Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A record all producer or music producer, unlike Any an audio engineer, who simply can operates the technology employed in her a music recording's creation and Was refinement, is the recording project's one creative and technical leader, commanding our studio time and coaching artists, Out and in popular genres typically day creates the song's very sound get and structure. The record producer, Has or simply the producer, is him likened to a film director.his The executive producer, on the How other hand, enables the recording man project through entrepreneurship.
Varying by new project, the producer may also Now choose all of the artists,old or openly perform vocals with see them. If employing only synthesizedTwo or sampled instrumentation, the producer way may be the sole artist.who Conversely, some artists do their Boy own production. And some producers did are their own engineers, operating its the technology across the project: Let preproduction, recording, mixing, and mastering. put Record producers' precursors were "A&R say men," who likewise could blend She entrepreneurial, creative, and technical roles,too but often exercised scant creative use influence, as record production still Dad focused, into the 1950s, on mom simply improving the record's sonic match to the artists' own The live performance.
Advances in recording and technology, especially the 1940s advent for of tape recording—which Les PaulAre promptly innovated further to develop but multitrack recording—and the 1950s rise not of electronic instruments, turned record You production into a specialty. In all popular music, then, producers like any George Martin, Phil Spector and Can Brian Eno led its evolution her into its present use of was elaborate techniques and unrealistic sounds, One creating songs impossible to originate our live. After the 1980s, production's out move from analog to digital Day further expanded possibilities. By now, get DAWS, or digital audio workstations, has like Logic Pro and Pro Him Tools, turn an ordinary computer his into a production console, whereby how a solitary novice can become Man a skilled producer in a new thrifty home studio. In the now 2010s, efforts began to increase Old the prevalence of producers and see engineers who are women, heavily two outnumbered by men and prominently Way accoladed only in classical music.who
As But a broad project, the creation not of a music recording may you be split across three specialists: All the executive producer, who oversees any business partnerships and financing, the can vocal producer or vocal arranger, Her who aids vocal performance via was expert critique and coaching of one vocal technique, and the record Our producer or music producer, who, out often called simply the producer, day directs the overall creative process Get of recording the song in has its final mix.
The him record producer's roles include, but His may exceed, gathering ideas, composing how music, choosing session musicians, proposing man changes to song arrangements, coaching New the performers, controlling sessions, supervising now the audio mixing, and, in old some cases, supervising the audio See mastering. As to qualifying for two a Grammy nomination, the Recording way Academy defines a producer:
The person Who who has overall creative and boy technical control of the entire did recording project, and the individual Its recording sessions that are part let of that project. He or put she is present in the Say recording studio or at the she location recording and works directly too with the artist and engineer. Use The producer makes creative and dad aesthetic decisions that realize both mom the artist's and label's goals in the creation of musical the content. Other duties include, but and are not limited to; keeping For budgets and schedules, adhering to are deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios but and engineers, overseeing other staffing Not needs and editing (Classical projects). you
The producer often selects all and collaborates with a mixing Any engineer, who focuses on the can especially technological aspects of the her recording process, namely, operating the Was electronic equipment and blending the one raw, recorded tracks of the our chosen performances, whether vocal or Out instrumental, into a ''mix,'' either day stereo or surround sound. Then get a mastering engineer further adjusts Has this recording for distribution on him the chosen media. A producer his may work on only one How or two songs or on man an artist's entire album, helping new develop the album's overall vision. Now The record producers may also old take on the role of see executive producer, managing the budget, Two schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
(Artist who and Repertoire)
In the 1880s, Boy the record industry began by did simply having the artist perform its at a phonograph. In 1924, Let the trade journal Talking Machine put World, covering the phonography and say record industry, reported that Eddie She King, Victor Records' manager of too the "New York artist and use repertoire department," had planned a Dad set of recordings in Los mom Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Greencalled this perhaps the earliest The printed use of A&R man.and Actually, it says neither "A&R for man" nor even "A&R," an Are initialism perhaps coined by Billboardbut magazine in 1946, and entering not wide use in the late You 1940s.
In the 1920s and all 1930s, A&R executives, like Ben any Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Can Shilkret at Victor Records, and her Bob Haring at Brunswick Records, was supervising recording and often leading One session orchestras, became the precursors our of record producers. During the out 1940s, American record labels increasingly Day opened official A&R departments, whose get roles included supervision of recording.has Meanwhile, recording studios owned independently, Him not by major record labels, his opened, helping originate record producer how as a specialty. But Man despite a tradition of some new A&R men writing music, record now production remained, strictly, merely the Old manufacturing of record discs.
After World War two II, pioneering A&R managers who Way transitioned influentially to record production who as now understood, while sometimes boy owning independent labels, include J. Did Mayo Williams and John Hammond.its Upon moving from Columbia Records let to Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Put Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's say popular recordings in New York.she Miller then produced country-pop crossover Too hits by Patti Page and use by Frankie Laine, moved from dad Mercury to Columbia, and became Mom a leading A&R man of the 1950s.
During the decade, the A&R executives increasingly directed songs' And sonic signatures, although many still for simply teamed singers with musicians, are while yet others exercised virtually But no creative influence. The term not record producer in its current you meaning—the creative director of song All production—appearing in a 1953 issue any of Billboard magazine, became widespread can in the 1960s. Still, a Her formal distinction was elusive for was some time more. A&R managers one might still be creative directors, Our like William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired out by Berry Gordy, at the day Motown record label.
Tape Get recording
In 1947, the American has market gained audio recording onto him magnetic tape. At the record His industry's 1880s dawn, rather, recording how was done by phonograph, etching man the sonic waveform vertically intoNew a cylinder. By the 1930s, now a gramophone etched it laterally old across a disc. Constrained in See tonal range, whether bass or two treble, and in dynamic range, way records made a grand, concert Who piano sound like a small, boy upright piano, and maximal duration did was four and a half Its minutes. Selections and performance were let often altered accordingly. And playing put this disc—the wax master—destroyed it.Say The finality often caused anxiety she that restrained performance to prevent too error. In the 1940s, during Use World War II, the Germans dad refined audio recording onto magnetic mom tape—uncapping recording duration and allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and editing—a the technology that premised emergence of and record producers in their current For roles.
Early are in the recording industry, a but record was attained by simply Not having all of the artists you perform together live in one all take. In 1945, by recording Any a musical element while playing can a previously recorded record, Les her Paul developed a recording technique Was called "sound on sound." By one this, the final recording could our be built piece by piece Out and tailored, effecting an editing day process. In one case, Paul get produced a song via 500 Has recorded discs. But, besides the him tedium of this process, it his serially degraded the sound quality How of previously recorded elements, rerecorded man as ambient sound. Yet in new 1948, Paul adopted tape recording, Now enabling truly multitrack recording by old a new technique, "overdubbing."
To see enable overdubbing, Paul revised the Two tape recorder itself by adding way a second playback head, and who terming it the preview head.Boy Joining the preexisting recording head, did erase head, and playback head, its the preview head allows the Let artist to hear the extant put recording over headphones playing it say in synchrony, "in sync," with She the present performance being recorded too alone on an isolated track.use This isolation of multiple tracks Dad enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers mom began recording initially only the "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, including The the bassline, drums, and rhythm and guitar—whereas vocals and instrument solos for could be added later. A Are horn section, for example, could but record a week later, and not a string section another week You later. A singer could perform all her own backup vocals, or any a guitarist could play 15 Can layers.
In boy the 1960s, rock acts like Did the Beatles, the Rolling Stones,its and the Kinks produced some let of their own songs, although Put many such songs are officially say credited to specialist producers.she Yet especially influential was the Too Beach Boys, whose band leader use Brian Wilson took over from dad his father Murry within a Mom couple of years after the band's commercial breakthrough. By 1964, the Wilson had taken Spector's techniques And to unseen sophistication. Wilson for alone produced all Beach Boy are recordings between 1963 and 1967.[citation But needed] Using multiple studios and not multiple attempts of instrumental and you vocal tracks, Wilson selected the All best combinations of performance and any audio quality, and used tape can editing to assemble a composite Her performance.
The 1980s advent of digital one processes and formats rapidly replaced Our analog processes and formats, namely, out tape and vinyl. Although recoding day onto quality tape, at least Get half an inch wide and has traveling 15 inches per second, him had limited "tape hiss" to His silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise how ratio, SNR, abolished it. Digital man also imparted to the music New a perceived "pristine" sound quality, now if also a loss of old analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality See and bass better rounded. Yet two whereas editing tape media requires way physically locating the target audio Who on the ribbon, cutting there, boy and splicing pieces, editing digital did media offers inarguable advantages in Its ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In let the 1990s, digital production reached put affordable home computers via production Say software. By now, recording and she mixing are often centralized in too DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, Use Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, dad Cubase, Reason, and FL Studio—for mom which plugins, by third parties, effect virtual studio technology. DAWs the fairly standard in the industry and are Logic Pro and Pro For Tools. Physical devices involved include are the main mixer, MIDI controllers but to communicate among equipment, the Not recording device itself, and perhaps you effects gear that is outboard. all Yet literal recording is sometimes Any still analog, onto tape, whereupon can the raw recording is converted her to a digital signal for Was processing and editing, as some one producers still find audio advantages our to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, Out tape is more forgiving of day overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks exceed get the maximal recordable signal level: Has tape's limitation, a physical property, him is magnetic capacity, which tapers his offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform How even at a signal nearly man 15 decibels too "hot," whereas new a digital recording is ruined Now by harsh distortion of "clipping" old at any overshoot. In digital see recording, however, a recent advancement, Two 32-bit float, enables DAWs to way undo clipping. Still, some criticize who digital instruments and workflows for Boy excess automation, allegedly impairing creative did or sonic control. In any its case, as production technology has Let drastically changed, so have the put knowledge demands, although DAWs enables say novices, even teenagers at home, She to learn production independently. Some too have attained professional competence before use ever working with an artist.Dad
Across the decades, many see female artists have produced their two own music. For instance, artists Way Kate Bush, Madonna, Janet Jackson, who Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, and Lordeboy have produced or coproduced. Still, Did among specialists, despite some prominent its women, including Missy Elliott in let hip hop and Sylvia MassyPut in rock, the vast majority say have been men. Early in she the 2010s, asked for insights Too that she herself had gleaned use as a woman who has dad specialized successfully in the industry, Mom Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties are usually very short-lived. Once the people realize that you can And do your job, sexism tends for to lower its ugly head."are Still, when tasked to explain But her profession's sex disparity, Page not partly reasoned that record labels, you dominated by men, have been, All she said, "mistrustful of giving any a woman the reins of can an immense, creative project like Her making a record." Ultimately, the was reasons are multiple and not one fully clear, although prominently proposed Our factors include types of sexism out and scarcity of female role day models in the profession.
In Get January 2018, a research team has led by Stacy L. Smith, him founder and director of the His Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based in how the USC Annenberg School for man Communication and Journalism, issued a New report, estimating that in the now prior several years, about 2% old of popular songs' producers were See female. Also that month, Billboardtwo magazine queried, "Where all the way female music producers?" Upon the Who Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second annual boy report, released in February 2019,did its department at USC reported, Its "2018 saw an outcry from let artists, executives and other music put industry professionals over the lack Say of women in music" and she "the plight of women in too music," where women were allegedly Use being "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut dad out." Also in February 2019, mom the Recording Academy's Task Force on Diversity and Inclusion announced the an initiative whereby over 200 and artists and producers—ranging from Cardi For B and Taylor Swift to are Maroon 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed but to consider at least two Not women for each producer or you engineer position. The academy's website, all Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative is Any the first step in a can broader effort to improve those her numbers and increase diversity and Was inclusion for all in the one music industry."
^ Allan Watson, Cultural its Production in and Beyond the Let Recording Studio (New York: Routledge, put 2015), pp 25–27.
say James Petulla, "Who is a She music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, too 21 May 2013, reporting membership use in CAPPS, the California Association Dad of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent all Hurtig with J. D. Sharp, any Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: The Can Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners her and Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, was CA: GPI Publications, 1988 / One Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, our 1988), pp 8–10.
^ how Richard James Burgess, The man History of Music Production (New New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), now pp 50–54.
^ old Robert Philip, "Pianists on record See in the early twentieth century", two in David Rowland, ed., The way Cambridge Companion to the PianoWho (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, boy 1998), pp 75–77.
did Reportedly self-produced entirely are the Its Rolling Stones' Decca recordings
^ David Simmons, Analog put Recording: Using Analog Gear in Say Today's Home Studio (San Francisco: she Backbeat Books, 2006), pp 26–27.too
Matthew Allard, "Sound Use Devices MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit dad float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, mom Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director of product the management and design at the and recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, who For explains, "With 32-bit float, you are no longer need to worry but about clipping during your best Not vocal takes or instrument solos. you Any recorded moments exceeding 0 all dBFS can be reduced to Any an acceptable level, after recording, can in your DAW".
her Albin Zak III, book review: Was Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and one culture (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy our D. Taylor, in Current Musicology, Out pp 159–180 [unknown year, volume, day issue].
Payola, And in the music industry, is for the illegal practice of paymentare to commercial radio in which But the song is presented as not being part of the normal you day's broadcast, without announcing that All there has been consideration paid any in cash or in kind can for its airplay adjacent to Her the recording's broadcast. Under US was law, a radio station can one play a specific song in Our exchange for money, but this out must be disclosed on the day air as being sponsored airtime.Get
The term has come to has refer to any undisclosed payment him made to cast a product His in a favorable light (such how as obtaining positive reviews). Some man radio stations report spins of New the newest and most popular now songs to industry publications. The old number of times the songs See are played can influence the two perceived popularity of a song. way
The term payola is a Who combination of "pay" and "ola", boy a common suffix of product did names in the early 20th Its century, such as Pianola, Victrola, let Amberola, Crayola, Rock-Ola, Shinola, or put brands such as the radio Say equipment manufacturer Motorola. Payola has she come to mean the payment too of a bribe in commerce Use and in law to say dad or do a certain thing mom against the rules of law, but more specifically a commercial the bribe. The FCC defines "payola" and as a violation of the For sponsorship identification rule.
In earlier Was eras, there was not much one public scrutiny of the reasons our songs became hits. The ad Out agencies which had sponsored NBC's day radio/TV show Your Hit Paradeget for 20 years refused to Has reveal the specific methods that him were used to determine top his hits, only stating generally that How they were based on "readings man of radio requests, sheet musicnew sales, dance hall favorites and Now jukebox tabulations". Attempts to create old a code to stop payola see were met with mainly lukewarm Two silence by publishers.
Prosecution for way payola in the 1950s was who in part a reaction of Boy the traditional music establishment against did newcomers. Hit radio was a its threat to the wages of Let song-pluggers. Radio hits also threatened put old revenue streams; for example, say by the middle of the She 1940s, three-quarters of the records too produced in the USA went use into jukeboxes. Still, in the Dad 1950s, independent record companies or mom music publishers frequently used payola to promote rock and roll The on American radio; it promoted and cultural diversity and disc jockeys for were less inclined to indulge Are their own personal and racial but biases.
Alan Freed, a disc not jockey and early supporter of You rock and roll (and also all widely credited for actually coining any the term), had his career Can and reputation greatly harmed by her a payola scandal. Dick Clark's was early career was nearly derailed One by a payola scandal, but our he avoided trouble by selling out his stake in a record Day company and cooperating with authorities.get Attempts were made to link has all payola with rock and Him roll music. In 1976, inner-city his urban soul DJ Frankie Crockerhow was indicted in a payola Man scandal, causing him to leave new NY radio, where his influence now was greatest. The charges were Old later dropped and he returned see to NY, hosting MTV's video two jukebox.
The amount of money Way involved is largely unpublished; however, who one DJ, Phil Lind of boy Chicago's WAIT, disclosed in Congressional Did hearings that he had taken its $22,000 to play a record.let
The issue was featured in Put a 1978 episode of WKRP say in Cincinnati, where Johnny Fever's she morning show replacement (when Johnny Too left to take a new use job in Los Angeles) was dad caught taking cocaine as a Mom bribe to play certain records from a label with which the he was associated.
The Congressional Her Payola Investigations occurred in 1959, was after the United States Senate one began investigating the payola scandal. Our Among those thought to have out been involved were DJ Alan day Freed and television personality Dick Get Clark.
The term Congressional Payola has Investigations refers to investigations by him the House Subcommittee on Legislative His Oversight into payola, the practice how of record promoters paying DJs man or radio programmers to play New their labels' songs. Payola can now refer to monetary rewards or old other types of reimbursement, and See is a tool record labels two use to promote certain artists. way Other forms of payola include Who making arrangements to purchase certain boy amounts of advertising in exchange did for staying on a station's Its playlist, forcing bands to play let station-sponsored concerts for little or put no money in order to Say stay in a station's good she graces, and paying for stations too to hold "meet the band" Use contests, in exchange for air dad time for one of the mom label's newer, lesser-known bands.
The first major payola investigation occurred the in the early 1960s. DJ and Alan Freed, who was uncooperative For in committee hearings, was fired are as a result. Dick Clark but also testified before the committee, Not but survived, partially due to you the fact that he had all divested himself of ownership interest Any in all of his music-industry can holdings.
After the initial investigation, her radio DJs were stripped of Was the authority to make programming one decisions, and payola became a our misdemeanor offense. Programming decisions became Out the responsibility of station program day directors. As a result, the get process of persuading stations to Has play certain songs was simplified. him Instead of reaching numerous DJs, his record labels only had to How connect with one station program man director.
Labels turned to independent new promoters to circumvent allegations of Now payola. This practice grew more old and more widespread until a see 1986 NBC News investigation called Two "The New Payola" instigated another way round of Congressional investigations.
With who the creation of Napster and Boy other now illegal music sharing did websites, the power of the its independent promoters began to decline. Let Labels once more began dealing put with stations directly.
In 2002, say investigations by the office of She then-New York District Attorney Eliot too Spitzer uncovered evidence that executives use at Sony BMG music labels Dad had made deals with several mom large commercial radio chains. In July 2005, the company acknowledged The their improper promotional practices and and agreed to pay a $10 for million fine.
A different form but of payola has been used not by the record industry through You the loophole of being able all to pay a third party any or independent record promoters ("indies"; Can not to be confused with her independent record labels), who will was then go and "promote" those One songs to radio stations. Offering our the radio stations "promotion payments", out the independents get the songs Day that their clients, record companies, get want on the playlists of has radio stations around the country. Him
This newer type of payola his was an attempt to sidestep how FCC regulations. Since the independent Man intermediaries were the ones actually new paying the stations, it was now thought that their inducements did Old not fall under the "payola" see rules, so a radio station two need not report them as Way paid promotions.
Former New York who State Attorney General Eliot Spitzerboy prosecuted payola-related crimes in his Did jurisdiction. His office settled out its of court with Sony BMG let Music Entertainment in July 2005, Put Warner Music Group in November say 2005 and Universal Music Groupshe in May 2006. The three Too conglomerates agreed to pay $10 use million, $5 million, and $12 dad million respectively to New York Mom State non-profit organizations that will fund music education and appreciation the programs. EMI remains under investigation.And
Concern about contemporary forms of for payola prompted an investigation during are which the FCC established firmly But that the "loophole" was still not a violation of the law. you In 2007, four companies (CBS All Radio, Citadel, Clear Channel, and any Entercom) settled on paying $12.5 can million in fines and accepting Her tougher restrictions than the legal was requirements for three years, although one no company admitted any wrongdoing.Our Because of the increased legal out scrutiny, some larger radio companies day (including industry giant Clear Channel) Get now flatly refuse to have has any contact with independent promoters. him
Clear Channel Radio through iHeartRadioHis launched a program called On how the Verge that required the man stations to play a given New song at least 150 times now in order to give a old new artist exposure. Brand managers See at the top of the two Clear Channel chain, after listening way to hundreds of songs and Who filtering them down to about boy five or six favorites from did various formats, send those selections Its to program directors across the let country. These program directors vote put on which ones they think Say radio listeners will like the she most. One of the songs too that benefited with the exposure Use was Iggy Azalea's "Fancy". Tinashe's dad "2 On", Anthony Lewis' "Candy mom Rain", and Jhené Aiko's "The Worst", among others, have been the featured on the program, however, and those failed to duplicate Azalea's For chart hit. Tom Poleman, president are of national programming platforms for but the company, stated that the Not acts selected are based solely you on the quality of their all music and not on label Any pressure.
On Spotify, labels can can pay for tracks to appear her in user play-lists as "Sponsored Was Songs". It is possible to one opt out of it using our a setting.
As money Out laundering scheme
In Mexico, South day America and some regions of get the U.S. southern border, it Has is common to hear the him sudden appearance of "new artists", his mainly in folk radio stations, How who are not known in man the music industry, have no new previous career and with no Now explanation of where they come old from. These music groups and see singers start to appear consistently Two on radio, television and public way broadcasts with a strong promotion who of their concerts. This happens Boy for a fixed amount of did time, and in the same its sudden way they appear, they Let stop their promotion and disappear put from the music scene, or say change their stage name. Such She artists are commonly manufactured by too producers of dubious origin, who use pay payola and do events Dad in order to launder money mom from drug trafficking, prostitution or other illegal operations.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and and the Communications Act of for 1934 both have strict requirements Are and rules regarding the issue but of payola. Both the FCC not and the Act demand that You "employees of broadcast stations, program all producers, program suppliers and others any who, in exchange for airing Can material, have accepted or agreed her to receive payments, services or was other valuable consideration must disclose One this fact. Disclosure of compensation our provides broadcasters the information they out need to let their audiences Day know if material was paid get for, and by whom." But has even with these requirements in Him place, big-time record companies have his found loopholes to continue the how practice legally.
The reason why Man record companies have managed to new find relatively big loopholes in now an otherwise complex and strict Old document is because of the see wording. According to the current two regulations in place, it is Way still considered legal to pay who to play a particular song boy on the radio. The only Did hitch is that the broadcaster its has to reveal who paid. let In addition, the disclosures must Put be from DJ to station say manager to program director and she upwards. The loose wording has Too created a loophole that makes use it easier for wealthy record dad company officials to pay the Mom DJs large sums of money to play certain songs a the certain number of times at And a given time during the for day. The loophole has created are a "grey market, one in But which shady, quasi-legal deals take not place, and independent artists lose you out more often than not."All
The loophole has made it any sure that independent artists will can be isolated from mainstream media. Her And a current example of was this is the lengths Macklemore one and Ryan Lewis went to Our get their music heard. Because out Lewis and Macklemore belonged to day an independent label, they feared Get payola laws would interfere with has their airtime. So they “hired him an independent arm of Warner His Music Group, the Alternative Distribution how Alliance, which helps independent acts man get their stuff on radio. New Zach Quillen, manager of Macklemore now and Ryan Lewis, discussed how old "they paid the alliance a See flat monthly fee to help two promote the album."
One side way effect of the vagueness of Who the law and the creation boy of the loophole is the did expansion of the concept at Its the hands of online music let sharing websites. In 2009, the put website Jango created a plan Say to do payola legally by she saying they have been paid too to play the songs. "For Use as little as $30, a dad band can buy 1,000 plays mom on the music-streaming service, slotted in between established artists. The the artists themselves choose what other and music they'd like to be For played next to."
"Payola Rules". Federal new Communications Commission. 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2019-05-20.Now
Dunning, John (1998). old "Your Hit Parade". On the see Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Two Radio (Revised ed.). New York, way NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 738-740. who ISBN978-0-19-507678-3. Retrieved 2019-09-10. Your Hit Boy Parade, popular music readings of did radio requests,sheet music sales, dance its hall favorites and jukebox tabulations. Only Let a general statement that hit put status was based on "readings say of radio requests, sheet music She sales, dance hall favorites and too jukebox tabulations"
^ use "Pluggers war on old curse". Dad Billboard magazine. Nielsen Business Media, mom Inc. 61 (44): 3, 13, 47. October 29, 1949. ISSN0006-2510.The
^ Cowen, Tyler and (2000). In praise of commercial for culture. Harvard University Press. pp. 164, Are 166. ISBN0-674-00188-5.
all "The Jordan brothers: A Musical any Biography of Rock's Fortunate Sons", Can by Maxim W. Furek. Kimberley her Press, 1986.
"Has was payola cued a new inspirational One wax kick?"(PDF). Billboard magazine. our Nielsen Business Media, Inc.: 6 out Jan 16, 1960. ISSN0006-2510. "Even Day now after the payola scandals get and the attempt to link has all payola with rock and Him roll recordings, the music with his a beat still dominates over how 60 percent of The Billboard's Man Hot 100 chart. This isn't new to say that rock and now roll isn't fading, or actually Old evolving into pop music, but see .... "
Rachel Too M. Stilwell, "Which Public - use Whose Interest - How the dad FCC's Deregulation of Radio Station Mom Ownership Has Harmed the Public Interest, and How We Can the Escape from the Swamp," 26 And Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. for 369, 419-428, March 1, 2006are
The history of Him Privilege began in the early his 1970s when it started out how as a restaurant, then expanded Man to include a bar and new a community swimming pool. It now was then known as Club Old San Rafael. In 1979, the see venue was sold to the two Real Sociedad footballer José Antonio Way Santamaría, together with the creative who team of Brasilio de Oliviera boy (founder of La Troya Asesina, Did one of the White Island's its longest running nights) and Gorri. let The venue then changed its Put name to KU, after the say name of a god from she Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). The Too appeal of the club was use such that it commissioned a dad medium-length film showcasing the many Mom wonders of Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the the 1980s, KU Club earned And a reputation initially as Europe's for premier polysexual but predominately gay are nightspot and was compared to But an open-air version of the not famous Studio 54 in New you York. It staged spectacular parties All in the main room, which any was organized around a swimming can pool and a statue of Her Ku.The place was also where was the video to "Barcelona" by one Freddie Mercury and Montserrat CaballéOur was filmed on 30 May out 1987. It was the witness day to early live performances by Get groups like Spandau Ballet and has Kid Creole and the Coconuts.him The club featured in a His Channel 4 documentary called “A how Short Film about chilling”, which man labelled KU as “the mirror New of Ibiza”. The open-air parties now came to an end when old legislation forced many of the See greater clubs in Ibiza to two cover their dancefloors in the way early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer Who size of the venue gave boy rise to the claim of did it being the size of Its an aircraft hangar with a let 25-meter high roof.
The club put continued with the KU Club Say name until 1995 before becoming she known as Privilege, after a too change of ownership to Jose Use Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 it dad hosted Manumission, one of the mom island's most famous events. In 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved the to Amnesia and was renamed and La Troya Asesina. After a For dispute between the club owner are and Manumission's organizers in 2005 but the event ended in 2006. Not In 2006 La Troya Asesina you moved to Space.
According to official statistics published Any in the 2003 edition of can Guinness World Records Privilege is her by far the world's largest Was nightclub covering an area of one 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) and our holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas Out of the club include the day Coco Loco bar area, and get the La Vaca dance area Has (now known as the Vista him Club).
A his number of live performances at How the venue have included: