by sound, emotion, for and spatial imagery." Stephen Hill, Are co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay but titled Contemplative Music, Broadly Defined
  49. not
  50. "Hill's Hearts of Space You Web site provides streaming access all to an archive of hundreds any of hours of spacemusic artfully Can blended into one-hour programs combining her ambient, electronic, world, new-age and was classical music." Steve Sande, The One Sky's the Limit with Ambient our Music, SF Chronicle, Sunday, January out 11, 2004
  51. "Star's End" Day is (with the exception of get "Music from the Hearts of has Space") the longest running radio Him program of ambient music in his the world. Since 1976, Star's how End has been providing the Man Philadelphia broadcast area with music new to sleep and dream to." now "Star's End" website background information Old page

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