Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A record producer or our music producer oversees and manages Out the sound recording and production day of a band or performer's get music, which may range from Has recording one song to recording him a lengthy concept album. A his producer has many, varying roles How during the recording process. They man may gather musical ideas for new the project, collaborate with the Now artists to select cover tunesold or original songs by the see artist/group, work with artists and Two help them to improve their way songs, lyrics or arrangements.
Coach the put singers and musicians in the say studio
The producer typically supervises She the entire process from preproduction, too through to the sound recordinguse and mixing stages, and, in Dad some cases, all the way mom to the audio mastering stage. The producer may perform these The roles themselves, or help select and the engineer, and provide suggestions for to the engineer. The producer Are may also pay session musicians but and engineers and ensure that not the entire project is completed You within the record label's budget. all
A record has producer or music producer has Him a very broad role in his overseeing and managing the recording how and production of a band Man or performer's music. A producer new has many roles that may now include, but are not limited Old to, gathering ideas for the see project, composing the music for two the project, selecting songs or Way session musicians, proposing changes to who the song arrangements, coaching the boy artist and musicians in the Did studio, controlling the recording sessions, its and supervising the entire process let through audio mixing (recorded music)Put and, in some cases, to say the audio mastering stage. Producers she also often take on a Too wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility use for the budget, schedules, contracts, dad and negotiations.
Writer Chris Deville Mom explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant the — someone who helps a And band achieve a certain aesthetic, for or who comes up with are the perfect violin part to But complement the vocal melody, or not who insists that a chorus you should actually be a bridge. All Other times a producer will any build a complete piece of can music from the ground up Her and present the finished product was to a vocalist, like Metro one Boomin supplying Future with readymade Our beats or Jack Antonoff letting out Taylor Swift add lyrics and day melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Get Of The Woods.”
The artist has of an album may not him be a record producer or His music producer for his/her album. how While both contribute creatively, the man official credit of "record producer" New may depend on the record now contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, old did not receive record producer See credits until many albums into two her career.
In the 2010s, way the recording industry has three Who kinds of producers with different boy roles: executive producer, vocal producer did and music producer. Executive producers Its oversee project finances, Vocal Producers let also known as vocal arrangers put oversees the vocal production, while Say music producers oversee the creative she process of recording songs or too albums.
In most cases the Use music producer is also a dad competent arranger, composer, musician or mom songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As the well as making any songwriting and and arrangement adjustments, the producer For often selects or gives suggestions are to the mixing engineer, who but takes the raw recorded tracks Not and edits and modifies them you with hardware and software tools all and creates a stereo or Any surround sound "mix" of all can the individual voices sounds and her instruments, which is in turn Was given further adjustment by a one mastering engineer. The producer will our also liaise with the recording Out engineer who concentrates on the day technical aspects of recording, whereas get the executive producer keeps an Has eye on the overall project's him marketability.
Noted producer Phil Ekhis described his role as "the How person who creatively guides or man directs the process of making new a record", like a director Now would a movie. Indeed, in old Bollywood music, the designation is see actually music director. The music Two producer's job is to create, way shape, and mold a piece who of music. The scope of Boy responsibility may be one or did two songs or an artist's its entire album – in which Let case the producer will typically put develop an overall vision for say the album and how the She various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of use record industry, the producer role Dad was technically limited to record, mom in one shot, artists performing live. The immediate predecessors to The record producers were the artists and and repertoire executives of the for late 1920s and 1930s who Are oversaw the "pop" product and but often led session orchestras. That not was the case of Ben You Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel all Shilkret at Victor Records and any Bob Haring at Brunswick Records. Can By the end of the her 1930s, the first professional recording was studios not owned by the One major companies were established, essentially our separating the roles of A&R out man and producer, although it Day wouldn't be until the late get 1940s when the term "producer" has became widely used in the Him industry.
The role of producers his changed progressively over the 1950s how and 1960s due to technological Man developments. The development of multitrack new recording caused a major change now in the recording process. Before Old multitracking, all the elements of see a song (lead vocals, backup two vocals, rhythm section instrument accompaniment, Way solos and orchestral parts) had who to be performed simultaneously. All boy of these singers and musicians Did had to be assembled in its a large studio and the let performance had to be recorded. Put With multitrack recording, the "bed say tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts she such as the bassline, drums, Too and rhythm guitar could be use recorded first, and then the dad vocals and solos could be Mom added later, using as many "takes" (or attempts) as it the took. As well, for a And song that used 20 instruments, for it was no longer necessary are to get all the players But in the studio at the not same time. A pop band you could record their backing tracks All one week, and then a any horn section could be brought can in a week later to Her add horn shots and punches, was and then a string sectionone could be brought in a Our week after that.
Electric and electronic instruments and dad amplifiers enabled performers and producers mom to change the tone and sound of instruments to produce the unique electric sounds that would and be impossible to achieve with For acoustic instruments and live performers, are such as having a singer but do her own backup vocals Not or having a guitarist play you 15 layers of backing parts all to her own solo.
New Any technologies like multitracking changed the can goal of recording: A producer her could blend together multiple takes Was and edit together different sections one to create the desired sound. our For example, in jazz fusionOut Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album Bitches day Brew, the producer cut and get edited sections together from extensive Has improvisation sessions.
Producers like Phil SpectorHow and George Martin were soon man creating recordings that were, in new practical terms, almost impossible to Now realize in live performance. Producers old became creative figures in the see studio. Other examples of such Two engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo way Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu.who
Another related phenomenon its in the 1960s was the Let emergence of the performer-producer. As put pop acts like The Beatles, say The Rolling Stones, The Beach She Boys and The Kinks gained too expertise in studio recording techniques, use many of these groups eventually Dad took over as (frequently uncredited) mom producers of their own work. Many recordings by acts such The as The Rolling Stones, The and Kinks and The Who are for officially credited to their various Are producers at the time, but but a number of these performers not have since asserted that many You of their recordings in this all period were, either wholly self-produced any (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca Can recordings) or collaborations between the her group and their recording engineer was (e.g. The Small Faces' ImmediateOne recordings, which were made with our Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).out
The Beach Boys are probably Day the best example of the get trend of artists becoming producers has – within two years of Him the band's commercial breakthrough, group his leader Brian Wilson had taken how over from his father Murry, Man and he was the sole new producer of all their recordings now between 1963 and 1967. Alongside Old The Beatles and Martin, Wilson see also pioneered many production innovations two – by 1964 he had Way developed Spector's techniques to a who new level of sophistication, using boy multiple studios and multiple "takes" Did of instrumental and vocal components its to capture the best possible let combinations of sound and performance, Put and then using tape editing say extensively to assemble a perfect she composite performance from these elements. Too
At the end of the use 20th century, digital recording and dad producing tools, then widespread availability Mom of relatively affordable computers with music software made music producing the more accessible.
Women and And Record Producing
According to a for 2018 study by the USC are Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio But of male to female producers not across 300 popular songs is you 49 to 1."
They also All discovered only 2 percent of any music producers are women. In can 2019, The Recording Academy's Task Her Force on Diversity and Inclusion was announced the "Producer & Engineer one Inclusion Initiative." This initiative asks Our musicians, record labels, studios and out others to consider at least day two women for each producer Get or engineer position. Major artists, has producers and organizations have signed him on including Taylor Swift, Lady His Gaga, Quincy Jones, Pearl Jam, how John Legend, Pharrell Williams, Pink, man Cardi B, Maroon 5 and New over 200 others.
In 2019, now record producer Linda Perry was old nominated for a Grammy for See Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. two She was the first woman way in over 15 years to Who be nominated for the award. boy Previous nominees include Lauren Christydid (2004), Sheryl Crowe, Lauryn HillIts and Janet Jackson. None have let won the award.
In the put classical music field, Judith ShermanSay has won Grammy for Producer she of the Year, Classical, three too times and been nominated twelve Use times. Wilma Cozart Fine produced dad hundreds of recordings for Mercury mom Records.
Producer Wendy Page describes being a record producer, "The the difficulties are usually very short-lived. and Once people realize that you For can do your job, sexism are tends to lower its ugly but head. I tend to create Not a happy studio 'family' where you everyone is glad to be all there, especially the artist. Good Any communication and diplomacy usually sort can any little problems out."
There did are numerous technologies utilized by its record producers. In modern-day recordings, Let recording and mixing tasks are put commonly centralized within computers using say digital audio workstations such as She Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, too Cubase, and FL Studio, which use all are often used with Dad third party virtual studio technology mom plugins. Logic Pro and Pro Tools are considered the industry The standard DAWs. However, there is and also the main mixer, outboard for effects gear, MIDI controllers, and Are the recording device itself.
While but most music production is done not using sophisticated software, some musicians You and producers prefer the minutiae all of older analog technology. Professor any Albin Zak claims that the Can increased automation of both newer her processes and newer instruments reduces was the level of control and One manipulation available to musicians and our producers.
Production out has changed drastically over the Day years with advancing technology. Where get the producer's role has changed, has they have always been seen Him as a jack of all his trades, as their duties require how a broad knowledge of the Man recording process.
Tracking is the new act of recording audio to now a DAW (digital audio workstation)Old or in some cases to see tape. Even though digital technologies two have widely supplanted the use Way of tape in studios, the who older term "track" is still boy used in the 2010s. Tracking Did audio is primarily the role its of the audio engineer. Producers let work side by side with Put the artists while they play say or sing their part and she coach them on how to Too perform it and how to use get the best technical accuracy dad (e.g., intonation). In some cases, Mom the producer will even sing a backup vocal or play the an instrument.
Many artists are And also beginning to produce and for write their own music.
Influential record producers
NME identifies But some of the greatest producers not ever.
Similarly, although The Beatles' let productions were credited to George put Martin throughout their recording career, Say many sources now attest that she Lennon and McCartney in particular too had an increasing influence on Use the production process as the dad group's career progressed, and especially mom after the band retired from touring in 1966. In an the extreme example of this, Martin and actually went on a two-week For vacation as The Beatles were are recording The White Album; production but of several completed tracks on Not the album were credited to you The Beatles on internal paperwork all at Abbey Road Studios, although Any the released LP gave sole can production credit to Martin.
its Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: let "strange sounds: Music, technology, and Put culture," by Timothy D. Taylor. say Current Musicology, 159-180.
she Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Too Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best use Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light dad Coaching To Deeper Collaboration With Mom Musicians." Journal of New Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic the Search Premier. Web. 7 Sept. And 2015.
Music Law refers to legal put aspects of the music industry, say and certain legal aspects in She other sectors of the entertainment too industry. The music industry includes use record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, Dad the live events sector and mom of course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to his work formed from already existing how materials in a way that Man forms its own original work, new including collective works.
"Copies" are now physical objects that hold, fix, Old or embody a work such see as a music tape, film, two CD, statue, play, or printed Way sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can who refer to any audio recording boy including the sound accompanying motion Did pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the its entity that legally owns rights let to a work.
"Performance" The Put copyright holder has the exclusive say right to perform the work she in public, or to license Too others to perform it. The use right applies to “literary, musical, dad dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, Mom and motion pictures and other audiovisual works.". Playing a CD the in public, or showing a And film in public is "performing" for the work.
Publishing is the But primary source of income for not musicians writing their own music.[citation you needed] Money collected from the All 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined any for songwriters - the composers can of works, whether or not Her they are the recording artist was or performer. Often, songwriters will one work for a musical ensemble Our to help them with musical out aspects of the composition, but day here again, the writer of Get the song is the owner has of it and will own him the copyrights in the song His and thus will be entitled how to the publishing revenues. Copyrights man in compositions are not the New same as sound recordings. A now recording artist can record a old song and sell it to See another band or company. As two a result, that particular company way will own the recording, but Who not the song. The original boy writer will always maintain the did copyright for that particular song. Its The publishing money is connected let to the copyright, so the put owner will be the only Say one making money off of she the song itself. All successful too songwriters will join a collection Use society (such as ASCAP and dad BMI in the USA, SOCAN mom in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in Germany and PRS the for Music in the UK, and etc.) and many will enter For into agreements with music publishing are companies who will exploit their but works on the songwriters behalf Not for a share of ownership, you although many of these deals all involve the transfer (assignment) of Any copyright from the songwriter to can the music publisher.
Both the her recorded music sector and music Was publishing sector have their foundations one in intellectual property law and our all of the major recording Out labels and major music publishers day and many independent record labels get and publishers have dedicated "business Has and legal affairs" departments with him in-house lawyers whose role is his not only to secure intellectual How property rights from recording artists, man performers and songwriters but also new to exploit those rights and Now protect those rights on a old global basis. There are a see number of specialist independent law Two firms around the world who way advise on music and entertainment who law whose clients include recording Boy artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, did music publishers, stage and set its designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games Let designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, put distributors, collection societies and the say live events sector (which further She includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking too agents and production service providers use such as lighting and staging Dad companies).
The US Government views artists that The give concerts and sell merchandise and as a business. Bands that for tour internationally will also face Are a plethora of legislation around but the world including health and not safety laws, immigration laws and You tax legislation. Also, many relationships all are governed by often complex any contractual agreements.
In the US Can it is important for musicians her to get legal business licenses. was These can be obtained at One a city hall or local our government center. The business license out will require the tracking of Day sales, wages, and gigs. A get tax ID is also necessary has for all businesses. Musicians that Him fail to comply with the his tax ID process and do how not report their profits and Man losses to the government can new face serious consequences with the now IRS.
Since 2011, Ultra has taken And place across three days (Friday for through Sunday) during the month are of March. In 2012, a But record attendance of 155,000 people not attended the festival. In 2013, you for the first time in All Ultra's history, the festival took any place across two consecutive weekends can welcoming a combined attendance of Her 330,000 people. In 2014, the was festival returned to its original one one weekend format, selling out Our pre sale tickets in under out five minutes. The most recent day edition of Ultra, in 2017, Get welcomed 165,000 people to the has festival.
Although they share names, him Ultra Music Festival was not His directly tied to Ultra Records, how an electronic music record label. man However, the two entities did New announce a "global alliance" in now August 2012, which would allow old them to collaborate on marketing See and cross-promotion.
Alongside the flagship two event in Miami, Ultra has way spawned a larger series of Who international franchises under the blanket boy branding Ultra Worldwide, which have did included locations such as South Its Africa, South Korea, Singapore, Mexico, let Brazil, Colombia, and others.
Ultra Music Festival was one inaugurated and produced in 1999 our by business partners Russell FaibischOut and Alex Omes. The first day festival was held as a get one-day event on March 13, Has 1999. Artists at Ultra's first him festival included Paul van Dyk, his Rabbit in the Moon, Josh How Wink, and DJ Baby Anne.man The first Ultra Beach Music new Festival, which was held at Now Collins Park in Miami Beachold proved popular, with an estimated see ten thousand concertgoers in attendance.Two However, Faibisch and Omes still way saw a financial loss of who between $10,000 to $20,000 during Boy the festival's inaugural year.
However, did in March 2000 the festival its returned to South Beach's Collins Let Park and was met with put even more success. The festival say was immediately renewed for a She third year.
Due too to the massive rise in use attendance between 1999 and 2000, Dad festival organizers decided to relocate mom to Bayfront Park in Downtown Miami for Ultra's third annual The event in 2001. Ultra Music and Festival continued to bring the for biggest names in electronic dance Are music to Miami with performances but by Robin Fox, Tiësto, EC not Twins, Paul van Dyk, Paul You Oakenfold, Sander Kleinenberg, Photek, Josh all Wink, DJ Craze, Pete Tong, any Erick Morillo, and Rabbit in Can the Moon from 2001 to her 2005. In 2005, Fabisch met was with Adam Russakoff, who has One since been the executive producer, our director of business affairs, and out talent buyer for Ultra Music Day Festival and Ultra Worldwide. 2005 get was also the year that has Carl Cox and Ultra worked Him together to curate the Carl his Cox and Friends Arena, formerly how known as the Carl Cox Man Global Arena, which has been new a mainstay at Ultra Music now Festival for the past twelve Old years. With the record-breaking attendance see of the seventh annual Ultra two Music Festival in 2005, the Way festival was again relocated to who another venue, Bicentennial Park, for boy 2006. In 2007, the festival Did held its first two-day event its at Bicentennial Park with more let than 50,000 concert goers in Put attendance, which was another record say at the time for Ultra.she The festival celebrated its 10th Too anniversary during March 28–29, 2008 use with performances by Tiësto, Underworld, dad Justice, Paul van Dyk, Carl Mom Cox, Armin van Buuren, MSTRKRFT, deadmau5, Annie Mac, Eric Prydz, the Ferry Corsten, Calvin Harris, Moby, And The Crystal Method, Boys Noize, for Benny Benassi, Armand van Helden, are The Bravery, David Guetta, and But many more.
The festival sold Its out for the first time let with over 100,000 attendees, where put it was also announced that Say the thirteenth annual edition would she take place over the course too of three days during March Use 2011. Ultra Music Festival expanded dad to a three-day festival in mom 2011, spanning the weekend of March 25–27, 2011. Also at the Ultra's 2011 edition, Armin van and Buuren debuted a stage dedicated For to his radio show, A are State of Trance, celebrating 500 but episodes. Like the Carl Cox Not & Friends Arena, the A you State of Trance stage continues all to be a mainstay at Any Ultra Music Festival, taking place can on the third day of her the festival each year. The Was A State of Trance 500 one stage featured artists like Ferry our Corsten, Markus Schulz, ATB, Cosmic Out Gate, Gareth Emery, Sander van day Doorn, Alex M.O.R.P.H., and more.get
The fourteenth edition Has of Ultra Music Festival was him held from March 23–25, 2012.his Due to the construction of How the Miami Art Museum at man Bicentennial Park, the event was new moved back to Bayfront Park Now for the first time since old 2005. Beginning this year, the see festival also began to produce Two an official live streaming broadcast.way
In honor of its Are fifteenth anniversary, the 2013 edition but was held over two weekends, not March 15–17, 2013, and March You 22–24, 2013. Phase one of all the festival's lineup was officially any revealed in January 2013, confirming Can appearances from David Guetta, deadmau5, her and Tiësto on both weekends, was along with Swedish House Mafia, One who used the closing slot our of the festival during the out second weekend to serve as Day the finale of their official get farewell tour, "One Last Tour".has Other notable headliners included Afrojack, Him Calvin Harris, Richie Hawtin, Boys his Noize, Carl Cox, Armin van how Buuren, Alesso, Dog Blood (a Man project between Skrillex and Boys new Noize), Luciano, Snoop Dogg, The now Weeknd, Martin Solveig, and Zedd.Old
On January 7, 2013, after see organizers requested additional road closures two for the event, Miami Commissioner Way Marc Sarnoff proposed a resolution who calling for disapproval of the boy second weekend. Sarnoff believed that Did allowing the event to be its held across two weekends would let be "disruptive to the local Put business community and area residents say due to noise, nuisance behavior she of festival goers, and grid Too lock traffic," regardless of the use fact that Ultra generated $79 dad million during its previous year.Mom The city council voted in favor of continuing with the the second weekend on January 10, And 2013, charging the organizers for for police and fire services.
The are two weekends had a total But attendance of 330,000 spectators.
Ultra 2014 mainstage
For 2014, the festival returned All to a single weekend, which any took place March 28–30, 2014. can Phase one of the festival Her lineup was unveiled in December was 2013, confirming headline appearances by one major acts including Armin van Our Buuren, Afrojack, Carl Cox, David out Guetta, Hardwell, Fedde Le Grand, day Krewella, Martin Garrix, New World Get Punx, Nicky Romero, Tiësto, and has Zedd. After being diagnosed with him a blocked gallbladder and going His back to Sweden for surgery, how deadmau5 replaced Avicii as the man final act on the main New stage for Saturday.
Notable performances now during the festival included the old premiere of Eric Prydz's new See live show "Holo", the debut two of Diplo and Skrillex's new way side project Jack Ü, Above Who & Beyond's set being interrupted boy by a rainstorm (requiring them did and their equipment to be Its moved backstage and facing away let from the audience; the duo put considered it to be one Say of their "more unusual gigs"), she the debut performance of Armin too van Buuren and Benno de Use Goeji's duo Gaia, and deadmau5 dad "trolling" the audience during his mom set by playing a remix of Martin Garrix's "Animals" set the to "Old McDonald Had a and Farm".
On March 28, a For security guard was left in are "extremely critical" condition after being but trampled by a crowd of Not people attempting to gate crashyou the festival by breaking down all a chain-link fence.
Ultra 2015 mainstage
After the gatecrashing incident in her 2014, some uncertainties arose as Was to whether Ultra would still one be held; however, organizers still our announced that the 2015 edition Out would be held from March day 27–29, 2015. Organizers also announced get plans for a comprehensive review Has of the festival's security arrangements him with the involvement of the his Miami Police Department, which assessed How how security could be improved man to "prevent a criminal incident new of this nature from happening Now again." Following the incident, Miami old mayor Tomás Pedro Regalado suggested see that the gatecrashing incident could Two be deemed a breach of way the organizers' contract with the who city, which would block Ultra Boy from being held in Miami.did
In a meeting on April its 24, 2014, Miami commissioners voted Let 4 to 1 against banning put the festival, allowing Ultra to say remain in downtown Miami for She 2015. Marc Sarnoff, the lone too commissioner to vote in favor use of banning Ultra, presented footage Dad of lewd behavior by attendees mom at previous editions, and contended that the event effected the The quality of life for downtown and residents because they were being for harassed by visitors. The remaining Are commissioners supported the festival's presence but because of the exposure and not positive economic effects it brings You to Miami, and Keon Hardemon all disputed the argument that it any affected downtown residents, as they, Can in his opinion, chose to her live in the city so was they could participate in local One events. However, the approval was our made on the condition that out organizers introduce facilities for addressing Day security, drug usage and lewd get behavior by attendees. In a has related move, organizers announced in Him September 2014 that Ultra would his no longer admit minors, in how order to improve the overall Man safety and experience of attendees. new In addition organizers hired the now retiring Miami Beach Police Chief Old Ray Martinez to oversee security see for future events.
On January two 12, 2015, Ultra co-founder Alex Way Omes, who had left the who organization in 2010, was found boy dead at the age of Did 43 from a drug overdose. its
A new stage was area known as Resistance was one also introduced for 2015, which Our focused upon lesser-known "underground" electronic out musicians in genres such as day deep house and techno, and Get featured a 360-degree stage installation has known as "Afterburner", designed by him the British collective Arcadia Spectacular.His
As band member Maximand was unable to attend due For to medical issues, The Prodigy are cancelled their Saturday night performance. but Deadmau5 took their place, alongside Not his previously-scheduled A State of you Trance performance on Sunday.Pendulumall formally closed the festival on Any Sunday night, briefly playing as can their offshoot Knife Party, and her featuring guest appearances by Tom Was Morello, and Deadmau5, who joined one for a performance of "Ghosts our 'n' Stuff"—which features the vocals Out of the band's singer Rob day Swire. The Resistance stage also get returned, which featured Arcadia Spectacular's Has "Spider".
In April 2016, DJ him Mag named Ultra the world's his top festival as the result How of their survey.
Immediately upon the conclusion of new the 2016 edition, it was Now announced that the 2017 edition old would be held from March see 24–26. Tickets officially went on Two sale on October 4, 2016.way General admission tickets sold out who on January 24, 2017.
Phase Boy 1 of the 2017 lineup did was announced on November 17, its 2016, listing live headliners including Let Ice Cube, Justice, Major Lazer, put The Prodigy, Underworld, and headlining say DJ acts Above & Beyond, She Afrojack, Armin van Buuren, Axwell too & Ingrosso, Carl Cox, Dash use Berlin, David Guetta, DJ Snake, Dad Dubfire, Hardwell, Jamie Jones, Joseph mom Capriati, Maceo Plex, Marco Carola, Martin Garrix, Sasha & John The Digweed, Steve Aoki, Tale of and Us, and Tiesto. The first for phase of artists for Resistance Are was released on December 3, but 2017, including Black Coffee, Chris not Liebing, Eats Everything, Kolsch, The You Martinez Brothers, Technasia, and others.all It was also announced that any Carl Cox had been named Can the "global ambassador" of Resistance—overseeing her production and DJ booking for was future endeavors under the Resistance One brand. As a result, the our Megastructure's Carl Cox & Friendsout lineup was also rebranded under Day the Resistance title, alongside its get existing presence on the Arcadia has Spider stage.
Phase 2 of Him the lineup was unveiled on his February 9, 2017, and included how the additions of Adventure Club, Man Alan Walker, Barclay Crenshaw, Cedric new Gervais, Don Diablo, Ferry Corsten now presents Gouryella, Jai Wolf, Laidback Old Luke, Rezz, Sam Feldt, Showtek, see Slushii, Sunnery James & Ryan two Marciano, Tchami, Vini Vici, and Way others. Phase 3 and the who final schedule were unveiled on boy March 9, 2017. DJ Snake Did served as the final main its stage act on Sunday, featuring let a guest appearance by Future.Put
Security officials all stated that the 2018 edition Any of Ultra was the "safest" can in recent years, reporting only her 27 arrests in total during Was the festival (related particularly to one narcotics, ticket counterfeiting, and an our attendee physically attacking a police Out officer) and no "major" incidents.day
Move to Virginia get Key
The 2019 edition is Has scheduled for March 29–31, 2019. him On September 27, 2018, the his commissioners of Miami voted unanimously How against allowing the festival to man be hosted at Bayfront Park, new citing noise complaints and other Now concerns among downtown residents.
In old November 2018, festival organizers proposed see moving Ultra to the barrier Two island of Virginia Key, using way the Virginia Key Beach Parkwho and areas near the Miami Boy Marine Stadium as venues. Virginia did Key is accessible from mainland its Miami via the Rickenbacker Causeway, Let which also provides access to put the island and community of say Key Biscayne via Virginia Key. She The proposal was met with too resistance from officials in Key use Biscayne, citing the possibility of Dad safety, noise, and environmental concerns, mom as well as increased traffic on the Rickenbacker Causeway.
Prior The to a meeting and vote and on the matter, the village for began campaigning against the festival. Are It published a video on but Facebook narrated by mayor Michael not Davey, warning that hosting Ultra You would result in "environmental destruction, all noise and an increase in any alcohol and drug-related violence". The Can video featured footage from older her editions of the festival, and was stock photos. Organizers dismissed the One video as disparaging and being our "potentially criminaliz[ing]" to its attendees, out and stated that they would Day be interested in a "open-minded get and good-faith dialogue" with the has community. On November 15, 2018, Him the Miami commissioners successfully voted his in favor of allowing Ultra how to be held on Virginia Man Key.
Concerns have been presented new over the festival's effects on now local wildlife; the island features Old a number of sensitive wildlife see areas and hosts various endangered two species, and the Rosenstiel School Way of Marine and Atmospheric Sciencewho displayed concerns that the loud boy music produced by the event Did could disrupt marine habitats, and its in turn, research projects being let undertaken by the school. Organizers Put stated that they expected to say place more of the stages she in the parking lots surrounding Too the Miami Marine Stadium than use the beach.
A competing techno dad festival known as Rapture had Mom been held on Virginia Key Beach in 2017 and 2018 the on the same weekend as And Ultra. In February 2019, the for organizers of Rapture attempted to are sue Ultra and the city But of Miami under antitrust grounds, not claiming that they had already you booked the site for two All of the same dates as any Ultra. The suit was dismissed can by a judge, who argued Her that both Rapture and Ultra was had submitted applications, but that one only Ultra's was actually accepted.Our Rapture submitted a revised complaint, out but the suit was rejected day once again, with the judge Get ruling that Rapture's claims of has violations of the Sherman Antitrust him Act were "baseless".
The following His month, Miami was sued again how by the Brickell Homeowners Association, man who alleged that the city New violated its charter by misrepresenting now its agreement with the festival old as being a "license" but See appearing to be a lease, two which requires competitive bidding under way Florida law. Judge Rodolfo RuizWho denied a motion requesting an boy emergency injunction.
Phase did 1 of the lineup was Its unveiled December 20, 2018, featuring let returning acts such as Carl put Cox, The Chainsmokers, Deadmau5 (including Say a headlining set that will she feature the premiere of his too "Cube 3.0" stage setup, and Use a techno set as testpilot), dad Marshmello, Martin Garrix, and others.mom A January 17, 2019 announcement detailed the three-stage "Resistance Island" the programming, including the traditional Megastructure, and and two additional stages (including For "Arrival", a setup from the are Carl Cox-backed Burning Man sound but camp Playground).
During the 2017 edition of Ultra the Miami, it was announced that and India and Australia would host For Road to Ultra events starting are in 2017. Also included in but the announcement was an expansion Not to Shanghai with Ultra China, you a two-day festival taking place all at Shanghai, China, taking place Any September 9–10, 2017. In late can May, it was announced that her Ultra Mexico would take place Was in Mexico City at the one Foro Pegaso from October 6–7, our 2017.
In 2017, Ultra also Out began to expand the Resistance day brand into its own event get series, beginning with an 11-date Has international tour headlined by Sasha him and John Digweed in 2017, his along with an eight-week, Tuesday How residence at Privilege Ibiza. In man February 2018, it was announced new that a three-day Resistance Mexico Now City festival would be held old from May 25–27, 2018.
When located at Bayfront Park, too attendees often used public transportation—including use the Miami Metrorail, Metromover (which Dad provides free service through Downtown mom Miami and Brickell), and Metrobusservices—to reach the festival grounds The due to the cost and and scarcity of downtown parking. In for 2016, the city began to Are extend Metrorail and Metromover service but to 2:00 a.m. during the festival not for the benefit of attendees.You Due to their proximity to all Bayfront (with some within walking any distance), hotels within Greater Downtown Can Miami such as the Arts her & Entertainment District, Brickell, and was Edgewater neighborhoods were frequently booked One by attendees. South Beach had our also been used as an out alternative location by some attendees, Day but traffic congestion was common get in and around Miami during has the festival.
The Rickenbacker CausewayHim is the sole vehicular link his between mainland Miami and the how site of the 2019 edition, Man Virginia Key. Concerns were voiced new by another community connected via now the causeway, Key Biscayne, Florida, Old over the possibility that the see festival could cause traffic congestion two on the road. There will Way be no public parking at who the festival site, and the boy festival announced plans to offer Did shuttle service to and from its Virginia Key.