Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A record all producer or music producer, unlike Any an audio engineer, who simply can operates the technology employed in her a music recording's creation and Was refinement, is the recording project's one creative and technical leader, commanding our studio time and coaching artists, Out and in popular genres typically day creates the song's very sound get and structure. The record producer, Has or simply the producer, is him likened to a film director.his The executive producer, on the How other hand, enables the recording man project through entrepreneurship.
Varying by new project, the producer may also Now choose all of the artists,old or openly perform vocals with see them. If employing only synthesizedTwo or sampled instrumentation, the producer way may be the sole artist.who Conversely, some artists do their Boy own production. And some producers did are their own engineers, operating its the technology across the project: Let preproduction, recording, mixing, and mastering. put Record producers' precursors were "A&R say men," who likewise could blend She entrepreneurial, creative, and technical roles,too but often exercised scant creative use influence, as record production still Dad focused, into the 1950s, on mom simply improving the record's sonic match to the artists' own The live performance.
Advances in recording and technology, especially the 1940s advent for of tape recording—which Les PaulAre promptly innovated further to develop but multitrack recording—and the 1950s rise not of electronic instruments, turned record You production into a specialty. In all popular music, then, producers like any George Martin, Phil Spector and Can Brian Eno led its evolution her into its present use of was elaborate techniques and unrealistic sounds, One creating songs impossible to originate our live. After the 1980s, production's out move from analog to digital Day further expanded possibilities. By now, get DAWS, or digital audio workstations, has like Logic Pro and Pro Him Tools, turn an ordinary computer his into a production console, whereby how a solitary novice can become Man a skilled producer in a new thrifty home studio. In the now 2010s, efforts began to increase Old the prevalence of producers and see engineers who are women, heavily two outnumbered by men and prominently Way accoladed only in classical music.who
As But a broad project, the creation not of a music recording may you be split across three specialists: All the executive producer, who oversees any business partnerships and financing, the can vocal producer or vocal arranger, Her who aids vocal performance via was expert critique and coaching of one vocal technique, and the record Our producer or music producer, who, out often called simply the producer, day directs the overall creative process Get of recording the song in has its final mix.
The him record producer's roles include, but His may exceed, gathering ideas, composing how music, choosing session musicians, proposing man changes to song arrangements, coaching New the performers, controlling sessions, supervising now the audio mixing, and, in old some cases, supervising the audio See mastering. As to qualifying for two a Grammy nomination, the Recording way Academy defines a producer:
The person Who who has overall creative and boy technical control of the entire did recording project, and the individual Its recording sessions that are part let of that project. He or put she is present in the Say recording studio or at the she location recording and works directly too with the artist and engineer. Use The producer makes creative and dad aesthetic decisions that realize both mom the artist's and label's goals in the creation of musical the content. Other duties include, but and are not limited to; keeping For budgets and schedules, adhering to are deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios but and engineers, overseeing other staffing Not needs and editing (Classical projects). you
The producer often selects all and collaborates with a mixing Any engineer, who focuses on the can especially technological aspects of the her recording process, namely, operating the Was electronic equipment and blending the one raw, recorded tracks of the our chosen performances, whether vocal or Out instrumental, into a ''mix,'' either day stereo or surround sound. Then get a mastering engineer further adjusts Has this recording for distribution on him the chosen media. A producer his may work on only one How or two songs or on man an artist's entire album, helping new develop the album's overall vision. Now The record producers may also old take on the role of see executive producer, managing the budget, Two schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
(Artist who and Repertoire)
In the 1880s, Boy the record industry began by did simply having the artist perform its at a phonograph. In 1924, Let the trade journal Talking Machine put World, covering the phonography and say record industry, reported that Eddie She King, Victor Records' manager of too the "New York artist and use repertoire department," had planned a Dad set of recordings in Los mom Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Greencalled this perhaps the earliest The printed use of A&R man.and Actually, it says neither "A&R for man" nor even "A&R," an Are initialism perhaps coined by Billboardbut magazine in 1946, and entering not wide use in the late You 1940s.
In the 1920s and all 1930s, A&R executives, like Ben any Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Can Shilkret at Victor Records, and her Bob Haring at Brunswick Records, was supervising recording and often leading One session orchestras, became the precursors our of record producers. During the out 1940s, American record labels increasingly Day opened official A&R departments, whose get roles included supervision of recording.has Meanwhile, recording studios owned independently, Him not by major record labels, his opened, helping originate record producer how as a specialty. But Man despite a tradition of some new A&R men writing music, record now production remained, strictly, merely the Old manufacturing of record discs.
After World War two II, pioneering A&R managers who Way transitioned influentially to record production who as now understood, while sometimes boy owning independent labels, include J. Did Mayo Williams and John Hammond.its Upon moving from Columbia Records let to Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Put Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's say popular recordings in New York.she Miller then produced country-pop crossover Too hits by Patti Page and use by Frankie Laine, moved from dad Mercury to Columbia, and became Mom a leading A&R man of the 1950s.
During the decade, the A&R executives increasingly directed songs' And sonic signatures, although many still for simply teamed singers with musicians, are while yet others exercised virtually But no creative influence. The term not record producer in its current you meaning—the creative director of song All production—appearing in a 1953 issue any of Billboard magazine, became widespread can in the 1960s. Still, a Her formal distinction was elusive for was some time more. A&R managers one might still be creative directors, Our like William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired out by Berry Gordy, at the day Motown record label.
Tape Get recording
In 1947, the American has market gained audio recording onto him magnetic tape. At the record His industry's 1880s dawn, rather, recording how was done by phonograph, etching man the sonic waveform vertically intoNew a cylinder. By the 1930s, now a gramophone etched it laterally old across a disc. Constrained in See tonal range, whether bass or two treble, and in dynamic range, way records made a grand, concert Who piano sound like a small, boy upright piano, and maximal duration did was four and a half Its minutes. Selections and performance were let often altered accordingly. And playing put this disc—the wax master—destroyed it.Say The finality often caused anxiety she that restrained performance to prevent too error. In the 1940s, during Use World War II, the Germans dad refined audio recording onto magnetic mom tape—uncapping recording duration and allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and editing—a the technology that premised emergence of and record producers in their current For roles.
Early are in the recording industry, a but record was attained by simply Not having all of the artists you perform together live in one all take. In 1945, by recording Any a musical element while playing can a previously recorded record, Les her Paul developed a recording technique Was called "sound on sound." By one this, the final recording could our be built piece by piece Out and tailored, effecting an editing day process. In one case, Paul get produced a song via 500 Has recorded discs. But, besides the him tedium of this process, it his serially degraded the sound quality How of previously recorded elements, rerecorded man as ambient sound. Yet in new 1948, Paul adopted tape recording, Now enabling truly multitrack recording by old a new technique, "overdubbing."
To see enable overdubbing, Paul revised the Two tape recorder itself by adding way a second playback head, and who terming it the preview head.Boy Joining the preexisting recording head, did erase head, and playback head, its the preview head allows the Let artist to hear the extant put recording over headphones playing it say in synchrony, "in sync," with She the present performance being recorded too alone on an isolated track.use This isolation of multiple tracks Dad enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers mom began recording initially only the "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, including The the bassline, drums, and rhythm and guitar—whereas vocals and instrument solos for could be added later. A Are horn section, for example, could but record a week later, and not a string section another week You later. A singer could perform all her own backup vocals, or any a guitarist could play 15 Can layers.
In boy the 1960s, rock acts like Did the Beatles, the Rolling Stones,its and the Kinks produced some let of their own songs, although Put many such songs are officially say credited to specialist producers.she Yet especially influential was the Too Beach Boys, whose band leader use Brian Wilson took over from dad his father Murry within a Mom couple of years after the band's commercial breakthrough. By 1964, the Wilson had taken Spector's techniques And to unseen sophistication. Wilson for alone produced all Beach Boy are recordings between 1963 and 1967.[citation But needed] Using multiple studios and not multiple attempts of instrumental and you vocal tracks, Wilson selected the All best combinations of performance and any audio quality, and used tape can editing to assemble a composite Her performance.
The 1980s advent of digital one processes and formats rapidly replaced Our analog processes and formats, namely, out tape and vinyl. Although recoding day onto quality tape, at least Get half an inch wide and has traveling 15 inches per second, him had limited "tape hiss" to His silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise how ratio, SNR, abolished it. Digital man also imparted to the music New a perceived "pristine" sound quality, now if also a loss of old analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality See and bass better rounded. Yet two whereas editing tape media requires way physically locating the target audio Who on the ribbon, cutting there, boy and splicing pieces, editing digital did media offers inarguable advantages in Its ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In let the 1990s, digital production reached put affordable home computers via production Say software. By now, recording and she mixing are often centralized in too DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, Use Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, dad Cubase, Reason, and FL Studio—for mom which plugins, by third parties, effect virtual studio technology. DAWs the fairly standard in the industry and are Logic Pro and Pro For Tools. Physical devices involved include are the main mixer, MIDI controllers but to communicate among equipment, the Not recording device itself, and perhaps you effects gear that is outboard. all Yet literal recording is sometimes Any still analog, onto tape, whereupon can the raw recording is converted her to a digital signal for Was processing and editing, as some one producers still find audio advantages our to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, Out tape is more forgiving of day overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks exceed get the maximal recordable signal level: Has tape's limitation, a physical property, him is magnetic capacity, which tapers his offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform How even at a signal nearly man 15 decibels too "hot," whereas new a digital recording is ruined Now by harsh distortion of "clipping" old at any overshoot. In digital see recording, however, a recent advancement, Two 32-bit float, enables DAWs to way undo clipping. Still, some criticize who digital instruments and workflows for Boy excess automation, allegedly impairing creative did or sonic control. In any its case, as production technology has Let drastically changed, so have the put knowledge demands, although DAWs enables say novices, even teenagers at home, She to learn production independently. Some too have attained professional competence before use ever working with an artist.Dad
Across the decades, many see female artists have produced their two own music. For instance, artists Way Kate Bush, Madonna, Janet Jackson, who Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, and Lordeboy have produced or coproduced. Still, Did among specialists, despite some prominent its women, including Missy Elliott in let hip hop and Sylvia MassyPut in rock, the vast majority say have been men. Early in she the 2010s, asked for insights Too that she herself had gleaned use as a woman who has dad specialized successfully in the industry, Mom Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties are usually very short-lived. Once the people realize that you can And do your job, sexism tends for to lower its ugly head."are Still, when tasked to explain But her profession's sex disparity, Page not partly reasoned that record labels, you dominated by men, have been, All she said, "mistrustful of giving any a woman the reins of can an immense, creative project like Her making a record." Ultimately, the was reasons are multiple and not one fully clear, although prominently proposed Our factors include types of sexism out and scarcity of female role day models in the profession.
In Get January 2018, a research team has led by Stacy L. Smith, him founder and director of the His Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based in how the USC Annenberg School for man Communication and Journalism, issued a New report, estimating that in the now prior several years, about 2% old of popular songs' producers were See female. Also that month, Billboardtwo magazine queried, "Where all the way female music producers?" Upon the Who Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second annual boy report, released in February 2019,did its department at USC reported, Its "2018 saw an outcry from let artists, executives and other music put industry professionals over the lack Say of women in music" and she "the plight of women in too music," where women were allegedly Use being "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut dad out." Also in February 2019, mom the Recording Academy's Task Force on Diversity and Inclusion announced the an initiative whereby over 200 and artists and producers—ranging from Cardi For B and Taylor Swift to are Maroon 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed but to consider at least two Not women for each producer or you engineer position. The academy's website, all Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative is Any the first step in a can broader effort to improve those her numbers and increase diversity and Was inclusion for all in the one music industry."
^ Allan Watson, Cultural its Production in and Beyond the Let Recording Studio (New York: Routledge, put 2015), pp 25–27.
say James Petulla, "Who is a She music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, too 21 May 2013, reporting membership use in CAPPS, the California Association Dad of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent all Hurtig with J. D. Sharp, any Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: The Can Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners her and Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, was CA: GPI Publications, 1988 / One Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, our 1988), pp 8–10.
^ how Richard James Burgess, The man History of Music Production (New New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), now pp 50–54.
^ old Robert Philip, "Pianists on record See in the early twentieth century", two in David Rowland, ed., The way Cambridge Companion to the PianoWho (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, boy 1998), pp 75–77.
did Reportedly self-produced entirely are the Its Rolling Stones' Decca recordings
^ David Simmons, Analog put Recording: Using Analog Gear in Say Today's Home Studio (San Francisco: she Backbeat Books, 2006), pp 26–27.too
Matthew Allard, "Sound Use Devices MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit dad float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, mom Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director of product the management and design at the and recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, who For explains, "With 32-bit float, you are no longer need to worry but about clipping during your best Not vocal takes or instrument solos. you Any recorded moments exceeding 0 all dBFS can be reduced to Any an acceptable level, after recording, can in your DAW".
her Albin Zak III, book review: Was Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and one culture (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy our D. Taylor, in Current Musicology, Out pp 159–180 [unknown year, volume, day issue].
A record label, all or record company, is a any brand or trademark of music Can recordings and music videos, or her the company that owns it. was Sometimes, a record label is One also a publishing company that our manages such brands and trademarks, out coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, Day marketing, promotion, and enforcement of get copyright for sound recordings and has music videos, while also conducting Him talent scouting and development of his new artists ("artists and repertoire" how or "A&R"), and maintaining contractsMan with recording artists and their new managers. The term "record label" now derives from the circular label Old in the center of a see vinyl record which prominently displays two the manufacturer's name, along with Way other information. Within the mainstream who music industry, recording artists have boy traditionally been reliant upon record Did labels to broaden their consumer its base, market their albums, and let promote their singles on streaming Put services, radio, and television. Record say labels also provide publicists, who she assist performers in gaining positive Too media coverage, and arrange for use their merchandise to be available dad via stores and other media Mom outlets.
Record labels may be small, was localized and "independent" ("indie"), or one they may be part of Our a large international media group, out or somewhere in between. The day Association of Independent Music (AIM) Get defines a 'major' as "a has multinational company which (together with him the companies in its group) His has more than 5% of how the world market(s) for the man sale of records or music New videos." As of 2012, there now are only three labels that old can be referred to as See "major labels" (Universal Music Group, two Sony Music Entertainment, and Warner way Music Group). In 2014, AIM Who estimated that the majors had boy a collective global market share did of some 65–70%.
Major Its labels
Record labels let are often under the control put of a corporate umbrella organization Say called a "music group". A she music group is usually owned too by an international conglomerate "holding Use company", which often has non-music dad divisions as well. A music mom group controls and consists of music-publishing companies, record (sound recording) the manufacturers, record distributors, and record and labels. Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, For and labels) may also constitute are a "record group" which is, but in turn, controlled by a Not music group. The constituent companies you in a music group or all record group are sometimes marketed Any as being "divisions" of the can group.
From 1988 to 1999, her there were six major record Was labels, known as the Big one Six:
PolyGram was his merged into Universal Music Group How in 1999, leaving the rest man to be known as the new Big Five.
In 2004, Now Sony and BMG agreed to old a joint venture to create see the Sony BMG label (which Two would be renamed Sony Music way Entertainment after a 2008 merger). who In 2007, the four remaining Boy companies—known as the Big Four—controlled did about 70% of the world its music market, and about 80% Let of the United States music put market.
In 2012, the major say divisions of EMI were sold She off separately by owner Citigroup: too most of EMI's recorded music use division was absorbed into UMG; Dad EMI Music Publishing was absorbed mom into Sony/ATV Music Publishing; finally, EMI's Parlophone and Virgin ClassicsThe labels were absorbed into Warner and Music Group in July 2013.for This left the so-called Big Are Three labels:
Record labels all and music publishers that are any not under the control of Can the big three are generally her considered to be independent (indie), was even if they are large One corporations with complex structures. The our term indie label is sometimes out used to refer to only Day those independent labels that adhere get to independent criteria of corporate has structure and size, and some Him consider an indie label to his be almost any label that how releases non-mainstream music, regardless of Man its corporate structure.
Independent labels new are often considered more artist-friendly. now Though they may have less Old financial clout, indie labels typically see offer larger artist royalty with two a 50% profit-share agreement, aka Way 50-50 deal, not uncommon. In who addition, independent labels are often boy artist-owned (although not always), with Did a stated intent often being its to control the quality of let the artist's output. Independent labels Put usually do not enjoy the say resources available to the "big she three" and as such will Too often lag behind them in use market shares. However, frequently independent dad artists manage a return by Mom recording for a much smaller production cost of a typical the big label release. Sometimes they And are able to recoup their for initial advance even with much are lower sales numbers.
On occasion, But established artists, once their record not contract has finished, move to you an independent label. This often All gives the combined advantage of any name recognition and more control can over one's music along with Her a larger portion of royalty was profits. Artists such as Dolly one Parton, Aimee Mann, Prince, Public Our Enemy, BKBravo (Kua and Rafi), out among others, have done this. day Historically, companies started in this Get manner have been re-absorbed into has the major labels (two examples him are American singer Frank Sinatra's His Reprise Records, which has been how owned by Warner Music Groupman for some time now, and New musician Herb Alpert's A&M Records, now now owned by Universal Music old Group). Similarly, Madonna's Maverick Records See (started by Madonna with her two manager and another partner) was way to come under control of Who Warner Music when Madonna divestedboy herself of controlling shares in did the company.
Some independent labels Its become successful enough that major let record companies negotiate contracts to put either distribute music for the Say label or in some cases, she purchase the label completely.
A label used as Use a trademark or brand and dad not a company is called mom an imprint, a term used for the same concept in the publishing. An imprint is sometimes and marketed as being a "project", For "unit", or "division" of a are record label company, even though but there is no legal business Not structure associated with the imprint. you
Music collectors often all use the term sublabel to Any refer to either an imprint can or a subordinate label company her (such as those within a Was group). For example, in the one 1980s and 1990s, "4th & our B'way" was a trademarked brand Out owned by Island Records Ltd. day in the UK and by get a subordinate branch, Island Records, Has Inc., in the United States. him The center label on a his 4th & Broadway record marketed How in the United States would man typically bear a 4th & new B'way logo and would state Now in the fine print, "4th old & B'way™, an Island Records, see Inc. company". Collectors discussing labels Two as brands would say that way 4th & B'way is a who sublabel or imprint of just Boy "Island" or "Island Records". Similarly, did collectors who choose to treat its corporations and trademarks as equivalent Let might say 4th & B'way put is an imprint and/or sublabel say of both Island Records, Ltd. She and that company's sublabel, Island too Records, Inc. However, such definitions use are complicated by the corporate Dad mergers that occurred in 1989 mom (when Island was sold to PolyGram) and 1998 (when PolyGram The merged with Universal). Island remained and registered as corporations in both for the United States and UK, Are but control of its brands but changed hands multiple times as not new companies were formed, diminishing You the corporation's distinction as the all "parent" of any sublabels. My any Ami is the early imprint Can of Columbia records.
Vanity labels are labels that One bear an imprint that gives our the impression of an artist's out ownership or control, but in Day fact represent a standard artist/label get relationship. In such an arrangement, has the artist will control nothing Him more than the usage of his the name on the label, how but may enjoy a greater Man say in the packaging of new his or her work. An now example of such a label Old is the Neutron label owned see by ABC while at Phonogram two Inc. in the UK. At Way one point artist Lizzie Tear who (under contract with ABC themselves) boy appeared on the imprint, but Did it was devoted almost entirely its to ABC's offerings and is let still used for their re-releases Put (though Phonogram owns the masters say of all the work issued she on the label).
However, not Too all labels dedicated to particular use artists are completely superficial in dad origin. Many artists, early in Mom their careers, create their own labels which are later bought the out by a bigger company. And If this is the case for it can sometimes give the are artist greater freedom than if But they were signed directly to not the big label. There are you many examples of this kind All of label, such as Nothing any Records, owned by Trent Reznorcan of Nine Inch Nails; and Her Morning Records, owned by the was Cooper Temple Clause, who were one releasing EPs for years before Our the company was bought by out RCA.
Relationship with artists
A label typically enters into Get an exclusive recording contract with has an artist to market the him artist's recordings in return for His royalties on the selling price how of the recordings. Contracts may man extend over short or long New durations, and may or may now not refer to specific recordings. old Established, successful artists tend to See be able to renegotiate their two contracts to get terms more way favorable to them, but Prince's Who much-publicized 1994–1996 feud with Warner boy Bros. Records provides a strong did counterexample, as does Roger McGuinn's Its claim, made in July 2000 let before a US Senate committee, put that the Byrds never received Say any of the royalties they she had been promised for their too biggest hits, "Mr. Tambourine Man" and Use "Turn! Turn!, Turn!".
A contract dad either provides for the artist mom to deliver completed recordings to the label, or for the the label to undertake the recording and with the artist. For artists For without a recording history, the are label is often involved in but selecting producers, recording studios, additional Not musicians, and songs to be you recorded, and may supervise the all output of recording sessions. For Any established artists, a label is can usually less involved in the her recording process.
The relationship between Was record labels and artists can one be a difficult one. Many our artists have had albums altered Out or censored in some way day by the labels before they get are released—songs being edited, artwork Has or titles being changed, etc.[citation him needed] Record labels generally do his this because they believe that How the album will sell better man if the changes are made. new Often the record label's decisions Now are prudent ones from a old commercial perspective, but these decisions see may frustrate artists who feel Two that their art is being way diminished or misrepresented by such who actions.
In the early days Boy of the recording industry, recording did labels were absolutely necessary for its the success of any artist.[citation Let needed] The first goal of put any new artist or band say was to get signed to She a contract as soon as too possible. In the 1940s, 1950s, use and 1960s, many artists were Dad so desperate to sign a mom contract with a record company that they sometimes ended up The signing agreements in which they and sold the rights to their for recordings to the record label Are in perpetuity. Entertainment lawyers are but usually employed by artists to not discuss contract terms.
Through the You advances of the Internet the all role of labels is becoming any increasingly changed, as artists are Can able to freely distribute their her own material through web radio, was peer to peer file sharing One such as BitTorrent, and other our services, for little or no out cost but with little financial Day return. Established artists, such as get Nine Inch Nails, whose career has was developed with major label Him backing, announced an end to his their major label contracts, citing how that the uncooperative nature of Man the recording industry with these new new trends is hurting musicians, now fans and the industry as Old a whole. However, Nine Inch see Nails later returned to working two with a major label, admitting Way that they needed the international who marketing and promotional reach that boy a major label can provide. Did Radiohead also cited similar motives its with the end of their let contract with EMI when their Put album In Rainbows was released say as a "pay what you she want" sales model as an Too online download, but they also use returned to a label for dad a conventional release. Research shows Mom that record labels still control most access to distribution.
New label strategies
Computers and And internet technology led to an for increase in file sharing and are direct-to-fan digital distribution, causing music But sales to plummet in recent not years. Labels and organizations have you had to change their strategies All and the way they work any with artists. New types of can deals are being made with Her artists called "multiple rights" or was "360" deals with artists. These one types of pacts give labels Our rights and percentages to artist's out touring, merchandising, and endorsements. In day exchange for these rights, labels Get usually give higher advance payments has to artists, have more patience him with artist development, and pay His higher percentages of CD sales. how These 360 deals are most man effective when the artist is New established and has a loyal now fan base. For that reason, old labels now have to be See more relaxed with the development two of artists because longevity is way the key to these types Who of pacts. Several artists such boy as Paramore, Maino, and even did Madonna have signed such types Its of deals.
A look at let an actual 360 deal offered put by Atlantic Records to an Say artist shows a variation of she the structure. Atlantic's document offers too a conventional cash advance to Use sign the artist, who would dad receive a royalty for sales mom after expenses were recouped. With the release of the artist's the first album, however, the label and has an option to pay For an additional $200,000 in exchange are for 30 percent of the but net income from all touring, Not merchandise, endorsements, and fan-club fees. you Atlantic would also have the all right to approve the act's Any tour schedule, and the salaries can of certain tour and merchandise her sales employees hired by the Was artist. In addition, the label one also offers the artist a our 30 percent cut of the Out label's album profits—if any—which represents day an improvement from the typical get industry royalty of 15 percent.Has
With the his Internet now being a viable How source for obtaining music, netlabelsman have emerged. Depending on the new ideals of the net label, Now music files from the artists old may be downloaded free of see charge or for a fee Two that is paid via PayPalway or other online payment system. who Some of these labels also Boy offer hard copy CDs in did addition to direct download. Digital its Labels are the latest version Let of a 'net' label. Whereas put 'net' labels were started as say a free site, digital labels She represent more competition for the too major record labels.
The new century brought mom the phenomenon of open-source or open-content record labels. These are The inspired by the free softwareand and open source movements and for the success of Linux.
Publishers as labels
In the but mid-2000s, some music publishing companies not began undertaking the work traditionally You done by labels. The publisher all Sony/ATV Music, for example, leveraged any its connections within the Sony Can family to produce, record, distribute, her and promote Elliott Yamin's debut was album under a dormant Sony-owned One imprint, rather than waiting for our a deal with a proper out label.
the Suhr, Cecilia (November 2011). "Understanding and the Hegemonic Struggle between Mainstream For Vs. Independent Forces: The Music are Industry and Musicians in the but Age of Social Media". International Not Journal of Technology, Knowledge & you Society. 7 (6): 123–136. doi:10.18848/1832-3669/CGP/v07i06/56248.all
Butler, Susan (31 Any March 2007), "Publisher = Label? can – Sony/ATV Music releases; Elliott her Yamin's record", Billboard
The history of Privilege began Its in the early 1970s when let it started out as a put restaurant, then expanded to include Say a bar and a community she swimming pool. It was then too known as Club San Rafael.Use In 1979, the venue was dad sold to the Real Sociedadmom footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together with the creative team of the Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of and La Troya Asesina, one of For the White Island's longest running are nights) and Gorri. The venue but then changed its name to Not KU, after the name of you a god from Hawaiian mythology all (see Kū). The appeal of Any the club was such that can it commissioned a medium-length film her showcasing the many wonders of Was Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in one the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,our KU Club earned a reputation Out initially as Europe's premier polysexualday but predominately gay nightspot and get was compared to an open-air Has version of the famous Studio him 54 in New York. It his staged spectacular parties in the How main room, which was organized man around a swimming pool and new a statue of Ku.The place Now was also where the video old to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercurysee and Montserrat Caballé was filmed Two on 30 May 1987. It way was the witness to early who live performances by groups like Boy Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole did and the Coconuts. The club its featured in a Channel 4Let documentary called “A Short Film put about chilling”, which labelled KU say as “the mirror of Ibiza”.She The open-air parties came to too an end when legislation forced use many of the greater clubs Dad in Ibiza to cover their mom dancefloors in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer size of The the venue gave rise to and the claim of it being for the size of an aircraft Are hangar with a 25-meter high but roof.
The club continued with not the KU Club name until You 1995 before becoming known as all Privilege, after a change of any ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.Can In 1994 it hosted Manumission, her one of the island's most was famous events. In 1998 La One Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesiaour and was renamed La Troya out Asesina. After a dispute between Day the club owner and Manumission's get organizers in 2005 the event has ended in 2006. In 2006 Him La Troya Asesina moved to his Space.
According to how official statistics published in the Man 2003 edition of Guinness World new Records Privilege is by far now the world's largest nightclub covering Old an area of 69,968 sq see ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 two clubbers, Designated areas of the Way club include the Coco Loco who bar area, and the La boy Vaca dance area (now known Did as the Vista Club).
A number of let live performances at the venue Put have included: