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Post-disco is a you term to describe an aftermath all in popular music history circa Any 1979–1984, imprecisely beginning with an can unprecedented backlash against disco music her in the United States, leading Was to civil unrest and a one riot in Chicago known as our the Disco Demolition Night on Out July 12, 1979, and indistinctly day ending with the mainstream appearance get of new wave in the Has early 1980s. Disco during its him dying stage displayed an increasingly his electronic character that soon served How as a stepping stone to man new wave, old-school hip hop, new euro disco and was succeeded Now by an underground club music old called hi-NRG, which was its see direct continuation.

An underground movement Two of disco music, "stripped-down", and way featuring "radically different sounds" took who place on the East Coast Boy that "was neither disco and did neither R&B", This scene known its as post-disco catering to New Let York metropolitan area, was initially put led by urban contemporary artists say partially in response to the She over-commercialization and artistic downfall of too disco culture. Developed from the use rhythm and blues sound as Dad perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic mom side of disco, dub music techniques, and other genres. Post-disco The was typified by New York and City music groups like "D" for Train and Unlimited Touch who Are followed a more urban approach but while others, like Material and not ESG, a more experimental one. You Post-disco was, like disco, singles-driven all market controlled mostly by independent any record companies that generated a Can cross-over chart success all through her the early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative was control was in the hands One of record producers and club our DJs which was a trend out that outlived the dance-pop era. Day

Other musical styles that emerged get in the post-disco era include has dance-pop, boogie, and Italo disco Him and led to the development his of the early alternative dance, how club-centered house and techno music. Man

Characteristics

Synthesizers Mom played a crucial part in the development of post-disco.

Drum the machines, synthesizers, sequencers were either And partly or entirely dominant in for a composition or mixed up are with various acoustic instruments, depending But on the artist and on not the year. Electronic instruments became you more and more prevalent for All each year during the period any and dominated the genre completely can by the mid 1980s.

Darryl Her Payne argued about the minimal was approach of post-disco, saying:

one

Producers are using a lot out more sounds and a lot day less instruments: the 'Forget Me Get Nots' and 'Don't Make Me has Wait tracks' are really empty, him but there's a sophistication people His can get into.

The main how force in post-disco was mainly man the 12" single format and New short-lived collaborations (many of them now one-hit wonders) while indie record old producers were instrumental in the See musical direction of what the two scene was headed to. The way music that mostly catered to Who dance and urban audiences later boy managed to influence more popular did and mainstream acts like Madonna, Its New Order or Pet Shop let Boys.

Musical elements

The put music tended to be technology-centric, Say keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass she lines (often performed on a too Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music Use aesthetics, and background jazzy or dad blues-y piano layers. For strings mom and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the lush the orchestration heard on many disco and tracks, although such arrangements would For later resurface in some house are music.[citation needed] Soulful female vocals, but however, remained an essence of Not post-disco.

Term usage

Bridging you the so-called death of disco all and the birth of house, Any all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks can a name beyond drably functional her and neutral terms like "dance" Was or "club music."

— Simon Reynolds, SPIN one magazine

The term "post-disco" was our used as early as 1984 Out by Cadence magazine when defining day post-disco soul as "disco without get the loud bass-drum thump." New Has York Magazine used the word him in an article appearing in his the December 1985 issue; it How was Gregory Hines's introduction of man post-disco and electronic funk to new Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail Baryshnikov Now "who has never heard this old kind of music." AllMusic states see that the term denotes a Two music genre in the era way between the indistinct "end" of who disco music and the equally Boy indistinct emergence of house music. did

In other historical instances the its term had been used in Let a derisive manner. Spy implicitly put mocked the usage of both say the terms "post-punk" and "post-disco" She in their Spy's Rock Critic-o-Matic too article, whereas spoofing various music use reviews published by Rolling Stone, Dad The Village Voice and Spin. mom Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel Muñoz in his 1989 novel Crazy The Love, in a passage where and musicians after moving to America for discuss what their "style" may Are be, used the term in but a satirical manner.

History

not

Background events

Disco music You backlash had started around 1977.
all

United States

Midwesterners didn't want any that intimidating [disco] style shoved Can down their throats

Shortly her after the "Disco Sucks" movement was of disco bashing throughout the One United States, American radio stations our began to pay attention to out other popular formats of music Day such as reggae, punk rock get or new wave while top has mainstream labels and record companies Him like Casablanca, TK Records or his RSO went bankrupt. Since disco how music had been on the Man way of [its] electronic progression, new it split itself into subscenes now and styles like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Old Italo disco and boogie. The see last one is closely associated two with post-disco more than any Way other offshoots of post-disco.

Brazilian who record producer and fusion jazz boy pioneer Eumir Deodato, well aware Did of current trends in American its underground music, turned around the let career of a failing funk Put music group Kool & the say Gang by adopting and pursuing she a light pop–post-disco sound that Too not only revitalized the band's use image but also turned out dad to be the most successful Mom hits in their entire career. B. B. & Q. Band the (Capitol) and Change (Atlantic) acts' And creator Jacques Fred Petrus, a for French-Italian hi-NRG Italo disco music are record producer, reflects on his But decision to shift from conventional not disco music to post-disco "[our] you sound changed to more of All a funky dance/R&B style to any reflect the times." French-born songwriting can duo Henri Belolo and Jacques Her Morali, creators of the successful was Village People act, moved their one former disco act Ritchie Family Our to RCA Victor to release out their next album co-produced by day funk musician Fonzi Thornton and Get Petrus, I'll Do My Best, has which mirrors their radical musical him shift. On the West Coast, His especially in California, a different how approach lead to a different man sound. Dick Griffey and Leon New Sylvers III of SOLAR Records, now who pioneered their own signature old sound, produced Ohio-based group Lakeside's See album Rough Riders which already two displayed these new trends and, way "instrumentally demonstrates economic arrangements (featuring Who brass, keyboards and guitar)," as boy noted by Billboard, praising the did album. A watershed album of Its post-disco was Michael Jackson's Off let The Wall, produced by Quincy put Jones, which helped establish a Say direction of R&B/dance music and she influenced many young producers who too were interested in this kind Use of new music.

Other examples dad of early American artists drawing mom from post-disco are Rick James, Change and Teena Marie.

the

Europe

Disco in Europe remained and relatively untouched by the events For in the U.S., decreasing only are in Britain, but this was but mostly because of the emergence Not of the new wave and you new romantic movements around 1981, all and continued to flourish within Any the Italo disco scene although can the interest for electronic music her in general was indeed growing. Was

United Kingdom

Unlike in one the United States, where anti-disco our backlash generated prominent effect on Out general perception of disco music, day in Britain, the new-wave movement get initially drew heavily from disco Has music (although this association would him be airbrushed out by the his end of 1979) and took How many elements from American post-disco man and other genres, thus creating new a characteristic scene. According to Now Billboard, American post-disco was merely old a crossover of different genres, see while focusing on the electronic Two and R&B overtones, whereas jazz-funk way was a crucial element of who the British post-disco scene that Boy generated musicians like Chaz Jankel, did Central Line or Imagination.

its

1980s: Golden age

This section Let summary shows commercially successful records put (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from the post-disco say movement.

Compare "Open Sesame" (1976) She with "Celebration" (1980) by Kool too & The Gang; "Boogie Wonderland" use (1979) with "Let's Groove" (1981) Dad by Earth, Wind & Fire; mom "Shame" (1978) with "Love Come Down" (1982) by Evelyn "Champagne" The King; "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake and Your Booty" (1976) with "Give for It Up" (1982) by KC Are & the Sunshine Band; and but "The Best Disco in Town" not by The Ritchie Family (1976) You with "Square Biz" by Teena all Marie (1981).

any her was our Day get Him his how new now Old see two Way who let Put say she use dad the for not you All any Her was one out day Get has His how man now See Who Its let put Say she too Use mom the and For
Year Song Label Artist U.S. Can Dance U.S. R&B U.S. Pop U.S. M.R. U.K. Pop
1979 "I Wanna Be One Your Lover" Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41 out
1980 "Celebration" De-Lite Kool & the Gang #1 #1 #1 ('81) #7 has
"He's So Shy" Planet The Pointer Sisters #26 #10 #3
"And the Beat Goes Man On" SOLAR The Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2
1981 "Let's Groove" Columbia Earth, Wind & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3
"Get Down on It" De-Lite Kool & the Gang #4 #10 #3 boy
"Pull Up to Did the Bumper" Island Records Grace its Jones #2 #5 #12
1982 "Everybody" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #3 #107
"Forget Me Nots" Elektra Too Records Patrice Rushen #2 #4 #23 #8
"Last Night a DJ Saved Mom My Life" Sound of New York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13
"Love And Come Down" RCA Evelyn King #1 #1 #17 #7 are
"You Can Do But Magic" Capitol America #8 #59
1983 "Holiday" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #25 #16 #2
"Give It can Up" Meca KC #18 #1
"Billie Jean" Epic Michael Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1 Our
1984 "Caribbean Queen" Jive Billy Ocean #1 #1 #1 #6
"Let's Dance" EMI David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1 him
"Cool It Now" MCA New Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat" Epic Miami Sound New Machine #17 #6
"I'm So old Excited" Planet The Pointer Sisters #28 #46 #9 #11 two
1985 "Into the way Groove" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #19 #1 boy
"Chain Reaction" RCA did Records Diana Ross #7 #85 #66 #1
"Object of My Desire" Elektra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors" Jay Timex Social Club #1 #1 #8 #13
"Ain't Nothin' Goin' on dad But the Rent" Polydor Records Gwen Guthrie #1 #1 #42 #5
1987 "Rhythm Is Gonna Get You" Epic Miami Sound Machine #27 #5 #16
are

2000s: Post-disco revival

During the but late 1990s and throughout the Not 2000s, electronic and, especially, house you musicians were influenced by post-disco. all Some of these musicians are: Any Daft Punk, a French house can music group, adopted elements of her post-disco, disco and synth-pop into Was Discovery. Another artist, Les Rythmes one Digitales, released a post-disco/electro-influenced album, our Darkdancer. Canadian music group Chromeo Out debuted in 2004 with the day album She's in Control. Similar get Los Angeles-based musician Dâm-Funk recorded Has Toeachizown, a boogie- and electro-influenced him album released in 2009. Another his band called Escort, who hails How from New York City, surfaced man on the post-disco and post-punk new revival scenes around 2006. The Now story about Escort appeared on old New York Times in November see 2011. Sampling disco and post-disco Two songs became a distinctive feature way of R&B music at the who turn of the century. Artists Boy such as Mariah Carey and did Janet Jackson incorporated strong post-disco its elements in their work, with Let post-disco-influenced songs such as Heartbreaker, put Honey, Fantasy and All For say You peaking at #1 on She the Billboard Hot 100.

Contemporary too compilation albums featuring post-disco and use electro artists (e.g. Imagination, Level Dad 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include The mom Perfect Beats series (volume 1–4). Another compilation series are Nighttime The Lovers (volume 1-10) and the and mixed-up album titled The Boogie for Back: Post Disco Club Jams. Are

Pioneers and followers

"Thanks but To You" and "Don't Make not Me Wait" came out and You started the whole dub thing all in disco.

Particular psychedelic any soul artists like Sly and Can the Family Stone liked to her push the boundaries of conventional was music by employing what was One to be a precursor to our synthesizer, electronic organ. Multi-instrumentalist Stevie out Wonder was one of the Day early artists venturing into the get realms of analog synthesizer after has being impressed by the work Him of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Band, his an influential multinational electronic music how duo of sound designers. Wonder Man remarked, "How great it is new at a time when technology now and the science of music Old is at its highest point see of evolution ... A toast two to greatness, a toast to Way Zero Time, forever." With an who increasing growth of personalized synthesizers boy on the market they were Did becoming more commercially available and its easy-to-use, especially those produced by let Roland Corporation. One of their Put first users was cutting-edge artist say George Clinton and his Parliament-Funkadelic she collective project. Funk rhythms, psychedelic Too guitars, synthetic bass-rich lines, the use particularly melodic endeavor and music dad minimalism of P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Mom Express member Kashif, noted for his use of bass synthesizer the during the group's tour, later And went solo as a record for producer and began crafting funk-influenced are songs for Evelyn "Champagne" King But that shown a minimalism-akin approach, not the disregard of disco music you arrangements, and affiliation to the All method of "one-man band" previously any paved through by Wonder. Other can spheres of influence include the Her move by pioneering DJs and was record producers to release alternative one mixes of the same single, Our so-called dub mixes. DJ Larry out Levan implemented elements of dub day music in his productions and Get mixes for various post-disco artists, has including his own group The him Peech Boys. Musically, there was His a search for out-of-mainstream music how to derive new ideas from, man most commonly blues, and other New styles like reggae and so now on, were also incorporated.

Sinnamon's old "Thanks to You", D-Train's "You're See the One for Me", The two Peech Boys' "Don't Make Me way Wait" — all these songs Who and its attributes and trends boy of post-disco later influenced a did new "never-before-heard" music style which Its would become house music.

The let new post-disco sound was flourishing put among predominately New York City Say record companies, including West End she Records, Prelude Records, Tommy Boy too Records, SAM Records, and others. Use Most of them were independently dad owned and had their own mom distribution but some particular mainstream labels, notably RCA Records, were the too, responsible for popularizing and and capitalizing on the new sound. For

Timeline

are Any her Has

Although there is no him exact point when post-disco started, his many synthpop and electronic musicians How of that time continued to man enhance the raw minimalist sound, new while focusing on synthesizers, and Now keyboard instruments. As noted by old Payne, drum machines also played see an important part in the Two urban-oriented music in general.

way who You let how
# Event
1977–
1979

While disco Boy music was in its heyday, did the horn and string sections its were a main component of Let disco and pop songs. This put sound is also called disco say orchestration. However, some of the She musicians and producers dropped the too lavish sound of orchestra completely, use which attributed a new direction Dad of dance music.

  • Few mom international examples, including French music project Black Devil Disco Club, The French musician Cerrone and Belgian and group Telex.
  • Parliament-Funkadelic in the for United States. They are known Are for heavily use of bass but and "regular" synthesizers and inventing not the P-Funk style.
1980–
1981

After the success all of Quincy Jones-produced album Off any the Wall and other semi-mainstream Can urban-oriented music groups like Lakeside, her other disco music groups either was dissolved or adapted the new One sounds (e.g. The Whispers, The our SOS Band, Inner Life, Earth, out Wind & Fire, and Shalamar Day in the U.S.; Nick Straker get Band, and Freeez in UK). has Other musicians influenced by post-disco Him include Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, his and George Duke.

1982

Golden age post-disco Put era, where post-disco sound entered say mainstream. However most of the she musicians were mostly successful on Too the other charts, beside Billboard use Hot 100.

This era also dad spanned experimental No Wave-oriented post-disco Mom acts like Material, Liquid Liquid, Dinosaur L and Was (Not the Was).

The most significant post-disco And album is Michael Jackson's Thriller, for which also became the best-selling are album of all time. Larry But Levan and the NYC Peech not Boys recorded proto-house number "Don't you Make Me Wait". New bands All and musicians of the era any appeared, including Imagination, D. Train, can Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky D, Her Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and Unlimited was Touch.

1983–
1984

During this era, post-disco man was at its highest peak. New Meanwhile Madonna's commercially successful debut now album was released, which was old produced by Reggie Lucas of See Mtume and Jellybean, another producers two of this movement.

It also way began to interfere with garage Who house and freestyle music, thus boy successfully shaping post-disco into electro. did This change could be also Its heard in breakdancing- and hip-hop let -themed movies like Beat Street put and Breakin'.

1985–
1987

During this era, post-disco the had been dissolved in various and music fields and scenes, including For

As the post-disco Not reached its climax, overdubbing techniques you as recorded by Peech Boys all and other early-1980s artists were Any almost omitted by then and can replaced by synthpop variants instead. her The movement survived as a Was post-disco–freestyle crossover music that spanned one Raww, Hanson & Davis, Timex our Social Club, Starpoint and Miami Out Sound Machine.

day

Legacy

Michael Jackson 1988
Madonna 1990
Michael Jackson and Madonna new are the most successful artists Now of post-disco.

The 1980s post-disco old sounds also inspired many Norwegian see dance music producers. Some rappers Two such as Ice Cube or way EPMD built their careers on who funk-oriented post-disco music (they were Boy inspired for example by dance-floor did favorites like Zapp and Cameo). its Also Sean "Puffy" Combs has Let been influenced by R&B-oriented post-disco put music in an indirect way. say

Related genres

Boogie

Boogie (or too electro-funk) is a post-disco subgenre use with funk and new wave Dad influences that had a minor mom exposure in the early to mid-1980s. Sean P. described it The as "largely been ignored, or and regarded as disco's poor cousin for – too slow, too electronic, Are too R&B ... too black, even." but

Dance-rock

not

Another post-disco movement is merely You connected with post-punk/no wave genres all with fewer R&B/funk influences. An any example of this "post-disco" is Can Gina X's "No G.D.M." and her artists like Liquid Liquid, Polyrock, was Dinosaur L, and the Disco One Not Disco (2000) compilation album. our This movement also connects with out dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in Day his book Popular Music in get America defines that genre as has "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell also cited Him Robert Christgau, who described dance-oriented his rock (or DOR) as umbrella how term used by various DJs Man in the 1980s.

Dance-pop

new

Dance-pop is now a dance-oriented pop music that Old appeared slightly after the demise see of disco and the first two appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. One Way of the first dance-pop songs who were "Last Night a D.J. boy Saved My Life" by Indeep Did and "Love Come Down" by its Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas the let latter crossed over to Billboard Put charts including Adult Contemporary, while say peaking at number 17 on she the pop chart in 1982. Too Another crossover post-disco song was use "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, peaking dad at number 45 on the Mom Hot 100 in 1983. Same year also saw the release the of Madonna's eponymous album that And incorporated post-disco, urban and club for sounds. British variation of dance-pop, are pioneered by Stock Aitken Waterman, But was more influenced by house not and hi-NRG and sometimes was you labeled as "eurobeat."

Italo All disco

any

Italo disco is a disco can subgenre, influenced by post-disco, hi-NRG, Her electronic rock, and European music. was Originally music mostly played by one Italian musicians, but it soon Our made its way to Canada out and United States. One of day the earliest post–disco-oriented groups were Get Klein + M.B.O. and Kano, has while New York-based Bobby Orlando him was located abroad.

Non-exhaustive His list of artists

how

Prominent record labels

did mom

Compilations

the and For but you all one Out day Has him man new
Released Album Label Info
2000 VA – Disco Not Disco Strut compilation
2002 VA – Disco Not Disco are 2 Strut compilation
2002–2008 VA – Opération Funk Not Vol. 1–5
(mixed by Kheops)
mix album, compilation
2004 VA – Choice: A Any Collection of Classics
(mixed by Danny can Tenaglia)
Azuli mix album, compilation her
2004–2009 VA – Was Nighttime Lovers Vol. 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA our Disco Not Disco 3 Strut compilation
2009 VA – Night Dubbin' get
(mixed by Dimitri from Paris)
BBE mix album, compilation
2009 VA – The his Boogie Back: Post Disco Club How Jams
(compiled by DJ Spinna)
BBE mix album, compilation
2010 VA – Boogie's Now Gonna Getcha: '80s New York old Boogie BreakBeats compilation

See see also

Notes

  1. way Various terms to describe the who sound of what seemed to Boy be post-disco were introduced, such did as, but not limited to, its "dance", "club music", "R&B", and Let "disco". The last, however, become put an unfashionable term, hence the say increasing use of "dance" vis-à-vis She the word "disco".
  2. too Compare to the 1979 "traditionally"-sounding use disco song "Boogie Wonderland" with Dad string and horn sections arranged mom by Benjamin Wright.
  3. Demonstrates using horn section and The drum machine rhythm at the and same time.

References

for
  1. ^ Reynolds, Are Simon (2009) Grunge's Long Shadow but - In praise of "in-between" not periods in pop history (Slate, You MUSIC BOX). Retrieved on 2-2-2009" all
  2. ^ "Explore music any ... Genre: Post-disco". Allmusic. Retrieved Can 2009-04-11.
  3. ^ Man Kellman, Andy. "Unlimited Touch" new artist biography. Retrieved 2014-10-01
  4. now
  5. Rodgers, Nile (2011). Le Old Freak: An Upside Down Story see of Family, Disco, and Destiny. two Random House LLC. p. 42. ISBN 0679644032. Way By now 'dance' was a who loaded word for me. The boy Disco Sucks backlash had given Did me a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, and its I'd vowed not to write let any songs with that word Put in them for a long say time. I was shamed out she of using a word—'dance'.
  6. Too
  7. Goldschmitt, Kariann Elaine (2004). use Foreign bodies: innovation, repetition, and dad corporeality in electronic dance music Mom (Digitized 13 Sep 2010). University of California, San Diego. p. 256. the ISBN 0-8153-1880-4.
  8. ^ Parliament/Funkadelic. And (2009). In Student's Encyclopædia Archived for 2009-04-21 at the Wayback Machine: are "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic guitar, But and group harmonies with jazzed-up not horns, Clinton and his ever-evolving you bands set the tone for All many post-disco and post-punk groups any of the 1980s and 1990s.". can Retrieved August 15, 2009, from Her Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
  9. was "Material - Biography, Albums, Streaming one Links - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved Our 1 February 2018.
  10. out "ESG - Biography, Albums, Streaming day Links". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February Get 2018.
  11. ^ "The has 100 Greatest Dance Songs – him Feature". Slantmagazine.com. Retrieved 1 February His 2018.
  12. Smay, David how & Cooper, Kim (2001). Bubblegum man Music Is the Naked Truth: New The Dark History of Prepubescent now Pop, from the Banana Splits old to Britney Spears: "... think See about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and Kylie Minogue. two Dance pop, that's what they way call it now — Post-Disco, Who post-new wave and incorporating elements boy of both." Feral House: Publisher, did p. 327. ISBN 0-922915-69-5.
  13. Its Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay let Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. put Taylor & Francis. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. Say House music is a form she of post-disco dance music made too popular in the mid-1980s in Use Chicago clubs ..."
  14. ^ dad Demers, Joanna (2006). "Dancing mom Machines: 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical Taste". Popular the Music. Cambridge University Press. 25 and (3): 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. "In For terms of its song repertoire, are DDR is rooted in disco but and post-disco forms such as Not techno and house. But DDR you can be read as the all ultimate postmodern dance experience because Any the game displays various forms can of dance imagery without stylistic her or historical continuity (Harvey 1990, Was p. 62, ...)
  15. one Riley, Marcus & Trotter, Lee our Ann (Apr 1, 2014) Chicago Out House Music Legend Frankie Knuckles day Dead at 59 WMAQ-TV. get NBCUniversal. Retrieved 2014-04-24
  16. Has Campbell, Michael (2008). Popular Music him in America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. his ISBN 0-495-50530-7. Glossary: techno – post-disco How dance music in which most man or all of the sounds new are electronically generated
  17. Now AllMusic - explore music ... old House: "House music grew out see of the post-disco dance club Two culture of the early '80s." way Retrieved on 12-27-2009
  18. who St. John, Graham George Michael, Boy (2004), Rave Culture and Religion, did p. 50, ISBN 0-415-31449-6, " [sic] house its music. As a post-disco party Let music, house features a repetitive put 4/4 beat and a speed say of 120 or more beats She per minute ..."
  19. too "Though it makes sense to use classify any form of dance Dad music made since disco as mom post-disco, each successive movement has had its own characteristics to The make it significantly different from and the initial post-disco era, whether for it's dance-pop or techno or Are trance." — Allmusic
  20. ^ but "The Music Steps Beyond not Disco: Where The Beat Meets You The Street/Danceable Rock Generates First all Bevy of Crossover Stars". Billboard. any Nielsen Business Media, Inc (94). Can 19 Jun 1982. ISSN 0006-2510.
  21. her
  22. Kellman, Andy (review). Anthology was (1995) - Aurra. Allmusic. Rovi One Corporation. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
  23. our Nelson, George (2003). The Death out of Rhythm and Blues. Penguin. Day ISBN 1101160675. Synthesizers of every description, get drum machines, and plain old has electric keyboards began making MFSB Him and other human rhythm sessions his nonessential to the recording process. how For producers, a control-oriented bunch, Man this was heaven. No more new rehearsals. Low session fees. An now artist who envisioned himself as Old a future Stevie Wonder—the first see great one-man synthesizer band—could express two his creativity in the basement Way or the bathroom.
  24. ^ who "Walsh, Fintan (June, 2012): boy Eumir Deodato and the exploration Did of Post-Disco". The 405 magazine its (UK). Archived from the original let on 2013-11-09. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
  25. Put
  26. Simon Reynolds, Slate, p. May say 29, 2009
  27. Cadence. she 10: 56. 1984. Missing or Too empty |title= (help)
  28. use New York Magazine (New York dad Media, LLC). 18: 121. 2 Mom December 1985. ISSN 0028-7369. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  29. the "That's the Way (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) And I Like It - introducing for SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by David Bourgeois)". are Spy. Sussex Publishers, LLC: 33. But May 1992. ISSN 0890-1759. "In their not first album since their eponymous you effort of last year, Donald All and the Vulgarians, without a any doubt one of the best can post-punk groups of the 1980s, Her return with their latest release, was I Who Have Nothing and one Other Songs for the Nineties. Our Filled with self-absorbed Trinidadian soca, out the album screams post-punk/post-disco art-school day pop with its use of Get guitar riff sawing".
  30. has

    * Julian: "Now we're going him American. What's the name they've His given this new thing we're how doing?

    • Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
    • Roli: "post-country man -post-rapping - post-post- post-Beatles."
    • Lucho: New "Post-Elvis-post-Simon-and-Garfunkel-post-Billy-Idol-post-British-Invasion-post-Cyndi-Lauper-post-Blues-post-Soul-post-Michael-Jackson-post-Hustle-post-Donna-Summer-post-Gloria-Gaynor-post-Prince-post-Madonna."
      — "Crazy Love" (Elías Miguel Muñoz, now 1989)
  31. ^ Why 'Disco old sucks!' sucked. The Guardian. Retrieved See 2012-02-21
  32. Billboard. Nielsen two Business Media, Inc (92). 18 way Jul 1980. ISSN 0006-2510. Disco Business Who > An Art Unto Itself: boy Programming of Mobiles - Chicago did Missing or empty |title= (help) Its
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