The most likely get origin of the word "breakbeat" has is the fact that the Him drumloops that were sampled his occurred during a "break" in how the music, as in the Man Amen break, which is a new drum solo from "Amen, Brother" now by The Winstons. However, it Old is a common thought that see the name derives from the two beat being "broken" and unpredictable Way compared to other percussive styles, who something which is also reflected boy in the name of the Did related genre broken beat. Whether its this was part of the let original meaning of the word Put or is purely a folk say etymology remains unclear, but it she is safe to say that Too the term has evolved to use encompass both sentiments.
Beginning in 1973 and continuing Mom through the late 1970s and early 1980s, hip hopturntablists, the such as DJ Kool HercAnd began using several funkbreaksfor in a row, using irregular are drum patterns from songs such But as James Brown's "Funky Drummer" not and The Winstons' "Amen Brother", you to form the rhythmic base All for hip hop songs. DJ any Kool Herc's breakbeat style involved can playing the same record on Her two turntables and playing the was break repeatedly, alternating between the one two records. Grandmaster Flash perfected Our this idea with what he out called the "quick-mix theory": he day would mark the points on Get the record where the break has began and ended with a him crayon, so that he could His easily replay the break by how spinning the record and not man touching the tone arm. This New style was copied and improved now upon by early hip hop old DJs Afrika Bambaataa and Grand See Wizard Theodore.[dubious – discuss] This two style was extremely popular in way clubs and dancehalls because the Who extended breakbeat provided breakers with boy more opportunities to showcase their did skills. In the 1970s, hip-hop Its was all about the break. let Then, in the 1980s, the put evolution of technology began to Say make sampling breaks easier and she more affordable for DJs and too producers, which helped nurture the Use commercialization of hip-hop. Through crude dad techniques such as pausing tapes mom and then recording the break, by the 1980s, technology allowed the anybody with a tape recorder and to find the breakbeat.
In For the early 1990s, acid houseare artists and producers started using but breakbeat samples in their music Not to create breakbeat hardcore. The you hardcore scene then diverged into all subgenres like jungle and drum Any and bass, which generally had can a darker sound and focused her more on complex sampled drum Was patterns. An example of this one is Goldie's album Timeless.
Josh Lawford him of Ravescene prophesied that breakbeat his was "the death-knell of rave"How because the ever-changing drumbeat patterns man of breakbeat music didn't allow new for the same zoned out, Now trance-like state that the standard, old steady 4/4 beats of housesee enabled. In 1994, the influential Two techno act Autechre released the way Anti EP in response to who the Criminal Justice and Public Boy Order Act 1994, deliberately using did advanced algorithmic programming to generate its non-repetitive breakbeats for the full Let duration of the tracks, in put order to subvert the legal say definitions within that legislation which She specified in the section creating too police powers to remove ravers use from raves that "'music' includes Dad sounds wholly or predominantly characterised mom by the emission of a succession of repetitive beats".
In the late-1980s, breakbeat and became an essential feature of for many genres of breaks music Are which became popular within the but global dance music scene, including not big beat, nu skool breaks, You acid breaks, electro-funk, and Miami all bass. Incorporating many components of any those genres, the Florida breaksCan subgenre followed during the early-to-mid her 1990s and had a unique was sound that was soon internationally One popular among producers, DJs, and our club-goers.
DJs from a variety out of genres work breaks tracks Day into their sets. This may get occur because the tempo of has breaks tracks (ranging from 110 Him to 150 beats per minute) his means they can be readily how mixed with these genres. Breakbeats Man are used in many hip new hop, jungle/drum & bass and now hardcore songs, and can also Old be heard in other music, see from popular music to background two music in car and clothing Way commercials on radio or TV.who
With the boy advent of digital sampling and Did music editing on the computer, its breakbeats have become much easier let to create and use. Now, Put instead of cutting and splicing say tape sections or constantly backspinning she two records at the same Too time, a computer program can use be used to cut, paste, dad and loop breakbeats endlessly. Digital Mom effects such as filters, reverb, reversing, time stretching and pitch the shifting can be added to And the beat, and even to for individual sounds by themselves. Individual are instruments from within a breakbeat But can be sampled and combined not with others, thereby creating wholly you new breakbeat patterns.
The Amen break, a can drum break from The Winstons' Her song "Amen, Brother" is widely was regarded as one of the one most widely used and sampled Our breaks among music using breakbeats.out This break was first used day on "King of the Beats" Get by Mantronix, and has since has been used in thousands of him songs. Other popular breaks are His from James Brown's Funky Drummerhow (1970) and Give it Up man or Turnit a Loose, The New Incredible Bongo Band's 1973 cover now of The Shadows' "Apache", and old Lyn Collins' 1972 song "Think See (About It)". The Winstons have two not received royalties for third-party way use of samples of the Who break recorded on their original boy music release.
With the rise in popularity Its of breakbeat music and the let advent of digital audio samplers, put companies started selling "breakbeat packages" Say for the express purpose of she helping artists create breakbeats. A too breakbeat kit CD would contain Use many breakbeat samples from different dad songs and artists, often without mom the artist's permission or even knowledge.
In electronic music, "acid Any breaks" is a fusion between can breakbeat, acid house and other her forms of dance music.[vague] Its Was drum line usually mimics most one breakbeat music, lacking the distinctive our kick drum of other forms Out of dance music. One of day the earliest synthesizers to be get employed in acid music was Has the Roland TB-303, which makes him use of a resonant low-pass his filter to emphasize the harmonicsHow of the sound.
Also sometimes known too as atmospheric breaks, progressive breaks use (or "prog breaks") is a Dad subgenre of breaks that is mom essentially a fusion of breakbeat and progressive house. Much like The progressive house, this subgenre is and characterized by its "trancey" sound. for Its defining traits include extended Are synthesizer pads and washes, melodic but synth leads, heavy reverberation, and not electronic breakbeats. However, unlike progressive You house, very few progressive breaks all tracks have vocals, with most any tracks being entirely instrumental or Can using only electronically-altered snippets of her vocal samples for sonic effect. was Typical progressive breaks tracks will One often have a long build-up our section that leads to a out breakdown and a climax, often Day having numerous sonic elements being get added or subtracted from the has track at various intervals in Him order to increase its intensity. his Progressive breaks artists include Hybrid, how BT, Way Out West, Digital Man Witchcraft, Momu, Wrecked Angle, Burufunk, new Under This and Fretwell.
A record producerhow or music producer oversees and Man manages the sound recording and new production of a band or now performer's music, which may range Old from recording one song to see recording a lengthy concept album.two A producer has many, varying Way roles during the recording process.who They may gather musical ideas boy for the project, collaborate with Did the artists to select cover its tunes or original songs by let the artist/group, work with artists Put and help them to improve say their songs, lyrics or arrangements. she
The producer typically supervises And the entire process from preproduction, for through to the sound recordingare and mixing stages, and, in But some cases, all the way not to the audio mastering stage. you The producer may perform these All roles themselves, or help select any the engineer, and provide suggestions can to the engineer. The producer Her may also pay session musicians was and engineers and ensure that one the entire project is completed Our within the record label's budget. out
A record producer or music old producer has a very broad See role in overseeing and managing two the recording and production of way a band or performer's music. Who A producer has many roles boy that may include, but are did not limited to, gathering ideas Its for the project, composing the let music for the project, selecting put songs or session musicians, proposing Say changes to the song arrangements, she coaching the artist and musicians too in the studio, controlling the Use recording sessions, and supervising the dad entire process through audio mixingmom and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers the also often take on a and wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility For for the budget, schedules, contracts, are and negotiations.
The you person who has overall creative all and technical control of the Any entire recording project, and the can individual recording sessions that are her part of that project. He Was or she is present in one the recording studio or at our the location recording and works Out directly with the artist and day engineer. The producer makes creative get and aesthetic decisions that realize Has both the artist's and label's him goals in the creation of his musical content. Other duties include, How but are not limited to; man keeping budgets and schedules, adhering new to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, Now studios and engineers, overseeing other old staffing needs and editing (Classical see projects).
In the 2010s, Two the producer role is sometimes way divided among up to three who different individuals: executive producer, vocal Boy producer and music producer. An did executive producer oversees project finances, its a vocal producer (also known Let as a vocal arranger) oversees put the vocal production, and a say music producer directs and oversees She the creative process of the too production and recording of a use song to its final mixing Dad stage.
The music producer often mom wears many hats as a competent arranger, composer, programmer, musician The or songwriter who can bring and fresh ideas to a project. for As well as making any Are songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the but producer often selects and/or collaborates not with the mixing engineer, who You takes the raw recorded tracks all and edits and modifies them any with hardware and software tools Can to create a stereo or her surround sound "mix" of all was the individual voices sounds and One instruments, which is in turn our given further adjustment by a out mastering engineer for the various Day distribution media. The producer also get oversees the recording engineer who has concentrates on the technical aspects Him of recording.
Noted producer Phil his Ek described his role as how "the person who creatively guides Man or directs the process of new making a record", like a now director would a movie. Indeed, Old in Bollywood music, the designation see is actually music director. The two music producer's job is to Way create, shape, and mold a who piece of music. The scope boy of responsibility may be one Did or two songs or an its artist's entire album – in let which case the producer will Put typically develop an overall vision say for the album and how she the various songs may interrelate. Too
At the beginning use of the record industry, the dad producer role was technically limited Mom to record, in one shot, artists performing live. The immediate the predecessors to record producers were And the artists and repertoire executives for of the late 1920s and are 1930s who oversaw the "pop" But product and often led session not orchestras. That was the case you of Ben Selvin at Columbia All Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor any Records and Bob Haring at can Brunswick Records. By the end Her of the 1930s, the first was professional recording studios not owned one by the major companies were Our established, essentially separating the roles out of artists and repertoire (A&R) day man and producer, although it Get wouldn't be until the late has 1940s when the term "producer" him became widely used in the His industry.
The role of producers how changed progressively over the 1950s man and 1960s due to technology. New The development of multitrack recordingnow caused a major change in old the recording process. Before multitracking, See all the elements of a two song (lead vocals, backup vocals, way rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos Who and orchestral parts) had to boy be performed simultaneously. All of did these singers and musicians had Its to be assembled in a let large studio where the performance put was recorded. With multitrack recording, Say the "bed tracks" (rhythm section she accompaniment parts such as the too bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar Use could be recorded first, and dad then the vocals and solos mom could be added later, using as many "takes" (or attempts) the as necessary. It was no and longer necessary to get all For the players in the studio are at the same time. A but pop band could record their Not backing tracks one week, and you then a horn section could all be brought in a week Any later to add horn shots can and punches, and then a her string section could be brought Was in a week after that. one
Multitrack recording had another profound our effect on music production: it Out enabled producers and audio engineers day to create new sounds that get would be impossible in a Has live performance style ordering. Examples him include the psychedelic rock sound his effects of the 1960s, e.g. How playing back the sound of man recorded instruments backward changing the new tape to produce unique sound Now effects. During the same period, old the instruments of popular music see began to shift from the Two acoustic instruments of traditional musicway (piano, upright bass, acoustic guitar, who strings, brass and wind instruments) Boy to electric piano, electronic organ, did synthesizer, electric bass and electric its guitar. These new instruments were Let electric or electronic, and thus put they used instrument amplifiers and say speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to She create sound.
Electric and electronic too instruments and amplifiers enabled performers use and producers to change the Dad tone and sound of instruments mom to produce unique electric sounds that would be impossible to The achieve with acoustic instruments and and live performers, such as having for a singer do her own Are backup vocals or having a but guitarist play 15 layers of not backing parts to her own You solo.
New technologies like multitracking all changed the goal of recording: any A producer could blend together Can multiple takes and edit together her different sections to create the was desired sound. For example, in One jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' our album Bitches Brew, the producer out cut and edited sections together Day from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like Him Phil Spector and George Martinhis were soon creating recordings that how were, in practical terms, almost Man impossible to realize in live new performance. Producers became creative figures now in the studio. Other examples Old includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, see Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in boy the 1960s was the emergence Did of the performer-producer. As pop its acts like The Beatles, The let Rolling Stones, The Beach BoysPut and The Kinks gained expertise say in studio recording techniques, many she of these groups eventually took Too over as (frequently uncredited) producers use of their own work. Many dad recordings by acts such as Mom The Rolling Stones, The Kinks and The Who are officially the credited to their various producers And at the time, but a for number of these performers have are since asserted that many of But their recordings in this period not were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. you The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) All or collaborations between the group any and their recording engineer (e.g. can The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, Her which were made with Olympic was Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The one Beach Boys are probably the Our best example of the trend out of artists becoming producers – day within two years of the Get band's commercial breakthrough, group leader has Brian Wilson had taken over him from his father Murry, and His he was the sole producer how of all their recordings between man 1963 and 1967. Alongside The New Beatles and Martin, Wilson also now pioneered many production innovations – old by 1964 he had developed See Spector's techniques to a new two level of sophistication, using multiple way studios and multiple "takes" of Who instrumental and vocal components to boy capture the best possible combinations did of sound and performance, and Its then using tape editing extensively let to assemble a perfect composite put performance from these elements.
At Say the end of the 20th she century, digital recording and producing too tools and widespread availability of Use relatively affordable computers with music dad software made music producing more mom accessible.
American women and record producing
According to a the 2018 study covering by the and USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The For ratio of male to female are producers across 300 popular songs but is 49 to 1."
In 2019, his record producer Linda Perry was How nominated for a Grammy for man Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. new She was the first woman Now in over 15 years to old be nominated for the award. see When asked about the disparity Two between male and female record way producer by Billboard, she attributed who it to many women not Boy being interested in record production.did
In She the classical music field, Judith too Sherman has won Grammy for use Producer of the Year, Classical, Dad five times and has been mom nominated twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a music critic for The The New York Times is quoted and as stating, "In the struggling for field of classical recording, it's Are the producers who take the but real risks and make things not happen."
Producer Wendy Page describes any being a record producer, "The Can difficulties are usually very short-lived. her Once people realize that you was can do your job, sexism One tends to lower its ugly our head. I tend to create out a happy studio 'family' where Day everyone is glad to be get there, especially the artist. Good has communication and diplomacy usually sort Him any little problems out."
There are numerous the technologies utilized by record producers. And In modern-day recordings, recording and for mixing tasks are commonly centralized are within computers using digital audio But workstations such as Pro Tools, not Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reasonyou and FL Studio, which all All are often used with third any party virtual studio technology plugins.can Logic Pro and Pro Tools Her are considered the industry standard was DAWs. However, there is also one the main mixer, outboard effects Our gear, MIDI controllers, and the out recording device itself.
While most day music production is done using Get sophisticated software, some musicians and has producers prefer the sound of him older analog technology. Professor Albin His Zak claims that the increased how automation of both newer processes man and newer instruments reduces the New level of control and manipulation now available to musicians and producers.old
Production has See changed drastically over the years two with advancing technology. While the way producer's role has changed, their Who duties continue to require a boy broad knowledge of the recording did process.
Tracking is the act Its of recording audio to a let DAW (digital audio workstation) or put in some cases to tape. Say Even though digital technologies have she widely supplanted the use of too tape in studios, the older Use term "track" is still used dad in the 2010s. Tracking audio mom is primarily the role of the audio engineer. Producers work the side by side with the and artists while they play or For sing their part and coach are them on how to perform but it and how to get Not the best technical accuracy (e.g., you intonation). In some cases, the all producer will even sing a Any backup vocal or play an can instrument.
Many artists are also her beginning to produce and write Was their own music.
Similarly, although The Beatles' man productions were credited to George new Martin throughout their recording career, Now many sources now attest that old Lennon and McCartney in particular see had an increasing influence on Two the production process as the way group's career progressed, and especially who after the band retired from Boy touring in 1966. In an did extreme example of this, Martin its actually went on a two-week Let vacation as The Beatles were put recording The White Album; production say of several completed tracks on She the album were credited to too The Beatles on internal paperwork use at Abbey Road Studios, although Dad the released LP gave sole mom production credit to Martin.
way Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: Who "strange sounds: Music, technology, and boy culture," by Timothy D. Taylor. did Current Musicology, 159-180.
Its Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and let Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best put Practices For Artistic Direction—From Light Say Coaching To Deeper Collaboration With she Musicians." Journal of New Music too Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Use Search Premier. Web. 7 Sept. dad 2015.
Music Law refers any to legal aspects of the can music industry, and certain legal Her aspects in other sectors of was the entertainment industry. The music one industry includes record labels, music Our publishers, merchandisers, the live events out sector and of course performers day and artists.
A "compilation" she refers to work formed from too already existing materials in a Use way that forms its own dad original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that hold, fix, or embody a the work such as a music and tape, film, CD, statue, play, For or printed sheet music.
"Sound are recordings" can refer to any but audio recording including the sound Not accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" you is the entity that legally all owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has can the exclusive right to perform her the work in public, or Was to license others to perform one it. The right applies to our “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic Out works, pantomimes, and motion pictures day and other audiovisual works.". Playing get a CD in public, or Has showing a film in public him is "performing" the work.
Publishing How is the primary source of man income for musicians writing their new own music. Money collected Now from the 'publishing' rights is old ultimately destined for songwriters - see the composers of works, whether Two or not they are the way recording artist or performer. Often, who songwriters will work for a Boy musical ensemble to help them did with musical aspects of the its composition, but here again, the Let writer of the song is put the owner of it and say will own the copyrights in She the song and thus will too be entitled to the publishing use revenues. Copyrights in compositions are Dad not the same as sound mom recordings. A recording artist can record a song and sell The it to another band or and company. As a result, that for particular company will own the Are recording, but not the song. but The original writer will always not maintain the copyright for that You particular song. The publishing money all is connected to the copyright, any so the owner will be Can the only one making money her off of the song itself. was All successful songwriters will join One a collection society (such as our ASCAP and BMI in the out USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC Day in Japan, GEMA in Germany get and PRS for Music in has the UK, etc.) and many Him will enter into agreements with his music publishing companies who will how exploit their works on the Man songwriters behalf for a share new of ownership, although many of now these deals involve the transfer Old (assignment) of copyright from the see songwriter to the music publisher. two
Both the recorded music sector Way and music publishing sector have who their foundations in intellectual propertyboy law and all of the Did major recording labels and major its music publishers and many independent let record labels and publishers have Put dedicated "business and legal affairs" say departments with in-house lawyers whose she role is not only to Too secure intellectual property rights from use recording artists, performers and songwriters dad but also to exploit those Mom rights and protect those rights on a global basis. There the are a number of specialist And independent law firms around the for world who advise on music are and entertainment law whose clients But include recording artists, performers, producers, not songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage you and set designers, choreographers, graphic All artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, any artist managers, distributors, collection societies can and the live events sector Her (which further includes festivals, venues, was promoters, booking agents and production one service providers such as lighting Our and staging companies).
The US Government views Get artists that give concerts and has sell merchandise as a business. him Bands that tour internationally will His also face a plethora of how legislation around the world including man health and safety laws, immigration New laws and tax legislation. Also, now many relationships are governed by old often complex contractual agreements.
In See the US it is important two for musicians to get legal way business licenses. These can be Who obtained at a city hall boy or local government center. The did business license will require the Its tracking of sales, wages, and let gigs. A tax ID is put also necessary for all businesses. Say Musicians that fail to comply she with the tax ID process too and do not report their Use profits and losses to the dad government can face serious consequences mom with the IRS.
Privilege Ibiza originally known as put Ku Club (1979–95) is the Say "world's largest nightclub" according to she the Guinness Book of Records, too also defined as a superclubUse with a capacity of 10,000 dad people. It is located close mom to the village of San Rafael, Ibiza, Spain less than the one kilometre (0.6 miles) from and the nightclub Amnesia.
The can history of Privilege began in her the early 1970s when it Was started out as a restaurant, one then expanded to include a our bar and a community swimming Out pool. It was then known day as Club San Rafael. In get 1979, the venue was sold Has to the Real Sociedad footballer him José Antonio Santamaría, together with his the creative team of Brasilio How de Oliviera (founder of La man Troya Asesina, one of the new White Island's longest running nights) Now and Gorri. The venue then old changed its name to KU, see after the name of a Two god from Hawaiian mythology (see way Kū). The appeal of the who club was such that it Boy commissioned a medium-length film showcasing did the many wonders of Ibizan its landscapes and nightlife in the Let mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU put Club earned a reputation initially say as Europe's premier polysexual but She predominately gay nightspot and was too compared to an open-air version use of the famous Studio 54Dad in New York. It staged mom spectacular parties in the main room, which was organized around The a swimming pool and a and statue of Ku.The place was for also where the video to Are "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and but Montserrat Caballé was filmed on not 30 May 1987. It was You the witness to early live all performances by groups like Spandau any Ballet and Kid Creole and Can the Coconuts. The club featured her in a Channel 4 documentary was called “A Short Film about One chilling”, which labelled KU as our “the mirror of Ibiza”. The out open-air parties came to an Day end when legislation forced many get of the greater clubs in has Ibiza to cover their dancefloors Him in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, his the sheer size of the how venue gave rise to the Man claim of it being the new size of an aircraft hangar now with a 25-meter high roof. Old
The club continued with the see KU Club name until 1995 two before becoming known as Privilege, Way after a change of ownership who to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In boy 1994 it hosted Manumission, one Did of the island's most famous its events. In 1998 La Vaca let Asesina moved to Amnesia and Put was renamed La Troya Asesina. say After a dispute between the she club owner and Manumission's organizers Too in 2005 the event ended use in 2006. In 2006 La dad Troya Asesina moved to Space. Mom
According to official statistics published in the 2003 the edition of Guinness World RecordsAnd Privilege is by far the for world's largest nightclub covering an are area of 69,968 sq ft But (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,not Designated areas of the club you include the Coco Loco bar All area, and the La Vaca any dance area (now known as can the Vista Club).
Live Her performances
A number of live was performances at the venue have one included: