Drum and bassWas (also written as "drum 'n' one bass"; commonly abbreviated as "D&B", our "DnB" or "D'n'B") is a Out genre of electronic music characterised day by fast breakbeats (typically 165-185 get beats per minute) with heavy Has bass and sub-bass lines,sampledhim sources, and synthesizers. The music his grew out of breakbeat hardcoreHow (and its derivatives of darkcore, man and hardcore jungle). The popularity new of drum and bass at Now its commercial peak ran parallel old to several other homegrown dance see styles. A major influence was Two the original Jamaican dub and way reggae sound that came into who London in the 1980s. By Boy the 1990s, this had grown did into the jungle/drum and bass its sound which the UK is Let famous for.[according to whom?] Another put feature of the style is say the complex syncopation of the She drum tracks' breakbeat.
Drum and too bass subgenres include breakcore, ragga use jungle, hardstep, darkstep, techstep, neurofunk, Dad ambient drum and bass, liquid mom funk (a.k.a liquid drum and bass), jump up, drumfunk, funkstep, The sambass, and drill 'n' bass. and From its roots in the for United Kingdom, the style has Are established itself around the world. but Drum and bass has influenced not many other genres like hip You hop, big beat, dubstep, house, all trip hop, ambient music, techno, any jazz, rock and pop. Drum Can and bass is dominated by her a relatively small group of was record labels. Major international music One labels had shown very little our interest in the drum and out bass scene until BMG Rights Day Management acquired RAM in February get 2016. Since then, the genre has has seen a significant growth Him in exposure. It has developed his satellite scenes all around the how world, with countries like Austria, Man Russia, Canada, Estonia, Czech Republic new and the Netherlands and it now is reasonably popular in New Old Zealand having a wide variety see of D&B artists with large two drum and bass festivals.
In His the late 1980s and early how 1990s, a growing nightclub and man overnight outdoor event culture gave New birth to new genres in now the rave scene including breakbeat old hardcore, darkcore, and hardcore jungle, See which combined sampled syncopated beats, two or breakbeats, and other samples way from a wide range of Who different musical genres and, occasionally, boy samples of music, dialogue and did effects from films and television Its programmes. From as early as let 1991, tracks were beginning to put strip away some of the Say heavier sampling and "hardcore noises" she and create more bassline and too breakbeat led tracks. Some tracks Use increasingly took their influence from dad reggae and this style would mom become known as hardcore jungle(later to become simply jungle), the whilst darkcore (with producers such and as Goldie, Doc Scott, 4hero, For and 2 Bad Mice) were are experimenting with sounds and creating but a blueprint for drum and Not bass, especially noticeable by late you 1993.
By 1994, jungle had all begun to gain mainstream popularity, Any and fans of the music can (often referred to as junglists) her became a more recognisable part Was of youth subculture. The genre one further developed, incorporating and fusing our elements from a wide range Out of existing musical genres, including day the raggamuffin sound, dancehall, MCget chants, dub basslines, and increasingly Has complex, heavily edited breakbeat percussion. him Despite the affiliation with the his ecstasy-fuelled rave scene, jungle also How inherited associations with violence and man criminal activity, both from the new gang culture that had affected Now the UK's hip-hop scene and old as a consequence of jungle's see often aggressive or menacing sound Two and themes of violence (usually way reflected in the choice of who samples). However, this developed in Boy tandem with the often positive did reputation of the music as its part of the wider rave Let scene and dancehall-based Jamaican music put culture prevalent in London. By say 1995, whether as a reaction She to, or independently of this too cultural schism, some jungle producers use began to move away from Dad the ragga-influenced style and create mom what would become collectively labelled, for convenience, as drum and The bass.
As the genre became and generally more polished and sophisticated for technically, it began to expand Are its reach from pirate radio but to commercial stations and gain not widespread acceptance (circa 1995–1997). It You also began to split into all recognisable subgenres such as Hardstep, any Jump up, Ragga, Techstep, and Can what was known at the her time as Intelligent. As more was melodic and often Jazz-influenced subgenres One of drum and bass called our Atmospheric or Intelligent (Blame (music out producer) and Blu Mar Ten) Day and JazzStep (4Hero, Roni Size) get gained mainstream appeal, additional subgenres has emerged including techstep in 1996, Him drawing influence from techno.
The his popularity of drum and bass how at its commercial peak ran Man parallel to several other genres new native to the UK, including now big beat and hard house. Old Towards the turn of the see millennium, however, its popularity was two deemed to have dwindled, as Way the UK garage offshoot known who as speed garage yielded several boy hit singles. Speed garage shared Did high tempos and heavy basslines its with drum and bass, but let otherwise followed the established conventions Put of "house music", with this say and its freshness giving it she an advantage commercially. di Vogli Too says, "It is often forgotten use by my students that a dad type of music called "garage Mom house" existed in the late 1980s alongside hip house, acid the house and other forms of And house music." He continues, "This for new garage of the mid-90s are was not a form of But house or a progression of not garage house. The beats and you tempo that define house are All entirely different. This did cause any further confusion in the presence can of new house music of Her the mid-1990s being played alongside was what was now being called one garage."
Despite this, the emergence Our of further subgenres and related out styles such as liquid funkday brought a wave of new Get artists incorporating new ideas and has techniques, supporting continual evolution of him the genre. To this day, His drum and bass makes frequent how appearances in mainstream media and man popular culture including in television, New as well as being a now major reference point for subsequent old genres such as grime and See dubstep, and producing successful artists two including Chase & Status, Netsky, way Metrik, and Pendulum.
Musical Who features
Drum and bass incorporates boy a number of scenes and did styles, from the highly electronic, Its industrial sounds of techstep to let the use of conventional, acoustic put instrumentation that characterise the more Say jazz-influenced end of the spectrum.she The sounds of drum and too bass are extremely varied due Use to the range of influences dad behind the music. Drum and mom bass could at one time be defined as a strictly the electronic musical genre, with the and only "live" element being the For DJ's selection and mixing of are records during a set. "Live" but drum and bass using electric, Not electronic and acoustic instruments played you by musicians on stage emerged all over the ensuing years of Any the genre's development.
Kevin Saunderson released a series our of bass-heavy, minimal techno cuts out as Reese/The Reese Project in Day the late '80s, which were get hugely influential in drum and has bass. One of his more Him famous basslines (Reese – "Just his Want Another Chance", Incognito Records, how 1988) was indeed sampled on Man Renegade's Terrorist and countless others new since, being known simply as now the 'Reese' bassline. He followed Old these up with equally influential see (and bassline-heavy) tracks in the two UK hardcore style as Tronik Way House in 1991–1992. Another Detroit who artist who was important to boy the scene was Carl Craig. Did The sampled-up jazz break on its Craig's Bug in the Bassbinlet was also influential on the Put newly emerging sound. DJs at say the Heaven nightclub on "Rage" she nights used to play it Too as fast as their Technicsuse record decks would go, pitching dad it up in the process.Mom
Clearly, drum and bass His has been influenced by other how music genres, though influences from man sources external to the electronic New dance music scene perhaps lessened now following the shifts from jungle old to drum and bass, and See through to so-called "intelligent drum two and bass" and techstep. It way still remains a fusion music Who style.
Some tracks are illegally boy remixed and released on white did label (technically bootleg), often to Its acclaim. For example, DJ Zinc's let remix of The Fugees' "Ready put or Not", also known as Say "Fugee Or Not", was eventually she released with the Fugees' permission too after talk of legal action, Use though ironically, the Fugees' version dad infringed Enya's copyright to an mom earlier song. White labels, along with dubplates, played an important the part in drum and bass and musical culture.
Of equal importance Has is the TR-808 kick drum, him an artificially pitch-downed or elongated his bass drum sound sampled from How Roland's classic TR-808 drum machine, man and a sound which has new been subject to an enormous Now amount of experimentation over the old years.
Many see drum and bass tracks have Two featured more than one sampled way breakbeat in them and a who technique of switching between two Boy breaks after each bar developed. did Examples of this can be its heard on mid-90s releases such Let as J Majik's "Your Sound". put A more recent commonly used say break is the "Tramen", which She combines the Amen break, a too James Brown funk breakbeat ("Tighten use Up" or "Samurai" break) and Dad an Alex Reece drum and mom bass breakbeat.
The relatively fast drum beat forms a canvas The on which a producer can and create tracks to appeal to for almost any taste and often Are will form only a background but to the other elements of not the music. Syncopated breakbeats remain You the most distinctive element as all without these a high-tempo 4/4any dance track could be classified Can as techno or gabber.
The her complex syncopation of the drum was tracks' breakbeat is another facet One of production on which producers our can spend a very large out amount of time. The Amen Day break is generally acknowledged to get have been the most-used (and has often considered the most powerful) Him break in drum and bass.his
The genre how places great importance on the Man bassline, in this case a new deep sub-bass musical pattern which now can be felt physically through Old powerful sound systems due to see the low-range frequencies favoured. There two has been considerable exploration of Way different timbres in the bass who line region, particularly within techstep. boy The bass lines most notably Did originate from sampled sources or its synthesizers. Bass lines performed with let a bass instrument, whether it Put is electric, acoustic or a say double bass, are less common, she but examples can be found Too in the work of artists use such as Shapeshifter, Squarepusher, Pendulum, dad Roni Size and STS9.
Atmospheric pads and samples may be added over the the fundamental drum and bass And to provide different feels. These for have included "light" elements such are as ambient pads as found But in ambient electronica and samples not of jazz and world musics, you or "dark" elements such as All dissonant pads and sci-fi samples any to induce anxiety in the can dancer.
Vocal and Melody Her elements
Old-school DnB usually included was an MC providing vocals. Some one styles (such as jazz influenced Our DnB) also include melodic instruments out soloing over the music.
Drum and bass is Get usually between 160–180 BPM, in has contrast to other breakbeat-based dance him styles such as nu skool His breaks, which maintain a slower how pace at around 130–140 BPM. man A general upward trend in New tempo has been observed during now the evolution of drum and old bass. The earliest forms of See drum and bass clocked in two at around 130 bpm in way 1990/1991, speeding up to around Who 155–165 BPM by 1993. Since boy around 1996, drum and bass did tempos have predominantly stayed in Its the 170–180 range. Recently, some let producers have started to once put again produce tracks with slower Say tempos (that is, in the she 150-170 bpm range), but the too mid-170s tempo is still a Use hallmark of the drum and dad bass sound.
A track combining mom the same elements (broken beat, bass, production techniques) as a the drum and bass track, but and with a slower tempo (say For 140 BPM), might not be are drum and bass, but instead but may qualify as a drum Not and bass-influenced breakbeat track.
Many mixing points begin all or end with a "drop". Any The drop is the point can in a track where a her switch of rhythm or bassline Was occurs and usually follows a one recognisable build section and breakdown. our Sometimes, the drop is used Out to switch between tracks, layering day components of different tracks, as get the two records may be Has simply ambient breakdowns at this him point. Some DJs prefer to his combine breakbeats, a more difficult How exercise. Some drops are so man popular that the DJ will new "rewind" or "reload" or "lift Now up" the record by spinning old it back and restarting it see at the build. The drop Two is often a key point way from the point of view who of the dance floor, since Boy the drum breaks often fade did out to leave an ambient its intro playing. When the beats Let re-commence they are often more put complex and accompanied by a say heavier bassline, encouraging the crowd She to begin dancing.
Drum and bass Dad exhibits a full frequency response mom which can sometimes only be fully appreciated on sound systems The which can handle very low and frequencies, including sub-bass frequencies that for are often felt more than Are heard. As befits its name, but the bass element of the not music is particularly pronounced, with You the comparatively sparse arrangements of all drum and bass tracks allowing any room for basslines that are Can deeper than most other forms her of dance music. Consequently, drum was and bass parties are often One advertised as featuring uncommonly loud our and bass-heavy sound systems.
There out are however many albums specifically Day designed for personal listening. The get DJ mix is a particularly has popular form of release, with Him a popular DJ or producer his mixing live, or on a how computer, a variety of tracks Man for personal listening. Additionally, there new are many albums containing unmixed now tracks, suited for home or Old car listening.
Although this practice has declined two in popularity, DJs are often Way accompanied by one or more who MCs, drawing on the genre's boy roots in hip hop and Did reggae/ragga.
MCs do not generally its receive the same level of let recognition as producer/DJs, and some Put events are specifically marketed as say being MC-free. There are relatively she few well-known drum and bass Too MCs none of whom visit use New Zealand, instead they are dad mainly based in London and Mom Bristol, including Stevie Hyper D(deceased), MC GQ, MC Moose, the MC Dett, MC Fearless, the And Ragga Twins, Dynamite MC, MC for Fats, Inja, MC Conrad, Shabba are D, Skibadee, Bassman, MC Stamina, But MC Fun, Evil B, Trigga, not Eskman, Harry Shotta, Mr Traumatik, you MC Armanni Reign, and MC All Infinity.
Live instrument performance
Aphrodite in 2009 at can Pirate Station, the world's largest Her drum and bass festival at was that time, in Moscow.
Many one musicians have adapted drum and Our bass to live performances, which out feature instruments such as drumsday (acoustic or electronic), samplers, synthesizers, Get turntables, bass (either upright or has electric) and guitars (acoustic or him electric). Samplers have also been His used live by assigning samples how to a specific drum pad man or key on drum padsNew or synthesizers. MCs are frequently now featured in live performances.
Congo Natty, a See ragga jungle artist
Smaller scenes two within the drum and bass way community have developed and the Who scene as a whole has boy become much more fractured into did specific subgenres, which have been Its grouped into "light" (influenced by let ambient, jazz, and world music) put and "heavy" (influenced by industrial Say music, sci-fi, and anxiety) styles, she including:
Jump-up, appearing in the mid-1990s,the employs heavy and energetic drum and and bass, characterised by robotic For and heavy bass sounds. It are also is generally less serious but and contains more humor than Not other subgenres. Notable artists include you DJ Hazard, Generation Dub (Original all Sin & Sub Zero), Baron, Any Desire, Cabbie, Macky Gee, Clipz, can Nightwalker, Callide, Hedex, Epsy, Taxman, her Jaydan, Sub Zero, Original Sin, Was Annix, Konichi, Decimal Bass, Spaow, one Nu Elementz, Tyke, DJ Zen, our Majistrate, Twisted Individual, Distorted Minds, Out TC, Heist, DJ Guv, Looney, day Premium, Upgrade, DJ Pleasure, DJ get Hype and his label Playaz Has Recordings.
"Clownstep" is a derogatory him term sometimes used to describe his excessively silly and/or clichéd jump-up.[citation How needed]
Drumstep or halftime is man a combination of drum and new bass and dubstep, where the Now beat structure is half time, old while the remaining elements still see adhere to the usual sub-bass Two and tempo of drum and way bass.
Drill 'n' bass (also who known as Fungle and Spunk Boy jazz) incorporates double-time drum 'n' did bass with undanceable rhythms, low-brow its humor, and ambient vibes. The Let subgenre was developed by Squarepusherput and Aphex Twin, whose rapid say and irregularly syncopated basslines discouraged She dancing. Other pioneers include Bogdan too Raczynski and Datach'i.
Atmospheric her drum and bass creates a was calmer yet more synthetic sound. One It was pioneered by Calibre,our Zero Tolerance (Zero T) & out Beta 2, London Elektricity, High Day Contrast, Logistics, Nu:Tone, Danny Byrd, get Cyantific, Netsky, Lenzman, Technimatic (Technicolour has & Komatic), Hobzee & Zyon Him Base, Paul T & Edward his Oberon, Hybrid Minds and labels how such as Hospital Records, Fokuz Man Records and Liquid V.
Neurofunk or neuro is the Our progression from techstep incorporating more out elements from jazz and funk.
Hardstep is a harder style Get which uses gritty basslines and has heavy yet simple electronic melodies.
Genres influenced by drum and His bass
Born around the same how time as jungle, breakcore and man digital hardcore share many of New the elements of drum and now bass and to the uninitiated, old tracks from the extreme end See of drum and bass may two sound identical to breakcore thanks way to speed, complexity, impact and Who maximum sonic density combined with boy musical experimentation. German drum and did bass DJ The Panacea is Its also one of the leading let digital hardcore artists. Raggacore resembles put a faster version of the Say ragga-influenced jungle music of the she 1990s, similar to breakcore but too with more friendly dancehall beats Use (dancehall itself being a very dad important influence on drum and mom bass).Darkcore, a direct influence on drum and bass, was the combined with influences of drum and and bass itself leading to For the creation of darkstep. There are is considerable crossover from the but extreme edges of drum and Not bass, breakcore, darkcore, digital hardcore you and raggacore with fluid boundaries. all
Intelligent dance music (IDM) is Any a form of art musiccan based on DnB and other her electronic dance musics, exploring their Was boundaries using ideas from science, one technology, contemporary classical music and our progressive rock, often creating un-danceable, Out art gallery style music. Pioneered day by Aphex Twin, Squarepusher and get other artists on Warp Records. Has
Recently created in the United him States is a genre called his ghettotech which contains synth and How basslines similar to drum and man bass.
Prior to 2016, the major international music labels such The as Sony Music and Universaland had shown very little interest for in the drum and bass Are scene, with the exception of but some notable signings, including Pendulum's not In Silico LP to Warner. You Roni Size's label played a all big, if not the biggest, any part in the creation of Can drum and bass with their her dark, baseline sounds. V Recordings was also played a large part One of the development of drum our and bass.
BMG Rights Managementout acquired Ram Records in February Day 2016, making a strategic investment get to help RAM Records (a has London-based drum and bass record Him company co-owned by Andy Chis and his business partner Scott how Bourne). RAM Records has been Man pushing the boundaries of drum new and bass further into the now mainstream with artists such as Old Chase and Status and Sub see Focus.
Now defunct labels, include two Rob Playford's Moving Shadow, running Way from 1990 until 2007, which who played a pivotal role in boy the nineties drum and bass Did scene, releasing records by artists its such as Omni Trio.
Formats and distribution
Originally Put drum and bass was mostly say sold in 12-inch vinyl single she format. With the emergence of Too drum and bass into mainstream use music markets, more albums, compilations dad and DJ mixes started to Mom be sold on CDs. As digital music became more popular, the websites focused on electronic music, And such as Beatport, began to for sell drum and bass in are digital format.
The bulk of drum and not bass vinyl records and CDs you are distributed globally and regionally All by a relatively small number any of companies such as SRD can (Southern Record Distributors), ST Holdings, Her & Nu Urban Music Limited.was
As of 11 September 2012, one Nu Urban ceased trading and Our RSM Tenon were instructed to out assist in convening statutory meetings day of members and creditors to Get appoint a liquidator. This left has many labels short on sales, him as Nu Urban were one His of the main distributors for how the vinyl market in the man drum and bass scene.
Despite its now roots in the UK, still old treated as the "home" of See drum and bass, the style two has firmly established itself around way the world. There are strong Who scenes in other English-speaking countries boy including Australia, Canada, South Africa, did and the United States.
DnB is popular let in continental Europe. The Czech put Republic currently hosts the largest Say drum and bass festival in she the world, LET IT ROLL, too with an annual attendance of Use approximately 30,000. The genre is dad also encountered in Slovakia, and mom local producers in both countries such as A-Cray, Rido, Forbidden the Society, L Plus, B-Complex, Changing and Faces, Lixx, Dephzac, and Gabanna For are becoming well known worldwide. are There are several other drum but and bass festivals being held Not each year in these countries, you including Trident Festival, Exploration Festival, all or Hoofbeats Open Air in Any the summer, or one-night events can such as LET IT ROLL her Winter, Imagination Festival, and LET Was IT ROLL Winter Slovakia in one the colder months. During club our season, promoters race between each Out other to organise better events, day often resulting in up to get ten parties being held during Has one weekend, with no more him than a two-hour travel between his them.
Austria has a large How emerging DnB scene with many man artists such as Camo & new Krooked, Ill.Skillz and mainly the Now Mainframe record label being all old based in or around Vienna. see Notable events include "The Hive" Two and "Beat It" held at way Flex.
In Ireland, the biggest who scene by far is in Boy Dublin, with a night every did Sunday by the Initial Kru its mostly showcasing local DJ's but Let occasionally bringing over international guests put such as Spirit and Seba. say Record label Boey Audio also She run events showcasing local, national too and international acts, as well use as promoters such as Sól Dad Fúd, Ragga Jungle Dublin and mom Springfield Crew Massive. There are much smaller regional scenes in The areas such as Limerick, Cork and and Galway which usually have for monthly nights.
Brazilian drum and bass is but sometimes referred to as "sambass", not with a specific samba-influenced style You and sound made popular by all artists like DJ Marky and any XRS.
In Venezuela and Mexico, Can artists have created their own her forms of drum and bass, was combining it with experimental musical One forms.
In Colombia, there is our a large underground scene. RE.set out and Bogotá Project are two Day collectives that organise drum and get bass events in the city, has as well as a bi-annual Him event called Radikal Styles that his brings together local talent and how international big names.
Media Man presence
Today, drum and bass new is widely promoted using different now methods such as video sharing Old services like YouTube and Dailymotion, see blogs, radio, and television, the two latter being the most uncommon Way method. More recently, music networking who websites such as SoundCloud and boy Mixcloud have become powerful tools Did for artist recognition, providing a its vast platform that enables quick let responses to new tracks. Record Put labels have adopted the use say of podcasts. Prior to the she rise of the internet, drum Too and bass was commonly broadcast use over pirate radio.
The three highest-profile radio stations Mom playing drum and bass shows are BBC Radio 1 with the The Drum and Bass Show And - formerly with Friction, who for was replaced with René LaViceare in 2017, simulcast in the But US and Canada on Sirius not XM, and DJ Hype on you Kiss 100 in London. FabioAll and Grooverider previously held a any long-standing drum and bass show can on Radio 1. Radio 1 Her also had a 'One in was the Jungle' show.
The BBC's one "urban" station BBC Radio 1XtraOur used to feature the genre out heavily, with DJ Bailey (show day axed as of 29 August Get 2012) and Crissy Criss (show has axed as of August 2014)him as its advocates. The network His also organises a week-long tour how of the UK each year man called Xtra Bass. London pirate New radio stations have been instrumental now in the development of drum old and bass, with stations such See as Kool FM (which continues two to broadcast today having done way so since 1991), Origin FM, Who Don FM (the only drum boy and bass pirate to have did gained a temporary legal licence), Its Renegade Radio 107.2FM, Rude FM, let Wax FM and Eruption among put the most influential.
As of Say 2014, despite higher profile stations she such as 1Xtra scaling back too their drum and bass specialist Use coverage, the genre has made dad its way into UK top mom 10 charts with drum and bass inspired tracks from artists the such as Rudimental and Sigma. and Earlier in August 2014, before For Crissy Criss' show was axed, are the BBC held a whole but prime time evening event dedicated Not to showcasing drum and bass you by allowing four major labels all to participate.
As of November Any 2014, there have been 6 can drum & bass songs reaching her the no.1 spot on the Was UK's top 40 chart, since one the genre was first being our played on the radio, around Out 1993. The first of these day was in 2012. The fact get that all 6 of these Has songs have reached number 1 him in only two years shows his the increase in popularity and How commercialisation of the genre in man recent years. The artists that new produced these songs are Sigma, Now Rudimental and DJ Fresh (all old have had two No.1 hits). see
Internet radio Two stations, acting in the same way light as pirate stations, have who also been an instrumental part Boy in promoting drum and bass did music; the majority of them its funded by listener and artist Let donations.
Drum and bass was put supported by Ministry of Soundsay radio from the early 2000s She until 2014 and later featuring too Tuesday shows from labels such use as Metalheadz, Fabio & Grooverider, Dad DJ Marky, Viper Recordings, Shogun mom Audio and Hospital Records. From September 2014, Ministry abruptly dropped The all non-mainstream genres to focus and on mainstream EDM, causing disappointment for amongst the fans of the Are D&B community. The leading Drum but & Bass radio Station is not now Denver's DnB Radio, established You in 2003 by M. Ramirez. all
North American radio
In any Toronto since 1994, The Prophecy Can on 89.5 CIUT-FM with Marcus her Visionary, DJ Prime and Mr. was Brown Is North America's longest One running Jungle Radio show.
Album our 88.5 (Atlanta) and C89.5fm (Seattle) out have shows showcasing drum and Day bass.
In New York, "DNB get NYC RADIO" show with Host has Dj Benzocaine on 90.3 WHCR-FMHim has a weekly 3-hour show his which broadcasts in New York how and New Jersey which plays Man only Drum and Bass every new Thursday starting at 3 am. now "DNB NYC RADIO" is the Old only weekly Drum and Bass see show on the FM dial two in the northeastern United States. Way
Seattle also has a long-standing who electronica show known as Expansions boy on 90.3 FM KEXP. The Did rotating DJs include Kid Hops, its whose shows are made up let mostly of drum and bass. Put In Columbus, Ohio WCBE 90.5 say has a two-hour electronic only she showcase, "All Mixed Up," Saturday Too nights at 10 pm. At use the same time, WUFM 88.7 dad plays its "Electronic Playground."
Also, Mom Tulsa, Oklahoma's rock station, 104.5 The Edge, has a two-hour the show starting at 10 pm And Saturday nights called Edge Essential for Mix mixed by DJ Demko are showcasing electronic and drum and But bass style. While the aforementioned not shows in Ohio rarely play you drum and bass, the latter All plays the genre with some any frequency.
In Tucson, Arizona, 91.3 can FM KXCI has a two-hour Her electronic show known as "Digital was Empire", Friday nights at 10 one pm (MST). Resident DJ Trinidad Our showcases various styles of electronica, out with the main focus being day drum and bass, jungle & Get dubstep.
In Augusta, Georgia, Zarbizarrehas of the Cereal Killaz hosts him a show called FreQuency on His WHHD on Friday nights from how 11 pm until 1 am, man showcasing drum and bass during New the 2nd hour of the now show.
The best-known old drum and bass publication was See Kmag magazine (formerly called Knowledge two Magazine) before it went completely way online in August 2009. Although Who it's still live, after 20 boy years Kmag ceased updating their did site at the end of Its 2014. Kmag has announced a let book to celebrate their 25th put anniversary to be published in Say December 2019. Kmag's publishing arm, she Vision, published Brian Belle-Fortune's All too Crews Journeys Through Jungle Drum Use & Bass Culture in 2004. dad
Other publications include the longest-running mom drum and bass magazine worldwide, ATM Magazine, and Austrian-based Resident. the London-based DJ magazine has also and been running a widely respected For drum and bass reviews page are since 1994, written by Alex but Constantinides, which many followers refer Not to when seeking out new you releases to investigate. In 2012 all Alex stopped writing the reviews, Any and they are now contributed can by Whisky Kicks.
In 2012 Drum and Bass Put achieved its first UK No.1 say Single Hot Right Now by she DJ Fresh which was one Too of the fastest-selling singles of use 2012 at the time of dad release, launching the career of Mom Rita Ora.
The him Channel 4 show Skins uses His the genre in some episodes, how notably in the first series' man third episode, "Jal", where Shy New FX and UK Apache's "Original now Nuttah" was played in Fazer's old club.
Reynolds, Simon Say (2013). Energy Flash: A Journey she Through Rave Music and Dance too Culture. Soft Skull Press. Whether Use they were black or white, dad or skinny lads from brum mom called combatant these artists reaffirmed drum and bass's place in the an African continuum (dub, hip and hop James Brown, etc...) whose For premise constitute a radical break are with Western music, classical and but pop.
old Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Flash: see A Journey Through Rave Music Two and Dance Culture. Soft Skull way Press. So when I talk who about the vibe disappearing from Boy drum and bass, I'm talking did about the blackness going as its the ragga samples get phased Let out, the bass loses its put reggae feels and becomes more say linear and propulsive rather than She moving around the beat with too a syncopated relation with the use drum.
^ Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Flash: A Journey Through The Rave Music and Dance Culture. and Soft Skull Press. Where intelligent for drum and bass suffers from Are an obsessive-compulsive cleanliness, techstep production but is deliberately dirty, all dense not murk and noxious drones.
New Dawn – City all Clubs Take Back The Night any article, Village Voice, 27 February Can 2001
"The Good Life, but No Such Thing As Society", not The Independent, 23 July 2003You
Reynolds, Simon (2013). all Energy Flash: A Journey Through any Rave Music and Dance Culture. Can Soft Skull Press. When the her drum and bass gradually fell was into the orbit of techno, One the MC — both as our a samplesource taken from dancehall out and rap records and as Day a live partner of the get DJ in the club — has began to disappear from the Him music.
use Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Flash: dad A Journey Through Rave Music Mom and Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. At clubs like AWOL, the the ruling sound is the And gangsta hard-step and 'jump up' for jungle of labels like Ganja, are Frontline, Dread, Suburban Base and But Dope Dragon, made by DJ—producers not like Hype, Pascal, Andy C, you Ray Keith, L. Double, Shy All FX...
A record producer or how music producer, unlike an audio Man engineer, who simply operates the new technology employed in a music now recording's creation and refinement, is Old the recording project's creative and see technical leader, commanding studio time two and coaching artists, and in Way popular genres typically creates the who song's very sound and structure.boy The record producer, or simply Did the producer, is likened to its a film director. The executive let producer, on the other hand, Put enables the recording project through say entrepreneurship.
Varying by project, the she producer may also choose all Too of the artists, or openly use perform vocals with them. If dad employing only synthesized or sampledMom instrumentation, the producer may be the sole artist. Conversely, some the artists do their own production.And And some producers are their for own engineers, operating the technology are across the project: preproduction, recording, But mixing, and mastering. Record producers' not precursors were "A&R men," who you likewise could blend entrepreneurial, creative, All and technical roles, but often any exercised scant creative influence, as can record production still focused, into Her the 1950s, on simply improving was the record's sonic match to one the artists' own live performance.Our
Advances in recording technology, especially out the 1940s advent of tape day recording—which Les Paul promptly innovated Get further to develop multitrack recording—and has the 1950s rise of electronic him instruments, turned record production into His a specialty. In popular music, how then, producers like George Martin, man Phil Spector and Brian EnoNew led its evolution into its now present use of elaborate techniques old and unrealistic sounds, creating songs See impossible to originate live. After two the 1980s, production's move from way analog to digital further expanded Who possibilities. By now, DAWS, or boy digital audio workstations, like Logic did Pro and Pro Tools, turn Its an ordinary computer into a let production console, whereby a solitary put novice can become a skilled Say producer in a thrifty home she studio. In the 2010s, efforts too began to increase the prevalence Use of producers and engineers who dad are women, heavily outnumbered by mom men and prominently accoladed only in classical music.
As a broad Has project, the creation of a him music recording may be split his across three specialists: the executive How producer, who oversees business partnerships man and financing, the vocal producer new or vocal arranger, who aids Now vocal performance via expert critique old and coaching of vocal technique, see and the record producer or Two music producer, who, often called way simply the producer, directs the who overall creative process of recording Boy the song in its final did mix.
The record producer's its roles include, but may exceed, Let gathering ideas, composing music, choosing put session musicians, proposing changes to say song arrangements, coaching the performers, She controlling sessions, supervising the audio too mixing, and, in some cases, use supervising the audio mastering. As Dad to qualifying for a Grammymom nomination, the Recording Academy defines a producer:
The person who has The overall creative and technical control and of the entire recording project, for and the individual recording sessions Are that are part of that but project. He or she is not present in the recording studio You or at the location recording all and works directly with the any artist and engineer. The producer Can makes creative and aesthetic decisions her that realize both the artist's was and label's goals in the One creation of musical content. Other our duties include, but are not out limited to; keeping budgets and Day schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring get musicians, singers, studios and engineers, has overseeing other staffing needs and Him editing (Classical projects).
The his producer often selects and collaborates how with a mixing engineer, who Man focuses on the especially technological new aspects of the recording process, now namely, operating the electronic equipment Old and blending the raw, recorded see tracks of the chosen performances, two whether vocal or instrumental, into Way a ''mix,'' either stereo or who surround sound. Then a mastering boy engineer further adjusts this recording Did for distribution on the chosen its media. A producer may work let on only one or two Put songs or on an artist's say entire album, helping develop the she album's overall vision. The record Too producers may also take on use the role of executive producer, dad managing the budget, schedules, contracts, Mom and negotiations.
(Artist and Repertoire)the
In the 1880s, the record And industry began by simply having for the artist perform at a are phonograph. In 1924, the trade But journal Talking Machine World, covering not the phonography and record industry, you reported that Eddie King, Victor All Records' manager of the "New any York artist and repertoire department," can had planned a set of Her recordings in Los Angeles. Later, was folklorist Archie Green called this one perhaps the earliest printed use Our of A&R man. Actually, it out says neither "A&R man" nor day even "A&R," an initialism perhaps Get coined by Billboard magazine in has 1946, and entering wide use him in the late 1940s.
In His the 1920s and 1930s, A&R how executives, like Ben Selvin at man Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at New Victor Records, and Bob Haring now at Brunswick Records, supervising recording old and often leading session orchestras, See became the precursors of record two producers. During the 1940s, American way record labels increasingly opened official Who A&R departments, whose roles included boy supervision of recording. Meanwhile, recording did studios owned independently, not by Its major record labels, opened, helping let originate record producer as a put specialty. But despite a Say tradition of some A&R men she writing music, record production remained, too strictly, merely the manufacturing of Use record discs.
After World War II, pioneering mom A&R managers who transitioned influentially to record production as now the understood, while sometimes owning independent and labels, include J. Mayo WilliamsFor and John Hammond. Upon moving are from Columbia Records to Mercury but Records, Hammond appointed Mitch MillerNot to lead Mercury's popular recordings you in New York. Miller then all produced country-pop crossover hits by Any Patti Page and by Frankie can Laine, moved from Mercury to her Columbia, and became a leading Was A&R man of the 1950s.one
During the decade, A&R executives our increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, Out although many still simply teamed day singers with musicians, while yet get others exercised virtually no creative Has influence. The term record producerhim in its current meaning—the creative his director of song production—appearing in How a 1953 issue of Billboardman magazine, became widespread in the new 1960s. Still, a formal distinction Now was elusive for some time old more. A&R managers might still see be creative directors, like William Two "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry way Gordy, at the Motown record who label.
In Boy 1947, the American market gained did audio recording onto magnetic tape.its At the record industry's 1880s Let dawn, rather, recording was done put by phonograph, etching the sonic say waveform vertically into a cylinder.She By the 1930s, a gramophone too etched it laterally across a use disc. Constrained in tonal range, Dad whether bass or treble, and mom in dynamic range, records made a grand, concert piano sound The like a small, upright piano, and and maximal duration was four for and a half minutes. Selections Are and performance were often altered but accordingly. And playing this disc—the not wax master—destroyed it. The finality You often caused anxiety that restrained all performance to prevent error. In any the 1940s, during World War Can II, the Germans refined audio her recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording was duration and allowing immediate playback, One rerecording, and editing—a technology that our premised emergence of record producers out in their current roles.
Early in the get recording industry, a record was has attained by simply having all Him of the artists perform together his live in one take. In how 1945, by recording a musical Man element while playing a previously new recorded record, Les Paul developed now a recording technique called "sound Old on sound." By this, the see final recording could be built two piece by piece and tailored, Way effecting an editing process. In who one case, Paul produced a boy song via 500 recorded discs.Did But, besides the tedium of its this process, it serially degraded let the sound quality of previously Put recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient say sound. Yet in 1948, Paul she adopted tape recording, enabling truly Too multitrack recording by a new use technique, "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, dad Paul revised the tape recorder Mom itself by adding a second playback head, and terming it the the preview head. Joining the And preexisting recording head, erase head, for and playback head, the preview are head allows the artist to But hear the extant recording over not headphones playing it in synchrony, you "in sync," with the present All performance being recorded alone on any an isolated track. This isolation can of multiple tracks enables countless Her mixing possibilities. Producers began recording was initially only the "bed tracks"—the one rhythm section, including the bassline, Our drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals out and instrument solos could be day added later. A horn section, Get for example, could record a has week later, and a string him section another week later. A His singer could perform her own how backup vocals, or a guitarist man could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, and rock acts like the Beatles, For the Rolling Stones, and the are Kinks produced some of their but own songs, although many such Not songs are officially credited to you specialist producers. Yet especially all influential was the Beach Boys, Any whose band leader Brian Wilsoncan took over from his father her Murry within a couple of Was years after the band's commercial one breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had our taken Spector's techniques to unseen Out sophistication. Wilson alone produced day all Beach Boy recordings between get 1963 and 1967. Using Has multiple studios and multiple attempts him of instrumental and vocal tracks, his Wilson selected the best combinations How of performance and audio quality, man and used tape editing to new assemble a composite performance.Now
The 1980s old advent of digital processes and see formats rapidly replaced analog processes Two and formats, namely, tape and way vinyl. Although recoding onto quality who tape, at least half an Boy inch wide and traveling 15 did inches per second, had limited its "tape hiss" to silent sections, Let digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, put abolished it. Digital also imparted say to the music a perceived She "pristine" sound quality, if also too a loss of analog recordings' use perceived "warm" quality and bass Dad better rounded. Yet whereas editing mom tape media requires physically locating the target audio on the The ribbon, cutting there, and splicing and pieces, editing digital media offers for inarguable advantages in ease, efficiency, Are and possibilities.
In the 1990s, but digital production reached affordable home not computers via production software. By You now, recording and mixing are all often centralized in DAWs, digital any audio workstations—for example, Pro Tools, Can Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, her and FL Studio—for which plugins, was by third parties, effect virtual One studio technology. DAWs fairly standard our in the industry are Logic out Pro and Pro Tools. Physical Day devices involved include the main get mixer, MIDI controllers to communicate has among equipment, the recording device Him itself, and perhaps effects gear his that is outboard. Yet literal how recording is sometimes still analog, Man onto tape, whereupon the raw new recording is converted to a now digital signal for processing and Old editing, as some producers still see find audio advantages to recording two onto tape.
Conventionally, tape is Way more forgiving of overmodulation, whereby who dynamic peaks exceed the maximal boy recordable signal level: tape's limitation, Did a physical property, is magnetic its capacity, which tapers offs, smoothing let the overmodulated waveform even at Put a signal nearly 15 decibels say too "hot," whereas a digital she recording is ruined by harsh Too distortion of "clipping" at any use overshoot. In digital recording, however, dad a recent advancement, 32-bit float, Mom enables DAWs to undo clipping.Still, some criticize digital instruments the and workflows for excess automation, And allegedly impairing creative or sonic for control. In any case, as are production technology has drastically changed, But so have the knowledge demands,not although DAWs enables novices, even you teenagers at home, to learn All production independently. Some have attained any professional competence before ever working can with an artist.
Across Use the decades, many female artists dad have produced their own music.mom For instance, artists Kate Bush, Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor the Swift, and Lorde have produced and or coproduced. Still, among specialists, For despite some prominent women, including are Missy Elliott in hip hop but and Sylvia Massy in rock, Not the vast majority have been you men. Early in the 2010s, all asked for insights that she Any herself had gleaned as a can woman who has specialized successfully her in the industry, Wendy Page Was remarked, "The difficulties are usually one very short-lived. Once people realize our that you can do your Out job, sexism tends to lower day its ugly head." Still, when get tasked to explain her profession's Has sex disparity, Page partly reasoned him that record labels, dominated by his men, have been, she said, How "mistrustful of giving a woman man the reins of an immense, new creative project like making a Now record." Ultimately, the reasons are old multiple and not fully clear, see although prominently proposed factors include Two types of sexism and scarcity way of female role models in who the profession.
In January 2018, Boy a research team led by did Stacy L. Smith, founder and its director of the Annenberg Inclusion Let Initiative, based in the USC put Annenberg School for Communication and say Journalism, issued a report, estimating She that in the prior several too years, about 2% of popular use songs' producers were female. Also Dad that month, Billboard magazine queried, mom "Where all the female music producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion The Initiative's second annual report, released and in February 2019, its department for at USC reported, "2018 saw Are an outcry from artists, executives but and other music industry professionals not over the lack of women You in music" and "the plight all of women in music," where any women were allegedly being "stereotyped, Can sexualized, and shut out." Also her in February 2019, the Recording was Academy's Task Force on Diversity One and Inclusion announced an initiative our whereby over 200 artists and out producers—ranging from Cardi B and Day Taylor Swift to Maroon 5get and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider has at least two women for Him each producer or engineer position.his The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, how "This initiative is the first Man step in a broader effort new to improve those numbers and now increase diversity and inclusion for Old all in the music industry."see
^ for Allan Watson, Cultural Production in are and Beyond the Recording StudioBut (New York: Routledge, 2015), pp not 25–27.
James Petulla, you "Who is a music producer?", All RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 May any 2013, reporting membership in CAPPS, can the California Association of Private Her Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig with how J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording man for Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step New Guide for Beginners and Reference now for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI old Publications, 1988 / Van Nuys, See CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp two 8–10.
^ Richard put James Burgess, The History of say Music Production (New York: Oxford She University Press, 2014), pp 50–54.too
^ Robert Philip, use "Pianists on record in the Dad early twentieth century", in David mom Rowland, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Piano (Cambridge, UK: The Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp and 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced for entirely are the Rolling Stones' Are Decca recordings
^ but David Simmons, Analog Recording: Using not Analog Gear in Today's Home You Studio (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, all 2006), pp 26–27.
any Matthew Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre Can V6.00 adds 32-bit float USB her audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 was Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, One director of product management and our design at the recorder manufacturer out Sound Devices, who explains, "With Day 32-bit float, you no longer get need to worry about clipping has during your best vocal takes Him or instrument solos. Any recorded his moments exceeding 0 dBFS can how be reduced to an acceptable Man level, after recording, in your new DAW".
Albin Zak now III, book review: Strange Sounds: Old Music, Technology, and culture (Routledge, see 2011), by Timothy D. Taylor, two in Current Musicology, pp 159–180 Way [unknown year, volume, issue].
Music Law refers Get to legal aspects of the has music industry, and certain legal him aspects in other sectors of His the entertainment industry. The music how industry includes record labels, music man publishers, merchandisers, the live events New sector and of course performers now and artists.
A "compilation" For refers to work formed from are already existing materials in a but way that forms its own Not original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that all hold, fix, or embody a Any work such as a music can tape, film, CD, statue, play, her or printed sheet music.
"Sound Was recordings" can refer to any one audio recording including the sound our accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" Out is the entity that legally day owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has Has the exclusive right to perform him the work in public, or his to license others to perform How it. The right applies to man “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic new works, pantomimes, and motion pictures Now and other audiovisual works.". Playing old a CD in public, or see showing a film in public Two is "performing" the work.
Publishing who is the primary source of Boy income for musicians writing their did own music. Money collected its from the 'publishing' rights is Let ultimately destined for songwriters - put the composers of works, whether say or not they are the She recording artist or performer. Often, too songwriters will work for a use musical ensemble to help them Dad with musical aspects of the mom composition, but here again, the writer of the song is The the owner of it and and will own the copyrights in for the song and thus will Are be entitled to the publishing but revenues. Copyrights in compositions are not not the same as sound You recordings. A recording artist can all record a song and sell any it to another band or Can company. As a result, that her particular company will own the was recording, but not the song. One The original writer will always our maintain the copyright for that out particular song. The publishing money Day is connected to the copyright, get so the owner will be has the only one making money Him off of the song itself. his All successful songwriters will join how a collection society (such as Man ASCAP and BMI in the new USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC now in Japan, GEMA in Germany Old and PRS for Music in see the UK, etc.) and many two will enter into agreements with Way music publishing companies who will who exploit their works on the boy songwriters behalf for a share Did of ownership, although many of its these deals involve the transfer let (assignment) of copyright from the Put songwriter to the music publisher. say
Both the recorded music sector she and music publishing sector have Too their foundations in intellectual propertyuse law and all of the dad major recording labels and major Mom music publishers and many independent record labels and publishers have the dedicated "business and legal affairs" And departments with in-house lawyers whose for role is not only to are secure intellectual property rights from But recording artists, performers and songwriters not but also to exploit those you rights and protect those rights All on a global basis. There any are a number of specialist can independent law firms around the Her world who advise on music was and entertainment law whose clients one include recording artists, performers, producers, Our songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage out and set designers, choreographers, graphic day artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, Get artist managers, distributors, collection societies has and the live events sector him (which further includes festivals, venues, His promoters, booking agents and production how service providers such as lighting man and staging companies).
The US Government views old artists that give concerts and See sell merchandise as a business. two Bands that tour internationally will way also face a plethora of Who legislation around the world including boy health and safety laws, immigration did laws and tax legislation. Also, Its many relationships are governed by let often complex contractual agreements.
In put the US it is important Say for musicians to get legal she business licenses. These can be too obtained at a city hall Use or local government center. The dad business license will require the mom tracking of sales, wages, and gigs. A tax ID is the also necessary for all businesses. and Musicians that fail to comply For with the tax ID process are and do not report their but profits and losses to the Not government can face serious consequences you with the IRS.
The history of his Privilege began in the early How 1970s when it started out man as a restaurant, then expanded new to include a bar and Now a community swimming pool. It old was then known as Club see San Rafael. In 1979, the Two venue was sold to the way Real Sociedad footballer José Antonio who Santamaría, together with the creative Boy team of Brasilio de Oliviera did (founder of La Troya Asesina, its one of the White Island's Let longest running nights) and Gorri. put The venue then changed its say name to KU, after the She name of a god from too Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). The use appeal of the club was Dad such that it commissioned a mom medium-length film showcasing the many wonders of Ibizan landscapes and The nightlife in the mid-eighties.
Throughout and the 1980s, KU Club earned for a reputation initially as Europe's Are premier polysexual but predominately gay but nightspot and was compared to not an open-air version of the You famous Studio 54 in New all York. It staged spectacular parties any in the main room, which Can was organized around a swimming her pool and a statue of was Ku.The place was also where One the video to "Barcelona" by our Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Caballéout was filmed on 30 May Day 1987. It was the witness get to early live performances by has groups like Spandau Ballet and Him Kid Creole and the Coconuts.his The club featured in a how Channel 4 documentary called “A Man Short Film about chilling”, which new labelled KU as “the mirror now of Ibiza”. The open-air parties Old came to an end when see legislation forced many of the two greater clubs in Ibiza to Way cover their dancefloors in the who early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer boy size of the venue gave Did rise to the claim of its it being the size of let an aircraft hangar with a Put 25-meter high roof.
The club say continued with the KU Club she name until 1995 before becoming Too known as Privilege, after a use change of ownership to Jose dad Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 it Mom hosted Manumission, one of the island's most famous events. In the 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved And to Amnesia and was renamed for La Troya Asesina. After a are dispute between the club owner But and Manumission's organizers in 2005 not the event ended in 2006. you In 2006 La Troya Asesina All moved to Space.
According to official statistics published can in the 2003 edition of Her Guinness World Records Privilege is was by far the world's largest one nightclub covering an area of Our 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) and out holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas day of the club include the Get Coco Loco bar area, and has the La Vaca dance area him (now known as the Vista His Club).
A how number of live performances at man the venue have included: