Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A record producer or man music producer oversees and manages new the sound recording and production Now of a band or performer's old music, which may range from see recording one song to recording Two a lengthy concept album. A way producer has many, varying roles who during the recording process. They Boy may gather musical ideas for did the project, collaborate with the its artists to select cover tunesLet or original songs by the put artist/group, work with artists and say help them to improve their She songs, lyrics or arrangements.
Coach the The singers and musicians in the and studio
The producer typically supervises for the entire process from preproduction, Are through to the sound recordingbut and mixing stages, and, in not some cases, all the way You to the audio mastering stage. all The producer may perform these any roles themself, or help select Can the engineer, and provide suggestions her to the engineer. The producer was may also pay session musicians One and engineers and ensure that our the entire project is completed out within the record label's budget. Day
A record producerMan or music producer has a new very broad role in overseeing now and managing the recording and Old production of a band or see performer's music. A producer has two many roles that may include, Way but are not limited to, who gathering ideas for the project, boy composing the music for the Did project, selecting songs or session its musicians, proposing changes to the let song arrangements, coaching the artist Put and musicians in the studio, say controlling the recording sessions, and she supervising the entire process through Too audio mixing (recorded music) and, use in some cases, to the dad audio mastering stage. Producers also Mom often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the the budget, schedules, contracts, and And negotiations. In the 2010s, the for recording industry has two kinds are of producers with different roles: But executive producer and music producer. not Executive producers oversee project finances you while music producers oversee the All creative process of recording songs any or albums. A record producer can who produces a song for Her another producer without receiving recognition was is a ghost producer.
In one most cases the music producer Our is also a competent arranger, out composer, musician or songwriter who day can bring fresh ideas to Get a project. As well as has making any songwriting and arrangement him adjustments, the producer often selects His or gives suggestions to the how mixing engineer, who takes the man raw recorded tracks and edits New and modifies them with hardware now and software tools and creates old a stereo or surround sound See "mix" of all the individual two voices sounds and instruments, which way is in turn given further Who adjustment by a mastering engineer. boy The producer will also liaise did with the recording engineer who Its concentrates on the technical aspects let of recording, whereas the executive put producer keeps an eye on Say the overall project's marketability.
Noted she producer Phil Ek described his too role as "the person who Use creatively guides or directs the dad process of making a record", mom like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the the designation is actually music and director. The music producer's job For is to create, shape, and are mold a piece of music. but The scope of responsibility may Not be one or two songs you or an artist's entire album all – in which case the Any producer will typically develop an can overall vision for the album her and how the various songs Was may interrelate.
At one the beginning of record industry, our the producer role was technically Out limited to record, in one day shot, artists performing live. The get immediate predecessors to record producers Has were the artists and repertoirehim executives of the late 1920s his and 1930s who oversaw the How "pop" product and often led man session orchestras. That was the new case of Ben Selvin at Now Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at old Victor Records and Bob Haring see at Brunswick Records. By the Two end of the 1930s, the way first professional recording studios not who owned by the major companies Boy were established, essentially separating the did roles of A&R man and its producer, although it wouldn't be Let until the late 1940s when put the term "producer" became widely say used in the industry.
The She role of producers changed progressively too over the 1950s and 1960s use due to technological developments. The Dad development of multitrack recording caused mom a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all The the elements of a song and (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm for section instrument accompaniment, solos and Are orchestral parts) had to be but performed simultaneously. All of these not singers and musicians had to You be assembled in a large all studio and the performance had any to be recorded. With multitrack Can recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm her section accompaniment parts such as was the bassline, drums, and rhythm One guitar could be recorded first, our and then the vocals and out solos could be added later, Day using as many "takes" (or get attempts) as it took. As has well, for a song that Him used 20 instruments, it was his no longer necessary to get how all the players in the Man studio at the same time. new A pop band could record now their backing tracks one week, Old and then a horn sectionsee could be brought in a two week later to add horn Way shots and punches, and then who a string section could be boy brought in a week after Did that.
While this facilitated the its recording process and allow multiple let takes, the multitrack recording had Put another profound effect on music say production it enabled producers she and audio engineers to create Too new sounds that would be use impossible to do in a dad live performance style ordering. Examples Mom include the psychedelic rock sound effects of the 1960s, e.g. the playing back the sound of And recorded instruments backward changing the for tape to produce unique sound are effects. During the same period, But the instruments of popular music not began to shift from the you acoustic instruments of traditional musicAll (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, any strings, brass and wind instruments) can to electric piano, electronic organ, Her synthesizer, electric bass and electric was guitar. These new instruments were one electric or electronic, and thus Our they used instrument amplifiers and out speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to day create sound.
Electric and electronic Get instruments and amplifiers enabled performers has and producers to change the him tone and sound of instruments His to produce unique electric sounds how that would be impossible to man achieve with acoustic instruments and New live performers, such as having now a singer do her own old backup vocals or having a See guitarist play 15 layers of two backing parts to her own way solo.
New technologies like multitracking Who changed the goal of recording: boy A producer could blend together did multiple takes and edit together Its different sections to create the let desired sound. For example, in put jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' Say album Bitches Brew, the producer she cut and edited sections together too from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like mom Phil Spector and George Martinwere soon creating recordings that the were, in practical terms, almost and impossible to realize in live For performance. Producers became creative figures are in the studio. Other examples but of such engineers includes Joe Not Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, you and Biddu.
Another can related phenomenon in the 1960s her was the emergence of the Was performer-producer. As pop acts like one The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, our The Beach Boys and The Out Kinks gained expertise in studio day recording techniques, many of these get groups eventually took over as Has (frequently uncredited) producers of their him own work. Many recordings by his acts such as The Rolling How Stones, The Kinks and The man Who are officially credited to new their various producers at the Now time, but a number of old these performers have since asserted see that many of their recordings Two in this period were, either way wholly self-produced (e.g. The Rolling who Stones' Decca recordings) or collaborations Boy between the group and their did recording engineer (e.g. The Small its Faces' Immediate recordings, which were Let made with Olympic Studios engineer put Glyn Johns).
The Beach Boys say are probably the best example She of the trend of artists too becoming producers – within two use years of the band's commercial Dad breakthrough, group leader Brian Wilson mom had taken over from his father Murry, and he was The the sole producer of all and their recordings between 1963 and for 1967. Alongside The Beatles and Are Martin, Wilson also pioneered many but production innovations – by 1964 not he had developed Spector's techniques You to a new level of all sophistication, using multiple studios and any multiple "takes" of instrumental and Can vocal components to capture the her best possible combinations of sound was and performance, and then using One tape editing extensively to assemble our a perfect composite performance from out these elements.
At the end Day of the 20th century, digital get recording and producing tools, then has widespread availability of relatively affordable Him computers with music software made his music producing more accessible.
Equipment and technology
Mixing Man console.
There are numerous technologies new utilized by record producers. In now modern-day recordings, recording and mixing Old tasks are commonly centralized within see computers using digital audio workstationstwo such as Pro Tools, Logic Way Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and FL who Studio, which all are often boy used with third party virtual Did studio technology plugins. Logic Pro its and Pro Tools are considered let the industry standard DAWs. However, Put there is also the main say mixer, outboard effects gear, MIDIshe controllers, and the recording device Too itself.
While most music production use is done using sophisticated software, dad some musicians and producers prefer Mom the minutiae of older analog technology. Professor Albin Zak claims the that the increased automation of And both newer processes and newer for instruments reduces the level of are control and manipulation available to But musicians and producers.
Studio not application
Production has changed drastically you over the years with advancing All technology. Where the producer's role any has changed, they have always can been seen as a jack Her of all trades, as their was duties require a broad knowledge one of the recording process.
Tracking Our is the act of recording out audio to a DAW (digital day audio workstation) or in some Get cases to tape. Even though has digital technologies have widely supplanted him the use of tape in His studios, the older term "track" how is still used in the man 2010s. Tracking audio is primarily New the role of the audio now engineer. Producers work side by old side with the artists while See they play or sing their two part and coach them on way how to perform it and Who how to get the best boy technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). In did some cases, the producer will Its even sing a backup vocal let or play an instrument.
Many put artists are also beginning to Say produce and write their own she music.
Similarly, although The Beatles' the productions were credited to George and Martin throughout their recording career, For many sources now attest that are Lennon and McCartney in particular but had an increasing influence on Not the production process as the you group's career progressed, and especially all after the band retired from Any touring in 1966. In an can extreme example of this, Martin her actually went on a two-week Was vacation as The Beatles were one recording The White Album; production our of several completed tracks on Out the album were credited to day The Beatles on internal paperwork get at Abbey Road Studios, although Has the released LP gave sole him production credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). how Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, Man and culture," by timothy D. new taylor. Current Musicology, , 159-180.now
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Old Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record see Producers' Best Practices For Artistic two Direction—From Light Coaching To Deeper Way Collaboration With Musicians." Journal of who New Music Research 42.4 (2013): boy 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Web. Did 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers to legal him aspects of the music industry, his and certain legal aspects in How other sectors of the entertainment man industry. The music industry includes new record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, Now the live events sector and old of course performers and artists. see
A "compilation" refers to but work formed from already existing not materials in a way that You forms its own original work, all including collective works.
"Copies" are any physical objects that hold, fix, Can or embody a work such her as a music tape, film, was CD, statue, play, or printed One sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can our refer to any audio recording out including the sound accompanying motion Day pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the get entity that legally owns rights has to a work.
"Performance" The Him copyright holder has the exclusive his right to perform the work how in public, or to license Man others to perform it. The new right applies to “literary, musical, now dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, Old and motion pictures and other see audiovisual works.". Playing a CD two in public, or showing a Way film in public is "performing" who the work.
Publishing is the Did primary source of income for its musicians writing their own music.[citation let needed] Money collected from the Put 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined say for songwriters - the composers she of works, whether or not Too they are the recording artist use or performer. Often, songwriters will dad work for a musical ensemble Mom to help them with musical aspects of the composition, but the here again, the writer of And the song is the owner for of it and will own are the copyrights in the song But and thus will be entitled not to the publishing revenues. Copyrights you in compositions are not the All same as sound recordings. A any recording artist can record a can song and sell it to Her another band or company. As was a result, that particular company one will own the recording, but Our not the song. The original out writer will always maintain the day copyright for that particular song. Get The publishing money is connected has to the copyright, so the him owner will be the only His one making money off of how the song itself. All successful man songwriters will join a collection New society (such as ASCAP and now BMI in the USA, SOCAN old in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, See GEMA in Germany and PRS two for Music in the UK, way etc.) and many will enter Who into agreements with music publishing boy companies who will exploit their did works on the songwriters behalf Its for a share of ownership, let although many of these deals put involve the transfer (assignment) of Say copyright from the songwriter to she the music publisher.
Both the too recorded music sector and music Use publishing sector have their foundations dad in intellectual property law and mom all of the major recording labels and major music publishers the and many independent record labels and and publishers have dedicated "business For and legal affairs" departments with are in-house lawyers whose role is but not only to secure intellectual Not property rights from recording artists, you performers and songwriters but also all to exploit those rights and Any protect those rights on a can global basis. There are a her number of specialist independent law Was firms around the world who one advise on music and entertainment our law whose clients include recording Out artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, day music publishers, stage and set get designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games Has designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, him distributors, collection societies and the his live events sector (which further How includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking man agents and production service providers new such as lighting and staging Now companies).
The see US Government views artists that Two give concerts and sell merchandise way as a business. Bands that who tour internationally will also face Boy a plethora of legislation around did the world including health and its safety laws, immigration laws and Let tax legislation. Also, many relationships put are governed by often complex say contractual agreements.
In the US She it is important for musicians too to get legal business licenses. use These can be obtained at Dad a city hall or local mom government center. The business license will require the tracking of The sales, wages, and gigs. A and tax ID is also necessary for for all businesses. Musicians that Are fail to comply with the but tax ID process and do not not report their profits and You losses to the government can all face serious consequences with the any IRS.
Ultra Music has Festival is held in Downtown Him Miami at Bayfront Park. It his was a one-day festival from how 1999 to 2006, then grew Man into a two-day weekend event new from 2007 to 2010. Since now 2011, Ultra has taken place Old across three days (Friday through see Sunday) during the month of two March. In 2012, a record Way attendance of 155,000 people attended who the festival. In 2013, for boy the first time in Ultra’s Did history, the festival took place its across two consecutive weekends welcoming let a combined attendance of 330,000 Put people. In 2014, the festival say returned to its original one she weekend format, selling out pre Too sale tickets in under five use minutes. The most recent edition dad of Ultra, in 2017, welcomed Mom 165,000 people to the festival.
As of 2016, Ultra Music the Festival is home to seven And stages that span the picturesque for Bayfront Park which include the are Main Stage, the Live stage, But the MegaStructure, the Worldwide stage, not the UMF Radio stage, the you Resistance stage, and the Oasis All stage.
Although they share names, any Ultra Music Festival was not can directly tied to Ultra Records, Her an electronic music record label. was However, the two entities did one announce a "global alliance" in Our August 2012, which would allow out them to collaborate on marketing day and cross-promotion.
Ultra can Music Festival was inaugurated and her produced in 1999 by business Was partners Russell Faibisch and Alex one Omes. The first festival was our held as a one-day event Out on March 13, 1999. Artists day at Ultra's first festival included get Paul van Dyk, Rabbit in Has the Moon, Josh Wink, and him DJ Baby Anne. The first his Ultra Beach Music Festival, which How was held at Collins Parkman in Miami Beach proved popular, new with an estimated ten thousand Now concertgoers in attendance. However, Faibisch old and Omes still saw a see financial loss of between $10,000 Two to $20,000 during the festival's way inaugural year.
However, in March who 2000 the festival returned to Boy South Beach's Collins Park and did was met with even more its success. The festival was immediately Let renewed for a third year.put
The festival sold out for boy the first time with over did 100,000 attendees, where it was Its also announced that the thirteenth let annual edition would take place put over the course of three Say days during March 2011. Ultra she Music Festival expanded to a too three-day festival in 2011, spanning Use the weekend of March 25–27, dad 2011. Also at Ultra's 2011 mom edition, Armin van Buuren debuted a stage dedicated to his the radio show, A State of and Trance, celebrating 500 episodes. Like For the Carl Cox & Friends are Arena, the A State of but Trance stage continues to be Not a mainstay at Ultra Music you Festival, taking place on the all third day of the festival Any each year. The A State can of Trance 500 stage featured her artists like Ferry Corsten, Markus Was Schulz, ATB, Cosmic Gate, Gareth one Emery, Sander van Doorn, Alex our M.O.R.P.H., and more.
The fourteenth edition of Ultra day Music Festival was held from get March 23–25, 2012. Due to Has the construction of the Miami him Art Museum at Bicentennial Park, his the event was moved back How to Bayfront Park for the man first time since 2005.
Early new bird pre-sale tickets for Ultra Now Music Festival 2012 sold out old within seconds. Shortly after, pre see sale ticket prices increased from Two $149 to $229. This edition way of Ultra featured artists like who Kraftwerk, Bassnectar, Justice, Avicii, Fatboy Boy Slim, Wolfgang Gartner, Richie Hawtin, did Skrillex, Pretty Lights, M83, Duck its Sauce, Kaskade, and many others.Let Madonna made a special surprise put appearance during Avicii's closing set say on the second night of She Ultra 2012. This was the too day after the international release use of the "Queen of Pop's" Dad twelfth studio album, MDNA. 2012 mom was also the year that Ultra Music Festival debuted its The live stream, Ultra LIVE.
In honor of its for fifteenth anniversary, the 2013 edition Are of Ultra Music Festival was but held over two weekends, March not 15–17, 2013, and March 22–24, You 2013. Phase one of the all festival's lineup was officially revealed any in January 2013, confirming appearances Can from David Guetta, deadmau5, and her Tiësto on both weekends, along was with Swedish House Mafia, who One used the closing slot of our the festival during the second out weekend to serve as the Day finale of their official farewell get tour, "One Last Tour". Other has artists on Ultra's 2013 lineup Him included Afrojack, Calvin Harris, Richie his Hawtin, Boys Noize, Carl Cox, how Armin van Buuren, Alesso, Dog Man Blood (a project between Skrillex new and Boys Noize), Luciano, Snoop now Dogg, The Weeknd, Martin Solveig, Old Zedd, and many more.
On see January 7, 2013, after organizers two requested additional road closures for Way the event, Miami Commissioner Marc who Sarnoff proposed a resolution calling boy for disapproval of the second Did weekend. Sarnoff believed that allowing its the event to be held let across two weekends would be Put "disruptive to the local business say community and area residents due she to noise, nuisance behavior of Too festival goers, and grid lock use traffic," regardless of the fact dad that Ultra generated $79 million Mom during its previous year. The city council voted in favor the of continuing with the second And weekend on January 10, 2013, for charging the organizers for police are and fire services.
Ultra Music But Festival set another record after not its fifteenth edition, welcoming a you combined total of 330,000 people All to Bayfront Park throughout both any weekends.
Ultra can 2014 mainstage
For 2014, the Her festival returned to a single was weekend, which took place March one 28–30, 2014. Phase one of Our the festival lineup was unveiled out in December 2013, confirming headline day appearances by major acts including Get Armin van Buuren, Afrojack, Carl has Cox, David Guetta, Hardwell, Fedde him Le Grand, Krewella, Martin Garrix, His New World Punx, Nicky Romero, how Tiësto, and Zedd. After being man diagnosed with a blocked gallbladderNew and going back to Sweden now for surgery, deadmau5 replaced Aviciiold as the final act on See the main stage for Saturday.two
Notable performances during the festival way included the premiere of Eric Who Prydz's new live show "Holo", boy the debut of Diplo and did Skrillex's new side project Jack Its Ü, Above & Beyond's set let being interrupted by a rainstorm put (requiring them and their equipment Say to be moved backstage and she facing away from the audience, too a scenario the duo felt Use was "one of the more dad unusual gigs we've ever played"), mom the debut performance of Armin van Buuren and Benno de the Goeji's duo Gaia, and deadmau5 and "trolling" the audience during his For set with a remix of are Martin Garrix's "Animals" set to but "Old McDonald Had a Farm".Not
On March 28, a security you guard was left in "extremely all critical" condition after being trampled Any by a crowd of people can attempting to gate crash the her festival by breaking down a Was chain-link fence.
Ultra 2015 mainstage
After our the gatecrashing incident in 2014, Out some uncertainties arose as to day whether Ultra would still be get held; however, organizers still announced Has that the 2015 edition would him be held from March 27–29, his 2015. Organizers also announced plans How for a comprehensive review of man the festival's security arrangements with new the involvement of the Miami Now Police Department, which assessed how old security could be improved to see "prevent a criminal incident of Two this nature from happening again."way Following the incident, Miami mayor who Tomás Pedro Regalado suggested that Boy the gatecrashing incident could be did deemed a breach of the its organizers' contract with the city, Let which would block Ultra from put being held in Miami.
In say a meeting on April 24, She 2014, Miami commissioners voted 4 too to 1 against banning the use festival, allowing Ultra to remain Dad in downtown Miami for 2015. mom Marc Sarnoff, the lone commissioner to vote in favor of The banning Ultra, presented footage of and lewd behavior by attendees at for previous editions, and contended that Are the event effected the quality but of life for downtown residents not because they were being harassed You by visitors. The remaining commissioners all supported the festival's presence because any of the exposure and positive Can economic effects it brings to her Miami, and Keon Hardemon disputed was the argument that it affected One downtown residents, as they, in our his opinion, chose to live out in the city so they Day could participate in local events. get However, the approval was made has on the condition that organizers Him introduce facilities for addressing security, his drug usage and lewd behavior how by attendees. In a related Man move, organizers announced in September new 2014 that Ultra would no now longer admit minors, in order Old to improve the overall safety see and experience of attendees. In two addition organizers hired the retiring Way Miami Beach Police Chief Ray who Martinez to oversee security for boy future events.
On January 12, Did 2015, Ultra co-founder Alex Omes, its who had left the organization let in 2010, was found dead Put at the age of 43say from a drug overdose.
A new stage area day known as Resistance was also Get introduced for 2015, which focused has upon lesser-known "underground" electronic musicians him in genres such as deep His house and techno, and featured how a 360-degree stage installation known man as "Afterburner", designed by the New British collective Arcadia Spectacular.
Ultra (UMF) 2016 old mainstage
The initial lineup of See the 2016 edition, held March two 18–20, 2016 was announced on way December 16, 2015; among others, Who it was revealed that the boy festival would feature the reunions did of Rabbit in the Moon Its and Pendulum, along with other let headliners such as Afrojack, Avicii, put Carl Cox, Die Antwoord, Dubfire, Say Eric Prydz, Hardwell, Kaskade, Kygo, she Miike Snow, Nero, Purity Ring, too Tycho, and others. Phase two Use of the lineup was announced dad in February 2016, including AlunaGeorge, mom Andrew Rayel, The Chainsmokers, Crystal Castles, deadmau5, Galantis, Laidback Luke, the Marshmello, Richie Hawtin, Sam Feldt, and DJ Snake, Steve Angello, and For Tchami. General admission tickets sold are out on January 21, 2016.but
As band member Maxim was Not unable to attend due to you medical issues, The Prodigy cancelled all their Saturday night performance. Deadmau5 Any took their place, alongside his can previously-scheduled A State of Tranceher performance on Sunday.Pendulum formally Was closed the festival on Sunday one night, briefly playing as their our offshoot Knife Party, and featuring Out guest appearances by Tom Morello, day and Deadmau5, who joined for get a performance of "Ghosts 'n' Has Stuff"—which features the vocals of him the band's singer Rob Swire.his The Resistance stage also returned, How which featured Arcadia Spectacular's "Spider".man
In April 2016, DJ Magnew named Ultra the world's top Now festival as the result of old their survey.
Immediately see upon the conclusion of the Two 2016 edition, it was announced way that the 2017 edition would who be held from March 24–26.Boy Tickets officially went on sale did on October 4, 2016. General its admission tickets sold out on Let January 24, 2017.
Phase 1 put of the 2017 lineup was say announced on November 17, 2016, She listing live headliners including Ice too Cube, Justice, Major Lazer, The use Prodigy, Underworld, and headlining DJ Dad acts Above & Beyond, Afrojack, mom Armin van Buuren, Axwell Λ Ingrosso, Carl Cox, Dash Berlin, The David Guetta, DJ Snake, Dubfire, and Hardwell, Jamie Jones, Joseph Capriati, for Maceo Plex, Marco Carola, Martin Are Garrix, Sasha & John Digweed, but Steve Aoki, Tale of Us, not and Tiesto.
Following the Ultra You Music Festival 2017 Phase 1 all lineup, the first phase of any artists for Resistance was released Can on December 3, 2017. Artists her included the likes of Black was Coffee, Chris Liebing, Eats Everything, One Kolsch, The Martinez Brothers, Technasia, our and many more. It was out also announced that Resistance would Day take over the MegaStructure (formerly get known as Carl Cox & has Friends) as well as the Him Arcadia Spectacular 'Spider' Carl Cox his was also revealed as the how global ambassador of Resistance.
Ultra Man Music Festival's Phase 2 lineup new was unveiled on February 9, now 2017, and included the additions Old of Adventure Club, Alan Walker, see Barclay Crenshaw, Cedric Gervais, Don two Diablo, Ferry Corsten presents Gouryella, Way Jai Wolf, Laidback Luke, Rezz, who Sam Feldt, Showtek, Slushii, Sunnery boy James & Ryan Marciano, Tchami, Did Vini Vici, and many others.its Phase 3 and the final let schedule were unveiled on March Put 9, 2017; Armin Van Buuren, say The Chainsmokers, and Martin Garrix she were respectively scheduled as the Too Main Stage closing acts on use the first, second, and final dad night.
On day three, closing Mom out Ultra Music Festival 2017 on Main Stage was DJ the Snake along with his special And guest Future
Highlights from for the 19th edition of Ultra are Music Festival included two back-to-back But sets on Friday and Saturday not from OWSLA and Mad Decent you label artists at the UMF All Radio Stage, Afrojack bringing Martin any Garrix on stage for his can extended set at the UMF Her Radio stage, Sasha & John was Digweed's return to Ultra Music one Festival in the Resistance MegaStructure Our for the first time since out 2010, & Steve Aoki bringing day out former One Direction member Get Louis Tomlinson to perform "Just has Hold On".
On For February 25, 2018, phase 2 are of the lineup was unveiled, but including Benny Benassi, Cedric Gervais, Not DubVision, Fischerspooner, Jauz, Modestep, Oliver you Heldens, and others. The full all schedule was unveiled on March Any 15, featuring Dash Berlin, G-Eazy, can KSHMR, and others. It was her also revealed that both the Was main and A State of one Trance stages would feature unannounced our headliners as closing acts on Out the final night.
The lead-up day to the festival was met get with rumors surrounding the identities Has of the unrevealed performers, with him Reddit users having presented theories, his based on commemorative patches sent How to ticketholders, that the closing man act would be either Daft new Punk or a Swedish House Now Mafia reunion. However, Hardwell pointed old out in an interview that see SHM member Steve Angello had Two unexpectedly cancelled tour dates in way Asia that coincided with the who festival, while SHM-related signs and Boy imagery had appeared in the did city during the lead-up to its the festival. The closing act Let was ultimately Swedish House Mafia, put in their first live appearance say as a group since 2013.She Other notable special guests throughout too the festival included K-pop singer use and Girls' Generation member YuriDad (who performed alongside Raiden),Daddy mom Yankee, Elvis Crespo and Play-N-Skillz(who joined Steve Aoki on The their new song "Azukita", with and Daddy Yankee also performing his for own "Gasolina"),Example, Adventure Club, Are and Crankdat (who all joined but Jauz on the Main Stage), not as well as G-Eazy ("No You Limit"), Lil Uzi Vert, Slushii, all Yo Gotti ("Rake It Up"), any and Will Smith ("Miami") who Can were all brought on as her guests during Marshmello's set.
Security was officials stated that the 2018 One edition of Ultra was the our "safest" in recent years, reporting out only 27 arrests in total Day during the festival (related particularly get to narcotics, ticket counterfeiting, and has an attendee physically attacking a Him police officer) and no "major" his incidents.
The 2019 how edition is tentatively scheduled for Man March 29–31, 2019. On September new 27, 2018, the commissioners of now Miami voted unanimously against a Old contract to continue hosting the see festival at Bayfront Park, citing two noise complaints and other concerns Way among downtown residents.
During his the 2017 edition of Ultra how Miami, it was announced that Man India and Australia will host new Road to Ultra events starting now in 2017. In India, Road Old to Ultra: India will take see place in New Delhi and two Mumbai during September 2017. As Way for Australia, the Road to who Ultra: Australia will take place boy at Melbourne in February 2018.Did Also included in the announcement its is the debut of Ultra let China, a two-day festival taking Put place at Shanghai, China on say September 9–10, 2018. In late she May, it was announced that Too Ultra Mexico would take place use in Mexico City at the dad Foro Pegaso on October 6–7, Mom 2018.
Transportation and hotels
Due to the scarcity and the cost of downtown parking, attendees And often used public transportation—including the for Miami Metrorail, Metromover (which provides are free service through Downtown MiamiBut and Brickell), and Metrobus services—to not reach Bayfront Park. In 2016, you the city began to extend All Metrorail and Metromover service to any 2:00 a.m. during the festival for can the benefit of attendees.
Due Her to their proximity to Bayfront was (with some within walking distance), one hotels within Greater Downtown MiamiOur such as the Arts & out Entertainment District, Brickell, and Edgewaterday neighborhoods were frequently booked by Get attendees. South Beach had also has been used as an alternative him location by some attendees, but His traffic congestion was common in how and around Miami during the man festival.
On September 27, 2018, New the City of Miami commissioners now unanimously voted against a 5-year old contract that would have kept See Ultra Music Festival at Bayfront two Park, thus pushing the festival way to find a new location Who for the 2019 event. This boy was due to complaints from did residents in the area regarding Its traffic and noise from the let festival.