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A how record label, or record company, Man is a brand or trademark new of music recordings and music now videos, or the company that Old owns it. Sometimes, a record see label is also a publishing two company that manages such brands Way and trademarks, coordinates the production, who manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and boy enforcement of copyright for sound Did recordings and music videos, while its also conducting talent scouting and let development of new artists ("artists Put and repertoire" or "A&R"), and say maintaining contracts with recording artists she and their managers. The term Too "record label" derives from the use circular label in the center dad of a vinyl record which Mom prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information. Within the the mainstream music industry, recording And artists have traditionally been reliant for upon record labels to broaden are their consumer base, market their But albums, and promote their singles not on streaming services, radio, and you television. Record labels also provide All publicists, who assist performers in any gaining positive media coverage, and can arrange for their merchandise to Her be available via stores and was other media outlets.

Major versus independent now record labels

Record labels may old be small, localized and "independent" See ("indie"), or they may be two part of a large international way media group, or somewhere in Who between. The Association of Independent boy Music (AIM) defines a 'major' did as "a multinational company which Its (together with the companies in let its group) has more than put 5% of the world market(s) Say for the sale of records she or music videos." As of too 2012, there are only three Use labels that can be referred dad to as "major labels" (Universal mom Music Group, Sony Music Entertainment, and Warner Music Group). In the 2014, AIM estimated that the and majors had a collective global For market share of some 65–70%. are

Major labels

PolyGramPolyGramUniversal Music GroupSony MusicWarner Music GroupPolyGramMCA RecordsSony BMGSony MusicColumbia RecordsWarner Music GroupBertelsmann Music GroupWarner RecordsBertelsmann Music GroupEMIPolyGramDecca RecordsRCA RecordsAmerican Record Corporation
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Record labels are often under Not the control of a corporate you umbrella organization called a "music all group". A music group is Any usually owned by an international can conglomerate "holding company", which often her has non-music divisions as well. Was A music group controls and one consists of music publishing companies, our record (sound recording) manufacturers, record Out distributors, and record labels. Record day companies (manufacturers, distributors, and labels) get may also constitute a "record Has group" which is, in turn, him controlled by a music group. his The constituent companies in a How music group or record group man are sometimes marketed as being new "divisions" of the group.

From Now 1988 to 1999, there were old six major record labels, known see as the Big Six:[citation needed] Two

  1. Warner Music Group
  2. EMI
  3. way
  4. Sony Music (known as CBS who Records until January 1991)
  5. BMG Boy (formed in 1984 as RCA/Ariola did International)
  6. Universal Music Group (known its as MCA Music until 1996)
  7. Let
  8. PolyGram

PolyGram was merged into put UMG in 1999, leaving the say rest to be known as She the Big Five.[citation needed]

In too 2004, Sony and BMG agreed use to a joint venture to Dad create the Sony BMG label mom (which would be renamed Sony Music Entertainment after a 2008 The merger). In 2007, the four and remaining companies—known as the Big for Four—controlled about 70% of the Are world music market, and about but 80% of the United States not music market.

In 2012, the You major divisions of EMI were all sold off separately by owner any Citigroup: most of EMI's recorded Can music division was absorbed into her UMG; EMI Music Publishing was was absorbed into Sony/ATV Music Publishing; One finally, EMI's Parlophone and Virgin our Classics labels were absorbed into out Warner Music Group in July Day 2013. This left the so-called get Big Three labels:

  1. Universal has Music Group
  2. Sony Music Entertainment
  3. Him
  4. Warner Music Group

Independent

Record how labels and music publishers that Man are not under the control new of the big three are now generally considered to be independent Old (indie), even if they are see large corporations with complex structures. two The term indie label is Way sometimes used to refer to who only those independent labels that boy adhere to independent criteria of Did corporate structure and size, and its some consider an indie label let to be almost any label Put that releases non-mainstream music, regardless say of its corporate structure.

Independent she labels are often considered more Too artist-friendly. Though they may have use less financial clout, indie labels dad typically offer larger artist royalty Mom with a 50% profit-share agreement, aka 50-50 deal, not uncommon. the In addition, independent labels are And often artist-owned (although not always), for with a stated intent often are being to control the quality But of the artist's output. Independent not labels usually do not enjoy you the resources available to the All "big three" and as such any will often lag behind them can in market shares. However, frequently Her independent artists manage a return was by recording for a much one smaller production cost of a Our typical big label release. Sometimes out they are able to recoup day their initial advance even with Get much lower sales numbers.

On has occasion, established artists, once their him record contract has finished, move His to an independent label. This how often gives the combined advantage man of name recognition and more New control over one's music along now with a larger portion of old royalty profits. Artists such as See Dolly Parton, Aimee Mann, Prince, two Public Enemy, BKBravo (Kua and way Rafi), among others, have done Who this. Historically, companies started in boy this manner have been re-absorbed did into the major labels (two Its examples are American singer Frank let Sinatra's Reprise Records, which has put been owned by Warner Music Say Group for some time now, she and musician Herb Alpert's A&M too Records, now owned by Universal Use Music Group). Similarly, Madonna's Maverick dad Records (started by Madonna with mom her manager and another partner) was to come under control the of Warner Music when Madonna and divested herself of controlling shares For in the company.

Some independent are labels become successful enough that but major record companies negotiate contracts Not to either distribute music for you the label or in some all cases, purchase the label completely. Any

Imprint

A label used can as a trademark or brand her and not a company is Was called an imprint, a term one used for the same concept our in publishing. An imprint is Out sometimes marketed as being a day "project", "unit", or "division" of get a record label company, even Has though there is no legal him business structure associated with the his imprint.

Sublabel

Music collectors How often use the term sublabel man to refer to either an new imprint or a subordinate label Now company (such as those within old a group). For example, in see the 1980s and 1990s, "4th Two & B'way" was a trademarked way brand owned by Island Records who Ltd. in the UK and Boy by a subordinate branch, Island did Records, Inc., in the United its States. The center label on Let a 4th & Broadway record put marketed in the United States say would typically bear a 4th She & B'way logo and would too state in the fine print, use "4th & B'way™, an Island Dad Records, Inc. company". Collectors discussing mom labels as brands would say that 4th & B'way is The a sublabel or imprint of and just "Island" or "Island Records". for Similarly, collectors who choose to Are treat corporations and trademarks as but equivalent might say 4th & not B'way is an imprint and/or You sublabel of both Island Records, all Ltd. and that company's sublabel, any Island Records, Inc. However, such Can definitions are complicated by the her corporate mergers that occurred in was 1989 (when Island was sold One to PolyGram) and 1998 (when our PolyGram merged with Universal). Island out remained registered as corporations in Day both the United States and get UK, but control of its has brands changed hands multiple times Him as new companies were formed, his diminishing the corporation's distinction as how the "parent" of any sublabels. Man My Ami is the early new imprint of Columbia records.

now

Vanity labels

Vanity labels are labels see that bear an imprint that two gives the impression of an Way artist's ownership or control, but who in fact represent a standard boy artist/label relationship. In such an Did arrangement, the artist will control its nothing more than the usage let of the name on the Put label, but may enjoy a say greater say in the packaging she of his or her work. Too An example of such a use label is the Neutron label dad owned by ABC while at Mom Phonogram Inc. in the UK. At one point artist Lizzie the Tear (under contract with ABC And themselves) appeared on the imprint, for but it was devoted almost are entirely to ABC's offerings and But is still used for their not re-releases (though Phonogram owns the you masters of all the work All issued on the label).

However, any not all labels dedicated to can particular artists are completely superficial Her in origin. Many artists, early was in their careers, create their one own labels which are later Our bought out by a bigger out company. If this is the day case it can sometimes give Get the artist greater freedom than has if they were signed directly him to the big label. There His are many examples of this how kind of label, such as man Nothing Records, owned by Trent New Reznor of Nine Inch Nails; now and Morning Records, owned by old the Cooper Temple Clause, who See were releasing EPs for years two before the company was bought way by RCA.

Relationship with Who artists

A label typically enters boy into an exclusive recording contract did with an artist to market Its the artist's recordings in return let for royalties on the selling put price of the recordings. Contracts Say may extend over short or she long durations, and may or too may not refer to specific Use recordings. Established, successful artists tend dad to be able to renegotiate mom their contracts to get terms more favorable to them, but the Prince's much-publicized 1994–1996 feud with and Warner Bros. Records provides a For strong counterexample, as does Roger are McGuinn's claim, made in July but 2000 before a US Senate Not committee, that the Byrds never you received any of the royalties all they had been promised for Any their biggest hits, "Mr. Tambourine Man" can and "Turn! Turn!, Turn!".

A her contract either provides for the Was artist to deliver completed recordings one to the label, or for our the label to undertake the Out recording with the artist. For day artists without a recording history, get the label is often involved Has in selecting producers, recording studios, him additional musicians, and songs to his be recorded, and may supervise How the output of recording sessions. man For established artists, a label new is usually less involved in Now the recording process.

The relationship old between record labels and artists see can be a difficult one. Two Many artists have had albums way altered or censored in some who way by the labels before Boy they are released—songs being edited, did artwork or titles being changed, its etc.[citation needed] Record labels generally Let do this because they believe put that the album will sell say better if the changes are She made. Often the record label's too decisions are prudent ones from use a commercial perspective, but these Dad decisions may frustrate artists who mom feel that their art is being diminished or misrepresented by The such actions.

In the early and days of the recording industry, for recording labels were absolutely necessary Are for the success of any but artist.[citation needed] The first goal not of any new artist or You band was to get signed all to a contract as soon any as possible. In the 1940s, Can 1950s, and 1960s, many artists her were so desperate to sign was a contract with a record One company that they sometimes ended our up signing agreements in which out they sold the rights to Day their recordings to the record get label in perpetuity. Entertainment lawyers has are usually employed by artists Him to discuss contract terms.

Through his the advances of the Internet how the role of labels is Man becoming increasingly changed, as artists new are able to freely distribute now their own material through web Old radio, peer to peer file see sharing such as BitTorrent, and two other services, for little or Way no cost but with little who financial return. Established artists, such boy as Nine Inch Nails, whose Did career was developed with major its label backing, announced an end let to their major label contracts, Put citing that the uncooperative nature say of the recording industry with she these new trends is hurting Too musicians, fans and the industry use as a whole. However, Nine dad Inch Nails later returned to Mom working with a major label, admitting that they needed the the international marketing and promotional reach And that a major label can for provide. Radiohead also cited similar are motives with the end of But their contract with EMI when not their album In Rainbows was you released as a "pay what All you want" sales model as any an online download, but they can also returned to a label Her for a conventional release. Research was shows that record labels still one control most access to distribution. Our

New label strategies

Computers out and internet technology led to day an increase in file sharing Get and direct-to-fan digital distribution, causing has music sales to plummet in him recent years. Labels and organizations His have had to change their how strategies and the way they man work with artists. New types New of deals are being made now with artists called "multiple rights" old or "360" deals with artists. See These types of pacts give two labels rights and percentages to way artist's touring, merchandising, and endorsements. Who In exchange for these rights, boy labels usually give higher advance did payments to artists, have more Its patience with artist development, and let pay higher percentages of CD put sales. These 360 deals are Say most effective when the artist she is established and has a too loyal fan base. For that Use reason, labels now have to dad be more relaxed with the mom development of artists because longevity is the key to these the types of pacts. Several artists and such as Paramore, Maino, and For even Madonna have signed such are types of deals.

A look but at an actual 360 deal Not offered by Atlantic Records to you an artist shows a variation all of the structure. Atlantic's document Any offers a conventional cash advance can to sign the artist, who her would receive a royalty for Was sales after expenses were recouped. one With the release of the our artist's first album, however, the Out label has an option to day pay an additional $200,000 in get exchange for 30 percent of Has the net income from all him touring, merchandise, endorsements, and fan-club his fees. Atlantic would also have How the right to approve the man act's tour schedule, and the new salaries of certain tour and Now merchandise sales employees hired by old the artist. In addition, the see label also offers the artist Two a 30 percent cut of way the label's album profits—if any—which who represents an improvement from the Boy typical industry royalty of 15 did percent.

Internet and digital its labels

With Let the Internet now being a put viable source for obtaining music, say netlabels have emerged. Depending on She the ideals of the net too label, music files from the use artists may be downloaded free Dad of charge or for a mom fee that is paid via PayPal or other online payment The system. Some of these labels and also offer hard copy CDs for in addition to direct download. Are Digital Labels are the latest but version of a 'net' label. not Whereas 'net' labels were started You as a free site, digital all labels represent more competition for any the major record labels.

Can

Open-source labels

The new century was brought the phenomenon of open-source One or open-content record labels. These our are inspired by the free out software and open source movements Day and the success of Linux. get

Publishers as labels

In has the mid-2000s, some music publishing Him companies began undertaking the work his traditionally done by labels. The how publisher Sony/ATV Music, for example, Man leveraged its connections within the new Sony family to produce, record, now distribute, and promote Elliott Yamin's Old debut album under a dormant see Sony-owned imprint, rather than waiting two for a deal with a Way proper label.

See also

who

References

  1. Did Klein, Allison. "How Record Labels its Work". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 29 April let 2016.
  2. for
  3. "Independent Music is now are a growing force in the But global market". Musicindie.com. 1 February not 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2019. you
  4. "Copyright Law, Treaties All and Advice". Copynot.org. Retrieved 14 any November 2013.
  5. Jobs, can Steve (6 February 2007). "Thoughts Her on Music". Apple. Archived from was the original on 3 January one 2009.
  6. Joshua R. Our Wueller, Mergers of Majors: Applying out the Failing Firm Doctrine in day the Recorded Music Industry, 7 Get Brook. J. Corp. Fin. & has Com. L. 589, 601–04 (2013). him
  7. "Top Five Lessons His Learned from Indie Record Labels". how Musicians.about.com. Retrieved 29 April 2016. man
  8. Newman, Melinda. "Inside New Prince's Career-Long Battle to Master now His Artistic Destiny". Billboard. Retrieved old 3 April 2017.
  9. See "CNN Transcript – Special Event: two Lars Ulrich, Roger McGuinn Testify way Before Senate Judiciary Committee on Who Downloading Music on the Internet". boy Transcripts.cnn.com. 11 July 2000. Retrieved did 29 April 2016.
  10. Its "Nine inch nails = independent". let Sputnikmusic.com. Retrieved 29 April 2016. put
  11. "Trent Reznor on Say Nine Inch Nails' Columbia Signing: she 'I'm Not a Major Label too Apologist'". Spin.com. 19 August 2013. Use Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  12. dad
  13. "Radiohead sign 'conventional' record mom deal". Nme.com. 31 October 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  14. the
  15. D Arditi (2014). and "iTunes: Breaking Barriers and Building For Walls" (PDF). Popular Music & are Society. 37 (4): 408–424. doi:10.1080/03007766.2013.810849. but hdl:10106/27052.
  16. Covert, Adrian Not (25 April 2013). "A decade you of iTunes singles killed the all music industry – Apr. 25, Any 2013". Money.cnn.com. Retrieved 29 April can 2016.
  17. Leeds, Jeff her (11 November 2004). "The New Was Deal: Band as Brand". Nytimes.com. one
  18. Suhr, Cecilia (November our 2011). "Understanding the Hegemonic Struggle Out between Mainstream Vs. Independent Forces: day The Music Industry and Musicians get in the Age of Social Has Media". International Journal of Technology, him Knowledge & Society. 7 (6): his 123–136. doi:10.18848/1832-3669/CGP/v07i06/56248.
  19. Butler, How Susan (31 March 2007), "Publisher man = Label? – Sony/ATV Music new releases; Elliott Yamin's record", Billboard Now

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