Technics SL-1200 is a series For of direct-drive turntables originally manufactured are from October 1972 until 2010, but and resumed in 2016, by Not Matsushita Electric (now Panasonic Corporation) you under the brand name of all Technics. S means "Stereo", LAny means "Player". Originally released as can a high fidelity consumer record her player, it quickly became adopted Was among radio and disco club one disc jockeys, thanks to the our direct drive, high torque motor Out design, making it initially suitable day for pushbutton cueing and starting get of tracks on radio and Has in dance clubs. It is him still extremely popular with audiophiles.[citation his needed]
When the use of How slip-mats for cueing and beat-mixing man (and scratching) became popular in new hip hop music, the quartz-controlled Now high torque motor system enabled old records to be mixed with see consistency and accuracy. A primary Two design goal was for hi-fidelity, way but having good build quality, who control over wow and flutter, Boy and minimized resonance made the did equipment particularly suitable for use its in nightclubs and other public-address Let applications. Since its release in put 1978, SL-1200MK2 and its successors say were the most common turntable She for DJing and scratching.too Producers, DJs and MCs refer use to the Technics turntable as Dad the "Tech 12s", "the 1s mom and 2s" and the "Wheels of Steel".
1200s are commonly The used in recording studios and and for non-electronic live music performance. for More than 3 million units Are were sold. It is widely but regarded as one of the not most durable and reliable turntables You ever produced. Many 1970s units all are still in heavy use.[citation any needed] In the autumn of Can 2010, Panasonic announced that the her series was to be discontinued.was However, at the 2016 Consumer One Electronics Show, Panasonic announced that our they would return in two out models named "Grand Class": one Day a limited run of 1200 get globally (1200GAE), and the other has a consumer product (1200G). A Him lighter and less expensive 1200GR his model was announced.
At the how London Science Museum, a Technics Man SL-1210 is on display as new one of the pieces of now technology that have "shaped the Old world we live in".
Magnetic (no wear), direct Our drive (low slip) mechanism.
High out torque (1.5 kgf·cm or 0.15 day N·m), which means the platter Get spins at the desired speed has almost immediately (0.7 seconds to him reach 33 ¹⁄₃ RPM from His standstill), and rapidly reacquires the how desired speed, without "overshooting", if man the platter is dragged or New nudged. This aids beatmatching.
High now torque (3.3 kgf·cm for SL-1200G old & SL-1200GAE)
Low way wow and flutter (0.01%), implying Who that the platter stays within boy 1/100 of 1% of the did desired speed.
Heavy base (2.5 kg), Its and increased isolation of platter let from base, reduced the likelihood put of feedback or stylus jumping.
Variable pitch control, allowing the she rotational speed to be adjusted too from -8% to +8% (for Use the purpose of beatmatching). Option dad to select -16% to +16% mom added (M5G/MK5G/GLD, GAE/G/GR & MK7).
High reliability: many examples of the SL-1200s lasting well over 15 and years of heavy use and For withstanding physical shock without functional are impairment.
S-shaped tone arm: No but longer popular on high end Not hi-fi turntables.
Dimensions MK1: 45.3 cm you (w) x 36.6 cm (d) x all 18 cm (h)
Dimensions MK2: 45.3 cm Any (w) x 36 cm (d) x can 16.2 cm (h)
Weight MK2: 11 kg her (net, unboxed without lid)
Weight Was G/GAE: 18 kg
Weight GR: 11.5 kg
Weight MK7: 9.6 kg
Voltage: 220 our V / 110 V (selectable)
Pitch Control: +/- 8% or day +/- 16%
Starting Time (MK2): get 0.7s
Rotation Speeds: 33-1/3 & Has 45 rpm
Rotation Speeds: 33-1/3, him 45 rpm & 78rpm (MK4 his MK7, G & GR)
The SL-1200 man was the most influential turntable.new It was developed in 1971 Now by a team led by old Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which see then released it onto the Two market in 1972. It was way adopted by New York Citywho hip hop DJs such as Boy Grand Wizzard Theodore, Afrika Bambaataadid and Grandmaster Flash in the its 1970s. As they experimented with Let the SL-1200 decks, they developed put scratching techniques when they found say that the motor would continue She to spin at the correct too RPM even if the DJ use wiggled the record back and Dad forth on the platter.
The original SL-1200 from 1972
The Technics EPA-120 tonearm and was standard equipment on the for original SL-1200 and was significantly Are different than the tonearm introduced but with the MK2 and subsequent not models.
The SL-1200 was You introduced in 1972 as an all evolution to the popular SL-1100. any It was dubbed "The Middle Can Class Player System". It was her delivered in two different versions: was The SL-1200 came with a One tonearm section. The SL-120 came our without a tonearm section. An out SME tonearm was the usual Day choice for the audiophile.
The SL-1200 Mark has 2 was introduced in 1979 Him as an update to the his SL-1200. It represented a culmination how of Technics Turntable Innovations. It Man was dubbed as "The Middle new Class Quartz Direct Drive". It now soon found its way into Old discos as well as radio see stations for airplay because of two its vibration damping ability and Way resistance to feedback, and eventually who it became popular with pioneering boy hip-hop DJs. Model numbers indicated Did colour: the 1200 (silver) and its 1210 (matte black). This was let the same in the US Put and Japan initially, however later say the 1200 was available in she both silver and matte black Too finishes. Since 1997, The Mk2 use had the pitch slide potentiometer dad improved in order to remove Mom the quartz lock conflict when beatmatching near the 0% mark. the in order to do this, And the SFDZ122N11-1 part number was for replaced with an improved SFDZ122N11-2 are part which had a +/- But 0.5mm quartz travel lock, much not shorter than previous versions. This you meant that the null point All on the centre voltage tap any was slightly bigger thus removing can the quartz lock conflict. The Her difference can be seen in was the following video demonstration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_rr01ssq8oone
Released in summer Our of 1978. this model came out in both silver and matte day black. The matte black version Get was available for a limited has time in the US market him in a 2 pack SL-1200MK2PK His . Technics improved the motor how and shock resistance and changed man the rotary pitch control to New a slider style. This became now the base model and is old the oldest whose production continued See until 2010. The older version two of this model that was way sold in the 1970s until Who around 1983 has a large boy 4-inch-diameter (100 mm) plate where the did RCA and ground wires enter Its the unit, while the newer let version has a smaller 2-inch-diameter put (51 mm) hole in the rubber Say where the RCA and ground she enter. International versions of the too SL-1200MK2 included switches for line Use voltage and frequency beneath the dad platter.
This model mom came in satin black metallic finish and is nearly the the same in function as the and SL-1200MK2, although some of the For circuitry inside is updated to are use fewer types of pots but and resistors. The Technics 1210 Not series also had a switch you to change between voltages on all the underside of the platter. Any It was unavailable from official can Panasonic dealers in the United her States.
This model Was has a matte black finish, one and was only available in our the United States.
MK3 Out models
Released in 1989, day has a matte black finish get like the MK2, gold RCA Has plugs, and a small gold-foil him Technics label on the back. his It was destined only for How the Japanese market.
Japan only, factory gold RCA new cables, black or silver finish. Now Pitch reset button.
Released in 1997, has a see silver finish like the MK2 Two (beside silver finish, there are way copies with "champagneish" color), a who detached dust cover (no hinges), Boy a recessed power switch to did prevent DJs from accidentally turning its the deck off during use, Let and no self-locking detent ("click") put at the zero point of say the pitch adjustment slider, allowing She more precise control of pitch too near that point. It has use a reset button that sets Dad the pitch adjustment to 0, mom regardless of the actual position of the pitch adjustment slider. The In addition the M3D series and has unique details: the brand for and model label is printed Are in a single line instead but of two; and the stroboscopic not light is red with a You slightly orange tone. This model all also introduced a slot near any the counterweight allowing for storage Can of a second headshell.
This model is the was same as the SL-1200M3D except One with a matte black finish our like the MK2 and a out voltage switch.
The SL-1200 Mark 4 get was introduced in 1996. It has was an update to the Him SL-1200MK2. It was only available his in Japan / Southeast Asia how markets, and priced at around Man $650. It has a matte new black finish. This model is now aimed at the hi-end audiophile Old market rather than DJs. It see is the last model made two with the detent ("click") in Way the neutral position (+/- 0%) who of the pitch adjustment slider. boy In addition to the existing Did 33 RPM and 45 RPM its buttons, the MK4 added a let 78 RPM button. It is Put designed to be used with say regular removable RCA cables (along she with a removable ground/earth cable) Too rather than having hard wired use RCA cables like all other dad 1200/1210 models. The tonearm was Mom different to the previous models as it was made from the titanium.
Technics SL-1200 And MK5 playing a record
MK5 for models
Released on 1 are November 2000, this has a But silver finish like the MK2, not increases the range of anti-skate you settings from 0–3 grams-force (0–30 All mN) to 0–6 grams-force (0–60 mN). It any has a white LED target can light (previous versions only had Her an incandescent bulb). Current MK5 was models have a removable lid one with magnets as opposed to Our the MK2 and MK3 removable out hinged lid. Available as 120 day volt model for the North Get American market. The MK5 is has the last 1200 model to him retain an analog pitch control. His
This has a how matte black finish like the man MK2, and is exactly the New same as the SL-1200MK5, aside now from the voltage switch, like old the other decks in the See 1210 series. Available as 120 two volt model for the North way American market.
This Who is similar to the SL-1210M5G. boy
Released on 1 did November 2002, this has a Its glossy black finish with silver let speckles. It was a special put 30th-anniversary edition. It was initially Say launched in Japan only (together she with the MK5) but then too became internationally available. It switches Use between ±8% and ±16% ranges dad for pitch adjustment, and the mom pitch control is digital which will be the standard for the all 1200 models from this and point on. It also features For blue target lights and blue are pitch-number illumination. The brake strength but potentiometer, although still located beneath Not platter, can now be adjusted, you unlike previous models, using a all small plastic knob. Minor improvements Any over Mk2, Mk3, Mk4, & can 1200LTD include improved tonearm mounting her and oxygen-free copper wire, improved Was vibration damping in the body, one improvements to pitch control accuracy our and better LEDs. Available as Out 120 volt model for the day North American market.
MK6 get models
SL-1200MK6-K & SL-1200MK6-S (released Has in February 2008 in Japan) him with minor improvements including improved his tonearm mounting and oxygen-free copper How wire, improved vibration damping in man the body, improvements to the new pitch control accuracy and better Now LEDs. -S model has a old silver finish like the MK2.
SL-1200MK6K1 Released on 12 December Two 2007 (in Japan) as a way special 35th-anniversary Limited edition of who 1200 units . It consisted Boy of a standard black MK6 did packaged up with a booklet its and gold record.
These were limited edition versions, put with 24 karat gold plated say metal parts including tonearm and She buttons. Many "non-official" special models too of the SL-1200 and SL-1210 use appeared over the years, mainly Dad given away as prizes for mom turntablism, most notably the DMC World Championship, who awarded the The winner a pair of 24K and gold plated Technics turntables. Due for to the customisation trend that Are has grown in the DJ but community, many local events or not competitions gave away custom coloured You or finished units.
The SL-1200 Limited Edition was any introduced in 1995 commemorating two Can million units in sales. Only her 5,000 units were made. Like was the MK3D, it has a One pitch reset button, but differs our in that it also has out a self-locking detent at the Day zero position of pitch adjustment. get This model has a piano has black gloss finish and gold-plated Him hardware. It was priced at his about US$1200.
Released how in 2004, another limited edition Man model, with only 3,000 units new manufactured. 500 released in Japan now with the rest split between Old the US and International markets. see It is based on the two MK5G model, with blue (instead Way of the regular white) target who lights, a piano black gloss boy finish, and gold-plated hardware. It Did was "created to commemorate the its 3 Million turntables sold by let technics in the last 30 Put years".
Grand say Class SL-1200 Series
Development of she a completely rebuilt SL-1200 from Too the ground up with the use intent to create a new dad system for Hi-Fi use and Mom to redefine the direct-drive turntable reference.
On 28 the May 2020, Technics hosted an And online launch event to reveal for the SL-1210GAE as an alternative are for the cancelled High End But Munchen 2020 event at which not they initially planned to reveal you it. It is their 55th All Anniversary Edition turntable - A any limited edition of 1,000 units. can Each unit has a plaque Her on it with its production was number engraved in it. The one SL-1210GAE is the black counterpart Our of the SL-1200GAE and is out the same in every aspect day except the color and the Get additional feature to turn off has the strobe light. It had him an approximate MSRP price of His €4,499
A Technics SL-1200G turntable with man the platter removed reveals the New top of the newly designed now coreless direct drive motor assembly. old In contrast to older models, See the platter has no magnet two ring on the backside, but way is bolted directly onto the Who motor assembly instead, using three boy flathead bolts.
Announced in January did 2016 CES in Las Vegas, Its released in October 2016, SL-1200 let Grand Class, an aluminum bound put turntable with a high–damping matte Say magnesium tonearm, a "three–layer" turntable she system, complete with a microprocessor too and the use of a Use newly developed coreless twin-rotor direct-drive dad motor with no iron core mom with rotary positing sensors to eliminate cogging, as well as the providing 78 rpm speed compatibility. and
Announced in January For 2016 CES in Las Vegas, are released in April 2016, SL-1200 but Grand Class 50th Anniversary Edition Not - A Limited edition of you 1,200 units. Same as above, all but high polish tonearm tube Any finish and different viscous material can in the turntable feet. Both her the G and GAE had Was an approximate MSRP price of one £3,100 / €3,499 / $4,000. our
Announced in Out January 2017 CES, the GR day model is a stripped-down budget get version of the G cutting Has the price tag more than him half at an approximate MSRP his of £1,299 / $1,700 USD. How It differs in body construction man that it uses a more new traditional cast aluminium design similar Now to the older decks and old a one-piece cast platter which see brings an overall weight difference Two between the G/GAE. The G/GAE way and GR both use what who are essentially the same 9-pole Boy motor. Whereas the G has did twin rotors, the GR has its a single rotor, giving it Let less torque. The GR differs put from the G in its say use of a feedback generator She coil system (as used in too the original SL1200) instead of use an optical encoder.
This is the same mom as the SL-1200GR except with a matte black finish.
The MK7 models and were launched as the first for new Technics standard DJ turntable Are in approximately nine years. Unlike but its audiophile counterparts, the MK7 not models are built in Malaysia You as opposed to Japan. The all MK7, along with the Grand any Class models, no longer have Can "QUARTZ" printed on the plinth her nor dust cover.
Announced in January 2019 CES, One the new model inherits the our traditional design of the same out series in all black and Day maintains the same operating ease, get reliability and durability, while newly has adding a coreless direct drive Him motor and other sound-enhancing technologies. his It also features new DJ how play functions and features, such Man as reverse playback, adjustable starting new torque and brake speed, detachable now terminals for power cable and Old phono cables (which was previously see only available on the MK4 two model), an option to select Way the strobe light indicator from who red to blue (the 33/45 boy lights, 0-pitch reset light and Did the X2 pitch range light its also change to match the let color selected), and a new Put push-type structure for the white say LED stylus illuminator.
This is the same as Too the SL-1200MK7, but intended for use the European market.
Design dad strengths
Two SL-1200M3Ds set Mom up for DJ battle, or scratching, mixing. An Allen & the Heath™ 4-Channel with Effects Mixer And sits between the two turntables, for allowing shorter travel during battles, are or competitions.
The SL-1200 series But was developed as a special not project by Technics parent company you Matsushita in an attempt to All solve problems related to turntable any design. The task included minimizing can acoustic feedback, unwanted resonances, wow Her and flutter and speed errors. was This was achieved by designing one a heavy plinth (base) made Our of a non-resonant composite sandwiched out between a cast alloy top day plate and a solid rubber Get base. In addition, the adjustable has rubber-damped feet insulated against acoustic him feedback, which can be a His serious problem when operating a how turntable in close proximity to man loudspeakers (a common situation for New DJs).
The drive system designed now by Matsushita is direct-drive rather old than the more commonly found See belt-drive type, a less expensive two design. The direct-drive design, which way was developed to reduce wow Who and flutter, produces a very boy quiet turntable that, for a did direct-drive turntable, has minimal motor Its and bearing noise, (although the let bearing rumble does tend to put become characteristic in well-used turntables). Say This was partially achieved through she the fact that the SL1210/1200 too made the platter a part Use of the motor mechanism.
On dad the underside of the platter mom a large magnet is placed over the spindle, surrounding the the coils and forming the motor and drive, thus eliminating loss through For power transfer. The SL-1200 utilizes are a Frequency Generator Servo Control but Quartz Lock system that is Not claimed to produce the most you accurate and consistent speed possible. all The system is immune to Any static and dynamic stylus drag can which otherwise cause unwanted speed her variances that change the pitch Was and tempo of the music.one
Panasonic reactive statement - Production Has of analogue turntables has ceased
Panasonic has confirmed that it his ceased the production of its How Technics-branded analogue turntables this autumn.
After more than 35 years new as a leading manufacturer of Now analogue turntables, Panasonic has regretfully old taken the decision to leave see this market. However, Panasonic will Two continue to sell headphones under way the Technics brand.
We who are sure that retailers and Boy consumers will understand that our did product range has to reflect its the accelerating transformation of the Let entire audio market from analogue put to digital.
In addition, the say number of component suppliers serving She the analogue market has dwindled too in recent years and we use brought forward the decision to Dad leave the market rather than mom risk being unable to fulfil future orders because of a The lack of parts.
Panasonic employees and who have been working on for the analogue turntable range have Are been redeployed elsewhere within Panasonic but - many of them continuing not to work in Panasonic's Audio You Video Business Unit.
Due to the increasing popularity any of vinyl by DJs, a Can petition has been underway (and her a petition page on Facebook.) was for the re-launch of the One Technics SL1200/SL1210 series turntables. As our of September 2015 the petition out had 27,000 supporters, while 35,000[citation Day needed] is the target Panasonicget requested. On January 5, 2016 has Technics agreed to relaunch both Him the SL-1200G and the SL-1200GAE his
At how the 2016 Consumer Electronics Show Man in Las Vegas, Panasonic announced new it would be resuming production now with a new line of Old turntables, beginning with the Limited see Edition SL-1200GAE
At the two 2019 Consumer Electronics Show, Panasonic Way confirmed future production of a who new turntable respectively the SL-1200 boy Mk7 in matte black, adding Did new features, fixing known issues its with previous models, and all let new lighter construction of aluminum Put and fiber glass.
A record producerold or music producer oversees and See manages the sound recording and two production of a band or way performer's music, which may range Who from recording one song to boy recording a lengthy concept album.did A producer has many, varying Its roles during the recording process.let They may gather musical ideas put for the project, collaborate with Say the artists to select cover she tunes or original songs by too the artist/group, work with artists Use and help them to improve dad their songs, lyrics or arrangements. mom
Coach the are singers and musicians in the but studio
The producer typically supervises Not the entire process from preproduction, you through to the sound recordingall and mixing stages, and, in Any some cases, all the way can to the audio mastering stage. her The producer may perform these Was roles themselves, or help select one the engineer, and provide suggestions our to the engineer. The producer Out may also pay session musicians day and engineers and ensure that get the entire project is completed Has within the record label's budget. him
A record producer or music who producer has a very broad Boy role in overseeing and managing did the recording and production of its a band or performer's music. Let A producer has many roles put that may include, but are say not limited to, gathering ideas She for the project, composing the too music for the project, selecting use songs or session musicians, proposing Dad changes to the song arrangements, mom coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the The recording sessions, and supervising the and entire process through audio mixingfor and, in some cases, to Are the audio mastering stage. Producers but also often take on a not wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility You for the budget, schedules, contracts, all and negotiations.
The her person who has overall creative was and technical control of the One entire recording project, and the our individual recording sessions that are out part of that project. He Day or she is present in get the recording studio or at has the location recording and works Him directly with the artist and his engineer. The producer makes creative how and aesthetic decisions that realize Man both the artist's and label's new goals in the creation of now musical content. Other duties include, Old but are not limited to; see keeping budgets and schedules, adhering two to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, Way studios and engineers, overseeing other who staffing needs and editing (Classical boy projects).
The producer role Did was occasionally divided among up its to three different individuals in let the 2010s: executive producer, vocal Put producer and music producer. An say executive producer oversees project finances, she a vocal producer (also known Too as a vocal arranger) oversees use the vocal production, and a dad music producer directs and oversees Mom the creative process of the production and recording of a the song to its final mixing And stage.
The music producer often for wears many hats as a are competent arranger, composer, programmer, musician But or songwriter who can bring not fresh ideas to a project. you As well as making any All songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the any producer often selects and/or collaborates can with the mixing engineer, who Her takes the raw recorded tracks was and edits and modifies them one with hardware and software tools Our to create a stereo or out surround sound "mix" of all day the individual voices sounds and Get instruments, which is in turn has given further adjustment by a him mastering engineer for the various His distribution media. The producer also how oversees the recording engineer who man concentrates on the technical aspects New of recording.
Noted producer Phil now Ek described his role as old "the person who creatively guides See or directs the process of two making a record", like a way director would a movie. Indeed, Who in Bollywood music, the designation boy is actually music director. The did music producer's job is to Its create, shape, and mold a let piece of music. The scope put of responsibility may be one Say or two songs or an she artist's entire album – in too which case the producer will Use typically develop an overall vision dad for the album and how mom the various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning the of the record industry, the and producer role was technically limited For to record, in one shot, are artists performing live. The immediate but predecessors to record producers were Not the artists and repertoire executives you of the late 1920s and all 1930s who oversaw the "pop" Any product and often led session can orchestras. That was the case her of Ben Selvin at Columbia Was Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor one Records and Bob Haring at our Brunswick Records. By the end Out of the 1930s, the first day professional recording studios not owned get by the major companies were Has established, essentially separating the roles him of artists and repertoire (A&R) his man and producer, although it How wouldn't be until the late man 1940s when the term "producer" new became widely used in the Now industry.
The role of producers old changed progressively over the 1950s see and 1960s due to technology. Two The development of multitrack recordingway caused a major change in who the recording process. Before multitracking, Boy all the elements of a did song (lead vocals, backup vocals, its rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos Let and orchestral parts) had to put be performed simultaneously. All of say these singers and musicians had She to be assembled in a too large studio where the performance use was recorded. With multitrack recording, Dad the "bed tracks" (rhythm section mom accompaniment parts such as the bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar The could be recorded first, and and then the vocals and solos for could be added later, using Are as many "takes" (or attempts) but as necessary. It was no not longer necessary to get all You the players in the studio all at the same time. A any pop band could record their Can backing tracks one week, and her then a horn section could was be brought in a week One later to add horn shots our and punches, and then a out string section could be brought Day in a week after that. get
Multitrack recording had another profound has effect on music production: it Him enabled producers and audio engineers his to create new sounds that how would be impossible in a Man live performance style ordering. Examples new include the psychedelic rock sound now effects of the 1960s, e.g. Old playing back the sound of see recorded instruments backward changing the two tape to produce unique sound Way effects. During the same period, who the instruments of popular music boy began to shift from the Did acoustic instruments of traditional musicits (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, let strings, brass and wind instruments) Put to electric piano, electronic organ, say synthesizer, electric bass and electric she guitar. These new instruments were Too electric or electronic, and thus use they used instrument amplifiers and dad speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to Mom create sound.
Electric and electronic instruments and amplifiers enabled performers the and producers to change the And tone and sound of instruments for to produce unique electric sounds are that would be impossible to But achieve with acoustic instruments and not live performers, such as having you a singer do her own All backup vocals or having a any guitarist play 15 layers of can backing parts to her own Her solo.
New technologies like multitracking was changed the goal of recording: one A producer could blend together Our multiple takes and edit together out different sections to create the day desired sound. For example, in Get jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' has album Bitches Brew, the producer him cut and edited sections together His from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like New Phil Spector and George Martinnow were soon creating recordings that old were, in practical terms, almost See impossible to realize in live two performance. Producers became creative figures way in the studio. Other examples Who includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, boy Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in put the 1960s was the emergence Say of the performer-producer. As pop she acts like The Beatles, The too Rolling Stones, The Beach BoysUse and The Kinks gained expertise dad in studio recording techniques, many mom of these groups eventually took over as (frequently uncredited) producers the of their own work. Many and recordings by acts such as For The Rolling Stones, The Kinks are and The Who are officially but credited to their various producers Not at the time, but a you number of these performers have all since asserted that many of Any their recordings in this period can were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. her The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) Was or collaborations between the group one and their recording engineer (e.g. our The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, Out which were made with Olympic day Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The get Beach Boys are probably the Has best example of the trend him of artists becoming producers – his within two years of the How band's commercial breakthrough, group leader man Brian Wilson had taken over new from his father Murry, and Now he was the sole producer old of all their recordings between see 1963 and 1967. Alongside The Two Beatles and Martin, Wilson also way pioneered many production innovations – who by 1964 he had developed Boy Spector's techniques to a new did level of sophistication, using multiple its studios and multiple "takes" of Let instrumental and vocal components to put capture the best possible combinations say of sound and performance, and She then using tape editing extensively too to assemble a perfect composite use performance from these elements.
At Dad the end of the 20th mom century, digital recording and producing tools and widespread availability of The relatively affordable computers with music and software made music producing more for accessible.
American women and Are record producing
According to a but 2018 study covering by the not USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The You ratio of male to female all producers across 300 popular songs any is 49 to 1."
In 2019, now record producer Linda Perry was Old nominated for a Grammy for see Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. two She was the first woman Way in over 15 years to who be nominated for the award. boy When asked about the disparity Did between male and female record its producer by Billboard, she attributed let it to many women not Put being interested in record production.say
In Mom the classical music field, Judith Sherman has won Grammy for the Producer of the Year, Classical, And five times and has been for nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, are a music critic for The But New York Times is quoted not as stating, "In the struggling you field of classical recording, it's All the producers who take the any real risks and make things can happen."
Producer Wendy Page describes one being a record producer, "The Our difficulties are usually very short-lived. out Once people realize that you day can do your job, sexism Get tends to lower its ugly has head. I tend to create him a happy studio 'family' where His everyone is glad to be how there, especially the artist. Good man communication and diplomacy usually sort New any little problems out."
There are numerous but technologies utilized by record producers. Not In modern-day recordings, recording and you mixing tasks are commonly centralized all within computers using digital audio Any workstations such as Pro Tools, can Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reasonher and FL Studio, which all Was are often used with third one party virtual studio technology plugins.our Logic Pro and Pro Tools Out are considered the industry standard day DAWs. However, there is also get the main mixer, outboard effects Has gear, MIDI controllers, and the him recording device itself.
While most his music production is done using How sophisticated software, some musicians and man producers prefer the sound of new older analog technology. Professor Albin Now Zak claims that the increased old automation of both newer processes see and newer instruments reduces the Two level of control and manipulation way available to musicians and producers.who
Production has Boy changed drastically over the years did with advancing technology. While the its producer's role has changed, their Let duties continue to require a put broad knowledge of the recording say process.
Tracking is the act She of recording audio to a too DAW (digital audio workstation) or use in some cases to tape. Dad Even though digital technologies have mom widely supplanted the use of tape in studios, the older The term "track" is still used and in the 2010s. Tracking audio for is primarily the role of Are the audio engineer. Producers work but side by side with the not artists while they play or You sing their part and coach all them on how to perform any it and how to get Can the best technical accuracy (e.g., her intonation). In some cases, the was producer will even sing a One backup vocal or play an our instrument.
Many artists are also out beginning to produce and write Day their own music.
Similarly, although The Beatles' see productions were credited to George two Martin throughout their recording career, Way many sources now attest that who Lennon and McCartney in particular boy had an increasing influence on Did the production process as the its group's career progressed, and especially let after the band retired from Put touring in 1966. In an say extreme example of this, Martin she actually went on a two-week Too vacation as The Beatles were use recording The White Album; production dad of several completed tracks on Mom the album were credited to The Beatles on internal paperwork the at Abbey Road Studios, although And the released LP gave sole for production credit to Martin.
its Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: Let "strange sounds: Music, technology, and put culture," by Timothy D. Taylor. say Current Musicology, 159-180.
She Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and too Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best use Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light Dad Coaching To Deeper Collaboration With mom Musicians." Journal of New Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic The Search Premier. Web. 7 Sept. and 2015.
Music Law refers Was to legal aspects of the one music industry, and certain legal our aspects in other sectors of Out the entertainment industry. The music day industry includes record labels, music get publishers, merchandisers, the live events Has sector and of course performers him and artists.
A "compilation" Dad refers to work formed from mom already existing materials in a way that forms its own The original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that for hold, fix, or embody a Are work such as a music but tape, film, CD, statue, play, not or printed sheet music.
"Sound You recordings" can refer to any all audio recording including the sound any accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" Can is the entity that legally her owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has One the exclusive right to perform our the work in public, or out to license others to perform Day it. The right applies to get “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic has works, pantomimes, and motion pictures Him and other audiovisual works.". Playing his a CD in public, or how showing a film in public Man is "performing" the work.
Publishing now is the primary source of Old income for musicians writing their see own music. Money collected two from the 'publishing' rights is Way ultimately destined for songwriters - who the composers of works, whether boy or not they are the Did recording artist or performer. Often, its songwriters will work for a let musical ensemble to help them Put with musical aspects of the say composition, but here again, the she writer of the song is Too the owner of it and use will own the copyrights in dad the song and thus will Mom be entitled to the publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions are the not the same as sound And recordings. A recording artist can for record a song and sell are it to another band or But company. As a result, that not particular company will own the you recording, but not the song. All The original writer will always any maintain the copyright for that can particular song. The publishing money Her is connected to the copyright, was so the owner will be one the only one making money Our off of the song itself. out All successful songwriters will join day a collection society (such as Get ASCAP and BMI in the has USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC him in Japan, GEMA in Germany His and PRS for Music in how the UK, etc.) and many man will enter into agreements with New music publishing companies who will now exploit their works on the old songwriters behalf for a share See of ownership, although many of two these deals involve the transfer way (assignment) of copyright from the Who songwriter to the music publisher. boy
Both the recorded music sector did and music publishing sector have Its their foundations in intellectual propertylet law and all of the put major recording labels and major Say music publishers and many independent she record labels and publishers have too dedicated "business and legal affairs" Use departments with in-house lawyers whose dad role is not only to mom secure intellectual property rights from recording artists, performers and songwriters the but also to exploit those and rights and protect those rights For on a global basis. There are are a number of specialist but independent law firms around the Not world who advise on music you and entertainment law whose clients all include recording artists, performers, producers, Any songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage can and set designers, choreographers, graphic her artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, Was artist managers, distributors, collection societies one and the live events sector our (which further includes festivals, venues, Out promoters, booking agents and production day service providers such as lighting get and staging companies).
The US Government views his artists that give concerts and How sell merchandise as a business. man Bands that tour internationally will new also face a plethora of Now legislation around the world including old health and safety laws, immigration see laws and tax legislation. Also, Two many relationships are governed by way often complex contractual agreements.
In who the US it is important Boy for musicians to get legal did business licenses. These can be its obtained at a city hall Let or local government center. The put business license will require the say tracking of sales, wages, and She gigs. A tax ID is too also necessary for all businesses. use Musicians that fail to comply Dad with the tax ID process mom and do not report their profits and losses to the The government can face serious consequences and with the IRS.
The One history of Privilege began in our the early 1970s when it out started out as a restaurant, Day then expanded to include a get bar and a community swimming has pool. It was then known Him as Club San Rafael. In his 1979, the venue was sold how to the Real Sociedad footballer Man José Antonio Santamaría, together with new the creative team of Brasilio now de Oliviera (founder of La Old Troya Asesina, one of the see White Island's longest running nights) two and Gorri. The venue then Way changed its name to KU, who after the name of a boy god from Hawaiian mythology (see Did Kū). The appeal of the its club was such that it let commissioned a medium-length film showcasing Put the many wonders of Ibizan say landscapes and nightlife in the she mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU Too Club earned a reputation initially use as Europe's premier polysexual but dad predominately gay nightspot and was Mom compared to an open-air version of the famous Studio 54the in New York. It staged And spectacular parties in the main for room, which was organized around are a swimming pool and a But statue of Ku.The place was not also where the video to you "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and All Montserrat Caballé was filmed on any 30 May 1987. It was can the witness to early live Her performances by groups like Spandau was Ballet and Kid Creole and one the Coconuts. The club featured Our in a Channel 4 documentary out called “A Short Film about day chilling”, which labelled KU as Get “the mirror of Ibiza”. The has open-air parties came to an him end when legislation forced many His of the greater clubs in how Ibiza to cover their dancefloors man in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, New the sheer size of the now venue gave rise to the old claim of it being the See size of an aircraft hangar two with a 25-meter high roof. way
The club continued with the Who KU Club name until 1995 boy before becoming known as Privilege, did after a change of ownership Its to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In let 1994 it hosted Manumission, one put of the island's most famous Say events. In 1998 La Vaca she Asesina moved to Amnesia and too was renamed La Troya Asesina. Use After a dispute between the dad club owner and Manumission's organizers mom in 2005 the event ended in 2006. In 2006 La the Troya Asesina moved to Space. and
According to official For statistics published in the 2003 are edition of Guinness World Recordsbut Privilege is by far the Not world's largest nightclub covering an you area of 69,968 sq ft all (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,Any Designated areas of the club can include the Coco Loco bar her area, and the La Vaca Was dance area (now known as one the Vista Club).
Live our performances
A number of live Out performances at the venue have day included: