LoginSign Up
Source: Wikipedia 


A record label, all or record company, is a any brand or trademark of music Can recordings and music videos, or her the company that owns it. was Sometimes, a record label is One also a publishing company that our manages such brands and trademarks, out coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, Day marketing, promotion, and enforcement of get copyright for sound recordings and has music videos, while also conducting Him talent scouting and development of his new artists ("artists and repertoire" how or "A&R"), and maintaining contracts Man with recording artists and their new managers. The term "record label" now derives from the circular label Old in the center of a see vinyl record which prominently displays two the manufacturer's name, along with Way other information. Within the mainstream who music industry, recording artists have boy traditionally been reliant upon record Did labels to broaden their consumer its base, market their albums, and let promote their singles on streaming Put services, radio, and television. Record say labels also provide publicists, who she assist performers in gaining positive Too media coverage, and arrange for use their merchandise to be available dad via stores and other media Mom outlets.


Major versus independent record labels


Record labels may be small, was localized and "independent" ("indie"), or one they may be part of Our a large international media group, out or somewhere in between. The day Association of Independent Music (AIM) Get defines a 'major' as "a has multinational company which (together with him the companies in its group) His has more than 5% of how the world market(s) for the man sale of records or music New videos." As of 2012, there now are only three labels that old can be referred to as See "major labels" (Universal Music Group, two Sony Music Entertainment, and Warner way Music Group). In 2014, AIM Who estimated that the majors had boy a collective global market share did of some 65–70%.

Major Its labels

PolyGramPolyGramUniversal Music GroupSony MusicWarner Music GroupPolyGramMCA RecordsSony BMGSony MusicColumbia RecordsWarner Music GroupBertelsmann Music GroupWarner RecordsBertelsmann Music GroupEMIPolyGramDecca RecordsRCA RecordsAmerican Record Corporation

Record labels let are often under the control put of a corporate umbrella organization Say called a "music group". A she music group is usually owned too by an international conglomerate "holding Use company", which often has non-music dad divisions as well. A music mom group controls and consists of music-publishing companies, record (sound recording) the manufacturers, record distributors, and record and labels. Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, For and labels) may also constitute are a "record group" which is, but in turn, controlled by a Not music group. The constituent companies you in a music group or all record group are sometimes marketed Any as being "divisions" of the can group.

From 1988 to 1999, her there were six major record Was labels, known as the Big one Six:[citation needed]

  1. Warner Music our Group
  2. EMI
  3. Sony Music (Known Out as CBS Records until January day 1991)
  4. BMG (Formed in 1984 get as RCA/Ariola International)
  5. Universal Music Has Group (Known as MCA Music him until 1996)
  6. PolyGram

PolyGram was his merged into Universal Music Group How in 1999, leaving the rest man to be known as the new Big Five.[citation needed]

In 2004, Now Sony and BMG agreed to old a joint venture to create see the Sony BMG label (which Two would be renamed Sony Music way Entertainment after a 2008 merger). who In 2007, the four remaining Boy companies—known as the Big Four—controlled did about 70% of the world its music market, and about 80% Let of the United States music put market.

In 2012, the major say divisions of EMI were sold She off separately by owner Citigroup: too most of EMI's recorded music use division was absorbed into UMG; Dad EMI Music Publishing was absorbed mom into Sony/ATV Music Publishing; finally, EMI's Parlophone and Virgin Classics The labels were absorbed into Warner and Music Group in July 2013. for This left the so-called Big Are Three labels:

  1. Universal Music but Group
  2. Sony Music Entertainment
  3. Warner not Music Group


Record labels all and music publishers that are any not under the control of Can the big three are generally her considered to be independent (indie), was even if they are large One corporations with complex structures. The our term indie label is sometimes out used to refer to only Day those independent labels that adhere get to independent criteria of corporate has structure and size, and some Him consider an indie label to his be almost any label that how releases non-mainstream music, regardless of Man its corporate structure.

Independent labels new are often considered more artist-friendly. now Though they may have less Old financial clout, indie labels typically see offer larger artist royalty with two a 50% profit-share agreement, aka Way 50-50 deal, not uncommon. In who addition, independent labels are often boy artist-owned (although not always), with Did a stated intent often being its to control the quality of let the artist's output. Independent labels Put usually do not enjoy the say resources available to the "big she three" and as such will Too often lag behind them in use market shares. However, frequently independent dad artists manage a return by Mom recording for a much smaller production cost of a typical the big label release. Sometimes they And are able to recoup their for initial advance even with much are lower sales numbers.

On occasion, But established artists, once their record not contract has finished, move to you an independent label. This often All gives the combined advantage of any name recognition and more control can over one's music along with Her a larger portion of royalty was profits. Artists such as Dolly one Parton, Aimee Mann, Prince, Public Our Enemy, BKBravo (Kua and Rafi), out among others, have done this. day Historically, companies started in this Get manner have been re-absorbed into has the major labels (two examples him are American singer Frank Sinatra's His Reprise Records, which has been how owned by Warner Music Group man for some time now, and New musician Herb Alpert's A&M Records, now now owned by Universal Music old Group). Similarly, Madonna's Maverick Records See (started by Madonna with her two manager and another partner) was way to come under control of Who Warner Music when Madonna divested boy herself of controlling shares in did the company.

Some independent labels Its become successful enough that major let record companies negotiate contracts to put either distribute music for the Say label or in some cases, she purchase the label completely.



A label used as Use a trademark or brand and dad not a company is called mom an imprint, a term used for the same concept in the publishing. An imprint is sometimes and marketed as being a "project", For "unit", or "division" of a are record label company, even though but there is no legal business Not structure associated with the imprint. you


Music collectors often all use the term sublabel to Any refer to either an imprint can or a subordinate label company her (such as those within a Was group). For example, in the one 1980s and 1990s, "4th & our B'way" was a trademarked brand Out owned by Island Records Ltd. day in the UK and by get a subordinate branch, Island Records, Has Inc., in the United States. him The center label on a his 4th & Broadway record marketed How in the United States would man typically bear a 4th & new B'way logo and would state Now in the fine print, "4th old & B'way™, an Island Records, see Inc. company". Collectors discussing labels Two as brands would say that way 4th & B'way is a who sublabel or imprint of just Boy "Island" or "Island Records". Similarly, did collectors who choose to treat its corporations and trademarks as equivalent Let might say 4th & B'way put is an imprint and/or sublabel say of both Island Records, Ltd. She and that company's sublabel, Island too Records, Inc. However, such definitions use are complicated by the corporate Dad mergers that occurred in 1989 mom (when Island was sold to PolyGram) and 1998 (when PolyGram The merged with Universal). Island remained and registered as corporations in both for the United States and UK, Are but control of its brands but changed hands multiple times as not new companies were formed, diminishing You the corporation's distinction as the all "parent" of any sublabels. My any Ami is the early imprint Can of Columbia records.

Vanity her labels


Vanity labels are labels that One bear an imprint that gives our the impression of an artist's out ownership or control, but in Day fact represent a standard artist/label get relationship. In such an arrangement, has the artist will control nothing Him more than the usage of his the name on the label, how but may enjoy a greater Man say in the packaging of new his or her work. An now example of such a label Old is the Neutron label owned see by ABC while at Phonogram two Inc. in the UK. At Way one point artist Lizzie Tear who (under contract with ABC themselves) boy appeared on the imprint, but Did it was devoted almost entirely its to ABC's offerings and is let still used for their re-releases Put (though Phonogram owns the masters say of all the work issued she on the label).

However, not Too all labels dedicated to particular use artists are completely superficial in dad origin. Many artists, early in Mom their careers, create their own labels which are later bought the out by a bigger company. And If this is the case for it can sometimes give the are artist greater freedom than if But they were signed directly to not the big label. There are you many examples of this kind All of label, such as Nothing any Records, owned by Trent Reznor can of Nine Inch Nails; and Her Morning Records, owned by the was Cooper Temple Clause, who were one releasing EPs for years before Our the company was bought by out RCA.

Relationship with artists


A label typically enters into Get an exclusive recording contract with has an artist to market the him artist's recordings in return for His royalties on the selling price how of the recordings. Contracts may man extend over short or long New durations, and may or may now not refer to specific recordings. old Established, successful artists tend to See be able to renegotiate their two contracts to get terms more way favorable to them, but Prince's Who much-publicized 1994–1996 feud with Warner boy Bros. Records provides a strong did counterexample, as does Roger McGuinn's Its claim, made in July 2000 let before a US Senate committee, put that the Byrds never received Say any of the royalties they she had been promised for their too biggest hits, "Mr. Tambourine Man" and Use "Turn! Turn!, Turn!".

A contract dad either provides for the artist mom to deliver completed recordings to the label, or for the the label to undertake the recording and with the artist. For artists For without a recording history, the are label is often involved in but selecting producers, recording studios, additional Not musicians, and songs to be you recorded, and may supervise the all output of recording sessions. For Any established artists, a label is can usually less involved in the her recording process.

The relationship between Was record labels and artists can one be a difficult one. Many our artists have had albums altered Out or censored in some way day by the labels before they get are released—songs being edited, artwork Has or titles being changed, etc.[citation him needed] Record labels generally do his this because they believe that How the album will sell better man if the changes are made. new Often the record label's decisions Now are prudent ones from a old commercial perspective, but these decisions see may frustrate artists who feel Two that their art is being way diminished or misrepresented by such who actions.

In the early days Boy of the recording industry, recording did labels were absolutely necessary for its the success of any artist.[citation Let needed] The first goal of put any new artist or band say was to get signed to She a contract as soon as too possible. In the 1940s, 1950s, use and 1960s, many artists were Dad so desperate to sign a mom contract with a record company that they sometimes ended up The signing agreements in which they and sold the rights to their for recordings to the record label Are in perpetuity. Entertainment lawyers are but usually employed by artists to not discuss contract terms.

Through the You advances of the Internet the all role of labels is becoming any increasingly changed, as artists are Can able to freely distribute their her own material through web radio, was peer to peer file sharing One such as BitTorrent, and other our services, for little or no out cost but with little financial Day return. Established artists, such as get Nine Inch Nails, whose career has was developed with major label Him backing, announced an end to his their major label contracts, citing how that the uncooperative nature of Man the recording industry with these new new trends is hurting musicians, now fans and the industry as Old a whole. However, Nine Inch see Nails later returned to working two with a major label, admitting Way that they needed the international who marketing and promotional reach that boy a major label can provide. Did Radiohead also cited similar motives its with the end of their let contract with EMI when their Put album In Rainbows was released say as a "pay what you she want" sales model as an Too online download, but they also use returned to a label for dad a conventional release. Research shows Mom that record labels still control most access to distribution.


New label strategies

Computers and And internet technology led to an for increase in file sharing and are direct-to-fan digital distribution, causing music But sales to plummet in recent not years. Labels and organizations have you had to change their strategies All and the way they work any with artists. New types of can deals are being made with Her artists called "multiple rights" or was "360" deals with artists. These one types of pacts give labels Our rights and percentages to artist's out touring, merchandising, and endorsements. In day exchange for these rights, labels Get usually give higher advance payments has to artists, have more patience him with artist development, and pay His higher percentages of CD sales. how These 360 deals are most man effective when the artist is New established and has a loyal now fan base. For that reason, old labels now have to be See more relaxed with the development two of artists because longevity is way the key to these types Who of pacts. Several artists such boy as Paramore, Maino, and even did Madonna have signed such types Its of deals.

A look at let an actual 360 deal offered put by Atlantic Records to an Say artist shows a variation of she the structure. Atlantic's document offers too a conventional cash advance to Use sign the artist, who would dad receive a royalty for sales mom after expenses were recouped. With the release of the artist's the first album, however, the label and has an option to pay For an additional $200,000 in exchange are for 30 percent of the but net income from all touring, Not merchandise, endorsements, and fan-club fees. you Atlantic would also have the all right to approve the act's Any tour schedule, and the salaries can of certain tour and merchandise her sales employees hired by the Was artist. In addition, the label one also offers the artist a our 30 percent cut of the Out label's album profits—if any—which represents day an improvement from the typical get industry royalty of 15 percent. Has

Internet and digital labels


With the his Internet now being a viable How source for obtaining music, netlabels man have emerged. Depending on the new ideals of the net label, Now music files from the artists old may be downloaded free of see charge or for a fee Two that is paid via PayPal way or other online payment system. who Some of these labels also Boy offer hard copy CDs in did addition to direct download. Digital its Labels are the latest version Let of a 'net' label. Whereas put 'net' labels were started as say a free site, digital labels She represent more competition for the too major record labels.

Open-source use labels

The new century brought mom the phenomenon of open-source or open-content record labels. These are The inspired by the free software and and open source movements and for the success of Linux.


Publishers as labels

In the but mid-2000s, some music publishing companies not began undertaking the work traditionally You done by labels. The publisher all Sony/ATV Music, for example, leveraged any its connections within the Sony Can family to produce, record, distribute, her and promote Elliott Yamin's debut was album under a dormant Sony-owned One imprint, rather than waiting for our a deal with a proper out label.

See also



  1. Klein, has Allison. "How Record Labels Work". Him HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  2. "Independent its Music is now a growing let force in the global market". Put Musicindie.com. 1 February 2014. Retrieved say 20 March 2019.
  3. she "Copyright Law, Treaties and Advice". Too Copynot.org. Retrieved 14 November 2013. use
  4. Jobs, Steve (6 dad February 2007). "Thoughts on Music". Mom Apple. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009.
  5. the
  6. Joshua R. Wueller, Mergers And of Majors: Applying the Failing for Firm Doctrine in the Recorded are Music Industry, 7 Brook. J. But Corp. Fin. & Com. L. not 589, 601–04 (2013).
  7. you "Top Five Lessons Learned from All Indie Record Labels". Musicians.about.com. Retrieved any 29 April 2016.
  8. can Newman, Melinda. "Inside Prince's Career-Long Her Battle to Master His Artistic was Destiny". Billboard. Retrieved 3 April one 2017.
  9. "CNN Transcript Our – Special Event: Lars Ulrich, out Roger McGuinn Testify Before Senate day Judiciary Committee on Downloading Music Get on the Internet". Transcripts.cnn.com. 11 has July 2000. Retrieved 29 April him 2016.
  10. "Nine inch His nails = independent". Sputnikmusic.com. Retrieved how 29 April 2016.
  11. man "Trent Reznor on Nine Inch New Nails' Columbia Signing: 'I'm Not now a Major Label Apologist'". Spin.com. old 19 August 2013. Retrieved 29 See April 2016.
  12. "Radiohead two sign 'conventional' record deal". Nme.com. way 31 October 2007. Retrieved 29 Who April 2016.
  13. boy D Arditi (2014). "iTunes: Breaking did Barriers and Building Walls" (PDF). Its Popular Music & Society. 37 let (4): 408–424. doi:10.1080/03007766.2013.810849. hdl:10106/27052.
  14. put
  15. Covert, Adrian (25 April Say 2013). "A decade of iTunes she singles killed the music industry too – Apr. 25, 2013". Money.cnn.com. Use Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  16. dad
  17. Leeds, Jeff (11 November mom 2004). "The New Deal: Band as Brand". Nytimes.com.
  18. the Suhr, Cecilia (November 2011). "Understanding and the Hegemonic Struggle between Mainstream For Vs. Independent Forces: The Music are Industry and Musicians in the but Age of Social Media". International Not Journal of Technology, Knowledge & you Society. 7 (6): 123–136. doi:10.18848/1832-3669/CGP/v07i06/56248. all
  19. Butler, Susan (31 Any March 2007), "Publisher = Label? can – Sony/ATV Music releases; Elliott her Yamin's record", Billboard

External links

one Out

Find a DJ


Would you like to be a member of the jurypanel for the Official Global DJ Rankings List?

Would you like to help crowdsource data for the site? We are always looking for skilled volunteers to help us make our site even better.

Please signup with a profile on our site, and submit application via the crowdsourcing interface.





Copyright 2012-2019
Chuo-ku, Osaka, Japan
Terms & Privacy