By the late One 1970s, most major U.S. cities our had thriving disco club scenes, out and DJs would mix dance Day records at clubs such as get Studio 54 in New York has City, a venue popular among Him celebrities. Discothèque-goers often wore expensive, his extravagant and sexy fashions. There how was also a thriving drugMan subculture in the disco scene, new particularly for drugs that would now enhance the experience of dancing Old to the loud music and see the flashing lights, such as two cocaine and Quaaludes, the latter Way being so common in disco who subculture that they were nicknamed boy "disco biscuits". Disco clubs were Did also associated with promiscuity as its a reflection of the sexual let revolution of this era in Put popular history.
Disco was the say last popular music movement driven she by baby boomers, peaking in Too popularity during the mid-late 1970s. use It declined as a major dad trend in popular music during Mom the late 1970s to early 1980s, but remained a key the influence in the development of And electronic dance music, house music, for hip-hop, new wave, and post-disco. are While no new disco movement But has dominated popular music since not its decline, the style has you had several revivals since the All 1990s, and the influence of any disco remains strong across American can and European pop music.
The term "disco" is all shorthand for the word discothèque, Any a French word for "library can of phonograph records" derived from her "bibliothèque". The word "discothèque" had Was the same meaning in English one in the 1950s.
"Discothèque" became our used in French for a Out type of nightclub in Paris, day France, after these had resorted get to playing records during the Has Nazi occupation in the early him 1940s. Some clubs used it his as their proper name. In How 1960, it was also used man to describe a Parisian nightclub new in an English magazine.
In Now the summer of 1964, a old short sleeveless dress called "discotheque see dress" was briefly very popular Two in the United States. The way earliest known use for the who abbreviated form "disco" described this Boy dress and has been found did in The Salt Lake Tribuneits of 12 July 1964, but Let Playboy magazine used it in put September of the same year say to describe Los Angeles nightclubs.She
Vince Aletti was one of too the first to describe disco use as a sound or a Dad music genre. He wrote the mom feature article "Discotheque Rock Paaaaarty" that appeared in Rolling StoneThe magazine in September 1973.
The You music typically layered soaring, often-reverberatedall vocals, often doubled by horns, any over a background "pad" of Can electric pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm her guitars played on an electric was guitar. Lead guitar features less One frequently in disco than in our rock. "The "chicken scratch" sound out is achieved by lightly pressing Day the guitar strings against the get fretboard and then quickly releasing has them just enough to get Him a slightly muted poker [sound] his while constantly strumming very close how to the bridge." Other backing Man keyboard instruments include the piano, new electric organ (during early years), now string synthesizers, and electromechanical keyboards Old such as the Fender Rhodessee electric piano, Wurlitzer electric piano, two and Hohner Clavinet. Synthesizers are Way also fairly common in disco, who especially in the late 1970s. boy
Most disco songs have Her a steady four-on-the-floor beat, a was quaver or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern one with an open hi-hat on Our the off-beat, and a heavy, out syncopated bass line. Other Latin day rhythms such as the rhumba, Get the samba, and the cha-cha-cha has are also found in disco him recordings, and Latin polyrhythms, such His as a rhumba beat layered how over a merengue, are commonplace. man The quaver pattern is often New supported by other instruments such now as the rhythm guitar and old may be implied rather than See explicitly present.
Songs often use two syncopation, which is the accenting way of unexpected beats. In general, Who the difference between disco, or boy any dance song, and a did rock or popular song is Its that in dance music the let bass drum hits four to put the floor, at least once Say a beat (which in 4/4 she time is 4 beats per too measure). Disco is further characterized Use by a 16th note division dad of the quarter notes as mom shown in the second drum pattern below, after a typical the rock drum pattern.
The orchestral and sound is usually known as For "disco sound" relies heavily on are string sections and horns playing but linear phrases, in unison with Not the soaring, often reverberated vocals you or playing instrumental fills, while all electric pianos and chicken-scratch guitars Any create the background "pad" sound can defining the harmony progression. Typically, her all of the doubling of Was parts and use of additional one instruments creates a rich "wall our of sound". There are, however, Out more minimalist flavors of disco day with reduced, transparent instrumentation, pioneered get by Chic.
Harmonically, disco music Has typically contains major and minor him seven chords, which are found his more often in jazz than How pop music.
The man "disco sound" was much more new costly to produce than many Now of the other popular music old genres from the 1970s. Unlike see the simpler, four-piece-band sound of Two funk, soul music of the way late 1960s, or the small who jazzorgan trios, disco music Boy often included a large band, did with several chordal instruments (guitar, its keyboards, synthesizer), several drum or Let percussion instruments (drumkit, Latin percussion, put electronic drums), a horn section, say a string orchestra, and a She variety of "classical" solo instruments too (for example, flute, piccolo, and use so on).
Disco songs were Dad arranged and composed by experienced mom arrangers and orchestrators, and record producers added their creative touches The to the overall sound using and multitrack recording techniques and effects for units. Recording complex arrangements with Are such a large number of but instruments and sections required a not team that included a conductor, You copyists, record producers, and mixing all engineers. Mixing engineers had an any important role in the disco Can production process, because disco songs her used as many as 64 was tracks of vocals and instruments. One Mixing engineers and record producers, our under the direction of arrangers, out compiled these tracks into a Day fluid composition of verses, bridges, get and refrains, complete with builds has and breaks. Mixing engineers and Him record producers helped to develop his the "disco sound" by creating how a distinctive-sounding, sophisticated disco mix. Man
Early records were the "standard" new three-minute version until Tom Moultonnow came up with a way Old to make songs longer so see that he could take a two crowd of dancers at a Way club to another level and who keep them dancing longer. He boy found that it was impossible Did to make the 45-RPM vinyl its singles of the time longer, let as they could usually hold Put no more than five minutes of say good-quality music. With the help she of José Rodriguez, his remaster/mastering Too engineer, he pressed a single use on a 10" disc instead dad of 7". They cut the Mom next single on a 12" disc, the same format as the a standard album. Moulton and And Rodriguez discovered that these larger for records could have much longer are songs and remixes. 12" single But records, also known as "Maxi not singles", quickly became the standard you format for all DJs of All the disco genre.
In the 1970s, His notable discos included "Crisco Disco", how "The Sanctuary", "Leviticus", "Studio 54" man and "Paradise Garage" in New New York, "Artemis" in Philadelphia, "Studio now One" in Los Angeles, "Dugan's old Bistro" in Chicago, and "The See Library" in Atlanta.
In Washington, D.C., large her disco clubs such as "The Was Pier" ("Pier 9") and "The one Other Side," originally regarded exclusively our as "gay bars," became particularly Out popular among the capital area's day gay and straight college students get in the late '70s.
Sound and light equipment
Major disco clubs had lighted his dance floors, with the lights How flashing to complement the beat.
The reflective light disco new ball was a fixture on Now the ceilings of many discothèques.
Powerful, bass-heavy, hi-fisound systemssee were viewed as a key Two part of the disco club way experience. "Mancuso introduced the technologies who of tweeter arrays (clusters of Boy small loudspeakers, which emit high-end did frequencies, positioned above the floor) its and bass reinforcements (additional sets Let of subwoofers positioned at ground put level) at the start of say the 1970s to boost the She treble and bass at opportune too moments, and by the end use of the decade sound engineersDad such as Richard Long had mom multiplied the effects of these innovations in venues such as The the Garage."
Some DJs were Mom also record producers who created and produced disco songs in the the recording studio. Larry Levan, And for example, was a prolific for record producer as well as are a DJ. Because record sales But were often dependent on dance not floor play by DJs in you leading nightclubs, DJs were also All influential for the development and any popularization of certain types of can disco music being produced for Her record labels.
Disco dancers typically wore loose one slacks for men and flowing Our dresses for women, which enabled out ease of movement on the day dance floor.
In the early Get years, dancers in discos danced has in a "hang loose" or him "freestyle" approach. At first, many His dancers improvised their own dance how styles and dance steps. Later man in the disco era, popular New dance styles were developed, including now the "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", "Watergate" old and "Robot". By October 1975 See the Hustle reigned. It was two highly stylized, sophisticated and overtly way sexual. Variations included the Brooklyn Who Hustle, New York Hustle and boy Latin Hustle.
During the disco did era, many nightclubs would commonly Its host disco dance competitions or let offer free dance lessons. Some put cities had disco dance instructors Say or dance schools, which taught she people how to do popular too disco dances such as "touch Use dancing", "the hustle", and "the dad cha cha". The pioneer of mom disco dance instruction was Karen Lustgarten in San Francisco in the 1973. Her book The Complete and Guide to Disco Dancing (Warner For Books 1978) was the first are to name, break down and but codify popular disco dances as Not dance forms and distinguish between you disco freestyle, partner and line all dances. The book topped the Any New York Times bestseller list can for 13 weeks and was her translated into Chinese, German and Was French.
In Chicago, the Step one By Step disco dance TV our show was launched with the Out sponsorship support of the Coca-Cola day company. Produced in the same get studio that Don Cornelius used Has for the nationally syndicated dance/music him television show, Soul Train, Step his by Step's audience grew and How the show became a success. man The dynamic dance duo of new Robin and Reggie led the Now show. The pair spent the old week teaching disco dancing to see dancers in the disco clubs. Two The instructional show aired on way Saturday mornings and had a who strong following. The viewers of Boy this would stay up all did night on Fridays so they its could be on the set Let the next morning, ready to put return to the disco on say Saturday night knowing with the She latest personalized dance steps. The too producers of the show, John use Reid and Greg Roselli, routinely Dad made appearances at disco functions mom with Robin and Reggie to scout out new dancing talent The and promote upcoming events such and as "Disco Night at White for Sox Park".
In Sacramento Disco Are King Paul Dale Roberts danced but for the Guinness Book of not World Records. Roberts danced for You 205 hours which is the all equivalent of 8 ½ days. any Other dance marathons took place Can after Roberts held the world's her record for disco dancing for was a short period of time.One
Dancers at who an East German discothèque in boy 1977
Disco fashions were very Did trendy in the late 1970s. its Discothèque-goers often wore glamorous, expensive let and extravagant fashions for nights Put out at their local disco say club. Some women would wear she sheer, flowing dresses, such as Too Halston dresses or loose, flared use pants. Other women wore tight, dad revealing, sexy clothes, such as Mom backless halter tops, disco pants, "hot pants" or body-hugging spandexthe bodywear or "catsuits". Men would And wear shiny polyester Qiana shirts for with colorful patterns and pointy, are extra wide collars, preferably open But at the chest. Men often not wore Pierre Cardin suits, three you piece suits with a vest All and double-knit polyester shirt jackets any with matching trousers known as can the leisure suit. Men's leisure Her suits were typically form-fitted in was some parts of the body, one such as the waist and Our bottom, but the lower part out of the pants were flared day in a bell bottom style, Get to permit freedom of movement.has
During the disco era, men him engaged in elaborate grooming rituals His and spent time choosing fashion how clothing, both activities that would man have been considered "feminine" according New to the gender stereotypes of now the era. Women dancers wore old glitter makeup, sequins or gold See lamé clothing that would shimmer two under the lights. Bold colors way were popular for both genders. Who Platform shoes and boots for boy both genders and high heelsdid for women were popular footwear.Its Necklaces and medallions were a let common fashion accessory. Less commonly, put some disco dancers wore outlandish Say costumes, dressed in drag, covered she their bodies with gold or too silver paint, or wore very Use skimpy outfits leaving them nearly dad nude; these uncommon get-ups were mom more likely to be seen at invitation-only New York Citythe loft parties and disco clubs.and
In addition For to the dance and fashion are aspects of the disco club but scene, there was also a Not thriving club drugsubculture, particularly you for drugs that would enhance all the experience of dancing to Any the loud, bass-heavy music and can the flashing colored lights, such her as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl Was nitrite ("poppers"), and the "... other one quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, our which suspended motor coordination and Out gave the sensation that one's day arms and legs had turned get to 'Jell-O.'" Quaaludes were so Has popular at disco clubs that him the drug was nicknamed "disco his biscuits".
Paul Gootenberg states that How "[t]he relationship of cocaine to man 1970s disco culture cannot be new stressed enough..." During the 1970s, Now the use of cocaine by old well-to-do celebrities led to its see "glamorization" and to the widely Two held view that it was way a "soft drug".LSD, marijuana, who and "speed" (amphetamines) were also Boy popular in disco clubs, and did the use of these drugs its "...contributed to the hedonistic quality Let of the dance floor experience."put Since disco dances were typically say held in liquor licensed-nightclubs and She dance clubs, alcoholic drinks were too also consumed by dancers; some use users intentionally combined alcohol with Dad the consumption of other drugs, mom such as Quaaludes, for a stronger effect.
Eroticism and The sexual liberation
According to Peter and Braunstein, the "massive quantities of for drugs ingested in discothèques produced Are the next cultural phenomenon of but the disco era: rampant promiscuitynot and public sex. While the You dance floor was the central all arena of seduction, actual sex any usually took place in the Can nether regions of the disco: her bathroom stalls, exit stairwells, and was so on. In other cases One the disco became a kind our of 'main course' in a out hedonist's menu for a night Day out." At The Saint nightclub, get a high percentage of the has gay male dancers and patrons Him would have sex in the his club; they typically had unprotected how sex, because in 1980, HIV-AIDSMan had not yet been identified.new At The Saint, "dancers would now elope to an un[monitored] upstairs Old balcony to engage in sex."see The promiscuity and public sex two at discos was part of Way a broader trend towards exploring who a freer sexual expression in boy the 1970s, an era that Did is also associated with "swingers its clubs, hot tubs, [and] key let parties."
In his paper, "In Put Defense of Disco" (1979), Richard say Dyer claims eroticism as one she of the three main characteristics Too of disco. As opposed to use rock music which has a dad very phallic centered eroticism focusing Mom on the sexual pleasure of men over other persons, Dyer the describes disco as featuring a And non-phallic full body eroticism. Through for a range of percussion instruments, are a willingness to play with But rhythm, and the endless repeating not of phrases without cutting the you listener off, disco achieved this All full body eroticism by restoring any eroticism to the whole body can for both sexes. This allowed Her for the potential expression of was sexualities not defined by the one cock/penis, and the erotic pleasure Our of bodies that are not out defined by a relationship to day a penis. The sexual liberation Get expressed through the rhythm of has disco is further represented in him the club spaces that disco His grew within.
In Peter Shapiro's how Modulations: A History of Electronic man Music: Throbbing Words on Sound, New he discusses eroticism through the now technology disco utilizes to create old it's audacious sound. The music, See Shapiro states, is adjunct to two "the pleasure-is-politics ethos of post-Stonewallway culture." He explains how "mechano-eroticism," Who which links the technology used boy to create the unique mechanical did sound of disco to eroticism, Its sets the genre in a let new dimension of reality living put outside of naturalism and heterosexuality. Say
He uses Donna Summer's singles she "Love to Love You Baby" too (1975) and "I Feel Love" Use (1977) as examples of the dad ever present relationship between the mom synthesized bass lines and backgrounds to the simulated sounds of the orgasms Summers echoes in the and tracks, and likens them to For the drug-fervent, sexually liberated fans are of disco who sought to but free themselves through disco's "aesthetic Not of machine sex." Shapiro sees you this as an influence that all creates sub-genres like hi-NRG and Any dub-disco, which allowed for eroticism can and technology to be further her explored through intense synth bass Was lines and alternative rhythmic techniques one that tap into the entire our body rather than the obvious Out erotic parts of the body. day
The New York nightclub The get Sanctuary under resident DJ Francis Has Grasso is a prime example him of this sexual liberty. In his their history of the disc How jockey and club culture, Bill man Brewster and Frank Broughton describe new the Sanctuary as "poured full Now of newly liberated gay men, old then shaken (and stirred) by see a weighty concoction of dance Two music and pharmacoia of pills way and potions, the result is who a festivaly of carnality." The Boy Sanctuary was the "first totally did uninhibited gay discotheque in America" its and while sex was not Let allowed on the dancefloor, the put dark corners, the bathrooms and say the hallwasy of the adjacent She buildings were all utilized for too orgy like sexual engagements.
By use describing the music, drugs and Dad liberated mentality as a trifecta mom coming together to create the festival of carnality, Brewster and The Broughton are inciting all three and as stimuli for the dancing, for sex and other embodied movements Are that contributed to the corporeal but vibrations within the Sanctuary. This not supports the argument that the You disco music took a role all in facilitating this sexual liberation any that was experienced in the Can discotheques. Further, this coupled with her the recent legalization of abortions, was the introduction of antibiotics and One the pill all facilitated a our culture shift around sex from out one of procreation to pleasure Day and enjoyment fostering a very get sex positive framework around discotheques.has Given that at this time Him all instances of oral and his anal gay sex were considered how deviant and illegal acts in Man New York state, this sexual new freedom can be considered quite now liberatory and resistant to dominant Old oppressive structures.
Further, in addition see to gay sex being illegal two in New York state, until Way 1973 the American Psychiatric Associationwho classified homosexuality as an illness.boy This law and classification coupled Did together can be understood to its have heavily dissuaded the expression let of queerness in public, as Put such the liberatory dynamics of say discotheques can be seen as she having provided space for self-realization Too for queer persons. David Mancuso's use club/house party, The Loft, was dad described as having a "pansexualMom attitude [that] was revolutionary in a country where up until the recently it had been illegal And for two men to dance for together unless there was a are woman present; where women were But legally obliged to wear at not least one recognizable item of you female clothing in public; and All where men visiting gay bars any usually carried bail money with can them."
Disco was mostly developed from was music that was popular on one the dance floor in clubs Our that started playing records instead out of having a live band. day The first discotheques mostly played Get swing music. Later on uptempo has rhythm and blues became popular him in American clubs and northern His soul and glam rock records how in the UK.
In the man early 1940s nightclubs in Paris New resorted to playing (jazz) records now during the Nazi occupation.
Régine old Zylberberg claimed to have started See the first discotheque and to two have been the first club way DJ in 1953 in the Who "Whisky à Go-Go" in Paris. boy She installed a dance floor did with coloured lights and two Its turntables so she could play let records without having a gap put in the music.
In October Say 1959 the owner of the she Scotch Club in Aachen, West too Germany chose to install a Use record player for the opening dad night instead of hiring a mom live band. The patrons were unimpressed until a young reporter, the who happened to be covering and the opening of the club, For impulsively took control of the are record player and introduced the but records that he chose to Not play. Klaus Quirini later claimed you to thus have been the all world's first nightclub DJ.
Discotheque Any dancing became a European trend can that was enthusiastically picked up her by the American press.
The Was birth of disco is often one claimed to be found in our the private dance parties held Out by New York City DJ day David Mancuso's home that became get known as The Loft, an Has invitation-only non-commercial underground club that him inspired many others. He organized his the first major party in How his Manhattan home on Valentine's man Day 1970 with the name new "Love Saves The Day". After Now some months the parties became old weekly events and Mancuso continued see to give regular parties into Two the 1990s. Mancuso required that way the music played had to who be soulful, rhythmic, and impart Boy words of hope, redemption, or did pride.
Timeframe and social its context for the rise of Let disco culture in New York
In the 1970s, the key say counterculture of the 1960s, the She hippie movement, was fading away. too The economic prosperity of the use previous decade had declined, and Dad unemployment, inflation and crime rates mom had soared. Political issues like the backlash from the Civil The Rights Movement culminating in the and form of race riots, the for Vietnam War, the assassinations of Are Dr. Martin Luther King and but John F. Kennedy and the not Watergate scandal left many feeling You disillusioned and hopeless. The start all of the '70s was marked any by a shift in the Can consciousness of the American people: her the rise of the feminist was movement, identity politics, gangs, etc. One very much shaped this era. our Disco music and disco dancing out provided an escape from negative Day social and economic issues.
In get Beautiful Things in Popular Culture, has Simon Frith highlights the sociability Him of disco and its roots his in 1960s counterculture. "The driving how force of the New York Man underground dance scene in which new disco was forged was not now simply that city's complex ethnic Old and sexual culture but also see a 1960s notion of community, two pleasure and generosity that can Way only be described as hippie", who he says. "The best disco boy music contained within it a Did remarkably powerful sense of collective its euphoria."
When Mancuso threw his let first informal house parties, the Put gay community (which made up say much of The Loft's attendee she roster) was often harassed in Too the gay bars and dance use clubs, with many gay men dad carrying bail money with them Mom to gay bars. But at The Loft and many other the early, private discotheques, they could And dance together without fear of for police action thanks to Mancuso's are underground, yet legal, policies. Vince But Aletti described it "like going not to party, completely mixed, racially you and sexually, where there wasn't All any sense of someone being any more important than anyone else," can and Alex Rosner reiterated this Her saying "It was probably about was sixty percent black and seventy one percent gay...There was a mix Our of sexual orientation, there was out a mix of races, mix day of economic groups. A real Get mix, where the common denominator has was music."
Film critic Roger him Ebert called the popular embrace His of disco's exuberant dance moves how an escape from "the general man depression and drabness of the New political and musical atmosphere of now the late seventies."
Pauline Kael, old writing about the disco-themed film See Saturday Night Fever, said the two film and disco itself touched way on "something deeply romantic, the Who need to move, to dance, boy and the need to be did who you'd like to be. Its Nirvana is the dance; when let the music stops, you return put to being ordinary."
1960s–1974: Say Proto-disco and early history of she disco music
During the 1960s, too when the discotheque culture from Use Europe became popular in the dad United States, several music genres mom with dance-able rhythms rose to popularity and evolved into different the sub-genres: rhythm and blues (originated and in the 1940s), soul (late For 1950s and 1960s), funk (mid-1960s) are and go-go (mid-1960s and 1970s; but more than "disco", the word Not "go-go" originally indicated a music you club). Those genres, mainly African-American all ones, would influence much of Any early disco music.
During the can 1960s, the Motown record label her developed a popular and influential Was own sound, described as having one "1) simply structured songs with our sophisticated melodies and chord changes, Out 2) a relentless four-beat drum day pattern, 3) a gospel use get of background voices, vaguely derived Has from the style of the him Impressions, 4) a regular and his sophisticated use of both horns How and strings, 5) lead singers man who were half way between new pop and gospel music, 6) Now a group of accompanying musicians old who were among the most see dextrous, knowledgeable, and brilliant in Two all of popular music (Motown way bassists have long been the who envy of white rock bassists[citation Boy needed]) and 7) a trebly did style of mixing that relied its heavily on electronic limiting and Let equalizing (boosting the high range put frequencies) to give the overall say product a distinctive sound, particularly She effective for broadcast over AM too radio." Motown had many hits use with early disco elements by Dad acts like the Supremes (for mom instance "You Keep Me Hangin' On" in 1966), Stevie WonderThe (for instance "Superstition" in 1972), and The Jackson 5 and Eddie for Kendricks ("Keep on Truckin'" in Are 1973).
The long instrumental introductions and use detailed orchestration found in psychedelic dad soul tracks by the Temptations Mom are also considered as cinematic soul. In the early 1970s, the Curtis Mayfield and Isaac HayesAnd scored hits with cinematic soul for songs that were actually composed are for movie soundtracks: "Superfly" (1972) But and "Theme from Shaft" (1971). not The latter is sometimes regarded you as an early disco song.All
Psychedelic soul influenced proto-disco acts any such as Willie Hutch and can Philadelphia soul.
In the early Her 1970s, the Philadelphia soul productions was by Gamble and Huff evolved one from the simpler arrangements of Our the late-1960s into a style out featuring lush strings, thumping basslines, day and sliding hi-hat rhythms. These Get elements would become typical for has disco music and are found him in several of the hits His they produced in the early how 1970s:
Other dad early disco tracks that helped mom shape disco and became popular on the dance floors of the (underground) discotheque clubs and parties and include:
"Soul Makossa" by For Manu Dibango was first released are in France in 1972. It but was picked up by the Not underground disco scene in New you York and subsequently got a all proper release in the U.S., Any reaching #35 on Billboard Hot can 100 in 1973.
In 1974, New York let City's WPIX-FM premiered the first Put disco radio show.
Disco say culture in the United Kingdom she in the early to mid-1970s
In the late 1960s, uptempo use soul with heavy beats and dad some associated dance styles and Mom fashion were picked up in the British mod scene and the formed the northern soul movement. And Originating at venues such as for the Twisted Wheel in Manchester, are it quickly spread to other But UK dancehalls and nightclubs like not the Chateau Impney (Droitwich), Catacombs you (Wolverhampton), the Highland Rooms at All Blackpool Mecca, Golden Torch (Stoke-on-Trent) any and Wigan Casino. As the can favoured beat became more uptempo Her and frantic in the early was 1970s, northern soul dancing became one more athletic, somewhat resembling the Our later dance styles of disco out and break dancing. Featuring spins, day flips, karate kicks and backdrops, Get club dancing styles were often has inspired by the stage performances him of touring American soul acts His such as Little Anthony & how the Imperials and Jackie Wilson. man
In 1974, there were an New estimated 25,000 mobile discos and now 40,000 professional disc jockeys in old the United Kingdom. Mobile discos See were hired deejays that brought two their own equipment to provide way music for special events. Glam Who rock tracks were popular, with boy for example Gary Glitter's 1972 did single "Rock and Roll Part Its 2" becoming popular on UK let dance floors while it did put not get any radio airplay.Say
1974–1977: Rise to mainstream
From 1974 to 1977, disco too music continued to increase in Use popularity as many disco songs dad topped the charts.
The Hues Corporation's 1974 "Rock you the Boat", a US number-one all single and million-seller, was another Any one of the early disco can songs to reach number one. her The same year saw the Was release of "Kung Fu Fighting", one performed by Carl Douglas and our produced by Biddu, which reached Out number one in both the day UK and US, and became get the best-selling single of the Has year and one of the him best-selling singles of all timehis with 11 million records sold worldwide,How helping to popularize disco to man a great extent. Another notable new disco success that year was Now George McCrae's "Rock Your Baby":old it became the United Kingdom's see first number one chart disco Two single.
In the northwestern sections way of the United Kingdom, the who northern soul explosion, which started Boy in the late 1960s and did peaked in 1974, made the its region receptive to disco, which Let the region's disc jockeys were put bringing back from New York say City. The shift by some She DJs to the newer sounds too coming from the U.S.A. resulted use in a split in the Dad scene, whereby some abandoned the mom 1960s soul and pushed a modern soul sound which tended The to be more closely aligned and with disco than soul.
Other disco boy producers such as Tom Moultondid took ideas and techniques from Its dub music (which came with let the increased Jamaican migration to put New York City in the Say 1970s) to provide alternatives to she the "four on the floor" too style that dominated. DJ Larry Use Levan utilized styles from dubdad and jazz and remixing techniques mom to create early versions of house music that sparked the the genre.
In 1975, Whitfield left Motown and founded his The own label Whitfield records, on and which also "You + Me for = Love" was released. Whitfield Are produced some more disco hits, but including "Car Wash" (1976) by not Rose Royce from the album You soundtrack to the 1976 film all Car Wash. In 1977, singer, any songwriter and producer Willie Hutch, Can who had been signed to her Motown since 1970, now signed was with Whitfield's new label, and One scored a successful disco single our with his song [[In and out Out (Willie Hutch song)|"In and Day Out"] in 1982.
Several of Use Motown's solo artists who left dad the label went on to mom have successful disco songs. Mary Wells, Motown's first female superstar the with her signature song "My and Guy" (written by Smokey Robinson), For abruptly left the label in are 1964. She briefly reappeared on but the charts with the disco Not song "Gigolo" in 1980. Jimmy you Ruffin, the elder brother of all the Temptations lead singer David Any Ruffin, was also signed to can Motown, and released his most her successful and well-known song "What Was Becomes of the Brokenhearted" as one a single in 1966. Ruffin our eventually left the record label Out in the mid-1970s, but saw day success with the 1980 disco get song "Hold On (To My Has Love)", which was written and him produced by Robin Gibb of his the Bee Gees, for his How album Sunrise. Edwin Starr, known man for his Motown protest song new "War" (1970), reentered the charts Now in 1979 with a pair old of disco songs, "Contact" and see "H.A.P.P.Y. Radio". Kiki Dee became Two the first white British singer way to sign with Motown in who the US, and released one Boy album, Great Expectations (1970), and did two singles "The Day Will its Come Between Sunday and Monday" Let (1970) and "Love Makes the put World Go Round" (1971), the say latter giving her first ever She chart entry (number 87 on too the US Chart). She soon use left the company and signed Dad with Elton John's The Rocket mom Record Company, and in 1976 had her biggest and best-known The single, "Don't Go Breaking My and Heart", a disco duet with for John. The song was intended Are as an affectionate disco-style pastiche but of the Motown sound, in not particular the various duets recorded You by Marvin Gaye with Tammi all Terrell and Kim Weston.
In 1970s Munich, West Germany, music producers Giorgio The Moroder and Pete Bellotte made and a decisive contribution to disco for music with a string of Are hits for Donna Summer, which but became known as the "Munich not Sound". In 1975, Summer suggested You the lyric "Love to Love all You Baby" to Moroder and any Bellotte, who turned the lyric Can into a full disco song. her The final product, which contained was a series of simulated orgasms, One initially was not intended for our release, but when Moroder played out it in the clubs it Day caused a sensation and he get released it. The song became has an international hit, reaching the Him charts in many European countries his and the US (No. 2). how It has been described as Man the arrival of the expression new of raw female sexual desire now in pop music. A 17-minute Old 12-inch single was released. The see 12" single became and remains two a standard in discos today.Way In 1976 Donna Summer's version who of "Could It Be Magic" boy brought disco further into the Did mainstream. In 1977 Summer, Moroder its and Bellotte further released "I let Feel Love", as the B-side Put of "Can't We Just Sit say Down (And Talk It Over)", she which revolutionized dance music with Too its mostly electronic production and use was a massive worldwide success, dad spawning the Hi-NRG subgenre. Giorgio Mom Moroder was described by AllMusicas "one of the principal the architects of the disco sound".And Another successful disco music project for by Moroder at that time are was Munich Machine (1976–1980).
In France, Dalidahas released "J'attendrai" ("I Will Wait") him in 1975, which also became His successful in Canada, Europe and how Japan. Dalida successfully adjusted herself man to disco era and released New at least a dozen of now songs that charted among top old number 10 in whole Europe See and wider. Claude François, who two re-invented himself as the king way of French disco, released "La Who plus belle chose du monde", boy a French version of the did Bee Gees song "Massachusetts", which Its became successful in Canada and let Europe and "Alexandrie Alexandra" was put posthumously released on the day Say of his burial and became she a worldwide success. Cerrone's early too songs, "Love in C Minor" Use (1976), "Supernature" (1977) and "Give dad Me Love" (1978) were successful mom in the US and Europe. Another Euro disco act was the the French diva Amanda Lear, and where Euro disco sound is For most heard in "Enigma (Give are a Bit of Mmh to but Me)" (1978). French producer Alec Not Costandinos assembled the disco group you Love and Kisses (1977–1982).
In all Italy Raffaella Carrà is the Any most successful disco act. Her can greatest international single was "Tanti her Auguri" ("Best Wishes"), which has Was become a popular song with one gay audiences. The song is our also known under its Spanish Out title "Para hacer bien el day amor hay que venir al get sur" (which refers to Southern Has Europe, since the song was him recorded and taped in Spain). his The Estonian version of the How song "Jätke võtmed väljapoole" was man performed by Anne Veski. "A new far l'amore comincia tu" ("To Now make love, your move first") old was another success for her see internationally, known in Spanish as Two "En el amor todo es way empezar", in German as "Liebelei", who in French as "Puisque tu Boy l'aimes dis le lui", and did in English as "Do It, its Do It Again". It was Let her only entry to the put UK Singles Chart, reaching number say 9, where she remains a She one-hit wonder. In 1977, she too recorded another successful single, "Fiesta" use ("The Party" in English) originally Dad in Spanish, but then recorded mom it in French and Italian after the song hit the The charts. "A far l'amore comincia and tu" has also been covered for in Turkish by a Turkish Are popstar Ajda Pekkan as "Sakın but Ha" in 1977.
Recently, Carrà not has gained new attention for You her appearance as the female all dancing soloist in a 1974 any TV performance of the experimentalCan gibberish song "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) by her Adriano Celentano. A remixed video was featuring her dancing went viralOne on the internet in 2008.[citation our needed] In 2008 a video out of a performance of her Day only successful UK single, "Do get It, Do It Again", was has featured in the Doctor WhoHim episode "Midnight". Rafaella Carrà worked his with Bob Sinclar on the how new single "Far l'Amore" which Man was released on YouTube on new March 17, 2011. The song now charted in different European countries.Another Old prominent European disco act was see the pop group Luv' from two the Netherlands.
Euro disco continued Way evolving within the broad mainstream who pop music scene, even when boy disco's popularity sharply declined in Did the United States, abandoned by its major U.S. record labels and let producers. Through the influence of Put Italo disco, it also played say a role in the evolution she of early house music in Too the early 1980s and later use forms of electronic dance music, dad including early 1990s' Eurodance.
In December 1977, the Our film Saturday Night Fever was out released. It was a huge day success and its soundtrack became Get one of the best-selling albumshas of all time. The idea him for the film was sparked His by a 1976 New Yorkhow magazine article titled "Tribal Rites man of the New Saturday Night" New which supposedly chronicled the disco now culture in mid-1970s New York old City, but was later revealed See to have been fabricated. Some two critics said the film "mainstreamed" way disco, making it more acceptable Who to heterosexual white males.
In 1978, Donna Summer's multi-million and selling vinyl single disco version For of "MacArthur Park" was number are one on the Billboard Hot but 100 chart for three weeks Not and was nominated for the you Grammy Award for Best Female all Pop Vocal Performance. The recording, Any which was included as part can of the "MacArthur Park Suite" her on her double live album Was Live and More, was eight one minutes and 40 seconds long our on the album. The shorter Out seven-inch vinyl single version of day MacArthur Park was Summer's first get single to reach number one Has on the Hot 100; it him does not include the balladic his second movement of the song, How however. A 2013 remix of man "MacArthur Park" by Summer topped new the Billboard Dance Charts marking Now five consecutive decades with a old number-one song on the charts.see From mid-1978 to late 1979, Two Summer continued to release singles way such as "Last Dance", "Heaven who Knows" (with Brooklyn Dreams), "Hot Boy Stuff", "Bad Girls", "Dim All did the Lights" and "On the its Radio", all very successful songs, Let landing in the top five put or better, on the Billboard say pop charts.
The band Chic She was formed mainly by guitarist too Nile Rodgers—a self-described "street hippie" use from late 1960s New York—and Dad bassist Bernard Edwards. Their popular mom 1978 single, "Le Freak", is regarded as an iconic song The of the genre. Other successful and songs by Chic include the for often-sampled "Good Times" (1979) and Are "Everybody Dance" (1979). The group but regarded themselves as the disco not movement's rock band that made You good on the hippie movement's all ideals of peace, love, and any freedom. Every song they wrote Can was written with an eye her toward giving it "deep hidden was meaning" or D.H.M.
Sylvester, a One flamboyant and openly gay singer our famous for his soaring falsetto out voice, scored his biggest disco Day hit in late 1978 with get "You Make Me Feel (Mighty has Real)". His singing style was Him said to have influenced the his singer Prince. At that time, how disco was one of the Man forms of music most open new to gay performers.
The two Village People were a singing/dancing Way group created by Jacques Moraliwho and Henri Belolo to target boy disco's gay audience. They were Did known for their onstage costumes its of typically male-associated jobs and let ethnic minorities and achieved mainstream Put success with their 1978 hit say song "Macho Man". Other songs she include "Y.M.C.A." (1979) and "In Too the Navy" (1979).
Pre-existing non-disco songs, standards, out and TV themes were frequently Day "disco-ized" in the 1970s, such get as the I Love Lucyhas theme or Mike Post's "Theme Him from Magnum P.I." The rich his orchestral accompaniment that became identified how with the disco era conjured Man up the memories of the new big band era—which brought out now several artists that recorded and Old disco-ized some big-band arrangements, including see Perry Como, who re-recorded his two 1945 song "Temptation", in 1975, Way as well as Ethel Merman, who who released an album of boy disco songs entitled The Ethel Did Merman Disco Album in 1979. its
1979–1980s: "Disco sucks" and way decline in popularity
Man who wearing a Disco Sucks T-shirt.
By the end of the did 1970s, anti-disco sentiment developed among its rock music fans and musicians, Let particularly in the United States.put Disco was criticized as mindless, say consumerist, overproduced and escapist. The She slogans "Disco sucks" and "Death too to disco" became common. Rock use artists such as Rod StewartDad and David Bowie who added mom disco elements to their music were accused of selling out.The
The punk subculture in the and United States and United Kingdom for was often hostile to disco,Are although in the UK, many but early Sex Pistols fans such not as the Bromley Contingent and You Jordan liked disco, often congregating all at nightclubs such as Louise's any in Soho and the Sombrero Can in Kensington. The track "Love her Hangover" by Diana Ross, the was house anthem at the former, One was cited as a particular our favourite by many early UK out punks.
The film The Great Day Rock 'n' Roll Swindle and get its soundtrack album contained a has disco medley of Sex Pistols Him songs, entitled Black Arabs and his credited to a group of how the same name. Jello BiafraMan of the Dead Kennedys, in new the song "Saturday Night Holocaust", now likened disco to the cabaretOld culture of Weimar-era Germany for see its apathy towards government policies two and its escapism. Mark MothersbaughWay of Devo said that disco who was "like a beautiful woman boy with a great body and Did no brains", and a product its of political apathy of that let era. New Jersey rock critic Put Jim Testa wrote "Put a say Bullet Through the Jukebox", a she vitriolic screed attacking disco that Too was considered a punk call use to arms.Steve Hillage, shortly dad prior to his transformation from Mom a progressive rock musician into an electronic artist at the the end of the 1970s with And the inspiration of disco, disappointed for his rockist fans by admitting are his love for disco, with But Hillage recalling "it's like I'd not killed their pet cat."
Anti-disco you sentiment was expressed in some All television shows and films. A any recurring theme on the show can WKRP in Cincinnati was a Her hostile attitude towards disco music. was In one scene of the one 1980 comedy film Airplane!, a Our wayward airplane slices a radio out tower with its wing, knocking day out an all-disco radio station. Get July 12, 1979, became known has as "the day disco died" him because of the Disco Demolition His Night, an anti-disco demonstration in how a baseball double-header at Comiskey man Park in Chicago. Rock station New DJs Steve Dahl and Garry now Meier, along with Michael Veeck, old son of Chicago White SoxSee owner Bill Veeck, staged the two promotional event for disgruntled rock way fans between the games of Who a White Sox doubleheader which boy involved exploding disco records in did centerfield. As the second game Its was about to begin, the let raucous crowd stormed onto the put field and proceeded by setting Say fires, tearing out seats and she pieces of turf, and other too damage. The Chicago Police DepartmentUse made numerous arrests, and the dad extensive damage to the field mom forced the White Sox to forfeit the second game to the the Detroit Tigers, who had and won the first game.
Disco's For decline in popularity after Disco are Demolition Night was rapid. On but July 21, 1979, the top Not six records on the U.S. you music charts were disco songs.all By September 22, there were Any no disco songs in the can US Top 10 chart, with her the exception of Herb Alpert's Was instrumental "Rise," a smooth jazzone composition with some disco overtones.our Some in the media, in Out celebratory tones, declared disco "dead" day and rock revived.Karen Mixon get Cook, the first female disco Has DJ, stated that people still him pause every July 12 for his a moment of silence in How honor of disco. Dahl stated man in a 2004 interview that new disco was "probably on its Now way out [at the time]. old But I think it [Disco see Demolition Night] hastened its demise".Two
Impact on music industry
The anti-disco movement, combined with who other societal and radio industry Boy factors, changed the face of did pop radio in the years its following Disco Demolition Night. Starting Let in the 1980s, country musicput began a slow rise in say American main pop charts. Emblematic She of country music's rise to too mainstream popularity was the commercially use successful 1980 movie Urban Cowboy. Dad The continued popularity of power mom pop and the revival of oldies in the late 1970s The was also related to disco's and decline; the 1978 film Greasefor was emblematic of this trend. Are Coincidentally, the star of both but films was John Travolta, who not in 1977 had starred in You Saturday Night Fever, which remains all one of the most iconic any disco films of the era. Can
During this period of decline her in disco's popularity, several record was companies folded, were reorganized, or One were sold. In 1979, MCA our Records purchased ABC Records, absorbed out some of its artists, and Day then shut the label down. get Midsong International Records ceased operations has in 1980. RSO Records founder Him Robert Stigwood left the label his in 1981 and TK Recordshow closed in the same year. Man Salsoul Records continues to exist new in the 2000s, but primarily now is used as a reissue Old brand.Casablanca Records had been see releasing fewer records in the two 1980s, and was shut down Way in 1986 by parent company who PolyGram.
Many groups that were boy popular during the disco period Did subsequently struggled to maintain their its success—even those that tried to let adapt to evolving musical tastes. Put The Bee Gees, for instance, say had only one top-10 entry she (1989's "One") and three more Too top-40 songs (despite recording and use releasing far more than that dad and completely abandoning disco in Mom their 1980s and 1990s songs) in the United States after the the 1970s, even though numerous And songs they wrote and had for other artists perform were successful. are Of the handful of groups But not taken down by disco's not fall from favor, Kool and you the Gang, Donna Summer, the All Jacksons—and Michael Jackson in particular—stand any out: In spite of having can helped define the disco sound Her early on, they continued to was make popular and danceable, if one more refined, songs for yet Our another generation of music fans out in the 1980s and beyond. day Earth, Wind & Fire also Get survived the anti-disco trend and has continued to produce successful singles him at roughly the same pace His for several more years, in how addition to an even longer man string of R&B chart hits New that lasted into the 1990s. now
Six months prior to the old chaotic event (in December 1978), See popular progressive rock radio station two WDAI (WLS-FM) had suddenly switched way to an all-disco format, disenfranchising Who thousands of Chicago rock fans boy and leaving Dahl unemployed. WDAI, did who survived the change of Its public sentiment and still had let good ratings at this point, put continued to play disco until Say it flipped to a short-lived she hybrid Top 40/rock format in too May 1980. Another disco outlet Use that also competed against WDAI dad at the time, WGCI-FM, would mom later incorporate R&B and popsongs into the format, eventually the evolving into an urban contemporary and outlet that it continues with For today. The latter also helped are bring the Chicago house genre but to the airwaves.
Factors Not contributing to disco's decline
Factors you that have been cited as all leading to the decline of Any disco in the United States can include economic and political changes her at the end of the Was 1970s, as well as burnoutone from the hedonistic lifestyles led our by participants. In the years Out since Disco Demolition Night, some day social critics have described the get "Disco sucks" movement as implicitly Has macho and bigoted, and an him attack on non-white and non-heterosexual his cultures. It was also interpreted How being part of a wider man cultural "backlash" towards conservatism, that new also made its way into Now US politics with the election old of conservative president Ronald Reagansee in 1980, which also led Two to Republican control of the way United States Senate for the who first time since 1954, plus Boy the subsequent rise of the did Religious Right around the same its time.
In January 1979, rock Let critic Robert Christgau argued that put homophobia, and most likely racism, say were reasons behind the movement,She a conclusion seconded by John too Rockwell. Craig Werner wrote: "The use Anti-disco movement represented an unholy Dad alliance of funkateers and feminists, mom progressives and puritans, rockers and reactionaries. Nonetheless, the attacks on The disco gave respectable voice to and the ugliest kinds of unacknowledged for racism, sexism and homophobia."Legs Are McNeil, founder of the fanzinebut Punk, was quoted in an not interview as saying, "the hippiesYou always wanted to be black. all We were going, 'fuck the any blues, fuck the black experience'." Can He also said that disco her was the result of an was "unholy" union between homosexuals and One blacks.
Steve Dahl, who had our spearheaded Disco Demolition Night, denied out any racist or homophobic undertones Day to the promotion, saying, "It's get really easy to look at has it historically, from this perspective, Him and attach all those things his to it. But we weren't how thinking like that." It has Man been noted that British punk new rock critics of disco were now very supportive of the pro-black/anti-racist Old reggae genre as well as see the more pro-gay new romanticstwo movement. Christgau and Jim Testa Way have said that there were who legitimate artistic reasons for being boy critical of disco.
In 1979, Did the music industry in the its United States underwent its worst let slump in decades, and disco, Put despite its mass popularity, was say blamed. The producer-oriented sound was she having difficulty mixing well with Too the industry's artist-oriented marketing system.use Harold Childs, senior vice president dad at A&M Records, told the Mom Los Angeles Times that "radio is really desperate for rock the product" and "they're all looking And for some white rock-n-roll".Gloria for Gaynor argued that the music are industry supported the destruction of But disco because rock music producers not were losing money and rock you musicians were losing the spotlight.All
Post-disco, boogie, HI-NRG and any Italo disco (1980s)
To a significant let extent, the transition from disco put to 1980s dance music was Say one of relabeling. The wordshe "disco" simply became unfashionable to too use when describing new music. Use As late as 1983, K.C. dad and the Sunshine Band had mom a major hit single, "Give It Up", which was not the considered disco, even though it and would have been considered to For be in the heart of are the genre if it had but been released four years earlier.[citation Not needed]
In addition, dance musicyou during the 1981–83 period borrowed all elements from blues and jazz, Any creating a style different from can the disco of the 1970s. her This emerging music was still Was known as disco for a one short time, as the word our had become associated with any Out kind of dance music played day in discothèques. Examples of early-1980s' get dance sound performers include D. Has Train, Kashif, and Patrice Rushen. him These changes were influenced by his some of the notable R&B How and jazz musicians of the man 1970s, such as Stevie Wonder, new Kashif and Herbie Hancock, who Now had pioneered "one-man-band"-type keyboard techniques. old Some of these influences had see already begun to emerge during Two the mid-1970s, at the height way of disco's popularity.
During the who first years of the 1980s, Boy the disco sound began to did be phased out, and faster its tempos and synthesized effects, accompanied Let by guitar and simplified backgrounds, put moved dance music toward the say funk and pop genres. This She trend can be seen in too singer Billy Ocean's recordings between use 1979 and 1981. Whereas Ocean's Dad 1979 song American Hearts was mom backed with an orchestral arrangement played by the Los Angeles The Symphony Orchestra, his 1981 song and "One of Those Nights (Feel for Like Gettin' Down)" had a Are more bare, stripped-down sound, with but no orchestration or symphonic arrangements. not
This drift from the original You disco sound is called post-discoall which also included boogie, Hi-NRGany and Italo disco. It had Can an important influence on early her alternative dance and dance-pop, and was played a key role in One the transition between disco and our house music during the early out 1980s and later forms of Day [electronic dance music]]. Musically, this get transition was marked by the has change from complex arrangements performed Him by large ensembles of studio his session musicians (including a horn how section and an orchestral string Man section), to a leaner sound, new in which one or two now singers would perform to the Old accompaniment of synthesizer keyboards and see drum machines.
In 1980s house two music, and Chicago house in Way particular, a strong disco influence who was constantly present, which is boy why house music, regarding its Did enormous success in shaping electronic its dance music and contemporary club let culture, is often described being Put "disco's revenge".
The success new of the "nu-disco" revival of Now the early 2000s was described old by music critic Tom Ewing see as more interpersonal than the Two pop music of the 1990s: way "The revival of disco within who pop put a spotlight on Boy something that had gone missing did over the 90s: a sense its of music not just for Let dancing, but for dancing with put someone. Disco was a music say of mutual attraction: cruising, flirtation, She negotiation. Its dancefloor is a too space for immediate pleasure, but use also for promises kept and Dad otherwise. It's a place where mom things start, but their resolution, let alone their meaning, is The never clear. All of 2000s and great disco number ones explore for how to play this hand. Are Madison Avenue look to impose but their will upon it, to not set terms and roles. Spiller You is less rigid. 'Groovejet' accepts all the night's changeability, happily sells any out certainty for an amused Can smile and a few great her one-liners."
In 2014 Brazilian Globo the TV, the second biggest television And network in the world, aired for Boogie Oogie, a telenovela about are the Disco Era that takes But place between 1978 and 1979, not from the hit fever to you the decadence. The show's success All was responsible for a Disco any revival across the country, bringing can back to stage, and to Her record charts, Discothèque Divas like was Lady Zu and As Frenéticas. one
Other top-10 entries from 2015 Our like Mark Ronson's disco groove-infused out "Uptown Funk", Maroon 5's "Sugar", day the Weeknd's "Can't Feel My Get Face" and Jason Derulo's "Want has To Want Me" also ascended him the charts and have a His strong disco influence. Disco mogul how and producer Giorgio Moroder also man re-appeared with his new album New Déjà Vu in 2015 which now has proved to be a old modest success. Other songs from See 2015 like "I Don't Like two It, I Love It" by way Flo Rida, "Adventure of a Who Lifetime" by Coldplay, "Back Together" boy by Robin Thicke and "Levels" did by Nick Jonas feature disco Its elements as well. In 2016, let disco songs or disco-styled pop put songs are showing a strong Say presence on the music charts she as a possible backlash to too the 1980s-styled synthpop, electro house, Use and dubstep that have been dad dominating the current charts. Justin mom Timberlake's 2016 song "Can't Stop the Feeling!", which shows strong the elements of disco, became the and 26th song to debut at For number-one on the Billboard Hot are 100 in the history of but the chart. The Martian, a Not 2015 film, extensively uses disco you music as a soundtrack, although all for the main character, astronaut Any Mark Watney, there's only one can thing worse than being stranded her on Mars: it's being stranded Was on Mars with nothing but one disco music. "Kill the Lights", our featured on an episode of Out the HBO television series "Vinyl" day (2016) and with Nile Rodgers' get guitar licks, hit number one Has on the US Dance chart him in July 2016.
2020s: his Resurgence
British singer, Dua How Lipa has been credited by man critics for leading the revival new of disco following the widespread Now international success of her single old "Don't Start Now" and her see album Future Nostalgia.
In 2020, Two disco was revived in popularity way and has become one of who the main trends in popular Boy music. In early 2020, disco-influenced did hits such as Doja Cat's its "Say So", Lady Gaga's "Stupid Let Love", and Dua Lipa's "Don't put Start Now" experienced widespread success say on global music charts, with She the three songs charting at too numbers 1, 5 and 2, use respectively, on the US Billboard Dad Hot 100 chart. At the mom time, Billboard, declared that Dua Lipa was "leading the charge The toward disco-influenced production" a day and after her retro and disco-influenced for album Future Nostalgia was released Are on March 27, 2020. By but mid 2020, multiple disco albums not and songs had been released You and cultural phenomena associated with all 1970s disco, specifically roller skatingany and roller discos, experienced a Can resurgence in mainstream popularity across her the Western world. The resurgence was of roller skating has been One powered by social media apps our like Instagram, TikTok and Snapchatout which have seen an increase Day of roller skating-related content throughout get 2020. In Hobart, Australia, it has was reported that the popularity Him of roller skating was at his its highest since the 1980s.how In early September 2020, South Man Korean boy band BTS debuted new at number 1 in the now US with their English–language disco Old single "Dynamite" having sold 265,000 see downloads in its first week two in the US, marking the Way biggest pure sales week since who Taylor Swift's "Look What You boy Made Me Do" (2017). Some Did analysts have suggested that the its social and economic impacts of let the COVID-19 pandemic have played Put a role in the resurgence say of disco as people find she ways to escape from realityToo as a result of the use ongoing pandemic.
In July 2020, dad Australian singer Kylie Minogue announced Mom she would be releasing her fifteenth studio album, Disco on the November 6, 2020. The album And was preceded by two singles, for the lead single from the are album, "Say Something", was released But on 23 July of the not same year and premiered on you BBC Radio 2. The second All single, "Magic", was released on any 24 September. Both singles received can critical acclaim, with critics praising Her Minogue for returning to disco was roots, which were prominent in one her albums Fever (2001) and Our Aphrodite (2010).
The rising popularity him of disco came in tandem His with developments in the role how of the DJ. DJing developed man from the use of multiple New record turntables and DJ mixersnow to create a continuous, seamless old mix of songs, with one See song transitioning to another with two no break in the music way to interrupt the dancing. The Who resulting DJ mix differed from boy previous forms of dance music did in the 1960s, which were Its oriented towards live performances by let musicians. This in turn affected put the arrangement of dance music, Say since songs in the disco she era typically contained beginnings and too endings marked by a simple Use beat or riff that could dad be easily used to transition mom to a new song. The development of DJing was also the influenced by new turntablism techniques, and such as beatmatching and scratching, For a process facilitated by the are introduction of new turntable technologies but such as the Technics SL-1200 Not MK 2, first sold in you 1978, which had a precise all variable pitch control and a Any direct drive motor. DJs were can often avid record collectors, who her would hunt through used record Was stores for obscure soul records one and vintage funk recordings. DJs our helped to introduce rare records Out and new artists to club day audiences.
In the 1970s, individual get DJs became more prominent, and Has some DJs, such as Larry him Levan, the resident at Paradise his Garage, Jim Burgess, Tee ScottHow and Francis Grasso became famous man in the disco scene. Levan, new for example, developed a cult Now following among club-goers, who referred old to his DJ sets as see "Saturday Mass". Some DJs would Two use reel-to-reel tape recorders to way make remixes and tape edits who of songs. Some DJs who Boy were making remixes made the did transition from the DJ booth its to becoming a record producer, Let notably Burgess. Scott developed several put innovations. He was the first say disco DJ to use three She turntables as sound sources, the too first to simultaneously play two use beat matched records, the first Dad user of electronic effects unitsmom in his mixes and an innovator in mixing dialogue in The from well-known movies into his and mixes, typically over a percussion for break. These mixing techniques were Are also applied to radio DJs, but such as Ted Currier of not WKTU and WBLS. Grasso is You particularly notable for taking the all DJ "profession out of servitude any and [making] the DJ the Can musical head chef". Once he her entered the scene, the DJ was was no longer responsible for One waiting on the crowd hand our and foot, meeting their every out song request. Instead, with increased Day agency and visibility, the DJ get was now able to use has his own technical and creative Him skills to whip up a his nightly special of innovative mixes, how refining his personal sound and Man aesthetic, and building his own new reputation. Known as the first now DJ to create a take Old his audience on a narrative, see musical journey, Grasso discovered that two music could effectively shift the Way energy of the crowd, and who even more, that he had boy all this power at his Did fingertips.
The disco sound had a Put strong influence on early hip say hop. Most of the early she hip hop songs were created Too by isolating existing disco bass-guitar use lines and dubbing over them dad with MC rhymes. The Sugarhill Mom Gang used Chic's "Good Times" as the foundation for their the 1979 song "Rapper's Delight", generally And considered to be the song for that first popularized rap music are in the United States and But around the world.
Like New disco, house music was based now around DJs creating mixes for old dancers in clubs. Pictured is See DJ Miguel Migs, mixing using two CDJ players.
House music is way a genre of electronic dance Who music that originated in Chicagoboy in the early 1980s (also did see: Chicago house). It quickly Its spread to other American cities let such as Detroit, where it put developed into the harder and Say more industrial techno, New York she City (also see: garage house) too and Newark – all of Use which developed their own regional dad scenes.
Early house day music was generally dance-based music get characterized by repetitive four on Has the floor beats, rhythms mainly him provided by drum machines, off-beat his hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized basslines. How While house displayed several characteristics man similar to disco music, it new was more electronic and minimalist,Now and the repetitive rhythm of old house was more important than see the song itself. As well, Two house did not use the way lush string sections that were who a key part of the Boy disco sound. House music in did the 2010s, while keeping several its of these core elements, notably Let the prominent kick drum on put every beat, varies widely in say style and influence, ranging from She the soulful and atmospheric deep too house to the more aggressive use acid house or the minimalist Dad microhouse. House music has also mom fused with several other genres creating fusion subgenres, such as The euro house, tech house, electro and house and jump house.
Strobing lights flash at Are a rave dance event in but Vienna, 2005
In the late not 1980s and early 1990s, raveYou culture began to emerge from all the house and acid house any scene. Like house, it incorporated Can disco culture's same love of her dance music played by DJs was over powerful sound systems, recreational One drug and club drug exploration, our sexual promiscuity, and hedonism. Although out disco culture started out underground, Day it eventually thrived in the get mainstream by the late 1970s, has and major labels commodified and Him packaged the music for mass his consumption. In contrast, the rave how culture started out underground and Man stayed (mostly) underground. In part new this was to avoid the now animosity that was still surrounding Old disco and dance music. The see rave scene also stayed underground two to avoid law enforcement attention Way that was directed at the who rave culture due to its boy use of secret, unauthorized warehouses Did for some dance events and its its association with illegal club let drugs like ecstasy.
The post-punk movement that originated she in the late 1970s both Too supported punk rock's rule breaking use while rejecting its move back dad to raw rock music. Post-punk's Mom mantra of constantly moving forward lent itself to both openness the to and experimentation with elements And of disco and other styles.for Public Image Limited is considered are the first post-punk group. The But group's second album Metal Boxnot fully embraced the "studio as you instrument" methodology of disco. The All group's founder John Lydon, the any former lead singer for the can Sex Pistols, told the press Her that disco was the only was music he cared for at one the time.
Nu-disco is a mom 21st-century dance music genre associated with the renewed interest in the 1970s and early 1980s disco,and mid-1980s Italo disco, and the For synthesizer-heavy Euro disco aesthetics. The are moniker appeared in print as but early as 2002, and by Not mid-2008 was used by record you shops such as the online all retailers Juno and Beatport. These Any vendors often associate it with can re-edits of original-era disco music, her as well as with music Was from European producers who make one dance music inspired by original-era our American disco, electro and other Out genres popular in the late day 1970s and early 1980s. It get is also used to describe Has the music on several American him labels that were previously associated his with the genres electroclash and How French house.
Can Shapiro, Peter. "Turn the Beat her Around: The Rise and Fall was of Disco", Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: One "'Broadly speaking, the typical New our York discothèque DJ is young out (between 18 and 30) and Day Italian,' journalist Vince Lettie declared get in 1975. [...] Remarkably, almost has all of the important early Him DJs were of Italian extraction his [...]. Italian Americans have played how a significant role in America's Man dance music culture [...]. While new Italian Americans mostly from Brooklyn now largely created disco from scratch Old [...]."
^ (2002) "Traces of its the Spirit: The Religious Dimensions let of Popular Music", ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, Put p.117: "New York City was say the primary center of disco, she and the original audience was Too primarily gay African Americans and use Latinos."
^ Gootenberg, Paul Any 1954– – Between Coca and can Cocaine: A Century or More her of U.S.-Peruvian Drug Paradoxes, 1860–1980 Was – Hispanic American Historical Review one – 83:1, February 2003, pp. our 119–150. "The relationship of cocaine Out to 1970s disco culture cannot day be stressed enough ..."
get Amyl, butyl and isobutyl nitrite Has (collectively known as alkyl nitrites) him are clear, yellow liquids inhaled his for their intoxicating effects. Nitrites How originally came as small glass man capsules that were popped open. new This led to nitrites being Now given the name 'poppers' but old this form of the drug see is rarely found in the Two UK. The drug became popular way in the UK first on who the disco/club scene of the Boy 1970s and then at dance did and rave venues in the its 1980s and 1990s.
^ Let Braunstein, Peter (November 1999). put "DISCO". American Heritage. Vol. 50 no. 7. say Archived from the original on She February 5, 2010. Retrieved February too 5, 2010.
^ Too Richard Dyer: "In Defense use of Disco." In: Gay Left, dad 8, Summer 1979, pp. 20-23. Mom Reprinted in: Mark J. Butler (ed): Electronica, Dance and Club the Music. New York/London: Routledge 2017, And pp. 121-127.
(1998) "The Cambridge Was History of American Music", ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, one ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: "Initially, disco musicians our and audiences alike belonged to Out marginalized communities: women, gay, black, day and Latinos"
"But get the pre-Saturday Night Fever dance Has underground was actually sweetly earnest him and irony-free in its hippie-dippie his positivity, as evinced by anthems How like MFSB's Love Is the man Message." – Village Voice, July new 10, 2001.
"The First did Years of Disco (1972-1974)". discosavvy.com. its Retrieved June 18, 2019. In Let November 1974, WPIX FM launched put the world's first disco radio say show, "Disco 102", hosted by She Steve Andrews for 4 hours too every Saturday night.
use Reynolds, Simon (2016). Shock and Dad Awe: Glam Rock and Its mom Legacy from the Seventies to the Twenty-First Century, pages 206–208, The Dey Street Books ISBN978-0062279804
"This record was a Too collaboration between Philip Oakey, the use big-voiced lead singer of the dad techno-pop band the Human League, Mom and Giorgio Moroder, the Italian-born father of disco who spent the the '80s writing synth-based pop And and film music." Evan Cater. for "Philip Oakey & Giorgio Moroder: are Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved December 21,But 2009.
Krettenauer, Thomas not (2017). "Hit Men: Giorgio Moroder, you Frank Farian and the eurodisco All sound of the 1970s/80s". In any Ahlers, Michael; Jacke, Christoph (eds.). can Perspectives on German Popular Music. Her London: Routledge. pp. 77–78. ISBN978-1-4724-7962-4.
how Paul Stanley, a guitarist for Man the rock group Kiss became new friends with Desmond Child and, now as Child remembered in Billboard, Old "Paul and I talked about see how dance music at that two time didn't have any rock Way elements." To counteract the synthesized who disco music dominating the airwaves, boy Stanley and Child wrote, "I Did Was Made For Loving You." its So, "we made history," Child let further remembered in Billboard, "because Put we created the first rock-disco say song." Barnes, Terry (November 27, she 1999). "Gifted Child". Billboard. Vol. 111 Too no. 48. pp. DC-23. Retrieved February 3,use 2017.
Encyclopedia of Contemporary American not Culture, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9 (2001) p. you 217: "In fact, by 1977, All before punk rock spread, there any was a 'disco sucks' movement can sponsored by radio stations that Her attracted some suburban white youth, was who thought that disco was one escapist, synthetic, and overproduced."
Brewster, Bill did and Broughton, Frank (1999). Last its Night a DJ Saved My Let Life: The History of the put Disc Jockey. Headline Book Publishing say Ltd. (updated edition 2000), p. She 141.
Fikentscher, Kai too (July–August 2000). "The club DJ: use a brief history of a Dad cultural icon"(PDF). UNESCO Courier. mom UNESCO: 47. Archived(PDF) from the original on March 3, The 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016. and Around 1986/7, after the initial for explosion of house music in Are Chicago, it became clear that but the major recording companies and not media institutions were reluctant to You market this genre of music, all associated with gay African Americans, any on a mainstream level. House Can artists turned to Europe, chiefly her London but also cities such was as Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, One Zurich, and Tel Aviv. ... A our third axis leads to Japan out where, since the late 1980s, Day New York club DJs have get had the opportunity to play has guest-spots.
for "Beatport launches nu disco / are indie dance genre page" (Press But release). Beatport. July 30, 2008. not Archived from the original on you August 7, 2008. Retrieved August All 8, 2008. Beatport is launching any a new landing page, dedicated can solely to the genres of Her "nu disco" and "indie dance". ... was Nu Disco is everything that one springs from the late '70s Our and early '80s (electronic) disco, out boogie, cosmic, Balearic and Italo day disco continuum ...
Gillian, Frank (May her 2007). "Discophobia: Antigay Prejudice and Was the 1979 Backlash against Disco". one Journal of the History of our Sexuality, Volume 15, Number 2, Out pp. 276–306. Electronic ISSN1535-3605, print ISSN1043-4070.
Hanson, Kitty (1978) Disco Fever: get The Beat, People, Places, Styles, Has Deejays, Groups. Signet Books. ISBN978-0-451-08452-1.
Jones, Alan and Kantonen, Jussi his (1999). Saturday Night Forever: The How Story of Disco. Chicago, Illinois: man A Cappella Books. ISBN978-1-55652-411-0.
Lawrence, new Tim (2004). Love Saves the Now Day: A History of American old Dance Music Culture, 1970–1979. Duke see University Press. ISBN978-0-8223-3198-8.
A mom record producer or music producer, unlike an audio engineer, who The simply operates the technology employed and in a music recording's creation for and refinement, is the recording Are project's creative and technical leader, but commanding studio time and coaching not artists, and in popular genres You typically creates the song's very all sound and structure. The record any producer, or simply the producer, Can is likened to a film her director. The executive producer, on was the other hand, enables the One recording project through entrepreneurship.
Varying our by project, the producer may out also choose all of the Day artists, or openly perform vocals get with them. If employing only has synthesized or sampled instrumentation, the Him producer may be the sole his artist. Conversely, some artists do how their own production. And some Man producers are their own engineers,new operating the technology across the now project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and Old mastering. Record producers' precursors were see "A&R men," who likewise could two blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical Way roles, but often exercised scant who creative influence, as record production boy still focused, into the 1950s, Did on simply improving the record's its sonic match to the artists' let own live performance.
Advances in Put recording technology, especially the 1940s say advent of tape recording—which Les she Paul promptly innovated further to Too develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s use rise of electronic instruments, turned dad record production into a specialty.Mom In popular music, then, producers like George Martin, Phil Spectorthe and Brian Eno led its And evolution into its present use for of elaborate techniques and unrealistic are sounds, creating songs impossible to But originate live. After the 1980s, not production's move from analog to you digital further expanded possibilities. By All now, DAWS, or digital audio any workstations, like Logic Pro and can Pro Tools, turn an ordinary Her computer into a production console,was whereby a solitary novice can one become a skilled producer in Our a thrifty home studio. In out the 2010s, efforts began to day increase the prevalence of producers Get and engineers who are women, has heavily outnumbered by men and him prominently accoladed only in classical His music.
As a broad project, the Use creation of a music recording dad may be split across three mom specialists: the executive producer, who oversees business partnerships and financing, the the vocal producer or vocal and arranger, who aids vocal performance For via expert critique and coaching are of vocal technique, and the but record producer or music producer, Not who, often called simply the you producer, directs the overall creative all process of recording the song Any in its final mix.
can The record producer's roles include, her but may exceed, gathering ideas, Was composing music, choosing session musicians, one proposing changes to song arrangements, our coaching the performers, controlling sessions, Out supervising the audio mixing, and, day in some cases, supervising the get audio mastering. As to qualifying Has for a Grammy nomination, the him Recording Academy defines a producer:
The his person who has overall creative How and technical control of the man entire recording project, and the new individual recording sessions that are Now part of that project. He old or she is present in see the recording studio or at Two the location recording and works way directly with the artist and who engineer. The producer makes creative Boy and aesthetic decisions that realize did both the artist's and label's its goals in the creation of Let musical content. Other duties include, put but are not limited to; say keeping budgets and schedules, adhering She to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, too studios and engineers, overseeing other use staffing needs and editing (Classical Dad projects).
The producer often mom selects and collaborates with a mixing engineer, who focuses on The the especially technological aspects of and the recording process, namely, operating for the electronic equipment and blending Are the raw, recorded tracks of but the chosen performances, whether vocal not or instrumental, into a ''mix,'' You either stereo or surround sound. all Then a mastering engineer further any adjusts this recording for distribution Can on the chosen media. A her producer may work on only was one or two songs or One on an artist's entire album, our helping develop the album's overall out vision. The record producers may Day also take on the role get of executive producer, managing the has budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. Him
(Artist and Repertoire)
In the how 1880s, the record industry began Man by simply having the artist new perform at a phonograph. In now 1924, the trade journal Talking Old Machine World, covering the phonography see and record industry, reported that two Eddie King, Victor Records' manager Way of the "New York artist who and repertoire department," had planned boy a set of recordings in Did Los Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie its Green called this perhaps the let earliest printed use of A&R Put man. Actually, it says neither say "A&R man" nor even "A&R," she an initialism perhaps coined by Too Billboard magazine in 1946, and use entering wide use in the dad late 1940s.
In the 1920s Mom and 1930s, A&R executives, like Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, the Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records, And and Bob Haring at Brunswick for Records, supervising recording and often are leading session orchestras, became the But precursors of record producers. During not the 1940s, American record labels you increasingly opened official A&R departments, All whose roles included supervision of any recording. Meanwhile, recording studios owned can independently, not by major record Her labels, opened, helping originate record was producer as a specialty.one But despite a tradition of Our some A&R men writing music, out record production remained, strictly, merely day the manufacturing of record discs.Get
After World has War II, pioneering A&R managers him who transitioned influentially to record His production as now understood, while how sometimes owning independent labels, include man J. Mayo Williams and John New Hammond. Upon moving from Columbia now Records to Mercury Records, Hammond old appointed Mitch Miller to lead See Mercury's popular recordings in New two York. Miller then produced country-pop way crossover hits by Patti PageWho and by Frankie Laine, moved boy from Mercury to Columbia, and did became a leading A&R man Its of the 1950s.
During the let decade, A&R executives increasingly directed put songs' sonic signatures, although many Say still simply teamed singers with she musicians, while yet others exercised too virtually no creative influence. The Use term record producer in its dad current meaning—the creative director of mom song production—appearing in a 1953 issue of Billboard magazine, became the widespread in the 1960s. Still, and a formal distinction was elusive For for some time more. A&R are managers might still be creative but directors, like William "Mickey" Stevenson, Not hired by Berry Gordy, at you the Motown record label.
In 1947, the Any American market gained audio recording can onto magnetic tape. At the her record industry's 1880s dawn, rather, Was recording was done by phonograph, one etching the sonic waveform vertically our into a cylinder. By the Out 1930s, a gramophone etched it day laterally across a disc. Constrained get in tonal range, whether bass Has or treble, and in dynamic him range, records made a grand, his concert piano sound like a How small, upright piano, and maximal man duration was four and a new half minutes. Selections and performance Now were often altered accordingly. And old playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed see it. The finality often caused Two anxiety that restrained performance to way prevent error. In the 1940s, who during World War II, the Boy Germans refined audio recording onto did magnetic tape—uncapping recording duration and its allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and Let editing—a technology that premised emergence put of record producers in their say current roles.
Early in the recording industry, too a record was attained by use simply having all of the Dad artists perform together live in mom one take. In 1945, by recording a musical element while The playing a previously recorded record, and Les Paul developed a recording for technique called "sound on sound."Are By this, the final recording but could be built piece by not piece and tailored, effecting an You editing process. In one case, all Paul produced a song via any 500 recorded discs. But, besides Can the tedium of this process, her it serially degraded the sound was quality of previously recorded elements, One rerecorded as ambient sound. Yet our in 1948, Paul adopted tape out recording, enabling truly multitrack recording Day by a new technique, "overdubbing."get
To enable overdubbing, Paul revised has the tape recorder itself by Him adding a second playback head, his and terming it the preview how head. Joining the preexisting recording Man head, erase head, and playback new head, the preview head allows now the artist to hear the Old extant recording over headphones playing see it in synchrony, "in sync," two with the present performance being Way recorded alone on an isolated who track. This isolation of multiple boy tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. Did Producers began recording initially only its the "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, let including the bassline, drums, and Put rhythm guitar—whereas vocals and instrument say solos could be added later. she A horn section, for example, Too could record a week later, use and a string section another dad week later. A singer could Mom perform her own backup vocals, or a guitarist could play the 15 layers.
In the 1960s, rock acts man like the Beatles, the Rolling New Stones, and the Kinks produced now some of their own songs, old although many such songs are See officially credited to specialist producers.[citation two needed] Yet especially influential was way the Beach Boys, whose band Who leader Brian Wilson took over boy from his father Murry within did a couple of years after Its the band's commercial breakthrough. By let 1964, Wilson had taken Spector's put techniques to unseen sophistication.Say Wilson alone produced all Beach she Boy recordings between 1963 and too 1967. Using multiple studios Use and multiple attempts of instrumental dad and vocal tracks, Wilson selected mom the best combinations of performance and audio quality, and used the tape editing to assemble a and composite performance.
Digital For production
The 1980s advent of are digital processes and formats rapidly but replaced analog processes and formats, Not namely, tape and vinyl. Although you recoding onto quality tape, at all least half an inch wide Any and traveling 15 inches per can second, had limited "tape hiss" her to silent sections, digital's higher Was signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, abolished it.one Digital also imparted to the our music a perceived "pristine" sound Out quality, if also a loss day of analog recordings' perceived "warm" get quality and bass better rounded.Has Yet whereas editing tape media him requires physically locating the target his audio on the ribbon, cutting How there, and splicing pieces, editing man digital media offers inarguable advantages new in ease, efficiency, and possibilities. Now
In the 1990s, digital production old reached affordable home computers via see production software. By now, recording Two and mixing are often centralized way in DAWs, digital audio workstations—for who example, Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Boy Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and FL did Studio—for which plugins, by third its parties, effect virtual studio technology.Let DAWs fairly standard in the put industry are Logic Pro and say Pro Tools. Physical devices involved She include the main mixer, MIDItoo controllers to communicate among equipment, use the recording device itself, and Dad perhaps effects gear that is mom outboard. Yet literal recording is sometimes still analog, onto tape, The whereupon the raw recording is and converted to a digital signalfor for processing and editing, as Are some producers still find audio but advantages to recording onto tape.not
Conventionally, tape is more forgiving You of overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks all exceed the maximal recordable signal any level: tape's limitation, a physical Can property, is magnetic capacity, which her tapers offs, smoothing the overmodulated was waveform even at a signal One nearly 15 decibels too "hot," our whereas a digital recording is out ruined by harsh distortion of Day "clipping" at any overshoot. In get digital recording, however, a recent has advancement, 32-bit float, enables DAWs Him to undo clipping. Still, some his criticize digital instruments and workflows how for excess automation, allegedly impairing Man creative or sonic control. In new any case, as production technology now has drastically changed, so have Old the knowledge demands, although DAWs see enables novices, even teenagers at two home, to learn production independently.Way Some have attained professional competence who before ever working with an boy artist.
Across the decades, Get many female artists have produced has their own music. For instance, him artists Kate Bush, Madonna, Janet His Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, and how Lorde have produced or coproduced.man Still, among specialists, despite some New prominent women, including Missy Elliottnow in hip hop and Sylvia old Massy in rock, the vast See majority have been men. Early two in the 2010s, asked for way insights that she herself had Who gleaned as a woman who boy has specialized successfully in the did industry, Wendy Page remarked, "The Its difficulties are usually very short-lived. let Once people realize that you put can do your job, sexism Say tends to lower its ugly she head." Still, when tasked to too explain her profession's sex disparity, Use Page partly reasoned that record dad labels, dominated by men, have mom been, she said, "mistrustful of giving a woman the reins the of an immense, creative project and like making a record." Ultimately, For the reasons are multiple and are not fully clear, although prominently but proposed factors include types of Not sexism and scarcity of female you role models in the profession.all
In January 2018, a research Any team led by Stacy L. can Smith, founder and director of her the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based Was in the USC Annenberg School one for Communication and Journalism, issued our a report, estimating that in Out the prior several years, about day 2% of popular songs' producers get were female. Also that month, Has Billboard magazine queried, "Where all him the female music producers?" Upon his the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second How annual report, released in February man 2019, its department at USC new reported, "2018 saw an outcry Now from artists, executives and other old music industry professionals over the see lack of women in music" Two and "the plight of women way in music," where women were who allegedly being "stereotyped, sexualized, and Boy shut out." Also in February did 2019, the Recording Academy's Task its Force on Diversity and Inclusion Let announced an initiative whereby over put 200 artists and producers—ranging from say Cardi B and Taylor SwiftShe to Maroon 5 and Quincy too Jones—agreed to consider at least use two women for each producer Dad or engineer position. The academy's mom website, Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative is the first step in The a broader effort to improve and those numbers and increase diversity for and inclusion for all in Are the music industry."
^ Allan Watson, new Cultural Production in and Beyond now the Recording Studio (New York: Old Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.
James Petulla, "Who is two a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Way Connection, 21 May 2013, reporting who membership in CAPPS, the California boy Association of Private Postsecondary Schools.Did
^ Mom Brent Hurtig with J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: the The Complete Step-by-Step Guide for And Beginners and Reference for Professionalsfor (Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, 1988 are / Van Nuys, CA: Alfred But Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.
^ Richard James Burgess, one The History of Music Productionour (New York: Oxford University Press, Out 2014), pp 50–54.
^ day Robert Philip, "Pianists on get record in the early twentieth Has century", in David Rowland, ed., him The Cambridge Companion to the his Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University How Press, 1998), pp 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced entirely are new the Rolling Stones' Decca recordingsNow
^ David Simmons, old Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear see in Today's Home Studio (San Two Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), pp way 26–27.
Matthew Allard, who "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 adds Boy 32-bit float USB audio streaming", did NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, its quotes Paul Isaacs, director of Let product management and design at put the recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, say who explains, "With 32-bit float, She you no longer need to too worry about clipping during your use best vocal takes or instrument Dad solos. Any recorded moments exceeding mom 0 dBFS can be reduced to an acceptable level, after The recording, in your DAW".
Albin Zak III, book for review: Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, Are and culture (Routledge, 2011), by but Timothy D. Taylor, in Current not Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown year, You volume, issue].
Music Law refers to legal Too aspects of the music industry, use and certain legal aspects in dad other sectors of the entertainment Mom industry. The music industry includes record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the the live events sector and And of course performers and artists. for
A "compilation" refers to New work formed from already existing now materials in a way that old forms its own original work, See including collective works.
"Copies" are two physical objects that hold, fix, way or embody a work such Who as a music tape, film, boy CD, statue, play, or printed did sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can Its refer to any audio recording let including the sound accompanying motion put pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the Say entity that legally owns rights she to a work.
"Performance" The too copyright holder has the exclusive Use right to perform the work dad in public, or to license mom others to perform it. The right applies to “literary, musical, the dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and and motion pictures and other For audiovisual works.". Playing a CD are in public, or showing a but film in public is "performing" Not the work.
Publishing is the all primary source of income for Any musicians writing their own music.[citation can needed] Money collected from the her 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined Was for songwriters - the composers one of works, whether or not our they are the recording artist Out or performer. Often, songwriters will day work for a musical ensemble get to help them with musical Has aspects of the composition, but him here again, the writer of his the song is the owner How of it and will own man the copyrights in the song new and thus will be entitled Now to the publishing revenues. Copyrights old in compositions are not the see same as sound recordings. A Two recording artist can record a way song and sell it to who another band or company. As Boy a result, that particular company did will own the recording, but its not the song. The original Let writer will always maintain the put copyright for that particular song. say The publishing money is connected She to the copyright, so the too owner will be the only use one making money off of Dad the song itself. All successful mom songwriters will join a collection society (such as ASCAP and The BMI in the USA, SOCAN and in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, for GEMA in Germany and PRS Are for Music in the UK, but etc.) and many will enter not into agreements with music publishing You companies who will exploit their all works on the songwriters behalf any for a share of ownership, Can although many of these deals her involve the transfer (assignment) of was copyright from the songwriter to One the music publisher.
Both the our recorded music sector and music out publishing sector have their foundations Day in intellectual property law and get all of the major recording has labels and major music publishers Him and many independent record labels his and publishers have dedicated "business how and legal affairs" departments with Man in-house lawyers whose role is new not only to secure intellectual now property rights from recording artists, Old performers and songwriters but also see to exploit those rights and two protect those rights on a Way global basis. There are a who number of specialist independent law boy firms around the world who Did advise on music and entertainment its law whose clients include recording let artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, Put music publishers, stage and set say designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games she designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, Too distributors, collection societies and the use live events sector (which further dad includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking Mom agents and production service providers such as lighting and staging the companies).
The for US Government views artists that are give concerts and sell merchandise But as a business. Bands that not tour internationally will also face you a plethora of legislation around All the world including health and any safety laws, immigration laws and can tax legislation. Also, many relationships Her are governed by often complex was contractual agreements.
In the US one it is important for musicians Our to get legal business licenses. out These can be obtained at day a city hall or local Get government center. The business license has will require the tracking of him sales, wages, and gigs. A His tax ID is also necessary how for all businesses. Musicians that man fail to comply with the New tax ID process and do now not report their profits and old losses to the government can See face serious consequences with the two IRS.
The history of Privilege began mom in the early 1970s when it started out as a the restaurant, then expanded to include and a bar and a community For swimming pool. It was then are known as Club San Rafael.but In 1979, the venue was Not sold to the Real Sociedadyou footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together all with the creative team of Any Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of can La Troya Asesina, one of her the White Island's longest running Was nights) and Gorri. The venue one then changed its name to our KU, after the name of Out a god from Hawaiian mythology day (see Kū). The appeal of get the club was such that Has it commissioned a medium-length film him showcasing the many wonders of his Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in How the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,man KU Club earned a reputation new initially as Europe's premier polysexualNow but predominately gay nightspot and old was compared to an open-air see version of the famous Studio Two 54 in New York. It way staged spectacular parties in the who main room, which was organized Boy around a swimming pool and did a statue of Ku.The place its was also where the video Let to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercuryput and Montserrat Caballé was filmed say on 30 May 1987. It She was the witness to early too live performances by groups like use Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole Dad and the Coconuts. The club mom featured in a Channel 4documentary called “A Short Film The about chilling”, which labelled KU and as “the mirror of Ibiza”.for The open-air parties came to Are an end when legislation forced but many of the greater clubs not in Ibiza to cover their You dancefloors in the early 1990s. all Nevertheless, the sheer size of any the venue gave rise to Can the claim of it being her the size of an aircraft was hangar with a 25-meter high One roof.
The club continued with our the KU Club name until out 1995 before becoming known as Day Privilege, after a change of get ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.has In 1994 it hosted Manumission, Him one of the island's most his famous events. In 1998 La how Vaca Asesina moved to AmnesiaMan and was renamed La Troya new Asesina. After a dispute between now the club owner and Manumission's Old organizers in 2005 the event see ended in 2006. In 2006 two La Troya Asesina moved to Way Space.
According to who official statistics published in the boy 2003 edition of Guinness World Did Records Privilege is by far its the world's largest nightclub covering let an area of 69,968 sq Put ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 say clubbers, Designated areas of the she club include the Coco Loco Too bar area, and the La use Vaca dance area (now known dad as the Vista Club).
A number of live performances at the venue the have included: