Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A record producer or man music producer oversees and manages new the sound recording and production Now of a band or performer's old music, which may range from see recording one song to recording Two a lengthy concept album. A way producer has many, varying roles who during the recording process. They Boy may gather musical ideas for did the project, collaborate with the its artists to select cover tunesLet or original songs by the put artist/group, work with artists and say help them to improve their She songs, lyrics or arrangements.
Coach the The singers and musicians in the and studio
The producer typically supervises for the entire process from preproduction, Are through to the sound recordingbut and mixing stages, and, in not some cases, all the way You to the audio mastering stage. all The producer may perform these any roles themself, or help select Can the engineer, and provide suggestions her to the engineer. The producer was may also pay session musicians One and engineers and ensure that our the entire project is completed out within the record label's budget. Day
A record producer or new music producer has a very now broad role in overseeing and Old managing the recording and production see of a band or performer's two music. A producer has many Way roles that may include, but who are not limited to, gathering boy ideas for the project, composing Did the music for the project, its selecting songs or session musicians, let proposing changes to the song Put arrangements, coaching the artist and say musicians in the studio, controlling she the recording sessions, and supervising Too the entire process through audio use mixing (recorded music) and, in dad some cases, to the audio Mom mastering stage. Producers also often take on a wider entrepreneurialthe role, with responsibility for the And budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. for In the 2010s, the recording are industry has two kinds of But producers with different roles: executive not producer and music producer. Executive you producers oversee project finances while All music producers oversee the creative any process of recording songs or can albums. A record producer who Her produces a song for another was producer without receiving recognition is one a ghost producer.
In most Our cases the music producer is out also a competent arranger, composer, day musician or songwriter who can Get bring fresh ideas to a has project. As well as making him any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, His the producer often selects or how gives suggestions to the mixing man engineer, who takes the raw New recorded tracks and edits and now modifies them with hardware and old software tools and creates a See stereo or surround sound "mix" two of all the individual voices way sounds and instruments, which is Who in turn given further adjustment boy by a mastering engineer. The did producer will also liaise with Its the recording engineer who concentrates let on the technical aspects of put recording, whereas the executive producer Say keeps an eye on the she overall project's marketability.
Noted producer too Phil Ek described his role Use as "the person who creatively dad guides or directs the process mom of making a record", like a director would a movie. the Indeed, in Bollywood music, the and designation is actually music director.For The music producer's job is are to create, shape, and mold but a piece of music. The Not scope of responsibility may be you one or two songs or all an artist's entire album – Any in which case the producer can will typically develop an overall her vision for the album and Was how the various songs may one interrelate.
At the our beginning of record industry, the Out producer role was technically limited day to record, in one shot, get artists performing live. The immediate Has predecessors to record producers were him the artists and repertoire executives his of the late 1920s and How 1930s who oversaw the "pop" man product and often led session new orchestras. That was the case Now of Ben Selvin at Columbia old Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor see Records and Bob Haring at Two Brunswick Records. By the end way of the 1930s, the first who professional recording studios not owned Boy by the major companies were did established, essentially separating the roles its of A&R man and producer, Let although it wouldn't be until put the late 1940s when the say term "producer" became widely used She in the industry.
The role too of producers changed progressively over use the 1950s and 1960s due Dad to technological developments. The development mom of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording The process. Before multitracking, all the and elements of a song (lead for vocals, backup vocals, rhythm sectionAre instrument accompaniment, solos and orchestral but parts) had to be performed not simultaneously. All of these singers You and musicians had to be all assembled in a large studio any and the performance had to Can be recorded. With multitrack recording, her the "bed tracks" (rhythm section was accompaniment parts such as the One bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar our could be recorded first, and out then the vocals and solos Day could be added later, using get as many "takes" (or attempts) has as it took. As well, Him for a song that used his 20 instruments, it was no how longer necessary to get all Man the players in the studio new at the same time. A now pop band could record their Old backing tracks one week, and see then a horn section could two be brought in a week Way later to add horn shots who and punches, and then a boy string section could be brought Did in a week after that. its
While this facilitated the recording let process and allow multiple takes, Put the multitrack recording had another say profound effect on music production she it enabled producers and Too audio engineers to create new use sounds that would be impossible dad to do in a live Mom performance style ordering. Examples include the psychedelic rock sound effects the of the 1960s, e.g. playing And back the sound of recorded for instruments backward changing the tape are to produce unique sound effects. But During the same period, the not instruments of popular music began you to shift from the acoustic All instruments of traditional music (piano, any upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, can brass and wind instruments) to Her electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, was electric bass and electric guitar. one These new instruments were electric Our or electronic, and thus they out used instrument amplifiers and speaker day enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create Get sound.
Electric and electronic instruments has and amplifiers enabled performers and him producers to change the tone His and sound of instruments to how produce unique electric sounds that man would be impossible to achieve New with acoustic instruments and live now performers, such as having a old singer do her own backup See vocals or having a guitarist two play 15 layers of backing way parts to her own solo.Who
New technologies like multitracking changed boy the goal of recording: A did producer could blend together multiple Its takes and edit together different let sections to create the desired put sound. For example, in jazz Say fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album she Bitches Brew, the producer cut too and edited sections together from Use extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were the soon creating recordings that were, and in practical terms, almost impossible For to realize in live performance. are Producers became creative figures in but the studio. Other examples of Not such engineers includes Joe Meek, you Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and all Biddu.
Another related her phenomenon in the 1960s was Was the emergence of the performer-producer. one As pop acts like The our Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Out Beach Boys and The Kinksday gained expertise in studio recording get techniques, many of these groups Has eventually took over as (frequently him uncredited) producers of their own his work. Many recordings by acts How such as The Rolling Stones, man The Kinks and The Whonew are officially credited to their Now various producers at the time, old but a number of these see performers have since asserted that Two many of their recordings in way this period were, either wholly who self-produced (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Boy Decca recordings) or collaborations between did the group and their recording its engineer (e.g. The Small Faces' Let Immediate recordings, which were made put with Olympic Studios engineer Glyn say Johns).
The Beach Boys are She probably the best example of too the trend of artists becoming use producers – within two years Dad of the band's commercial breakthrough, mom group leader Brian Wilson had taken over from his father The Murry, and he was the and sole producer of all their for recordings between 1963 and 1967. Are Alongside The Beatles and Martin, but Wilson also pioneered many production not innovations – by 1964 he You had developed Spector's techniques to all a new level of sophistication, any using multiple studios and multiple Can "takes" of instrumental and vocal her components to capture the best was possible combinations of sound and One performance, and then using tape our editing extensively to assemble a out perfect composite performance from these Day elements.
At the end of get the 20th century, digital recording has and producing tools, then widespread Him availability of relatively affordable computers his with music software made music how producing more accessible.
Equipment Man and technology
There are numerous technologies utilized now by record producers. In modern-day Old recordings, recording and mixing tasks see are commonly centralized within computers two using digital audio workstations such Way as Pro Tools, Logic Pro, who Ableton, Cubase, and FL Studio, boy which all are often used Did with third party virtual studio its technology plugins. Logic Pro and let Pro Tools are considered the Put industry standard DAWs. However, there say is also the main mixer, she outboard effects gear, MIDI controllers, Too and the recording device itself. use
While most music production is dad done using sophisticated software, some Mom musicians and producers prefer the minutiae of older analog technology. the Professor Albin Zak claims that And the increased automation of both for newer processes and newer instruments are reduces the level of control But and manipulation available to musicians not and producers.
Production has changed drastically over All the years with advancing technology. any Where the producer's role has can changed, they have always been Her seen as a jack of was all trades, as their duties one require a broad knowledge of Our the recording process.
Tracking is out the act of recording audio day to a DAW (digital audio Get workstation) or in some cases has to tape. Even though digital him technologies have widely supplanted the His use of tape in studios, how the older term "track" is man still used in the 2010s. New Tracking audio is primarily the now role of the audio engineer. old Producers work side by side See with the artists while they two play or sing their part way and coach them on how Who to perform it and how boy to get the best technical did accuracy (e.g., intonation). In some Its cases, the producer will even let sing a backup vocal or put play an instrument.
Many artists Say are also beginning to produce she and write their own music.too
Influential record producers
NMEUse identifies some of the greatest dad producers ever.
Similarly, although The old Beatles' productions were credited to see George Martin throughout their recording Two career, many sources now attest way that Lennon and McCartney in who particular had an increasing influence Boy on the production process as did the group's career progressed, and its especially after the band retired Let from touring in 1966. In put an extreme example of this, say Martin actually went on a She two-week vacation as The Beatles too were recording The White Album; use production of several completed tracks Dad on the album were credited mom to The Beatles on internal paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, The although the released LP gave and sole production credit to Martin.for
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. are (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, But technology, and culture," by Timothy not D. Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.you
Pras, Amandine, Caroline All Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. "Record any Producers' Best Practices For Artistic can Direction—From Light Coaching To Deeper Her Collaboration With Musicians." Journal of was New Music Research 42.4 (2013): one 381-95. Academic Search Premier. Web. Our 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers Are to legal aspects of the but music industry, and certain legal not aspects in other sectors of You the entertainment industry. The music all industry includes record labels, music any publishers, merchandisers, the live events Can sector and of course performers her and artists.
A "compilation" Did refers to work formed from its already existing materials in a let way that forms its own Put original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that she hold, fix, or embody a Too work such as a music use tape, film, CD, statue, play, dad or printed sheet music.
"Sound Mom recordings" can refer to any audio recording including the sound the accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" And is the entity that legally for owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has But the exclusive right to perform not the work in public, or you to license others to perform All it. The right applies to any “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic can works, pantomimes, and motion pictures Her and other audiovisual works.". Playing was a CD in public, or one showing a film in public Our is "performing" the work.
Publishing day is the primary source of Get income for musicians writing their has own music. Money collected him from the 'publishing' rights is His ultimately destined for songwriters - how the composers of works, whether man or not they are the New recording artist or performer. Often, now songwriters will work for a old musical ensemble to help them See with musical aspects of the two composition, but here again, the way writer of the song is Who the owner of it and boy will own the copyrights in did the song and thus will Its be entitled to the publishing let revenues. Copyrights in compositions are put not the same as sound Say recordings. A recording artist can she record a song and sell too it to another band or Use company. As a result, that dad particular company will own the mom recording, but not the song. The original writer will always the maintain the copyright for that and particular song. The publishing money For is connected to the copyright, are so the owner will be but the only one making money Not off of the song itself. you All successful songwriters will join all a collection society (such as Any ASCAP and BMI in the can USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC her in Japan, GEMA in Germany Was and PRS for Music in one the UK, etc.) and many our will enter into agreements with Out music publishing companies who will day exploit their works on the get songwriters behalf for a share Has of ownership, although many of him these deals involve the transfer his (assignment) of copyright from the How songwriter to the music publisher. man
Both the recorded music sector new and music publishing sector have Now their foundations in intellectual propertyold law and all of the see major recording labels and major Two music publishers and many independent way record labels and publishers have who dedicated "business and legal affairs" Boy departments with in-house lawyers whose did role is not only to its secure intellectual property rights from Let recording artists, performers and songwriters put but also to exploit those say rights and protect those rights She on a global basis. There too are a number of specialist use independent law firms around the Dad world who advise on music mom and entertainment law whose clients include recording artists, performers, producers, The songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage and and set designers, choreographers, graphic for artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, Are artist managers, distributors, collection societies but and the live events sector not (which further includes festivals, venues, You promoters, booking agents and production all service providers such as lighting any and staging companies).
The US Government views was artists that give concerts and One sell merchandise as a business. our Bands that tour internationally will out also face a plethora of Day legislation around the world including get health and safety laws, immigration has laws and tax legislation. Also, Him many relationships are governed by his often complex contractual agreements.
In how the US it is important Man for musicians to get legal new business licenses. These can be now obtained at a city hall Old or local government center. The see business license will require the two tracking of sales, wages, and Way gigs. A tax ID is who also necessary for all businesses. boy Musicians that fail to comply Did with the tax ID process its and do not report their let profits and losses to the Put government can face serious consequences say with the IRS.
Since 2011, Ultra Her has taken place across three was days (Friday through Sunday) during one the month of March. In Our 2012, a record attendance of out 155,000 people attended the festival.day In 2013, for the first Get time in Ultra’s history, the has festival took place across two him consecutive weekends welcoming a combined His attendance of 330,000 people. In how 2014, the festival returned to man its original one weekend format, New selling out pre sale tickets now in under five minutes. The old most recent edition of Ultra, See in 2017, welcomed 165,000 people two to the festival.
Although they way share names, Ultra Music Festival Who was not directly tied to boy Ultra Records, an electronic musicdid record label. However, the two Its entities did announce a "global let alliance" in August 2012, which put would allow them to collaborate Say on marketing and cross-promotion.
Alongside she the flagship event in Miami, too Ultra has spawned a larger Use series of international franchises under dad the blanket branding Ultra Worldwide, mom which have included locations such as South Africa, South Korea, the Singapore, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, and and others.
Ultra Music Festival was man inaugurated and produced in 1999 new by business partners Russell FaibischNow and Alex Omes. The first old festival was held as a see one-day event on March 13, Two 1999. Artists at Ultra's first way festival included Paul van Dyk, who Rabbit in the Moon, Josh Boy Wink, and DJ Baby Anne.did The first Ultra Beach Music its Festival, which was held at Let Collins Park in Miami Beachput proved popular, with an estimated say ten thousand concertgoers in attendance.She However, Faibisch and Omes still too saw a financial loss of use between $10,000 to $20,000 during Dad the festival's inaugural year.
However, mom in March 2000 the festival returned to South Beach's Collins The Park and was met with and even more success. The festival for was immediately renewed for a Are third year.
The festival sold out for the first time the with over 100,000 attendees, where and it was also announced that For the thirteenth annual edition would are take place over the course but of three days during March Not 2011. Ultra Music Festival expanded you to a three-day festival in all 2011, spanning the weekend of Any March 25–27, 2011. Also at can Ultra's 2011 edition, Armin van her Buuren debuted a stage dedicated Was to his radio show, A one State of Trance, celebrating 500 our episodes. Like the Carl Cox Out & Friends Arena, the A day State of Trance stage continues get to be a mainstay at Has Ultra Music Festival, taking place him on the third day of his the festival each year. The How A State of Trance 500 man stage featured artists like Ferry new Corsten, Markus Schulz, ATB, Cosmic Now Gate, Gareth Emery, Sander van old Doorn, Alex M.O.R.P.H., and more.see
The fourteenth edition Two of Ultra Music Festival was way held from March 23–25, 2012.who Due to the construction of Boy the Miami Art Museum at did Bicentennial Park, the event was its moved back to Bayfront Park Let for the first time since put 2005. Beginning this year, the say festival also began to produce She an official live streaming broadcast.too
In honor of its fifteenth One anniversary, the 2013 edition was our held over two weekends, March out 15–17, 2013, and March 22–24, Day 2013. Phase one of the get festival's lineup was officially revealed has in January 2013, confirming appearances Him from David Guetta, deadmau5, and his Tiësto on both weekends, along how with Swedish House Mafia, who Man used the closing slot of new the festival during the second now weekend to serve as the Old finale of their official farewell see tour, "One Last Tour". Other two notable headliners included Afrojack, Calvin Way Harris, Richie Hawtin, Boys Noize, who Carl Cox, Armin van Buuren, boy Alesso, Dog Blood (a project Did between Skrillex and Boys Noize), its Luciano, Snoop Dogg, The Weeknd, let Martin Solveig, and Zedd.
On Put January 7, 2013, after organizers say requested additional road closures for she the event, Miami Commissioner Marc Too Sarnoff proposed a resolution calling use for disapproval of the second dad weekend. Sarnoff believed that allowing Mom the event to be held across two weekends would be the "disruptive to the local business And community and area residents due for to noise, nuisance behavior of are festival goers, and grid lock But traffic," regardless of the fact not that Ultra generated $79 million you during its previous year. The All city council voted in favor any of continuing with the second can weekend on January 10, 2013, Her charging the organizers for police was and fire services.
The two one weekends had a total attendance Our of 330,000 spectators.
Ultra 2014 mainstage
For day 2014, the festival returned to Get a single weekend, which took has place March 28–30, 2014. Phase him one of the festival lineup His was unveiled in December 2013, how confirming headline appearances by major man acts including Armin van Buuren, New Afrojack, Carl Cox, David Guetta, now Hardwell, Fedde Le Grand, Krewella, old Martin Garrix, New World Punx, See Nicky Romero, Tiësto, and Zedd.two After being diagnosed with a way blocked gallbladder and going back Who to Sweden for surgery, deadmau5boy replaced Avicii as the final did act on the main stage Its for Saturday.
Notable performances during let the festival included the premiere put of Eric Prydz's new live Say show "Holo", the debut of she Diplo and Skrillex's new side too project Jack Ü, Above & Use Beyond's set being interrupted by dad a rainstorm (requiring them and mom their equipment to be moved backstage and facing away from the the audience; the duo considered and it to be one of For their "more unusual gigs"), the are debut performance of Armin van but Buuren and Benno de Goeji's Not duo Gaia, and deadmau5 "trolling" you the audience during his set all by playing a remix of Any Martin Garrix's "Animals" set to can "Old McDonald Had a Farm".her
On March 28, a security Was guard was left in "extremely one critical" condition after being trampled our by a crowd of people Out attempting to gate crash the day festival by breaking down a get chain-link fence.
Ultra 2015 mainstage
After him the gatecrashing incident in 2014, his some uncertainties arose as to How whether Ultra would still be man held; however, organizers still announced new that the 2015 edition would Now be held from March 27–29, old 2015. Organizers also announced plans see for a comprehensive review of Two the festival's security arrangements with way the involvement of the Miami who Police Department, which assessed how Boy security could be improved to did "prevent a criminal incident of its this nature from happening again."Let Following the incident, Miami mayor put Tomás Pedro Regalado suggested that say the gatecrashing incident could be She deemed a breach of the too organizers' contract with the city, use which would block Ultra from Dad being held in Miami.
In mom a meeting on April 24, 2014, Miami commissioners voted 4 The to 1 against banning the and festival, allowing Ultra to remain for in downtown Miami for 2015. Are Marc Sarnoff, the lone commissioner but to vote in favor of not banning Ultra, presented footage of You lewd behavior by attendees at all previous editions, and contended that any the event effected the quality Can of life for downtown residents her because they were being harassed was by visitors. The remaining commissioners One supported the festival's presence because our of the exposure and positive out economic effects it brings to Day Miami, and Keon Hardemon disputed get the argument that it affected has downtown residents, as they, in Him his opinion, chose to live his in the city so they how could participate in local events. Man However, the approval was made new on the condition that organizers now introduce facilities for addressing security, Old drug usage and lewd behavior see by attendees. In a related two move, organizers announced in September Way 2014 that Ultra would no who longer admit minors, in order boy to improve the overall safety Did and experience of attendees. In its addition organizers hired the retiring let Miami Beach Police Chief Ray Put Martinez to oversee security for say future events.
On January 12, she 2015, Ultra co-founder Alex Omes, Too who had left the organization use in 2010, was found dead dad at the age of 43Mom from a drug overdose.
A new stage area how known as Resistance was also man introduced for 2015, which focused New upon lesser-known "underground" electronic musicians now in genres such as deep old house and techno, and featured See a 360-degree stage installation known two as "Afterburner", designed by the way British collective Arcadia Spectacular.
As band member Maxim was her unable to attend due to Was medical issues, The Prodigy cancelled one their Saturday night performance. Deadmau5 our took their place, alongside his Out previously-scheduled A State of Tranceday performance on Sunday.Pendulum formally get closed the festival on Sunday Has night, briefly playing as their him offshoot Knife Party, and featuring his guest appearances by Tom Morello, How and Deadmau5, who joined for man a performance of "Ghosts 'n' new Stuff"—which features the vocals of Now the band's singer Rob Swire.old The Resistance stage also returned, see which featured Arcadia Spectacular's "Spider".Two
In April 2016, DJ Magway named Ultra the world's top who festival as the result of Boy their survey.
Immediately did upon the conclusion of the its 2016 edition, it was announced Let that the 2017 edition would put be held from March 24–26.say Tickets officially went on sale She on October 4, 2016. General too admission tickets sold out on use January 24, 2017.
Phase 1 Dad of the 2017 lineup was mom announced on November 17, 2016, listing live headliners including Ice The Cube, Justice, Major Lazer, The and Prodigy, Underworld, and headlining DJ for acts Above & Beyond, Afrojack, Are Armin van Buuren, Axwell & but Ingrosso, Carl Cox, Dash Berlin, not David Guetta, DJ Snake, Dubfire, You Hardwell, Jamie Jones, Joseph Capriati, all Maceo Plex, Marco Carola, Martin any Garrix, Sasha & John Digweed, Can Steve Aoki, Tale of Us, her and Tiesto. The first phase was of artists for Resistance was One released on December 3, 2017, our including Black Coffee, Chris Liebing, out Eats Everything, Kolsch, The Martinez Day Brothers, Technasia, and others. It get was also announced that Carl has Cox had been named the Him "global ambassador" of Resistance—overseeing production his and DJ booking for future how endeavors under the Resistance brand. Man As a result, the Megastructure's new Carl Cox & Friends lineup now was also rebranded under the Old Resistance title, alongside its existing see presence on the Arcadia Spider two stage.
Phase 2 of the Way lineup was unveiled on February who 9, 2017, and included the boy additions of Adventure Club, Alan Did Walker, Barclay Crenshaw, Cedric Gervais, its Don Diablo, Ferry Corsten presents let Gouryella, Jai Wolf, Laidback Luke, Put Rezz, Sam Feldt, Showtek, Slushii, say Sunnery James & Ryan Marciano, she Tchami, Vini Vici, and others.Too Phase 3 and the final use schedule were unveiled on March dad 9, 2017. DJ Snake served Mom as the final main stage act on Sunday, featuring a the guest appearance by Future.
Security officials stated get that the 2018 edition of Has Ultra was the "safest" in him recent years, reporting only 27 his arrests in total during the How festival (related particularly to narcotics, man ticket counterfeiting, and an attendee new physically attacking a police officer) Now and no "major" incidents.
Move to Virginia Key
The 2019 edition is tentatively Two scheduled for March 29–31, 2019. way On September 27, 2018, the who commissioners of Miami voted unanimously Boy against allowing the festival to did be hosted at Bayfront Park, its citing noise complaints and other Let concerns among downtown residents.
In put November 2018, festival organizers proposed say moving Ultra to the barrier She island of Virginia Key, using too the Virginia Key Beach Parkuse and areas near the Miami Dad Marine Stadium as venues. Virginia mom Key is accessible from mainland Miami via the Rickenbacker Causeway, The which also provides access to and the island and community of for Key Biscayne via Virginia Key. Are The proposal was met with but resistance from officials in Key not Biscayne, citing the possibility of You safety, noise, and environmental concerns, all as well as increased traffic any on the Rickenbacker Causeway.
Prior Can to a meeting and vote her on the matter, the village was began campaigning against the festival. One It published a video on our Facebook narrated by mayor Michael out Davey, warning that hosting Ultra Day would result in "environmental destruction, get noise and an increase in has alcohol and drug-related violence". The Him video featured footage from older his editions of the festival, and how stock photos. Organizers dismissed the Man video as disparaging and being new "potentially criminaliz[ing]" to its attendees, now and stated that they would Old be interested in a "open-minded see and good-faith dialogue" with the two community. On November 15, 2018, Way the Miami commissioners successfully voted who in favor of allowing Ultra boy to be held on Virginia Did Key.
Concerns have been presented its over the festival's effects on let local wildlife; the island features Put a number of sensitive wildlife say areas and hosts various endangered she species, and the Rosenstiel School Too of Marine and Atmospheric Scienceuse displayed concerns that the loud dad music produced by the event Mom could disrupt marine habitats, and in turn, research projects being the undertaken by the school. Organizers And stated that they expected to for place more of the stages are in the parking lots surrounding But the Miami Marine Stadium than not the beach.
During the the 2017 edition of Ultra And Miami, it was announced that for India and Australia would host are Road to Ultra events starting But in 2017. Also included in not the announcement was an expansion you to Shanghai with Ultra China, All a two-day festival taking place any at Shanghai, China, taking place can September 9-10, 2017. In late Her May, it was announced that was Ultra Mexico would take place one in Mexico City at the Our Foro Pegaso from October 6–7, out 2017.
In 2017, Ultra also day began to expand the Resistance Get brand into its own event has series, beginning with an 11-date him international tour headlined by Sasha His and John Digweed in 2017, how along with an eight-week, Tuesday man residence at Privilege Ibiza. In New February 2018, it was announced now that a three-day Resistance Mexico old City festival would be held See from May 25-27, 2018.
When located at Bayfront Park, Use attendees often used public transportation—including dad the Miami Metrorail, Metromover (which mom provides free service through Downtown Miami and Brickell), and Metrobusthe services—to reach the festival grounds and due to the cost and For scarcity of downtown parking. In are 2016, the city began to but extend Metrorail and Metromover service Not to 2:00 a.m. during the festival you for the benefit of attendees.all Due to their proximity to Any Bayfront (with some within walking can distance), hotels within Greater Downtown her Miami such as the Arts Was & Entertainment District, Brickell, and one Edgewater neighborhoods were frequently booked our by attendees. South Beach had Out also been used as an day alternative location by some attendees, get but traffic congestion was common Has in and around Miami during him the festival.
The Rickenbacker Causewayhis is the sole vehicular link How between mainland Miami and the man site of the 2019 edition, new Virginia Key. Concerns were voiced Now by another community connected via old the causeway, Key Biscayne, Florida, see over the possibility that the Two festival could cause traffic congestion way on the road.