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Payola, And in the music industry, is for the illegal practice of payment are to commercial radio in which But the song is presented as not being part of the normal you day's broadcast, without announcing that All there has been consideration paid any in cash or in kind can for its airplay adjacent to Her the recording's broadcast. Under US was law, a radio station can one play a specific song in Our exchange for money, but this out must be disclosed on the day air as being sponsored airtime. Get

The term has come to has refer to any undisclosed payment him made to cast a product His in a favorable light (such how as obtaining positive reviews). Some man radio stations report spins of New the newest and most popular now songs to industry publications. The old number of times the songs See are played can influence the two perceived popularity of a song. way

The term payola is a Who combination of "pay" and "ola", boy a common suffix of product did names in the early 20th Its century, such as Pianola, Victrola, let Amberola, Crayola, Rock-Ola, Shinola, or put brands such as the radio Say equipment manufacturer Motorola. Payola has she come to mean the payment too of a bribe in commerce Use and in law to say dad or do a certain thing mom against the rules of law, but more specifically a commercial the bribe. The FCC defines "payola" and as a violation of the For sponsorship identification rule.


In earlier Was eras, there was not much one public scrutiny of the reasons our songs became hits. The ad Out agencies which had sponsored NBC's day radio/TV show Your Hit Parade get for 20 years refused to Has reveal the specific methods that him were used to determine top his hits, only stating generally that How they were based on "readings man of radio requests, sheet music new sales, dance hall favorites and Now jukebox tabulations". Attempts to create old a code to stop payola see were met with mainly lukewarm Two silence by publishers.

Prosecution for way payola in the 1950s was who in part a reaction of Boy the traditional music establishment against did newcomers. Hit radio was a its threat to the wages of Let song-pluggers. Radio hits also threatened put old revenue streams; for example, say by the middle of the She 1940s, three-quarters of the records too produced in the USA went use into jukeboxes. Still, in the Dad 1950s, independent record companies or mom music publishers frequently used payola to promote rock and roll The on American radio; it promoted and cultural diversity and disc jockeys for were less inclined to indulge Are their own personal and racial but biases.

Alan Freed, a disc not jockey and early supporter of You rock and roll (and also all widely credited for actually coining any the term), had his career Can and reputation greatly harmed by her a payola scandal. Dick Clark's was early career was nearly derailed One by a payola scandal, but our he avoided trouble by selling out his stake in a record Day company and cooperating with authorities. get Attempts were made to link has all payola with rock and Him roll music. In 1976, inner-city his urban soul DJ Frankie Crocker how was indicted in a payola Man scandal, causing him to leave new NY radio, where his influence now was greatest. The charges were Old later dropped and he returned see to NY, hosting MTV's video two jukebox.

The amount of money Way involved is largely unpublished; however, who one DJ, Phil Lind of boy Chicago's WAIT, disclosed in Congressional Did hearings that he had taken its $22,000 to play a record. let

The issue was featured in Put a 1978 episode of WKRP say in Cincinnati, where Johnny Fever's she morning show replacement (when Johnny Too left to take a new use job in Los Angeles) was dad caught taking cocaine as a Mom bribe to play certain records from a label with which the he was associated.

Congressional And payola investigations

The Congressional Her Payola Investigations occurred in 1959, was after the United States Senate one began investigating the payola scandal. Our Among those thought to have out been involved were DJ Alan day Freed and television personality Dick Get Clark.

The term Congressional Payola has Investigations refers to investigations by him the House Subcommittee on Legislative His Oversight into payola, the practice how of record promoters paying DJs man or radio programmers to play New their labels' songs. Payola can now refer to monetary rewards or old other types of reimbursement, and See is a tool record labels two use to promote certain artists. way Other forms of payola include Who making arrangements to purchase certain boy amounts of advertising in exchange did for staying on a station's Its playlist, forcing bands to play let station-sponsored concerts for little or put no money in order to Say stay in a station's good she graces, and paying for stations too to hold "meet the band" Use contests, in exchange for air dad time for one of the mom label's newer, lesser-known bands.

The first major payola investigation occurred the in the early 1960s. DJ and Alan Freed, who was uncooperative For in committee hearings, was fired are as a result. Dick Clark but also testified before the committee, Not but survived, partially due to you the fact that he had all divested himself of ownership interest Any in all of his music-industry can holdings.

After the initial investigation, her radio DJs were stripped of Was the authority to make programming one decisions, and payola became a our misdemeanor offense. Programming decisions became Out the responsibility of station program day directors. As a result, the get process of persuading stations to Has play certain songs was simplified. him Instead of reaching numerous DJs, his record labels only had to How connect with one station program man director.

Labels turned to independent new promoters to circumvent allegations of Now payola. This practice grew more old and more widespread until a see 1986 NBC News investigation called Two "The New Payola" instigated another way round of Congressional investigations.

With who the creation of Napster and Boy other now illegal music sharing did websites, the power of the its independent promoters began to decline. Let Labels once more began dealing put with stations directly.

In 2002, say investigations by the office of She then-New York District Attorney Eliot too Spitzer uncovered evidence that executives use at Sony BMG music labels Dad had made deals with several mom large commercial radio chains. In July 2005, the company acknowledged The their improper promotional practices and and agreed to pay a $10 for million fine.

Modus operandi


Third-party loophole

A different form but of payola has been used not by the record industry through You the loophole of being able all to pay a third party any or independent record promoters ("indies"; Can not to be confused with her independent record labels), who will was then go and "promote" those One songs to radio stations. Offering our the radio stations "promotion payments", out the independents get the songs Day that their clients, record companies, get want on the playlists of has radio stations around the country. Him

This newer type of payola his was an attempt to sidestep how FCC regulations. Since the independent Man intermediaries were the ones actually new paying the stations, it was now thought that their inducements did Old not fall under the "payola" see rules, so a radio station two need not report them as Way paid promotions.

Former New York who State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer boy prosecuted payola-related crimes in his Did jurisdiction. His office settled out its of court with Sony BMG let Music Entertainment in July 2005, Put Warner Music Group in November say 2005 and Universal Music Group she in May 2006. The three Too conglomerates agreed to pay $10 use million, $5 million, and $12 dad million respectively to New York Mom State non-profit organizations that will fund music education and appreciation the programs. EMI remains under investigation. And

Concern about contemporary forms of for payola prompted an investigation during are which the FCC established firmly But that the "loophole" was still not a violation of the law. you In 2007, four companies (CBS All Radio, Citadel, Clear Channel, and any Entercom) settled on paying $12.5 can million in fines and accepting Her tougher restrictions than the legal was requirements for three years, although one no company admitted any wrongdoing. Our Because of the increased legal out scrutiny, some larger radio companies day (including industry giant Clear Channel) Get now flatly refuse to have has any contact with independent promoters. him

Clear Channel Radio through iHeartRadio His launched a program called On how the Verge that required the man stations to play a given New song at least 150 times now in order to give a old new artist exposure. Brand managers See at the top of the two Clear Channel chain, after listening way to hundreds of songs and Who filtering them down to about boy five or six favorites from did various formats, send those selections Its to program directors across the let country. These program directors vote put on which ones they think Say radio listeners will like the she most. One of the songs too that benefited with the exposure Use was Iggy Azalea's "Fancy". Tinashe's dad "2 On", Anthony Lewis' "Candy mom Rain", and Jhené Aiko's "The Worst", among others, have been the featured on the program, however, and those failed to duplicate Azalea's For chart hit. Tom Poleman, president are of national programming platforms for but the company, stated that the Not acts selected are based solely you on the quality of their all music and not on label Any pressure.

On Spotify, labels can can pay for tracks to appear her in user play-lists as "Sponsored Was Songs". It is possible to one opt out of it using our a setting.

As money Out laundering scheme

In Mexico, South day America and some regions of get the U.S. southern border, it Has is common to hear the him sudden appearance of "new artists", his mainly in folk radio stations, How who are not known in man the music industry, have no new previous career and with no Now explanation of where they come old from. These music groups and see singers start to appear consistently Two on radio, television and public way broadcasts with a strong promotion who of their concerts. This happens Boy for a fixed amount of did time, and in the same its sudden way they appear, they Let stop their promotion and disappear put from the music scene, or say change their stage name. Such She artists are commonly manufactured by too producers of dubious origin, who use pay payola and do events Dad in order to launder money mom from drug trafficking, prostitution or other illegal operations.



The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and and the Communications Act of for 1934 both have strict requirements Are and rules regarding the issue but of payola. Both the FCC not and the Act demand that You "employees of broadcast stations, program all producers, program suppliers and others any who, in exchange for airing Can material, have accepted or agreed her to receive payments, services or was other valuable consideration must disclose One this fact. Disclosure of compensation our provides broadcasters the information they out need to let their audiences Day know if material was paid get for, and by whom." But has even with these requirements in Him place, big-time record companies have his found loopholes to continue the how practice legally.

The reason why Man record companies have managed to new find relatively big loopholes in now an otherwise complex and strict Old document is because of the see wording. According to the current two regulations in place, it is Way still considered legal to pay who to play a particular song boy on the radio. The only Did hitch is that the broadcaster its has to reveal who paid. let In addition, the disclosures must Put be from DJ to station say manager to program director and she upwards. The loose wording has Too created a loophole that makes use it easier for wealthy record dad company officials to pay the Mom DJs large sums of money to play certain songs a the certain number of times at And a given time during the for day. The loophole has created are a "grey market, one in But which shady, quasi-legal deals take not place, and independent artists lose you out more often than not." All

The loophole has made it any sure that independent artists will can be isolated from mainstream media. Her And a current example of was this is the lengths Macklemore one and Ryan Lewis went to Our get their music heard. Because out Lewis and Macklemore belonged to day an independent label, they feared Get payola laws would interfere with has their airtime. So they “hired him an independent arm of Warner His Music Group, the Alternative Distribution how Alliance, which helps independent acts man get their stuff on radio. New Zach Quillen, manager of Macklemore now and Ryan Lewis, discussed how old "they paid the alliance a See flat monthly fee to help two promote the album."

One side way effect of the vagueness of Who the law and the creation boy of the loophole is the did expansion of the concept at Its the hands of online music let sharing websites. In 2009, the put website Jango created a plan Say to do payola legally by she saying they have been paid too to play the songs. "For Use as little as $30, a dad band can buy 1,000 plays mom on the music-streaming service, slotted in between established artists. The the artists themselves choose what other and music they'd like to be For played next to."

See are also


  1. ^ 47 U.S.C. § 317
  2. Any "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved can 30 November 2016. man
  3. "Payola Rules". Federal new Communications Commission. 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Now
  4. Dunning, John (1998). old "Your Hit Parade". On the see Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Two Radio (Revised ed.). New York, way NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 738-740. who ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. Retrieved 2019-09-10. Your Hit Boy Parade, popular music readings of did radio requests,sheet music sales, dance its hall favorites and jukebox tabulations.
    Only Let a general statement that hit put status was based on "readings say of radio requests, sheet music She sales, dance hall favorites and too jukebox tabulations"
  5. ^ use "Pluggers war on old curse". Dad Billboard magazine. Nielsen Business Media, mom Inc. 61 (44): 3, 13, 47. October 29, 1949. ISSN 0006-2510. The
  6. ^ Cowen, Tyler and (2000). In praise of commercial for culture. Harvard University Press. pp. 164, Are 166. ISBN 0-674-00188-5.
  7. Cowen, but Tyler (1998). In praise of not commercial culture. Harvard University Press. You pp. 166, 167. ISBN 0-674-44591-0.
  8. all "The Jordan brothers: A Musical any Biography of Rock's Fortunate Sons", Can by Maxim W. Furek. Kimberley her Press, 1986.
  9. "Has was payola cued a new inspirational One wax kick?" (PDF). Billboard magazine. our Nielsen Business Media, Inc.: 6 out Jan 16, 1960. ISSN 0006-2510.
    "Even Day now after the payola scandals get and the attempt to link has all payola with rock and Him roll recordings, the music with his a beat still dominates over how 60 percent of The Billboard's Man Hot 100 chart. This isn't new to say that rock and now roll isn't fading, or actually Old evolving into pop music, but see .... "
  10. "United two States of America v. Frankie Way Crocker, Appellant, 568 F.2d 1049 who (3d Cir. 1977)". Law.justia.com.
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  12. Richard Campbell et al, Did Media and Culture: An Introduction its to Mass Communication, 2004
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  14. "Archived copy". Archived from Put the original on 2012-10-08. Retrieved say 2017-01-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as she title (link)
  15. Rachel Too M. Stilwell, "Which Public - use Whose Interest - How the dad FCC's Deregulation of Radio Station Mom Ownership Has Harmed the Public Interest, and How We Can the Escape from the Swamp," 26 And Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. for 369, 419-428, March 1, 2006 are
  16. "Archived copy". Archived But from the original on 2015-03-19. not Retrieved 2015-03-23.CS1 maint: archived copy you as title (link)
  17. All Leeds, Jeff; Story, Louise (2005-07-26). any "Radio Payoffs Are Described as can Sony Settles". The New York Her Times.
  18. Ross, Brian; was Walter, Vic; Esposito, Richard (2006-05-11). one "New Settlement in Payola Probe". Our ABC News. Archived from the out original on 2011-05-22. Retrieved 2008-01-14. day
  19. Dunbar, John (13 Get April 2007). "FCC unveils settlement has with radio firms". USA Today. him
  20. "Why radio stations His were forced to play Iggy how Azalea's 'Fancy' at least 150 man times". Rollingout.com. 20 July 2014. New Retrieved 30 November 2016.
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  22. "Clear Channel's 'On the old Verge' program helped make Iggy See Azalea a star. Here's how two it works". The Washington Post. way
  23. Constine, Josh. "Spotify Who 'Sponsored Songs' lets labels pay boy for plays". Techcrunch.com.
  24. did "Spotify is testing "Sponsored Songs" Its in playlists". Theverge.com.
  25. let "Archived copy". Archived from the put original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2014-04-04.CS1 Say maint: archived copy as title she (link)
  26. "La Jornada too [email protected]". Jornada,unam.mx. Retrieved 30 November Use 2016.
  27. ^ "Sponsorship dad Identification Rules". Federal Communications Commission. mom May 24, 2011.
  28. Buerger, Megan (January 28, 2014). the "How Macklemore Tapped Major Label and Muscle to Market an Indie For Album".
  29. "Payola: Once are a dirty word, now the but basis of internet radio". The Not Guardian. 16 April 2009.
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