The say term "disco" is shorthand for She the word discothèque, a French too word for "library of phonograph use records" derived from "bibliothèque". The Dad word "discothèque" had the same mom meaning in English in the 1950s.
"Discothèque" became used in The French for a type of and nightclub in Paris, France, after for these had resorted to playing Are records during the Nazi occupation but in the early 1940s. Some not clubs used it as their You proper name. In 1960, it all was also used to describe any a Parisian nightclub in an Can English magazine.
In the summer her of 1964, a short sleeveless was dress called "discotheque dress" was One briefly very popular in the our United States. The earliest known out use for the abbreviated form Day "disco" described this dress and get has been found in The has Salt Lake Tribune on July Him 12, 1964, but Playboy magazine his used it in September of how the same year to describe Man Los Angeles nightclubs.
Vince Aletti new was one of the first now to describe disco as a Old sound or a music genre. see He wrote the feature article two "Discotheque Rock Paaaaarty" that appeared Way in Rolling Stone magazine in who September 1973.
The music typically say layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals, often she doubled by horns, over Too a background "pad" of electric use pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitarsdad played on an electric guitar. Mom Lead guitar features less frequently in disco than in rock. the "The "rooster scratch" sound is And achieved by lightly pressing the for guitar strings against the fretboard are and then quickly releasing them But just enough to get a not slightly muted poker [sound] while you constantly strumming very close to All the bridge." Other backing keyboard any instruments include the piano, electric can organ (during early years), string Her synthesizers, and electromechanical keyboards such was as the Fender Rhodes electric one piano, Wurlitzer electric piano, and Our Hohner Clavinet. Synthesizers are also out fairly common in disco, especially day in the late 1970s.
Most disco songs have dad a steady four-on-the-floor beat, a mom quaver or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the the off-beat, and a heavy, and syncopated bass line. Other Latin For rhythms such as the rhumba, are the samba, and the cha-cha-cha but are also found in disco Not recordings, and Latin polyrhythms, such you as a rhumba beat layered all over a merengue, are commonplace. Any The quaver pattern is often can supported by other instruments such her as the rhythm guitar and Was may be implied rather than one explicitly present.
Songs often use our syncopation, which is the accenting Out of unexpected beats. In general, day the difference between disco, or get any dance song, and a Has rock or popular song is him that in dance music the his bass drum hits four to How the floor, at least once man a beat (which in 4/4 new time is 4 beats per Now measure). Disco is further old characterized by a 16th note see division of the quarter notes Two as shown in the second way drum pattern below, after a who typical rock drum pattern.
The Boy orchestral sound is usually known did as "disco sound" relies heavily its on string sections and horns Let playing linear phrases, in unison put with the soaring, often reverberated say vocals or playing instrumental fills, She while electric pianos and chicken-scratch too guitars create the background "pad" use sound defining the harmony progression. Dad Typically, all of the doubling mom of parts and use of additional instruments creates a rich The "wall of sound". There are, and however, more minimalist flavors of for disco with reduced, transparent instrumentation, Are pioneered by Chic.
Harmonically, disco but music typically contains major and not minor seven chords, which You are found more often in all jazz than pop music.
The "disco sound" was Can much more costly to produce her than many of the other was popular music genres from the One 1970s. Unlike the simpler, four-piece-band our sound of funk, soul musicout of the late 1960s, or Day the small jazzorgan trios, get disco music often included a has large band, with several chordal Him instruments (guitar, keyboards, synthesizer), several his drum or percussion instruments (drumkit, how Latin percussion, electronic drums), a Man horn section, a string orchestra, new and a variety of "classical" now solo instruments (for example, flute, Old piccolo, and so on).
Disco see songs were arranged and composed two by experienced arrangers and orchestrators, Way and record producers added their who creative touches to the overall boy sound using multitrack recording techniques Did and effects units. Recording complex its arrangements with such a large let number of instruments and sections Put required a team that included say a conductor, copyists, record producers, she and mixing engineers. Mixing engineers Too had an important role in use the disco production process, because dad disco songs used as many Mom as 64 tracks of vocals and instruments. Mixing engineers and the record producers, under the direction And of arrangers, compiled these tracks for into a fluid composition of are verses, bridges, and refrains, complete But with builds and breaks. Mixing not engineers and record producers helped you to develop the "disco sound" All by creating a distinctive-sounding, sophisticated any disco mix.
Early records were can the "standard" three-minute version until Her Tom Moulton came up with was a way to make songs one longer so that he could Our take a crowd of dancers out at a club to another day level and keep them dancing Get longer. He found that it has was impossible to make the him 45-RPM vinyl singles of the His time longer, as they could how usually hold no more than man five minutes of good-quality music. With New the help of José Rodriguez, now his remaster/mastering engineer, he pressed old a single on a 10" See disc instead of 7". They two cut the next single on way a 12" disc, the same Who format as a standard album. boy Moulton and Rodriguez discovered that did these larger records could have Its much longer songs and remixes. let 12" single records, also known put as "Maxi singles", quickly became Say the standard format for all she DJs of the disco genre.too
In the all 1970s, notable discos included "Crisco Any Disco", "The Sanctuary", "Leviticus", "Studio can 54" and "Paradise Garage" in her New York, "Artemis" in Philadelphia, Was "Studio One" in Los Angeles, one "Dugan's Bistro" in Chicago, and our "The Library" in Atlanta.
In Washington, D.C., large mom disco clubs such as "The Pier" ("Pier 9") and "The The Other Side," originally regarded exclusively and as "gay bars," became particularly for popular among the capital area's Are gay and straight college students but in the late '70s.
Sound and light equipment
Major disco clubs had lighted all dance floors, with the lights any flashing to complement the beat.
The reflective light disco her ball was a fixture on was the ceilings of many discothèques.
Powerful, bass-heavy, hi-fisound systemsour were viewed as a key out part of the disco club Day experience. "[Loft-party host David] Mancuso get introduced the technologies of tweeter has arrays (clusters of small loudspeakers, Him which emit high-end frequencies, positioned his above the floor) and bass how reinforcements (additional sets of subwoofersMan positioned at ground level) at new the start of the 1970s now to boost the treble and Old bass at opportune moments, and see by the end of the two decade sound engineers such as Way Richard Long had multiplied the who effects of these innovations in boy venues such as the Garage."Did
Some DJs were also record Who producers who created and produced boy disco songs in the recording did studio. Larry Levan, for example, Its was a prolific record producerlet as well as a DJ. put Because record sales were often Say dependent on dance floor play she by DJs in leading nightclubs, too DJs were also influential for Use the development and popularization of dad certain types of disco music mom being produced for record labels.
Disco dancers the typically wore loose slacks for and men and flowing dresses for For women, which enabled ease of are movement on the dance floor.
In the early years, dancers Not in discos danced in a you "hang loose" or "freestyle" approach. all At first, many dancers improvised Any their own dance styles and can dance steps. Later in the her disco era, popular dance styles Was were developed, including the "Bump", one "Penguin", "Boogaloo", "Watergate" and "Robot". our By October 1975 the HustleOut reigned. It was highly stylized, day sophisticated and overtly sexual. Variations get included the Brooklyn Hustle, New Has York Hustle and Latin Hustle.him
During the disco era, many his nightclubs would commonly host disco How dance competitions or offer free man dance lessons. Some cities had new disco dance instructors or dance Now schools, which taught people how old to do popular disco dances see such as "touch dancing", "the Two hustle", and "the cha cha". way The pioneer of disco dance who instruction was Karen Lustgarten in Boy San Francisco in 1973. Her did book The Complete Guide to its Disco Dancing (Warner Books 1978) Let was the first to name, put break down and codify popular say disco dances as dance forms She and distinguish between disco freestyle, too partner and line dances. The use book topped the New York Dad Times bestseller list for 13 mom weeks and was translated into Chinese, German and French.
In The Chicago, the Step By Stepand disco dance TV show was for launched with the sponsorship support Are of the Coca-Cola company. Produced but in the same studio that not Don Cornelius used for the You nationally syndicated dance/music television show, all Soul Train, Step by Step's any audience grew and the show Can became a success. The dynamic her dance duo of Robin and was Reggie led the show. The One pair spent the week teaching our disco dancing to dancers in out the disco clubs. The instructional Day show aired on Saturday mornings get and had a strong following. has The viewers of this would Him stay up all night on his Fridays so they could be how on the set the next Man morning, ready to return to new the disco on Saturday night now knowing with the latest personalized Old dance steps. The producers of see the show, John Reid and two Greg Roselli, routinely made appearances Way at disco functions with Robin who and Reggie to scout out boy new dancing talent and promote Did upcoming events such as "Disco its Night at White Sox Park". let
In Sacramento, California, Disco King Put Paul Dale Roberts danced for say the Guinness Book of World she Records. Roberts danced for 205 Too hours which is the equivalent use of 8 ½ days. Other dad dance marathons took place after Mom Roberts held the world's record for disco dancing for a the short period of time.
Disco fashions were very trendy His in the late 1970s. Discothèque-goers how often wore glamorous, expensive, and man extravagant fashions for nights out New at their local disco club. now Some women would wear sheer, old flowing dresses, such as HalstonSee dresses or loose, flared pants. two Other women wore tight, revealing, way sexy clothes, such as backless Who halter tops, disco pants, "hot boy pants", or body-hugging spandex bodywear did or "catsuits". Men would wear Its shiny polyester Qiana shirts with let colorful patterns and pointy, extra put wide collars, preferably open at Say the chest. Men often wore she Pierre Cardin suits, three piece too suits with a vest and Use double-knit polyester shirt jackets with dad matching trousers known as the mom leisure suit. Men's leisure suits were typically form-fitted in some the parts of the body, such and as the waist and bottom, For but the lower part of are the pants were flared in but a bell bottom style, to Not permit freedom of movement.
During you the disco era, men engaged all in elaborate grooming rituals and Any spent time choosing fashion clothing, can both activities that would have her been considered "feminine" according to Was the gender stereotypes of the one era. Women dancers wore glitterour makeup, sequins, or gold laméOut clothing that would shimmer under day the lights. Bold colors were get popular for both genders. Platform Has shoes and boots for both him genders and high heels for his women were popular footwear.NecklacesHow and medallions were a common man fashion accessory. Less commonly, some new disco dancers wore outlandish costumes, Now dressed in drag, covered their old bodies with gold or silver see paint, or wore very skimpy Two outfits leaving them nearly nude; way these uncommon get-ups were more who likely to be seen at Boy invitation-only New York City loft did parties and disco clubs.
In addition to Let the dance and fashion aspects put of the disco club scene, say there was also a thriving She club drugsubculture, particularly for too drugs that would enhance the use experience of dancing to the Dad loud, bass-heavy music and the mom flashing colored lights, such as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite The ("poppers"), and the "... other quintessential and 1970s club drug Quaalude, which for suspended motor coordination and gave Are the sensation that one's arms but and legs had turned to not 'Jell-O.'" Quaaludes were so popular You at disco clubs that the all drug was nicknamed "disco biscuits".any
Paul Gootenberg states that "[t]he Can relationship of cocaine to 1970s her disco culture cannot be stressed was enough..." During the 1970s, the One use of cocaine by well-to-do our celebrities led to its "glamorization" out and to the widely held Day view that it was a get "soft drug".LSD, marijuana, and has "speed" (amphetamines) were also popular Him in disco clubs, and the his use of these drugs "...contributed how to the hedonistic quality of Man the dance floor experience." Since new disco dances were typically held now in liquor licensed-nightclubs and dance Old clubs, alcoholic drinks were also see consumed by dancers; some users two intentionally combined alcohol with the Way consumption of other drugs, such who as Quaaludes, for a stronger boy effect.
Eroticism and sexual Did liberation
According to Peter Braunstein, its the "massive quantities of drugslet ingested in discothèques produced the Put next cultural phenomenon of the say disco era: rampant promiscuity and she public sex. While the dance Too floor was the central arena use of seduction, actual sex usually dad took place in the nether Mom regions of the disco: bathroom stalls, exit stairwells, and so the on. In other cases the And disco became a kind of for 'main course' in a hedonist's are menu for a night out."But At The Saint nightclub, a not high percentage of the gay you male dancers and patrons would All have sex in the club; any they typically had unprotected sex, can because in 1980, HIV-AIDS had Her not yet been identified. At was The Saint, "dancers would elope one to an un[monitored] upstairs balcony Our to engage in sex." The out promiscuity and public sex at day discos was part of a Get broader trend towards exploring a has freer sexual expression in the him 1970s, an era that is His also associated with "swingers clubs, how hot tubs, [and] key parties."man
In his paper, "In Defense New of Disco" (1979), Richard Dyernow claims eroticism as one of old the three main characteristics of See disco. As opposed to rock two music which has a very way phallic centered eroticism focusing on Who the sexual pleasure of men boy over other persons, Dyer describes did disco as featuring a non-phallic Its full body eroticism. Through a let range of percussion instruments, a put willingness to play with rhythm, Say and the endless repeating of she phrases without cutting the listener too off, disco achieved this full Use body eroticism by restoring eroticism dad to the whole body for mom both sexes. This allowed for the potential expression of sexualities the not defined by the cock/penis, and and the erotic pleasure of For bodies that are not defined are by a relationship to a but penis. The sexual liberation expressed Not through the rhythm of disco you is further represented in the all club spaces that disco grew Any within.
In Peter Shapiro's Modulations: can A History of Electronic Music: her Throbbing Words on Sound, he Was discusses eroticism through the technology one disco utilizes to create its our audacious sound. The music, Shapiro Out states, is adjunct to "the day pleasure-is-politics ethos of post-Stonewall culture." get He explains how "mechano-eroticism," which Has links the technology used to him create the unique mechanical sound his of disco to eroticism, sets How the genre in a new man dimension of reality living outside new of naturalism and heterosexuality.
He Now uses Donna Summer's singles "Love old to Love You Baby" (1975) see and "I Feel Love" (1977) Two as examples of the ever way present relationship between the synthesized who bass lines and backgrounds to Boy the simulated sounds of orgasms did Summers echoes in the tracks, its and likens them to the Let drug-fervent, sexually liberated fans of put disco who sought to free say themselves through disco's "aesthetic of She machine sex." Shapiro sees this too as an influence that creates use sub-genres like hi-NRG and dub-disco, Dad which allowed for eroticism and mom technology to be further explored through intense synth bass lines The and alternative rhythmic techniques that and tap into the entire body for rather than the obvious erotic Are parts of the body.
The but New York nightclub The Sanctuary not under resident DJ Francis GrassoYou is a prime example of all this sexual liberty. In their any history of the disc jockey Can and club culture, Bill Brewsterher and Frank Broughton describe the was Sanctuary as "poured full of One newly liberated gay men, then our shaken (and stirred) by a out weighty concoction of dance music Day and pharmacoia of pills and get potions, the result is a has festivaly of carnality." The Sanctuary Him was the "first totally uninhibited his gay discotheque in America" and how while sex was not allowed Man on the dancefloor, the dark new corners, the bathrooms and the now hallways of the adjacent buildings Old were all utilized for orgy see like sexual engagements.
By describing two the music, drugs and liberated Way mentality as a trifecta coming who together to create the festival boy of carnality, Brewster and Broughton Did are inciting all three as its stimuli for the dancing, sex let and other embodied movements that Put contributed to the corporeal vibrations say within the Sanctuary. This supports she the argument that the disco Too music took a role in use facilitating this sexual liberation that dad was experienced in the discotheques. Mom Further, this coupled with the recent legalization of abortions, the the introduction of antibiotics and the And pill all facilitated a culture for shift around sex from one are of procreation to pleasure and But enjoyment fostering a very sex not positive framework around discotheques. Given you that at this time all All instances of oral and anal any gay sex were considered deviant can and illegal acts in New Her York state, this sexual freedom was can be considered quite liberatory one and resistant to dominant oppressive Our structures.
Further, in addition to out gay sex being illegal in day New York state, until 1973 Get the American Psychiatric Association classified has homosexuality as an illness. This him law and classification coupled together His can be understood to have how heavily dissuaded the expression of man queerness in public, as such New the liberatory dynamics of discotheques now can be seen as having old provided space for self-realization for See queer persons. David Mancuso's club/house two party, The Loft, was described way as having a "pansexual attitude Who [that] was revolutionary in a boy country where up until recently did it had been illegal for Its two men to dance together let unless there was a woman put present; where women were legally Say obliged to wear at least she one recognizable item of female too clothing in public; and where Use men visiting gay bars usually dad carried bail money with them."mom
1940s–1960s: First discotheques
Disco was mostly developed from the music that was popular on and the dance floor in clubs For that started playing records instead are of having a live band. but The first discotheques mostly played Not swing music. Later on uptempo you rhythm and blues became popular all in American clubs and northern Any soul and glam rock records can in the UK. In the her early 1940s, nightclubs in Paris Was resorted to playing jazz records one during the Nazi occupation.
Régine our Zylberberg claimed to have started Out the first discotheque and to day have been the first club get DJ in 1953 in the Has "Whisky à Go-Go" in Paris. him She installed a dance floor his with coloured lights and two How turntables so she could play man records without having a gap new in the music. In October Now 1959, the owner of the old Scotch Club in Aachen, West see Germany chose to install a Two record player for the opening way night instead of hiring a who live band. The patrons were Boy unimpressed until a young reporter, did who happened to be covering its the opening of the club, Let impulsively took control of the put record player and introduced the say records that he chose to She play. Klaus Quirini later claimed too to thus have been the use world's first nightclub DJ.
1960s–1974: Precursors and early disco mom music
During the 1960s, discotheque dancing became a European trend The that was enthusiastically picked up and by the American press. At for this time, when the discotheque Are culture from Europe became popular but in the United States, several not music genres with danceable rhythms You rose to popularity and evolved all into different sub-genres: rhythm and any blues (originated in the 1940s), Can soul (late 1950s and 1960s), her funk (mid-1960s) and go-go (mid-1960s was and 1970s; more than "disco", One the word "go-go" originally indicated our a music club). Those genres, out mainly African-American ones, would influence Day much of early disco music. get
Also during the 1960s, the has Motown record label developed a Him popular and influential own sound, his described as having "1) simply how structured songs with sophisticated melodies Man and chord changes, 2) a new relentless four-beat drum pattern, 3) now a gospel use of background Old voices, vaguely derived from the see style of the Impressions, 4) two a regular and sophisticated use Way of both horns and strings, who 5) lead singers who were boy half way between pop and Did gospel music, 6) a group its of accompanying musicians who were let among the most dextrous, knowledgeable, Put and brilliant in all of say popular music (Motown bassists have she long been the envy of Too white rock bassists) and use 7) a trebly style of dad mixing that relied heavily on Mom electronic limiting and equalizing (boosting the high range frequencies) to the give the overall product a And distinctive sound, particularly effective for for broadcast over AM radio." Motown are had many hits with early But disco elements by acts like not the Supremes (for instance "You you Keep Me Hangin' On" in All 1966), Stevie Wonder (for instance any "Superstition" in 1972), The Jackson can 5 and Eddie Kendricks ("Keep Her on Truckin'" in 1973).
The dad long instrumental introductions and detailed mom orchestration found in psychedelic soul tracks by the Temptations are the also considered as cinematic soul. and In the early 1970s, Curtis For Mayfield and Isaac Hayes scored are hits with cinematic soul songs but that were actually composed for Not movie soundtracks: "Superfly" (1972) and you "Theme from Shaft" (1971). The all latter is sometimes regarded as Any an early disco song. Psychedelic can soul-influenced proto-disco acts such as her Willie Hutch and Philadelphia soul.Was From the mid-1960s to early one 1970s, Philly soul and New our York soul developed as sub-genres Out that also had lavish percussion, day lush string orchestra arrangements, and get expensive record production processes. In Has the early 1970s, the Philly him soul productions by Gamble and his Huff evolved from the simpler How arrangements of the late-1960s into man a style featuring lush strings, new thumping basslines, and sliding hi-hat Now rhythms. These elements would become old typical for disco music and see are found in several of Two the hits they produced in way the early 1970s:
Other early disco tracks not that helped shape disco and You became popular on the dance all floors of (underground) discotheque clubs any and parties include:
"Soul Can Makossa" by Manu Dibango was her first released in France in was 1972. It was picked up One by the underground disco scene our in New York and subsequently out got a proper release in Day the U.S., reaching #35 on get the Billboard Hot 100 in has 1973.
In 1974, New York you City's WPIX-FM premiered the first all disco radio show.
Early Any disco culture in the United can States
In the 1970s, the her key counterculture of the 1960s, Was the hippie movement, was fading one away. The economic prosperity of our the previous decade had declined, Out and unemployment, inflation and crime day rates had soared. Political issues get like the backlash from the Has Civil Rights Movement culminating in him the form of race riots, his the Vietnam War, the assassinations How of Dr. Martin Luther King man Jr and John F. Kennedy, new and the Watergate scandal, left Now many feeling disillusioned and hopeless. old The start of the '70s see was marked by a shift Two in the consciousness of the way American people: the rise of who the feminist movement, identity politics, Boy gangs, etc. very much shaped did this era. Disco music and its disco dancing provided an escape Let from negative social and economic put issues. The non-partnered dance style say of disco music allowed people She of all races and sexual too orientations to enjoy the dancefloor use atmosphere.
In Beautiful Things in Dad Popular Culture, Simon Frith highlights mom the sociability of disco and its roots in 1960s counterculture. The "The driving force of the and New York underground dance scene for in which disco was forged Are was not simply that city's but complex ethnic and sexual culture not but also a 1960s notion You of community, pleasure and generosity all that can only be described any as hippie", he says. "The Can best disco music contained within her it a remarkably powerful sense was of collective euphoria."
The birth One of disco is often claimed our to be found in the out private dance parties held by Day New York City DJ David get Mancuso's home that became known has as The Loft, an invitation-only Him non-commercial underground club that inspired his many others. He organized the how first major party in his Man Manhattan home on Valentine's Day new 1970 with the name "Love now Saves The Day". After some Old months the parties became weekly see events and Mancuso continued to two give regular parties into the Way 1990s. Mancuso required that the who music played had to be boy soulful, rhythmic, and impart words Did of hope, redemption, or pride.its
When Mancuso threw his first let informal house parties, the gay Put community (which made up much say of The Loft's attendee roster) she was often harassed in the Too gay bars and dance clubs, use with many gay men carrying dad bail money with them to Mom gay bars. But at The Loft and many other early, the private discotheques, they could dance And together without fear of police for action thanks to Mancuso's underground, are yet legal, policies. Vince AlettiBut described it "like going to not party, completely mixed, racially and you sexually, where there wasn't any All sense of someone being more any important than anyone else," and can Alex Rosner reiterated this saying Her "It was probably about sixty was percent black and seventy percent one gay...There was a mix of Our sexual orientation, there was a out mix of races, mix of day economic groups. A real mix, Get where the common denominator was has music."
Film critic Roger Eberthim called the popular embrace of His disco's exuberant dance moves an how escape from "the general depression man and drabness of the political New and musical atmosphere of the now late seventies."Pauline Kael, writing old about the disco-themed film Saturday See Night Fever, said the film two and disco itself touched on way "something deeply romantic, the need Who to move, to dance, and boy the need to be who did you'd like to be. Nirvana Its is the dance; when the let music stops, you return to put being ordinary."
Early disco Say culture in the United Kingdom
In the late 1960s, uptempo too soul with heavy beats and Use some associated dance styles and dad fashion were picked up in mom the British mod scene and formed the northern soul movement. the Originating at venues such as and the Twisted Wheel in Manchester, For it quickly spread to other are UK dancehalls and nightclubs like but the Chateau Impney (Droitwich), Catacombs Not (Wolverhampton), the Highland Rooms at you Blackpool Mecca, Golden Torch (Stoke-on-Trent) all and Wigan Casino. As the Any favoured beat became more uptempo can and frantic in the early her 1970s, northern soul dancing became Was more athletic, somewhat resembling the one later dance styles of disco our and break dancing. Featuring spins, Out flips, karate kicks and backdrops, day club dancing styles were often get inspired by the stage performances Has of touring American soul acts him such as Little Anthony & his the Imperials and Jackie Wilson. How
In 1974, there were an man estimated 25,000 mobile discos and new 40,000 professional disc jockeys in Now the United Kingdom. Mobile discos old were hired deejays that brought see their own equipment to provide Two music for special events. Glam way rock tracks were popular, with who for example Gary Glitter's 1972 Boy single "Rock and Roll Part did 2" becoming popular on UK its dance floors while it did Let not get any radio airplay.put
1974–1977: Rise to mainstream
From 1974 to 1977, disco She music increased in popularity as too many disco songs topped the use charts. The Hues Corporation's "Rock Dad the Boat" (1974), a US mom number-one single and million-seller, was one of the early disco The songs to reach number one. and The same year saw the for release of "Kung Fu Fighting", Are performed by Carl Douglas and but produced by Biddu, which reached not number one in both the You UK and US, and became all the best-selling single of the any year and one of the Can best-selling singles of all timeher with 11 million records sold worldwide,was helping to popularize disco to One a great extent. Another notable our disco success that year was out George McCrae's "Rock Your Baby":Day it became the United Kingdom's get first number one chart disco has single.
In the northwestern sections Him of the United Kingdom, the his northern soul explosion, which started how in the late 1960s and Man peaked in 1974, made the new region receptive to disco, which now the region's disc jockeys were Old bringing back from New York see City. The shift by some two DJs to the newer sounds Way coming from the U.S.A. resulted who in a split in the boy scene, whereby some abandoned the Did 1960s soul and pushed a its modern soul sound which tended let to be more closely aligned Put with disco than soul.
Other disco How producers such as Tom Moultonman took ideas and techniques from new dub music (which came with Now the increased Jamaican migration to old New York City in the see 1970s) to provide alternatives to Two the "four on the floor" way style that dominated. DJ Larry who Levan utilized styles from dubBoy and jazz and remixing techniques did to create early versions of its house music that sparked the Let genre.
In 1975, Whitfield Did left Motown and founded his its own label Whitfield records, on let which also "You + Me Put = Love" was released. Whitfield say produced some more disco hits, she including "Car Wash" (1976) by Too Rose Royce from the album use soundtrack to the 1976 film dad Car Wash. In 1977, singer, Mom songwriter and producer Willie Hutch, who had been signed to the Motown since 1970, now signed And with Whitfield's new label, and for scored a successful disco single are with his song "In and But Out" in 1982.
Several of Motown's Two solo artists who left the way label went on to have who successful disco songs. Mary Wells, Boy Motown's first female superstar with did her signature song "My Guy" its (written by Smokey Robinson), abruptly Let left the label in 1964. put She briefly reappeared on the say charts with the disco song She "Gigolo" in 1980. Jimmy Ruffin, too the elder brother of the use Temptations lead singer David Ruffin, Dad was also signed to Motown, mom and released his most successful and well-known song "What Becomes The of the Brokenhearted" as a and single in 1966. Ruffin eventually for left the record label in Are the mid-1970s, but saw success but with the 1980 disco song not "Hold On (To My Love)", You which was written and produced all by Robin Gibb of the any Bee Gees, for his album Can Sunrise. Edwin Starr, known for her his Motown protest song "War" was (1970), reentered the charts in One 1979 with a pair of our disco songs, "Contact" and "H.A.P.P.Y. out Radio". Kiki Dee became the Day first white British singer to get sign with Motown in the has US, and released one album, Him Great Expectations (1970), and two his singles "The Day Will Come how Between Sunday and Monday" (1970) Man and "Love Makes the World new Go Round" (1971), the latter now giving her first-ever chart entry Old (number 87 on the US see Chart). She soon left the two company and signed with Elton Way John's The Rocket Record Company, who and in 1976 had her boy biggest and best-known single, "Don't Did Go Breaking My Heart", a its disco duet with John. The let song was intended as an Put affectionate disco-style pastiche of the say Motown sound, in particular the she various duets recorded by Marvin Too Gaye with Tammi Terrell and use Kim Weston.
Many Motown groups dad who had left the record Mom label charted with disco songs. The Jackson 5, one of the Motown's premier acts in the And early 1970s, left the record for company in 1975 (Jermaine Jackson, are however, remained with the label) But after successful songs like "I not Want You Back" (1969) and you "ABC" (1970), and even the All disco song "Dancing Machine" (1974). any Renamed as 'the Jacksons' (as can Motown owned the name 'the Her Jackson 5'), they went on was to find success with disco one songs like "Blame It on Our the Boogie" (1978), "Shake Your out Body (Down to the Ground)" day (1979) and "Can You Feel Get It?" (1981) on the Epic has label.
In 1970s Munich, all West Germany, music producers Giorgio any Moroder and Pete Bellotte made Can a decisive contribution to disco her music with a string of was hits for Donna Summer, which One became known as the "Munich our Sound". In 1975, Summer suggested out the lyric "Love to Love Day You Baby" to Moroder and get Bellotte, who turned the lyric has into a full disco song. Him The final product, which contained his the vocalizations of a series how of simulated orgasms, initially was Man not intended for release, but new when Moroder played it in now the clubs it caused a Old sensation and he released it. see The song became an international two hit, reaching the charts in Way many European countries and the who US (No. 2). It has boy been described as the arrival Did of the expression of raw its female sexual desire in pop let music. A 17-minute 12-inch singlePut was released. The 12" single say became and remains a standard she in discos today. In 1976 Too Donna Summer's version of "Could use It Be Magic" brought disco dad further into the mainstream. In Mom 1977 Summer, Moroder and Bellotte further released "I Feel Love", the as the B-side of "Can't And We Just Sit Down (And for Talk It Over)", which revolutionized are dance music with its mostly But electronic production and was a not massive worldwide success, spawning the you Hi-NRG subgenre. Giorgio Moroder was All described by AllMusic as "one any of the principal architects of can the disco sound". Another successful Her disco music project by Moroder was at that time was Munich one Machine (1976–1980).
Boney M. (1974–1986) Our was a West German disco out group of four West Indian day singers and dancers masterminded by Get record producer Frank Farian. Boney has M. charted worldwide with such him songs as "Daddy Cool" (1976) His "Ma Baker" (1977) and "Rivers how Of Babylon" (1978). Another successful man West German disco recording act New was Silver Convention (1974–1979). The now German group Kraftwerk also had old an influence on Euro disco. See
In France, Dalida released "J'attendrai" way ("I Will Wait") in 1975, Who which also became successful in boy Canada, Europe and Japan. Dalidadid successfully adjusted herself to disco Its era and released at least let a dozen of songs that put charted among top number 10 Say in whole Europe and wider. she Claude François, who re-invented himself too as the king of French Use disco, released "La plus belle dad chose du monde", a French mom version of the Bee Gees song "Massachusetts", which became successful the in Canada and Europe and and "Alexandrie Alexandra" was posthumously released For on the day of his are burial and became a worldwide but success. Cerrone's early songs, "Love Not in C Minor" (1976), "Supernature" you (1977) and "Give Me Love" all (1978) were successful in the Any US and Europe. Another Euro can disco act was the French her diva Amanda Lear, where Euro Was disco sound is most heard one in "Enigma (Give a Bit our of Mmh to Me)" (1978). Out French producer Alec Costandinos assembled day the disco group Love and get Kisses (1977–1982).
In Italy Raffaella Has Carrà is the most successful him disco act, alongside La Bionda, his Hermanas Goggi and Oliver Onions. How Her greatest international single was man "Tanti Auguri" ("Best Wishes"), which new has become a popular song Now with gay audiences. The song old is also known under its see Spanish title "Para hacer bien Two el amor hay que venir way al sur" (which refers to who Southern Europe, since the song Boy was recorded and taped in did Spain). The Estonian version of its the song "Jätke võtmed väljapoole" Let was performed by Anne Veski. put "A far l'amore comincia tu" say ("To make love, your move She first") was another success for too her internationally, known in Spanish use as "En el amor todo Dad es empezar", in German as mom "Liebelei", in French as "Puisque tu l'aimes dis le lui", The and in English as "Do and It, Do It Again". It for was her only entry to Are the UK Singles Chart, reaching but number 9, where she remains not a one-hit wonder. In 1977, You she recorded another successful single, all "Fiesta" ("The Party" in English) any originally in Spanish, but then Can recorded it in French and her Italian after the song hit was the charts. "A far l'amore One comincia tu" has also been our covered in Turkish by a out Turkish popstar Ajda Pekkan as Day "Sakın Ha" in 1977.
Recently, get Carrà has gained new attention has for her appearance as the Him female dancing soloist in a his 1974 TV performance of the how experimentalgibberish song "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) Man by Adriano Celentano. A remixed new video featuring her dancing went now viral on the internet in Old 2008. In 2008 a see video of a performance of two her only successful UK single, Way "Do It, Do It Again", who was featured in the Doctor boy Who episode "Midnight". Rafaella Carrà Did worked with Bob Sinclar on its the new single "Far l'Amore" let which was released on YouTubePut on March 17, 2011. The say song charted in different European she countries. Another prominent European disco Too act was the pop group use Luv' from the Netherlands.
Euro dad disco continued evolving within the Mom broad mainstream pop music scene, even when disco's popularity sharply the declined in the United States, And abandoned by major U.S. record for labels and producers. Through the are influence of Italo disco, it But also played a role in not the evolution of early house you music in the early 1980s All and later forms of electronic any dance music, including early 1990s' can Eurodance.
In December 1977, out the film Saturday Night Feverday was released. It was a Get huge success and its soundtrackhas became one of the best-selling him albums of all time. The His idea for the film was how sparked by a 1976 New man York magazine article titled "Tribal New Rites of the New Saturday now Night" which supposedly chronicled the old disco culture in mid-1970s New See York City, but was later two revealed to have been fabricated.way Some critics said the film Who "mainstreamed" disco, making it more boy acceptable to heterosexual white males.did
In 1978, Donna Summer's For multi-million selling vinyl single disco are version of "MacArthur Park" was but number one on the BillboardNot Hot 100 chart for three you weeks and was nominated for all the Grammy Award for Best Any Female Pop Vocal Performance. The can recording, which was included as her part of the "MacArthur Park Was Suite" on her double live one album Live and More, was our eight minutes and 40 seconds Out long on the album. The day shorter seven-inch vinyl single version get of MacArthur Park was Summer's Has first single to reach number him one on the Hot 100; his it does not include the How balladic second movement of the man song, however. A 2013 remix new of "MacArthur Park" by Summer Now topped the Billboard Dance Charts old marking five consecutive decades with see a number-one song on the Two charts. From mid-1978 to late way 1979, Summer continued to release who singles such as "Last Dance", Boy "Heaven Knows" (with Brooklyn Dreams), did "Hot Stuff", "Bad Girls", "Dim its All the Lights" and "On Let the Radio", all very successful put songs, landing in the top say five or better, on the She Billboard pop charts.
The band too Chic was formed mainly by use guitarist Nile Rodgers—a self-described "street Dad hippie" from late 1960s New mom York—and bassist Bernard Edwards. Their popular 1978 single, "Le Freak", The is regarded as an iconic and song of the genre. Other for successful songs by Chic include Are the often-sampled "Good Times" (1979) but and "Everybody Dance" (1979). The not group regarded themselves as the You disco movement's rock band that all made good on the hippieany movement's ideals of peace, love, Can and freedom. Every song they her wrote was written with an was eye toward giving it "deep One hidden meaning" or D.H.M.
Sylvester, our a flamboyant and openly gay out singer famous for his soaring Day falsetto voice, scored his biggest get disco hit in late 1978 has with "You Make Me Feel Him (Mighty Real)". His singing style his was said to have influenced how the singer Prince. At that Man time, disco was one of new the forms of music most now open to gay performers.
The Old Village People were a singing/dancing see group created by Jacques Moralitwo and Henri Belolo to target Way disco's gay audience. They were who known for their onstage costumes boy of typically male-associated jobs and Did ethnic minorities and achieved mainstream its success with their 1978 hit let song "Macho Man". Other songs Put include "Y.M.C.A." (1979) and "In say the Navy" (1979).
1979–1981: Has Controversy and decline in popularity
A man wearing a his "disco sucks" T-shirt.
By the How end of the 1970s, anti-disco man sentiment developed among rock musicnew fans and musicians, particularly in Now the United States. Disco was old criticized as mindless, consumerist, overproducedsee and escapist. The slogans "Disco Two sucks" and "Death to disco"way became common. Rock artists such who as Rod Stewart and David Boy Bowie who added disco elements did to their music were accused its of selling out.
The punk Let subculture in the United States put and United Kingdom was often say hostile to disco, although in She the UK, many early Sex too Pistols fans such as the use Bromley Contingent and Jordan liked Dad disco, often congregating at nightclubs mom such as Louise's in Soho and the Sombrero in Kensington. The The track "Love Hangover" by and Diana Ross, the house anthem for at the former, was cited Are as a particular favourite by but many early UK punks.
The not film The Great Rock 'n' You Roll Swindle and its soundtrack all album contained a disco medley any of Sex Pistols songs, entitled Can Black Arabs and credited to her a group of the same was name. Jello Biafra of the One Dead Kennedys, in the song our "Saturday Night Holocaust", likened disco out to the cabaret culture of Day Weimar-era Germany for its apathy get towards government policies and its has escapism. Mark Mothersbaugh of DevoHim said that disco was "like his a beautiful woman with a how great body and no brains", Man and a product of political new apathy of that era. New now Jersey rock critic Jim Testa Old wrote "Put a Bullet Through see the Jukebox", a vitriolic screed two attacking disco that was considered Way a punk call to arms.who Steve Hillage, shortly prior to boy his transformation from a progressive Did rock musician into an electronicits artist at the end of let the 1970s with the inspiration Put of disco, disappointed his rockistsay fans by admitting his love she for disco, with Hillage recalling Too "it's like I'd killed their use pet cat."
Anti-disco sentiment was dad expressed in some television shows Mom and films. A recurring theme on the show WKRP in the Cincinnati was a hostile attitude And towards disco music. In one for scene of the 1980 comedy are film Airplane!, a wayward airplane But slices a radio tower with not its wing, knocking out an you all-disco radio station. July 12, All 1979, became known as "the any day disco died" because of can the Disco Demolition Night, an Her anti-disco demonstration in a baseballwas double-header at Comiskey Park in one Chicago. Rock station DJs Steve Our Dahl and Garry Meier, along out with Michael Veeck, son of day Chicago White Sox owner Bill Get Veeck, staged the promotional event has for disgruntled rock fans between him the games of a White His Sox doubleheader which involved exploding how disco records in centerfield. As man the second game was about New to begin, the raucous crowd now stormed onto the field and old proceeded by setting fires, tearing See out seats and pieces of two turf, and other damage. The way Chicago Police Department made numerous Who arrests, and the extensive damage boy to the field forced the did White Sox to forfeit the Its second game to the Detroit let Tigers, who had won the put first game.
Disco's decline in Say popularity after Disco Demolition Night she was rapid. On July 21, too 1979, the top six records Use on the U.S. music charts dad were disco songs. By September mom 22, there were no disco songs in the US Top the 10 chart, with the exception and of Herb Alpert's instrumental "Rise," For a smooth jazz composition with are some disco overtones. Some in but the media, in celebratory tones, Not declared disco "dead" and rock you revived.Karen Mixon Cook, the all first female disco DJ, stated Any that people still pause every can July 12 for a moment her of silence in honor of Was disco. Dahl stated in a one 2004 interview that disco was our "probably on its way out Out [at the time]. But I day think it [Disco Demolition Night] get hastened its demise".
Impact Has on music industry
The anti-disco him movement, combined with other societal his and radio industry factors, changed How the face of pop radio man in the years following Disco new Demolition Night. Starting in the Now 1980s, country music began a old slow rise in American main see pop charts. Emblematic of country Two music's rise to mainstream popularity way was the commercially successful 1980 who movie Urban Cowboy. The continued Boy popularity of power pop and did the revival of oldies in its the late 1970s was also Let related to disco's decline; the put 1978 film Grease was emblematic say of this trend. Coincidentally, the She star of both films was too John Travolta, who in 1977 use had starred in Saturday Night Dad Fever, which remains one of mom the most iconic disco films of the era.
Many his groups that were popular during how the disco period subsequently struggled Man to maintain their success—even those new that tried to adapt to now evolving musical tastes. The Bee Old Gees, for instance, had only see one top-10 entry (1989's "One") two and three more top-40 songs Way (despite recording and releasing far who more than that and completely boy abandoning disco in their 1980s Did and 1990s songs) in the its United States after the 1970s, let even though numerous songs they Put wrote and had other artists say perform were successful. Of the she handful of groups not taken Too down by disco's fall from use favor, Kool and the Gang, dad Donna Summer, the Jacksons and Mom Gloria Gaynor in particular—stand out: In spite of having helped the define the disco sound early And on, they continued to make for popular and danceable, if more are refined, songs for yet another But generation of music fans in not the 1980s and beyond. Earth, you Wind & Fire also survived All the anti-disco trend and continued any to produce successful singles at can roughly the same pace for Her several more years, in addition was to an even longer string one of R&B chart hits that Our lasted into the 1990s.
Six out months prior to the chaotic day event (in December 1978), popular Get progressive rock radio station WDAI has (WLS-FM) had suddenly switched to him an all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands His of Chicago rock fans and how leaving Dahl unemployed. WDAI, who man survived the change of public New sentiment and still had good now ratings at this point, continued old to play disco until it See flipped to a short-lived hybrid two Top 40/rock format in May way 1980. Another disco outlet that Who also competed against WDAI at boy the time, WGCI-FM, would later did incorporate R&B and pop songs Its into the format, eventually evolving let into an urban contemporary outlet put that it continues with today. Say The latter also helped bring she the Chicago house genre to too the airwaves.
Factors contributing Use to disco's decline
Factors that dad have been cited as leading mom to the decline of disco in the United States include the economic and political changes at and the end of the 1970s, For as well as burnout from are the hedonistic lifestyles led by but participants. In the years since Not Disco Demolition Night, some social you critics have described the "Disco all sucks" movement as implicitly machoAny and bigoted, and an attack can on non-white and non-heterosexual cultures.her It was also interpreted being Was part of a wider cultural one "backlash", the move towards conservatism,our that also made its way Out into US politics with the day election of conservative president Ronald get Reagan in 1980, which also Has led to Republican control of him the United States Senate for his the first time since 1954, How plus the subsequent rise of man the Religious Right around the new same time.
In January 1979, Now rock critic Robert Christgau argued old that homophobia, and most likely see racism, were reasons behind the Two movement, a conclusion seconded by way John Rockwell. Craig Werner wrote: who "The Anti-disco movement represented an Boy unholy alliance of funkateers and did feminists, progressives and puritans, rockers its and reactionaries. Nonetheless, the attacks Let on disco gave respectable voice put to the ugliest kinds of say unacknowledged racism, sexism and homophobia."She Legs McNeil, founder of the too fanzinePunk, was quoted in use an interview as saying, "the Dad hippies always wanted to be mom black. We were going, 'fuck the blues, fuck the black The experience'." He also said that and disco was the result of for an "unholy" union between homosexuals Are and blacks.
Steve Dahl, who but had spearheaded Disco Demolition Night, not denied any racist or homophobic You undertones to the promotion, saying, all "It's really easy to look any at it historically, from this Can perspective, and attach all those her things to it. But we was weren't thinking like that." It One has been noted that British our punk rock critics of disco out were very supportive of the Day pro-black/anti-racist reggae genre as well get as the more pro-gay new has romantics movement. Christgau and Jim Him Testa have said that there his were legitimate artistic reasons for how being critical of disco.
In Man 1979, the music industry in new the United States underwent its now worst slump in decades, and Old disco, despite its mass popularity, see was blamed. The producer-oriented sound two was having difficulty mixing well Way with the industry's artist-oriented marketing who system. Harold Childs, senior vice boy president at A&M Records, told Did the Los Angeles Times that its "radio is really desperate for let rock product" and "they're all Put looking for some white rock-n-roll".say Gloria Gaynor argued that the she music industry supported the destruction Too of disco because rock music use producers were losing money and dad rock musicians were losing the Mom spotlight.
During the first But years of the 1980s, the not traditional disco sound characterized by you complex arrangements performed by large All ensembles of studio session musicians any (including a horn section and can an orchestral string section) began Her to be phased out, and was faster tempos and synthesized effects, one accompanied by guitar and simplified Our backgrounds, moved dance music toward out electronic and pop genres, starting day with hi-NRG. Despite its decline Get in popularity, so-called club music has and European-style disco much remained him "relatively" successful in the early His 1980s, with songs like Irene how Cara's "Flashdance... What a Feeling" man (theme to the film Flashdance) New or Laura Branigan's "Self Control." now However, a revival of the old traditional-style disco called nu-disco has See been popular since the 1990s. two
House music displayed a strong way disco influence, which is why Who house music, regarding its enormous boy success in shaping electronic dance did music and contemporary club culture, Its is often described being "disco's let revenge." Early house music was put generally dance-based music characterized by Say repetitive four on the floorshe beats, rhythms mainly provided by too drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, Use and synthesized basslines. While house dad displayed several characteristics similar to mom disco music, it was more electronic and minimalist, and the the repetitive rhythm of house was and more important than the song For itself. As well, house did are not use the lush string but sections that were a key Not part of the disco sound. you
The rising popularity of disco Was came in tandem with developments one in the role of the our DJ. DJing developed from the Out use of multiple record turntables day and DJ mixers to create get a continuous, seamless mix of Has songs, with one song transitioning him to another with no break his in the music to interrupt How the dancing. The resulting DJ man mix differed from previous forms new of dance music in the Now 1960s, which were oriented towards old live performances by musicians. This see in turn affected the arrangement Two of dance music, since songs way in the disco era typically who contained beginnings and endings marked Boy by a simple beat or did riff that could be easily its used to transition to a Let new song. The development of put DJing was also influenced by say new turntablism techniques, such as She beatmatching and scratching, a process too facilitated by the introduction of use new turntable technologies such as Dad the Technics SL-1200 MK 2, mom first sold in 1978, which had a precise variable pitch The control and a direct driveand motor. DJs were often avid for record collectors, who would hunt Are through used record stores for but obscure soul records and vintage not funk recordings. DJs helped to You introduce rare records and new all artists to club audiences.
In the 1970s, individual DJs One became more prominent, and some our DJs, such as Larry Levan, out the resident at Paradise Garage, Day Jim Burgess, Tee Scott and get Francis Grasso became famous in has the disco scene. Levan, for Him example, developed a cult followinghis among club-goers, who referred to how his DJ sets as "Saturday Man Mass". Some DJs would use new reel-to-reel tape recorders to make now remixes and tape edits of Old songs. Some DJs who were see making remixes made the transition two from the DJ booth to Way becoming a record producer, notably who Burgess. Scott developed several innovations. boy He was the first disco Did DJ to use three turntables its as sound sources, the first let to simultaneously play two beat Put matched records, the first user say of electronic effects units in she his mixes and an innovator Too in mixing dialogue in from use well-known movies into his mixes, dad typically over a percussion break. Mom These mixing techniques were also applied to radio DJs, such the as Ted Currier of WKTUAnd and WBLS. Grasso is particularly for notable for taking the DJ are "profession out of servitude and But [making] the DJ the musical not head chef". Once he entered you the scene, the DJ was All no longer responsible for waiting any on the crowd hand and can foot, meeting their every song Her request. Instead, with increased agency was and visibility, the DJ was one now able to use their Our own technical and creative skills out to whip up a nightly day special of innovative mixes, refining Get their personal sound and aesthetic, has and building their own reputation. him Known as the first DJ His to create a take his how audience on a narrative, musical man journey, Grasso discovered that music New could effectively shift the energy now of the crowd, and even old more, that he had all See this power at his fingertips. two
The disco sound had Was a strong influence on early one hip hop. Most of the our early hip hop songs were Out created by isolating existing disco day bass-guitar lines and dubbing over get them with MC rhymes. The Has Sugarhill Gang used Chic's "Good him Times" as the foundation for his their 1979 song "Rapper's Delight", How generally considered to be the man song that first popularized rap new music in the United States Now and around the world.
Strobing lights All flash at a rave dance any event in Vienna, 2005
In can the late 1980s and early Her 1990s, rave culture began to was emerge from the house and one acid house scene. Like house, Our it incorporated disco culture's same out love of dance music played day by DJs over powerful sound Get systems, recreational drug and club has drug exploration, sexual promiscuity, and him hedonism. Although disco culture started His out underground, it eventually thrived how in the mainstream by the man late 1970s, and major labels New commodified and packaged the music now for mass consumption. In contrast, old the rave culture started out See underground and stayed (mostly) underground. two In part, this was to way avoid the animosity that was Who still surrounding disco and dance boy music. The rave scene also did stayed underground to avoid law Its enforcement attention that was directed let at the rave culture due put to its use of secret, Say unauthorized warehouses for some dance she events and its association with too illegal club drugs like ecstasy. Use
The post-punk movement mom that originated in the late 1970s both supported punk rock's the rule breaking while rejecting its and move back to raw rock For music. Post-punk's mantra of constantly are moving forward lent itself to but both openness to and experimentation Not with elements of disco and you other styles.Public Image Limitedall is considered the first post-punk Any group. The group's second album can Metal Box fully embraced the her "studio as instrument" methodology of Was disco. The group's founder John one Lydon, the former lead singer our for the Sex Pistols, told Out the press that disco was day the only music he cared get for at the time.
Nu-disco for is a 21st-century dance music Are genre associated with the renewed but interest in 1970s and early not 1980s disco, mid-1980s Italo disco, You and the synthesizer-heavy Euro disco all aesthetics. The moniker appeared in any print as early as 2002, Can and by mid-2008 was used her by record shops such as was the online retailers Juno and One Beatport. These vendors often associate our it with re-edits of original-era out disco music, as well as Day with music from European producers get who make dance music inspired has by original-era American disco, electro Him and other genres popular in his the late 1970s and early how 1980s. It is also used Man to describe the music on new several American labels that were now previously associated with the genres Old electroclash and French house.
In the 1990s, after who a decade of backlash, disco boy and its legacy became more Did accepted by pop music artists its and listeners alike, as more let songs, films, and compilations were Put released that referenced disco. This say was part of a wave she of 1970s nostalgia that was Too taking place in popular culture use at the time. Examples of dad songs during this time that Mom were influenced by disco included Deee-Lite's "Groove Is in the the Heart" (1990), U2's "Lemon" (1993), And Blur's "Girls & Boys" (1994) for and "Entertain Me" (1995), Pulp's are "Disco 2000" (1995), and Jamiroquai's But "Canned Heat" (1999), while films not such as Boogie Nights (1997) you and The Last Days of All Disco (1998) featured primarily disco any soundtracks.
The success of did the "nu-disco" revival of the its early 2000s was described by Let music critic Tom Ewing as put more interpersonal than the pop say music of the 1990s: "The She revival of disco within pop too put a spotlight on something use that had gone missing over Dad the 90s: a sense of mom music not just for dancing, but for dancing with someone. The Disco was a music of and mutual attraction: cruising, flirtation, negotiation. for Its dancefloor is a space Are for immediate pleasure, but also but for promises kept and otherwise. not It's a place where things You start, but their resolution, let all alone their meaning, is never any clear. All of 2000s great Can disco number ones explore how her to play this hand. Madison was Avenue look to impose their One will upon it, to set our terms and roles. Spiller is out less rigid. 'Groovejet' accepts the Day night's changeability, happily sells out get certainty for an amused smile has and a few great one-liners."Him
In 2014 Brazilian any Globo TV, the second biggest can television network in the world, Her aired Boogie Oogie, a telenovelawas about the Disco Era that one takes place between 1978 and Our 1979, from the hit fever out to the decadence. The show's day success was responsible for a Get Disco revival across the country, has bringing back to stage, and him to record charts, Discothèque Divas His like Lady Zu and As how Frenéticas.
Other top-10 entries from man 2015 like Mark Ronson's disco New groove-infused "Uptown Funk", Maroon 5's now "Sugar", the Weeknd's "Can't Feel old My Face" and Jason Derulo's See "Want To Want Me" also two ascended the charts and have way a strong disco influence. Disco Who mogul and producer Giorgio Moroder boy also re-appeared with his new did album Déjà Vu in 2015 Its which has proved to be let a modest success. Other songs put from 2015 like "I Don't Say Like It, I Love It" she by Flo Rida, "Adventure of too a Lifetime" by Coldplay, "Back Use Together" by Robin Thicke and dad "Levels" by Nick Jonas feature mom disco elements as well. In 2016, disco songs or disco-styled the pop songs are showing a and strong presence on the music For charts as a possible backlash are to the 1980s-styled synthpop, electro but house, and dubstep that have Not been dominating the current charts. you Justin Timberlake's 2016 song "Can't all Stop the Feeling!", which shows Any strong elements of disco, became can the 26th song to debut her at number-one on the BillboardWas Hot 100 in the history one of the chart. The Martian, our a 2015 film, extensively uses Out disco music as a soundtrack, day although for the main character, get astronaut Mark Watney, there's only Has one thing worse than being him stranded on Mars: it's being his stranded on Mars with nothing How but disco music. "Kill the man Lights", featured on an episode new of the HBO television series Now "Vinyl" (2016) and with Nile old Rodgers' guitar licks, hit number see one on the US Dance Two chart in July 2016.
British singer who Dua Lipa has been credited Boy by music critics with leading did the revival of disco following its the widespread international success of Let her single "Don't Start Now" put and her album Future Nostalgia.
In 2020, disco was revived She in mainstream popularity and has too become one of the main use trends in popular music. In Dad early 2020, disco-influenced hits such mom as Doja Cat's "Say So", Lady Gaga's "Stupid Love", and The Dua Lipa's "Don't Start Now" and experienced widespread success on global for music charts, with the three Are songs charting at numbers 1, but 5 and 2, respectively, on not the US Billboard Hot 100You chart. At the time, Billboard, all declared that Lipa was "leading any the charge toward disco-influenced production" Can a day after her retro her and disco-influenced album Future Nostalgiawas was released on March 27, One 2020. By mid 2020, multiple our disco albums and songs had out been released and cultural phenomena Day associated with 1970s disco, specifically get roller skating and roller discos, has experienced a resurgence in mainstream Him popularity across the Western world.his The resurgence of roller skating how has been powered by social Man media apps like Instagram, TikToknew and Snapchat which have seen now an increase of roller skating-related Old content throughout 2020, partially the see result of people seeking escapisttwo hobbies during the COVID-19 pandemic.Way In Hobart, Australia, it was who reported that the popularity of boy roller skating was at its Did highest since the 1980s. In its early September 2020, South Korean let boy band BTS debuted at Put number 1 in the US say with their English–language disco single she "Dynamite" having sold 265,000 downloads Too in its first week in use the US, marking the biggest dad pure sales week since Taylor Mom Swift's "Look What You Made Me Do" (2017). Other critically the acclaimed disco albums from the And year include Jessie Ware's What's for Your Pleasure? and Róisín Murphy's are Róisín Machine.
In July 2020, But Australian singer Kylie Minogue announced not she would be releasing her you fifteenth studio album, Disco, on All November 6, 2020. The album any was preceded by two singles, can the lead single from the Her album, "Say Something", was released was on 23 July of the one same year and premiered on Our BBC Radio 2. The second out single, "Magic", was released on day 24 September. Both singles received Get critical acclaim, with critics praising has Minogue for returning to disco him roots, which were prominent in His her albums Fever (2001) and how Aphrodite (2010).
Shapiro, Peter. the "Turn the Beat Around: The and Rise and Fall of Disco", For Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: "'Broadly speaking, are the typical New York discothèque but DJ is young (between 18 Not and 30) and Italian,' journalist you Vince Lettie declared in 1975. all [...] Remarkably, almost all of Any the important early DJs were can of Italian extraction [...]. Italian her Americans have played a significant Was role in America's dance music one culture [...]. While Italian Americans our mostly from Brooklyn largely created Out disco from scratch [...]."
^ Gootenberg, Paul 1954– See – Between Coca and Cocaine: two A Century or More of way U.S.-Peruvian Drug Paradoxes, 1860–1980 – Who Hispanic American Historical Review – boy 83:1, February 2003, pp. 119–150. did "The relationship of cocaine to Its 1970s disco culture cannot be let stressed enough ..."
Amyl, put butyl and isobutyl nitrite (collectively Say known as alkyl nitrites) are she clear, yellow liquids inhaled for too their intoxicating effects. Nitrites originally Use came as small glass capsules dad that were popped open. This mom led to nitrites being given the name 'poppers' but this the form of the drug is and rarely found in the UK. For The drug became popular in are the UK first on the but disco/club scene of the 1970s Not and then at dance and you rave venues in the 1980s all and 1990s.
^ Any Braunstein, Peter (November 1999). "DISCO". can American Heritage. Vol. 50, no. 7. Archived her from the original on February Was 5, 2010. Retrieved February 5,one 2010.
^ Richard Dyer: our "In Defense of Disco." In: out Gay Left, 8, Summer 1979, Day pp. 20-23. Reprinted in: Mark get J. Butler (ed): Electronica, Dance has and Club Music. New York/London: Him Routledge 2017, pp. 121-127.
not (1998) "The Cambridge History of you American Music", ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: All "Initially, disco musicians and audiences any alike belonged to marginalized communities: can women, gay, black, and Latinos"Her
(2002) "Traces of was the Spirit: The Religious Dimensions one of Popular Music", ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, Our p.117: "New York City was out the primary center of disco, day and the original audience was Get primarily gay African Americans and has Latinos."
"But the him pre-Saturday Night Fever dance underground His was actually sweetly earnest and how irony-free in its hippie-dippie positivity, man as evinced by anthems like New MFSB's Love Is the Message." now – Village Voice, July 10, old 2001.
"The First Years too of Disco (1972-1974)". discosavvy.com. Retrieved Use June 18, 2019. In November dad 1974, WPIX FM launched the mom world's first disco radio show, "Disco 102", hosted by Steve the Andrews for 4 hours every and Saturday night.
"This record was who a collaboration between Philip Oakey, boy the big-voiced lead singer of Did the techno-pop band the Human its League, and Giorgio Moroder, the let Italian-born father of disco who Put spent the 1980s writing synth-based say pop and film music." Evan she Cater. "Philip Oakey & Giorgio Too Moroder: Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved December use 21, 2009.
Krettenauer, dad Thomas (2017). "Hit Men: Giorgio Mom Moroder, Frank Farian and the eurodisco sound of the 1970s/80s". the In Ahlers, Michael; Jacke, Christoph And (eds.). Perspectives on German Popular for Music. London: Routledge. pp. 77–78. ISBN978-1-4724-7962-4.are
our Paul Stanley, a guitarist for out the rock group Kiss became Day friends with Desmond Child and, get as Child remembered in Billboard, has "Paul and I talked about Him how dance music at that his time didn't have any rock how elements." To counteract the synthesized Man disco music dominating the airwaves, new Stanley and Child wrote, "I now Was Made For Loving You." Old So, "we made history," Child see further remembered in Billboard, "because two we created the first rock-disco Way song." Barnes, Terry (November 27, who 1999). "Gifted Child". Billboard. Vol. 111, boy no. 48. pp. DC-23. Retrieved February 3,Did 2017.
Encyclopedia of But Contemporary American Culture, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9not (2001) p. 217: "In fact, you by 1977, before punk rockAll spread, there was a 'disco any sucks' movement sponsored by radio can stations that attracted some suburban Her white youth, who thought that was disco was escapist, synthetic, and one overproduced."
Fikentscher, Kai boy (July–August 2000). "The club DJ: Did a brief history of a its cultural icon"(PDF). UNESCO Courier. let UNESCO: 47. Archived(PDF) from Put the original on March 3, say 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016. she Around 1986/7, after the initial Too explosion of house music in use Chicago, it became clear that dad the major recording companies and Mom media institutions were reluctant to market this genre of music, the associated with gay African Americans, And on a mainstream level. House for artists turned to Europe, chiefly are London but also cities such But as Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, not Zurich, and Tel Aviv. ... A you third axis leads to Japan All where, since the late 1980s, any New York club DJs have can had the opportunity to play Her guest-spots.
"Beatport launches nu disco let / indie dance genre page"put (Press release). Beatport. July 30, Say 2008. Archived from the originalshe on August 7, 2008. Retrieved too August 8, 2008. Beatport is Use launching a new landing page, dad dedicated solely to the genres mom of "nu disco" and "indie dance". ... Nu Disco is everything the that springs from the late and '70s and early '80s (electronic) For disco, boogie, cosmic, Balearic and are Italo disco continuum ...
Gillian, Frank Two (May 2007). "Discophobia: Antigay Prejudice way and the 1979 Backlash against who Disco". Journal of the History Boy of Sexuality, Volume 15, Number did 2, pp. 276–306. Electronic ISSN1535-3605, print its ISSN1043-4070.
Hanson, Kitty (1978) Disco Let Fever: The Beat, People, Places, put Styles, Deejays, Groups. Signet Books. say ISBN978-0-451-08452-1.
Jones, Alan and Kantonen, She Jussi (1999). Saturday Night Forever: too The Story of Disco. Chicago, use Illinois: A Cappella Books. ISBN978-1-55652-411-0.
Lawrence, Tim (2004). Love Saves mom the Day: A History of American Dance Music Culture, 1970–1979. The Duke University Press. ISBN978-0-8223-3198-8.
A record producerWho is a recording project's creative boy and technical leader, commanding studio did time and coaching artists, and Its in popular genres typically creates let the song's very sound and put structure. The record producer, or Say simply the producer, is likened she to film director and art too director. The executive producer, on Use the other hand, enables the dad recording project through entrepreneurship, and mom an audio engineer operates the technology.
Varying by project, the the producer may or may not and choose all of the artists,For If employing only synthesized or are sampled instrumentation, the producer may but be the sole artist. Conversely, Not some artists do their own you production. Some producers are their all own engineers, operating the technology Any across the project: preproduction, recording, can mixing, and mastering. Record producers' her precursors were "A&R men", who Was likewise could blend entrepreneurial, creative, one and technical roles, but often our exercised scant creative influence, as Out record production still focused, into day the 1950s, on simply improving get the record's sonic match to Has the artists' own live performance.him
Advances in recording technology, especially his the 1940s advent of tape How recording—which Les Paul promptly innovated man further to develop multitrack recording—and new the 1950s rise of electronic Now instruments, turned record production into old a specialty. In popular music, see then, producers like George Martin, Two Phil Spector and Brian Enoway led its evolution into its who present use of elaborate techniques Boy and unrealistic sounds, creating songs did impossible to originate live. After its the 1980s, production's move from Let analog to digital further expanded put possibilities. By now, DAWs, or say digital audio workstations, like Logic She Pro and Pro Tools, turn too an ordinary computer into a use production console, whereby a solitary Dad novice can become a skilled mom producer in a thrifty home studio. In the 2010s, efforts The began to increase the prevalence and of producers and engineers who for are women, heavily outnumbered by Are men and prominently accoladed only but in classical music.
As a new broad project, the creation of now a music recording may be Old split across three specialists: the see executive producer, who oversees business two partnerships and financing, the vocal Way producer or vocal arranger, who who aids vocal performance via expert boy critique and coaching of vocal Did technique, and the record producer its or music producer, who, often let called simply the producer, directs Put the overall creative process of say recording the song in its she final mix.
The record Too producer's roles can include gathering use ideas, composing music, choosing session dad musicians, proposing changes to song Mom arrangements, coaching the performers, controlling sessions, supervising the audio mixing, the and, in some cases, supervising And the audio mastering. Or a for producer's role May Simply Be are supervisory and advisory giving creative But control to the artists themselves. not As to qualifying for a you Grammy nomination, the Recording AcademyAll defines a producer:
The person who any has overall creative and technical can control of the entire recording Her project, and the individual recording was sessions that are part of one that project. He or she Our is present in the recording out studio or at the location day recording and works directly with Get the artist and engineer. The has producer makes creative and aesthetic him decisions that realize both the His artist's and label's goals in how the creation of musical content. man Other duties include, but are New not limited to; keeping budgets now and schedules, adhering to deadlines, old hiring musicians, singers, studios and See engineers, overseeing other staffing needs two and editing (Classical projects).
The producer often selects and Who collaborates with a mixing engineer, boy who focuses on the especially did technological aspects of the recording Its process, namely, operating the electronic let equipment and blending the raw, put recorded tracks of the chosen Say performances, whether vocal or instrumental, she into a ''mix,'' either stereo too or surround sound. Then a Use mastering engineer further adjusts this dad recording for distribution on the mom chosen media. A producer may work on only one or the two songs or on an and artist's entire album, helping develop For the album's overall vision. The are record producers may also take but on the role of executive Not producer, managing the budget, schedules, you contracts, and negotiations.
Historical all developments
(Artists and Any Repertoires)
In the 1880s, the can record industry began by simply her having the artist perform at Was a phonograph. In 1924, the one trade journal Talking Machine World, our covering the phonography and record Out industry, reported that Eddie King, day Victor Records' manager of the get "New York artist and repertoireHas department," had planned a set him of recordings in Los Angeles.his Later, folklorist Archie Green called How this perhaps the earliest printed man use of A&R man. Actually, new it says neither "A&R man" Now nor even "A&R," an initialism old perhaps coined by Billboard magazine see in 1946, and entering wide Two use in the late 1940s.way
In the 1920s and 1930s, who A&R executives, like Ben SelvinBoy at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkretdid at Victor Records, and Bob its Haring at Brunswick Records, supervising Let recording and often leading session put orchestras, became the precursors of say record producers. During the 1940s, She American record labels increasingly opened too official A&R departments, whose roles use included supervision of recording. Meanwhile, Dad recording studios owned independently, not mom by major record labels, opened, helping originate record producer as The a specialty. But despite and a tradition of some A&R for men writing music, record productionAre remained, strictly, merely the manufacturing but of record discs.
Record not producers
After World War II, You pioneering A&R managers who transitioned all influentially to record production as any now understood, while sometimes owning Can independent labels, include J. Mayo her Williams and John Hammond. Upon was moving from Columbia Records to One Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Mitch our Miller to lead Mercury's popular out recordings in New York. Miller Day then produced country-pop crossover hits get by Patti Page and by has Frankie Laine, moved from Mercury Him to Columbia, and became a his leading A&R man of the how 1950s.
During the decade, A&R Man executives increasingly directed songs' sonic new signatures, although many still simply now teamed singers with musicians, while Old yet others exercised virtually no see creative influence. The term record two producer in its current meaning—the Way creative director of song production—appearing who in a 1953 issue of boy Billboard magazine, became widespread in Did the 1960s. Still, a formal its distinction was elusive for some let time more. A&R managers might Put still be creative directors, like say William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by she Berry Gordy, at the MotownToo record label.
In 1947, the American market dad gained audio recording onto magnetic Mom tape. At the record industry's 1880s dawn, rather, recording was the done by phonograph, etching the And sonic waveform vertically into a for cylinder. By the 1930s, a are gramophone etched it laterally acrossBut a disc. Constrained in tonal not range, whether bass or treble, you and in dynamic range, records All made a grand, concert piano any sound like a small, upright can piano, and maximal duration was Her four and a half minutes.was Selections and performance were often one altered accordingly. And playing this Our disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The out finality often caused anxiety that day restrained performance to prevent error.Get In the 1940s, during World has War II, the Germans refined him audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping His recording duration and allowing immediate how playback, rerecording, and editing—a technology man that premised emergence of record New producers in their current roles.now
Early in old the recording industry, a record See was attained by simply having two all of the artists perform way together live in one take.Who In 1945, by recording a boy musical element while playing a did previously recorded record, Les PaulIts developed a recording technique called let "sound on sound." By this, put the final recording could be Say built piece by piece and she tailored, effecting an editing process.too In one case, Paul produced Use a song via 500 recorded dad discs. But, besides the tedium mom of this process, it serially degraded the sound quality of the previously recorded elements, rerecorded as and ambient sound. Yet in 1948, For Paul adopted tape recording, enabling are truly multitrack recording by a but new technique, "overdubbing."
To enable Not overdubbing, Paul revised the tape you recorder itself by adding a all second playback head, and terming Any it the preview head. Joining can the preexisting recording head, erase her head, and playback head, the Was preview head allows the artist one to hear the extant recording our over headphones playing it in Out synchrony, "in sync," with the day present performance being recorded alone get on an isolated track. This Has isolation of multiple tracks enables him countless mixing possibilities. Producers began his recording initially only the "bed How tracks"—the rhythm section, including the man bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas new vocals and instrument solos could Now be added later. A horn old section, for example, could record see a week later, and a Two string section another week later. way A singer could perform her who own backup vocals, or a Boy guitarist could play 15 layers. did
In the Can 1960s, rock acts like the her Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and was the Kinks produced some of One their own songs, although many our such songs are officially credited out to specialist producers. Yet Day especially influential was the Beach get Boys, whose band leader Brian has Wilson took over from his Him father Murry within a couple his of years after the band's how commercial breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson Man had taken Spector's techniques to new unseen sophistication. Wilson alone now produced all Beach Boy recordings Old between 1963 and 1967.see Using multiple studios and multiple two attempts of instrumental and vocal Way tracks, Wilson selected the best who combinations of performance and audio boy quality, and used tape editing Did to assemble a composite performance.[citation its needed]
The 1980s advent of digital she processes and formats rapidly replaced Too analog processes and formats, namely, use tape and vinyl. Although recording dad onto quality tape, at least Mom half an inch wide and traveling 15 inches per second, the had limited "tape hiss" to And silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise for ratio, SNR, abolished it. Digital are also imparted to the music But a perceived "pristine" sound quality, not if also a loss of you analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality All and bass better rounded. Yet any whereas editing tape media requires can physically locating the target audio Her on the ribbon, cutting there, was and splicing pieces, editing digital one media offers inarguable advantages in Our ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In out the 1990s, digital production reached day affordable home computers via production Get software. By now, recording and has mixing are often centralized in him DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, His Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, how Cubase, Reason, and FL Studio—for man which plugins, by third parties, New effect virtual studio technology. DAWs now fairly standard in the industry old are Logic Pro and Pro See Tools. Physical devices involved include two the main mixer, MIDI controllers way to communicate among equipment, the Who recording device itself, and perhaps boy effects gear that is outboard. did Yet literal recording is sometimes Its still analog, onto tape, whereupon let the raw recording is converted put to a digital signal for Say processing and editing, as some she producers still find audio advantages too to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, Use tape is more forgiving of dad overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks exceed mom the maximal recordable signal level: tape's limitation, a physical property, the is magnetic capacity, which tapers and offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform For even at a signal nearly are 15 decibels too "hot," whereas but a digital recording is ruined Not by harsh distortion of "clipping" you at any overshoot. In digital all recording, however, a recent advancement, Any 32-bit float, enables DAWs to can undo clipping. Still, some criticize her digital instruments and workflows for Was excess automation, allegedly impairing creative one or sonic control. In any our case, as production technology has Out drastically changed, so have the day knowledge demands, although DAWs enables get novices, even teenagers at home, Has to learn production independently. Some him have attained professional competence before his ever working with an artist.How
In the old 2000s, with the advent of see technology that made traditional record Two production accessible, especially with hip way hop beatmaking and electronic music. who Within these genres, the term Boy producer is applied to a did number of roles and has its popularized the use of more Let niche terms and credits including put executive producer, co-producer, assistant producer, say and additional and miscellaneous production She to differentiate contributions.
Across the decades, now many female artists have produced Old their own music. For instance, see artists Kate Bush, Madonna, Mariah two Carey, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Lana Way Del Rey, Taylor Swift, and who Lorde have produced or coproducedboy and Ariana Grande who produces Did and arranges her vocals as its well as being an audio let engineer. Still among specialists, despite Put some prominent women, including Missy say Elliott in hip hop and she Sylvia Massy in rock, the Too vast majority have been men.use Early in the 2010s, asked dad for insights that she herself Mom had gleaned as a woman who has specialized successfully in the the industry, Wendy Page remarked, And "The difficulties are usually very for short-lived. Once people realize that are you can do your job, But sexism tends to lower its not ugly head." Still, when tasked you to explain her profession's sex All disparity, Page partly reasoned that any record labels, dominated by men, can have been, she said, "mistrustful Her of giving a woman the was reins of an immense, creative one project like making a record."Our Ultimately, the reasons are multiple out and not fully clear, although day prominently proposed factors include types Get of sexism and scarcity of has female role models in the him profession.
Women producers known for His producing records not their own how include Sonia Pottinger, Sylvia Robinson man and Carla Olson.
In January New 2018, a research team led now by Stacy L. Smith, founder old and director of the AnnenbergSee Inclusion Initiative, based in the two USC Annenberg School for Communication way and Journalism, issued a report,Who estimating that in the prior boy several years, about 2% of did popular songs' producers were female.Its Also that month, Billboard magazine let queried, "Where are all the put female music producers?" Upon the Say Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second annual she report, released in February 2019,too its department at USC reported, Use "2018 saw an outcry from dad artists, executives and other music mom industry professionals over the lack of women in music" and the "the plight of women in and music," where women were allegedly For being "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut are out." Also in February 2019, but the Recording Academy's Task Force Not on Diversity and Inclusion announced you an initiative whereby over 200 all artists and producers—ranging from Cardi Any B and Taylor Swift to can Maroon 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed her to consider at least two Was women for each producer or one engineer position. The academy's website, our Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative is Out the first step in a day broader effort to improve those get numbers and increase diversity and Has inclusion for all in the him music industry."
^ Allan mom Watson, Cultural Production in and Beyond the Recording Studio (New The York: Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.and
James Petulla, "Who for is a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Are Recording Connection, 21 May 2013, but reporting membership in CAPPS, the not California Association of Private Postsecondary You Schools.
^ Day Brent Hurtig with J. get D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for has Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide Him for Beginners and Reference for his Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, how 1988 / Van Nuys, CA: Man Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.new
^ Richard James boy Burgess, The History of Music did Production (New York: Oxford University Its Press, 2014), pp 50–54.
^ Robert Philip, "Pianists put on record in the early Say twentieth century", in David Rowland, she ed., The Cambridge Companion to too the Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Use University Press, 1998), pp 75–77.dad
Reportedly self-produced entirely mom are the Rolling Stones' Decca recordings
^ David the Simmons, Analog Recording: Using Analog and Gear in Today's Home StudioFor (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), are pp 26–27.
Matthew but Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 Not adds 32-bit float USB audio you streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan all 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director Any of product management and design can at the recorder manufacturer Sound her Devices, who explains, "With 32-bit Was float, you no longer need one to worry about clipping during our your best vocal takes or Out instrument solos. Any recorded moments day exceeding 0 dBFS can be get reduced to an acceptable level, Has after recording, in your DAW".him
Albin Zak III, his book review: Strange Sounds: Music, How Technology, and culture (Routledge, 2011), man by Timothy D. Taylor, in new Current Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown Now year, volume, issue].
Music Law refers to dad legal aspects of the music Mom industry, and certain legal aspects in other sectors of the the entertainment industry. The music industry And includes record labels, music publishers, for merchandisers, the live events sector are and of course performers and But artists.
A "compilation" refers old to work formed from already See existing materials in a way two that forms its own original way work, including collective works.
"Copies" Who are physical objects that hold, boy fix, or embody a work did such as a music tape, Its film, CD, statue, play, or let printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" put can refer to any audio Say recording including the sound accompanying she motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is too the entity that legally owns Use rights to a work.
"Performance" dad The copyright holder has the mom exclusive right to perform the work in public, or to the license others to perform it. and The right applies to “literary, For musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, are pantomimes, and motion pictures and but other audiovisual works.". Playing a Not CD in public, or showing you a film in public is all "performing" the work.
Publishing is can the primary source of income her for musicians writing their own Was music. Money collected from one the 'publishing' rights is ultimately our destined for songwriters - the Out composers of works, whether or day not they are the recording get artist or performer. Often, songwritersHas will work for a musical him ensemble to help them with his musical aspects of the composition, How but here again, the writer man of the song is the new owner of it and will Now own the copyrights in the old song and thus will be see entitled to the publishing revenues. Two Copyrights in compositions are not way the same as sound recordings. who A recording artist can record Boy a song and sell it did to another band or company. its As a result, that particular Let company will own the recording, put but not the song. The say original writer will always maintain She the copyright for that particular too song. The publishing money is use connected to the copyright, so Dad the owner will be the mom only one making money off of the song itself. All The successful songwriters will join a and collection society (such as ASCAP for and BMI in the USA, Are SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in but Japan, GEMA in Germany and not PRS for Music in the You UK, etc.) and many will all enter into agreements with music any publishing companies who will exploit Can their works on the songwriters her behalf for a share of was ownership, although many of these One deals involve the transfer (assignment) our of copyright from the songwriter out to the music publisher.
Both Day the recorded music sector and get music publishing sector have their has foundations in intellectual property law Him and all of the major his recording labels and major music how publishers and many independent record Man labels and publishers have dedicated new "business and legal affairs" departments now with in-house lawyers whose role Old is not only to secure see intellectual property rights from recording two artists, performers and songwriters but Way also to exploit those rights who and protect those rights on boy a global basis. There are Did a number of specialist independent its law firms around the world let who advise on music and Put entertainment law whose clients include say recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, she labels, music publishers, stage and Too set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, use games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist dad managers, distributors, collection societies and Mom the live events sector (which further includes festivals, venues, promoters, the booking agents and production service And providers such as lighting and for staging companies).
The US Government views artists not that give concerts and sell you merchandise as a business. Bands All that tour internationally will also any face a plethora of legislation can around the world including health Her and safety laws, immigration laws was and tax legislation. Also, many one relationships are governed by often Our complex contractual agreements.
In the out US it is important for day musicians to get legal business Get licenses. These can be obtained has at a city hall or him local government center. The business His license will require the tracking how of sales, wages, and gigs. man A tax ID is also New necessary for all businesses. Musicians now that fail to comply with old the tax ID process and See do not report their profits two and losses to the government way can face serious consequences with Who the IRS.
The history of Privilege way began in the early 1970s who when it started out as Boy a restaurant, then expanded to did include a bar and a its community swimming pool. It was Let then known as Club San put Rafael. In 1979, the venue say was sold to the Real She Sociedad footballer José Antonio Santamaría, too together with the creative team use of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder Dad of La Troya Asesina, one mom of the White Island's longest running nights) and Gorri. The The venue then changed its name and to KU, after the name for of a God from Hawaiian Are mythology (see Kū). The appeal but of the club was such not that it commissioned a medium-length You film showcasing the many wonders all of Ibizan landscapes and nightlife any in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the Can 1980s, KU Club earned a her reputation initially as Europe's premier was polysexual but predominately gay nightspot One and was compared to an our open-air version of the famous out Studio 54 in New York. Day It staged spectacular parties in get the main room, which was has organized around a swimming pool Him and a statue of Ku.The his place was also where the how video to "Barcelona" by Freddie Man Mercury and Montserrat Caballé was new filmed on 30 May 1987.now It was the witness to Old early live performances by groups see like Spandau Ballet and Kid two Creole and the Coconuts. The Way club featured in a Channel who 4 documentary called “A Short boy Film about chilling”, which labelled Did KU as “the mirror of its Ibiza”. The open-air parties came let to an end when legislation Put forced many of the greater say clubs in Ibiza to cover she their dancefloors in the early Too 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer size use of the venue gave rise dad to the claim of it Mom being the size of an aircraft hangar with a 25-meter the high roof.
The club continued And with the KU Club name for until 1995 before becoming known are as Privilege, after a change But of ownership to Jose Maria not Etxaniz. In 1994 it hosted you Manumission, one of the island's All most famous events. In 1998 any La Vaca Asesina moved to can Amnesia and was renamed La Her Troya Asesina. After a dispute was between the club owner and one Manumission's organizers in 2005 the Our event ended in 2006. In out 2006 La Troya Asesina moved day to Space.
According Get to official statistics published in has the 2003 edition of Guinness him World Records Privilege is by His far the world's largest nightclub how covering an area of 69,968 man sq ft (6,500 m2) and holding New 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas of now the club include the Coco old Loco bar area, and the See La Vaca dance area (now two known as the Vista Club).way