Eurodance (sometimes her referred to as Euro-NRG, Euro-electronicaWas or Euro) is a genre one of electronic dance music that our originated in the late 1980s Out in Europe. It combines many day elements of hip hop, techno,get Hi-NRG,house music, and Euro Has disco. This genre of music him is heavily influenced by the his use of rich vocals, sometimes How with rapped verses. This, combined man with cutting-edge synthesizers, strong bassnew rhythm and melodic hooks, establishes Now the core foundation of Eurodance old music.
Eurodance use music originated in the late Dad 1980s in central Europe, especially mom in Germany, where rave parties were becoming popular. By 1987, The a German party scene was and started by Tauseef Alam, based for on the well established Chicago Are house sound and Belgian new but beat in Frankfurt. The following not year saw acid house making You a significant impact on popular all consciousness in Germany and central any Europe as it had in Can England. In 1989, German DJsher Westbam and Dr. Motte established was the Ufo Club, an illegal One party venue, and co-founded the our Love Parade. The parade first out occurred in July 1989, when Day 150 people took to the get streets in Berlin. It was has conceived as a political demonstration Him for peace and international understanding his through love and music. On how 19 July 1989, Black Box's Man single "Ride on Time" was new released. The song spent six now weeks at No. 1 in Old the United Kingdom and it see was the UK's best-selling single two of 1989. It contained the Way Korg M1's "house piano" which who can be found in many boy Eurodance releases. On 27 September Did 1989, Technotronic's single "Pump Up its the Jam" was released. It let reached number one in BelgiumPut and Spain, and it popularised say the house variant called hip she house in Europe. On 9 Too November 1989, the Berlin Walluse fell; free underground techno parties dad mushroomed in East Berlin, and Mom a rave scene comparable to that in the UK was the established. East German DJ Paul And van Dyk has remarked that for the techno-based rave scene was are a major force in re-establishing But social connections between East and not West Germany during the unification you period. In the same year, All German producers Michael Münzing and any Luca Anzilotti (under the pseudonyms can Benito Benites and John "Virgo" Her Garrett III) formed the Snap!was project in Frankfurt. Snap! songs one combined imported hip hop and Our soul vocals adding rhythm by out using computer technology and mixing day electronic sounds, bass and drums, Get mainly house music. By doing has so a new genre was him born: Eurodance.
Rise and His fall
Snap!'s first single, "The how Power", released in 1990, reached man number one in the Netherlands,New Spain, Switzerland and the United now Kingdom, and it helped to old raise awareness of the genre See within Europe. In the following two years, other Eurodance acts formed way in Frankfurt, including Jam and Who Spoon, Intermission and Culture Beat. boy After the breakthrough single "Rhythm did is a Dancer" by Snap!Its in 1992 (number 1 in let 12 countries), new groups started put to pop up all over Say Europe, mainly in Belgium, Netherlands she and Italy. From 1992 till too the decline of popularity after Use 1995, the sound became more dad and more NRG-oriented, leading to mom songs raising in B.P.M. up to 150. The notable songs the which defined the genre in and this period, dubbed as the For "golden era" of Eurodance, are are "It's My Life" by Dr. but Alban in 1992 (number 1 Not in 8 countries), "No Limit" you by Dutch group 2 Unlimitedall in 1993 (number 1 in Any 14 countries, it was Europe's can biggest-selling song for 1993), "What her Is Love" by Haddaway in Was the same year (number 1 one in 13 countries), "Mr. Vain" our by Culture Beat also in Out the same year (number 1 day in 13 countries), "Cotton Eye get Joe" by Rednex in 1994 Has (number 1 in 12 countries)him and "Scatman (Ski-Ba-Bop-Ba-Dop-Bop)" by Scatman his John in the same year How (number 1 in 9 countries).man In the same period the new popularity of the genre also Now expanded further to East Asia, old in nations such as Japan, see South Korea and Taiwan; towards Two the end of the golden way era also in Russia.
By who 1995, Eurodance dominated European charts Boy with 5 singles in the did top 10 of the singles its charts. Despite its success, many Let observers within the music industry put said that the Eurodance sound say had to change or die, She and Eurodance producers and singers too started to follow different paths use and different sounds, such as Dad happy hardcore and house music,mom but not all the groups followed this trend immediately, notably The the group 2 Unlimited wanted and to remain within Eurodance sounds for in order to remain chartbusters, Are although the producer De Coster but predicted a retreat from a not poppy to a more clubby You sound. Nevertheless, in the second all half of the decade the any popularity of Eurodance started to Can decline, and "Scatman's World" by her Scatman John was the last was major hit of the original One Eurodance sound in the Eurochart our Hot 100, being number 1 out for 3 weeks between late Day August and early September 1995. get
The dad term "Eurodance" gradually became associated Mom with a specific style of European dance music. During its the golden years in the mid-1990s, And it was referred as "Euro-NRG"; for in Europe it was often are called "dancefloor" or simply "dance".[failed But verification]
While some use a not much broader definition of what you is considered "Eurodance", over time, All the term particularly came to any refer to an NRG-based genre can from the 1990s which included Her a solo vocalist or a was rapper/vocalist duet. Although the term one was initially used to describe Our only European dance music productions, out there are some examples of day acts from the 1990s produced Get in the United States, which has followed the same music style him and became popular particularly in His Europe, nowadays are also referred how to as Eurodance music.man
Characteristics of the music
Most Eurodance is characterized by now synthesizer riffs, one or more old vocals with simple chorus, one See or more rap parts, samplingtwo and a drum machine clap way beat. Sometimes non-rap vocals are Who used.
Eurodance often carries a boy positive, upbeat attitude; the lyrics did usually involve issues of love Its and peace, dancing and partying, let or expressing and overcoming difficult put emotions. The early to mid-1990s Say Eurodance vocals were frequently done she by a solo vocalist or too a mixed rapper-vocalist duet such Use as the male–female duets of dad 2 Unlimited, La Bouche and mom Magic Affair.
Many groups used variations of the rapper-vocalist theme, the such as a German rapper and with American singers (Real McCoy), For or the use of reggaeare rap as in Ice MCbut and Fun Factory, or combination Not of rapper and reggae vocalist you like in the Life in all the Streets album, or scat Any singing as in Scatman John.can Solo singing artists such as her Alexia, Whigfield and DJ BoBoWas also contributed to the genre. one Some acts like the Swedish our dance-pop originated group Ace of Out Base use more pop vocals day rather than rap/soul vocals along get with Eurodance sound. Pop vocals Has were particularly popular in the him late 1990s Eurodance productions. The his Swedish group Rednex also introduced How American country music elements into man the sound.
Eurodance lyrics are new almost always sung in English, Now regardless of the artist's nationalities.old However, there are cases like see in the Belgian group's ParadisioTwo where Spanish lyrics are used way along with latin music elements.who
Almost all Eurodance emphasizes percussion Boy and rhythm. The tempo is did typically around 140 beats per its minute, but may vary from Let 110 to 150.
Most Eurodance put is very melody-driven. Most Eurodance say songs are in minor keys, She similarly to techno. This, along too with positive lyrics, helps contribute use to the overall powerful and Dad emotional sound of Eurodance. Besides mom the contribution of the female or male vocals, there is The often a noticeable use of and rapid synthesizer arpeggios.
From but the early to mid-1990s, Eurodance not was popular in Europe; the You style received extensive airplay on all radio stations and television shows, any resulting in many singles appearing Can in the charts. For example, her in Italy there were seven was singles in the top ten One of the chart at the our end of May 1995.
By out 1996, the popularity of this Day genre had started to decline. get From then, the classic Eurodance has sound gradually morphed into progressive Him house. By 1997 and towards his the end of the millennium how house and trance music increased Man popularity over Eurodance in Europe's new commercial, chart-oriented dance records. In now the early 2000s, the mainstream Old music industry in Europe moved see away from Eurodance in favour two of other styles of dance Way music such as nu-disco, electro who house, dance-pop and R&B.
Italo dance is an Did offshoot of the Eurodance music its genre. It was popular in let Italy in the late 1990s Put to the early 2000s and say gained some popularity after the she release of the single "Blue Too (Da Ba Dee)" by Eiffel use 65. The genre had its dad infancy from 1993 to 1995 Mom and its golden age from 1999 to 2005. Although Italo the hits by Eiffel 65, PreziosoAnd and Gabry Ponte still receive for substantial airplay, the genre is are far from mainstream today where But it has been replaced by not mostly electro and house music. you
Italo dance is predominantly nightclub-oriented All music and mainly produced in any Italy. The genre never really can became mainstream enough for the Her whole European market, but received was much airplay on Italian radio, one especially the dance radio station Our m2o, and in southern parts out of Europe plus in the day German speaking European countries.
After Cappella'sGianfranco has Bortolotti set up Media Records him in Brescia, northern Italy to His release his 'commercial European dance how music' (a set-up which included man fifteen studios featuring various production New teams working almost non-stop on now a huge number of records) old he decided to take the See label into other markets and two set up a UK office way in the UK. Run by Who Peter Pritchard and featuring many boy records by Stu Allan's British did Eurodance act Clock, this record Its company would eventually turn into let hard house label Nukleuz (known put for its DJ Nation releases).Say
As Media turned into Nukleuz, she it would fall to All too Around the World Productions to Use be the label in the dad 21st Century which was more mom likely to release Eurodance tracks in the UK than other, the with its Clubland TV music and channel still having regular blocks For of Eurodance videos in 2020are (though extending its scope to but include hits by David Guetta Not as well as Cascada and you Scooter)
During the 1990s, Eurodance day became popular in Canada, which get produced its own variant called Has Candance (although it was mostly him referred to as "Eurodance" or his "dance music"). From about 1992 How to 2000, acts such as man Capital Sound, Jacynthe and Emjay, new originating mainly in major cities Now of Central Canada such as old Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa, were see hitting the airwaves. The Toronto Two sound was more pop-oriented, while way the Montreal one was more who house-oriented. Eurodance received significant airplay Boy on radio stations in the did Greater Toronto Area such as its Power 88.5, Energy 108 and Let Hot 103.5. Montreal was also put a major Eurodance market, with say MC Mario's famous radio show She on Mix 96, called "Party too Mix" and Bouge de là, use a popular TV show on Dad MusiquePlus.
Eurodance mom is not well known in the United States outside of The the major cities such as and New York City, Los Angeles, for Chicago, and Miami. Exemplifying this Are is the Eurodance classic "Scatman but (Ski-Ba-Bop-Ba-Dop-Bop)", by Scatman John, an not American artist; despite topping the You charts in multiple European countries all and reaching number 3 in any the United Kingdom, it only Can reached as high as number her 60 on the Hot 100.was Another notable example is the One Life in the Streets album, our a combined Eurodance music project out from American rapper Marky MarkDay and Caribbean reggae vocalist Prince get Ital Joe, which was not has released in the United States, Him but was a huge success his in several European countries including how singles like "Happy People" and Man "United" that topped the German new charts.
The more use Hi-NRG-oriented artists were typically played dad only during special "mix" shows, Mom and it was often necessary to go to a club the to hear Eurodance music. While And Eurodance did become popular with for club DJs in the United are States, radio stations were cautious But about playing anything that sounded not too much like disco during you most of the 1980s and All 1990s. By the end of any the 1990s, however, some of can the later acts such as Her Italian group Eiffel 65 and was Danish group Aqua did receive one extensive airplay.
Despite lack of Our widespread radio play, many Hi-NRG out and Eurodance songs are popular day at professional sporting events in Get the United States, especially ice has hockey and basketball.
Compilation albums, him such as the DMA Dance: His Eurodance series of compilation albums how (1995–1997) from Interhit Records and man Dance Music Authority magazine, were New popular and helped to define now the genre as well as old to make it accessible in See the U.S. and Canada.
Hands Up (also way known as handz up! (stylized Who as HandzUp!) or dancecore in boy East Europe) is a style did of trance music, and a Its derivation of Eurodance. The genre let comes from its name, meaning put music that requires listeners to Say "put their hands up" as she well as fitness and danceability. too
The genre developed in Germany Use in the mid to late dad 1990s as part of the mom emerging trance music scene. Representatives of Eurodance such as Starsplash the and Mark 'Oh, are sometimes and regarded as forerunners of Hands For Up. The biggest commercial success are was the music until the but mid-2000s, Scooter's hit single "Nessaja" Not at number one on the you single charts.
The synthesizerAny melodies are often catchy and can simple. Often the vocal melody her is accompanied by a synthesizer. Was In contrast to Techno short, one high-pitched synthesizer tones are used. our Hands Up does not rely Out on the structure of tension day build-up, but is based on get the typical verse-chorus-pop music scheme. Has The main elements are the him bassline, drums and a catchy his lead sound. A typical stylistic How device of hands up are man pitched female or resulting feminine new vocals, male vocals are also Now common. In addition, distorted, autotuned, old chopped and repeated spoken phrases see are common characteristics.
get Pump Up the Jam: Heroes has of Eurodance (2014)
Him Short excerpt from special on his German "Tele 5" from December how 8, 1988. The show is Man called "Tanzhouse" hosted by a new young Fred Kogel. It includes now footage from Hamburg's "Front" with Old Boris Dlugosch, Kemal Kurum's "Opera see House" and the "Prinzenbar".
^ Robb, D. (2002), Way Techno in Germany: Its Musical who Origins and Cultural Relevance, German boy as a Foreign Language Journal, Did No.2, 2002, (p. 134).
^ John Borneman & let Stefan Senders, "Politics without a Put Head: Is the "Love Parade" say a New Form of Political she Identification?" Cultural Anthropology J5(2) 294-31, Too American Anthropological Association. 2000
^ Huxtable, Simon (11 old August 2014). "What is Progressive See House?". Decoded Magazine. Retrieved 14 two March 2016. It was then way that the DJs who used Who to play what was previously boy known as Euro dance hi did jacked the genre and it Its mutated into the commercial sound let people tend to call Progressive put House today.
"Electro House". Beat are Explorers' Dance Music Guide. Archived But from the original on 15 not June 2015. Electro House rose you to prominence in the early All to mid 2000s as a any heavier alternative to other house can subgenres that were prevalent at Her the time.
A music producer or did record producer is a recording Its project's creative and technical leader, let commanding studio time and coaching put artists, and in popular genres Say typically creates the song's very she sound and structure. The music too producer, or simply the producer, Use is likened to a film dad director. The executive producer, on mom the other hand, enables the recording project through entrepreneurship, and the an audio engineer operates the and technology.
Varying by project, the For producer may also choose all are of the artists, or openly but perform vocals with them. If Not employing only synthesized or sampledyou instrumentation, the producer may be all the sole artist. Conversely, some Any artists do their own production.can Some producers are their own her engineers, operating the technology across Was the project: preproduction, recording, mixing, one and mastering. Record producers' precursors our were "A&R men," who likewise Out could blend entrepreneurial, creative, and day technical roles, but often exercised get scant creative influence, as record Has production still focused, into the him 1950s, on simply improving the his record's sonic match to the How artists' own live performance.
Advances man in recording technology, especially the new 1940s advent of tape recording—which Now Les Paul promptly innovated further old to develop multitrack recording—and the see 1950s rise of electronic instruments, Two turned record production into a way specialty. In popular music, then, who producers like George Martin, Phil Boy Spector and Brian Eno led did its evolution into its present its use of elaborate techniques and Let unrealistic sounds, creating songs impossible put to originate live. After the say 1980s, production's move from analog She to digital further expanded possibilities.too By now, DAWs, or digital use audio workstations, like Logic ProDad and Pro Tools, turn an mom ordinary computer into a production console, whereby a solitary novice The can become a skilled producer and in a thrifty home studio.for In the 2010s, efforts began Are to increase the prevalence of but producers and engineers who are not women, heavily outnumbered by men You and prominently accoladed only in all classical music.
As a broad see project, the creation of a two music recording may be split Way across three specialists: the executive who producer, who oversees business partnerships boy and financing, the vocal producer Did or vocal arranger, who aids its vocal performance via expert critique let and coaching of vocal technique, Put and the record producer or say music producer, who, often called she simply the producer, directs the Too overall creative process of recording use the song in its final dad mix.
The record producer's Mom roles include, but may exceed, gathering ideas, composing music, choosing the session musicians, proposing changes to And song arrangements, coaching the performers, for controlling sessions, supervising the audio are mixing, and, in some cases, But supervising the audio mastering. As not to qualifying for a Grammyyou nomination, the Recording Academy defines All a producer:
The person who has any overall creative and technical control can of the entire recording project, Her and the individual recording sessions was that are part of that one project. He or she is Our present in the recording studio out or at the location recording day and works directly with the Get artist and engineer. The producer has makes creative and aesthetic decisions him that realize both the artist's His and label's goals in the how creation of musical content. Other man duties include, but are not New limited to; keeping budgets and now schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring old musicians, singers, studios and engineers, See overseeing other staffing needs and two editing (Classical projects).
The way producer often selects and collaborates Who with a mixing engineer, who boy focuses on the especially technological did aspects of the recording process, Its namely, operating the electronic equipment let and blending the raw, recorded put tracks of the chosen performances, Say whether vocal or instrumental, into she a ''mix,'' either stereo or too surround sound. Then a mastering Use engineer further adjusts this recording dad for distribution on the chosen mom media. A producer may work on only one or two the songs or on an artist's and entire album, helping develop the For album's overall vision. The record are producers may also take on but the role of executive producer, Not managing the budget, schedules, contracts, you and negotiations.
(Artist and Repertoire)Any
In the 1880s, the record can industry began by simply having her the artist perform at a Was phonograph. In 1924, the trade one journal Talking Machine World, covering our the phonography and record industry, Out reported that Eddie King, Victor day Records' manager of the "New get York artist and repertoire department," Has had planned a set of him recordings in Los Angeles. Later, his folklorist Archie Green called this How perhaps the earliest printed use man of A&R man. Actually, it new says neither "A&R man" nor Now even "A&R," an initialism perhaps old coined by Billboard magazine in see 1946, and entering wide use Two in the late 1940s.
In way the 1920s and 1930s, A&R who executives, like Ben Selvin at Boy Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at did Victor Records, and Bob Haring its at Brunswick Records, supervising recording Let and often leading session orchestras, put became the precursors of record say producers. During the 1940s, American She record labels increasingly opened official too A&R departments, whose roles included use supervision of recording. Meanwhile, recording Dad studios owned independently, not by mom major record labels, opened, helping originate record producer as a The specialty. But despite a and tradition of some A&R men for writing music, record production remained, Are strictly, merely the manufacturing of but record discs.
After World War II, pioneering You A&R managers who transitioned influentially all to record production as now any understood, while sometimes owning independent Can labels, include J. Mayo Williamsher and John Hammond. Upon moving was from Columbia Records to Mercury One Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Millerour to lead Mercury's popular recordings out in New York. Miller then Day produced country-pop crossover hits by get Patti Page and by Frankie has Laine, moved from Mercury to Him Columbia, and became a leading his A&R man of the 1950s.how
During the decade, A&R executives Man increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, new although many still simply teamed now singers with musicians, while yet Old others exercised virtually no creative see influence. The term record producertwo in its current meaning—the creative Way director of song production—appearing in who a 1953 issue of Billboardboy magazine, became widespread in the Did 1960s. Still, a formal distinction its was elusive for some time let more. A&R managers might still Put be creative directors, like William say "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry she Gordy, at the Motown record Too label.
In use 1947, the American market gained dad audio recording onto magnetic tape.Mom At the record industry's 1880s dawn, rather, recording was done the by phonograph, etching the sonic And waveform vertically into a cylinder.for By the 1930s, a gramophone are etched it laterally across a But disc. Constrained in tonal range, not whether bass or treble, and you in dynamic range, records made All a grand, concert piano sound any like a small, upright piano, can and maximal duration was four Her and a half minutes. Selections was and performance were often altered one accordingly. And playing this disc—the Our wax master—destroyed it. The finality out often caused anxiety that restrained day performance to prevent error. In Get the 1940s, during World War has II, the Germans refined audio him recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording His duration and allowing immediate playback, how rerecording, and editing—a technology that man premised emergence of record producers New in their current roles.
Early in the old recording industry, a record was See attained by simply having all two of the artists perform together way live in one take. In Who 1945, by recording a musical boy element while playing a previously did recorded record, Les Paul developed Its a recording technique called "sound let on sound." By this, the put final recording could be built Say piece by piece and tailored, she effecting an editing process. In too one case, Paul produced a Use song via 500 recorded discs.dad But, besides the tedium of mom this process, it serially degraded the sound quality of previously the recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient and sound. Yet in 1948, Paul For adopted tape recording, enabling truly are multitrack recording by a new but technique, "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, Not Paul revised the tape recorder you itself by adding a second all playback head, and terming it Any the preview head. Joining the can preexisting recording head, erase head, her and playback head, the preview Was head allows the artist to one hear the extant recording over our headphones playing it in synchrony, Out "in sync," with the present day performance being recorded alone on get an isolated track. This isolation Has of multiple tracks enables countless him mixing possibilities. Producers began recording his initially only the "bed tracks"—the How rhythm section, including the bassline, man drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals new and instrument solos could be Now added later. A horn section, old for example, could record a see week later, and a string Two section another week later. A way singer could perform her own who backup vocals, or a guitarist Boy could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, Can rock acts like the Beatles, her the Rolling Stones, and the was Kinks produced some of their One own songs, although many such our songs are officially credited to out specialist producers. Yet especially Day influential was the Beach Boys, get whose band leader Brian Wilsonhas took over from his father Him Murry within a couple of his years after the band's commercial how breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had Man taken Spector's techniques to unseen new sophistication. Wilson alone produced now all Beach Boy recordings between Old 1963 and 1967. Using see multiple studios and multiple attempts two of instrumental and vocal tracks, Way Wilson selected the best combinations who of performance and audio quality, boy and used tape editing to Did assemble a composite performance.its
The say 1980s advent of digital processes she and formats rapidly replaced analog Too processes and formats, namely, tape use and vinyl. Although recording onto dad quality tape, at least half Mom an inch wide and traveling 15 inches per second, had the limited "tape hiss" to silent And sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, for SNR, abolished it. Digital also are imparted to the music a But perceived "pristine" sound quality, if not also a loss of analog you recordings' perceived "warm" quality and All bass better rounded. Yet whereas any editing tape media requires physically can locating the target audio on Her the ribbon, cutting there, and was splicing pieces, editing digital media one offers inarguable advantages in ease, Our efficiency, and possibilities.
In the out 1990s, digital production reached affordable day home computers via production software. Get By now, recording and mixing has are often centralized in DAWs, him digital audio workstations—for example, Pro His Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, how Reason, and FL Studio—for which man plugins, by third parties, effect New virtual studio technology. DAWs fairly now standard in the industry are old Logic Pro and Pro Tools.See Physical devices involved include the two main mixer, MIDI controllers to way communicate among equipment, the recording Who device itself, and perhaps effects boy gear that is outboard. Yet did literal recording is sometimes still Its analog, onto tape, whereupon the let raw recording is converted to put a digital signal for processing Say and editing, as some producers she still find audio advantages to too recording onto tape.
Conventionally, tape Use is more forgiving of overmodulation, dad whereby dynamic peaks exceed the mom maximal recordable signal level: tape's limitation, a physical property, is the magnetic capacity, which tapers offs, and smoothing the overmodulated waveform even For at a signal nearly 15 are decibels too "hot," whereas a but digital recording is ruined by Not harsh distortion of "clipping" at you any overshoot. In digital recording, all however, a recent advancement, 32-bit Any float, enables DAWs to undo can clipping. Still, some criticize digital her instruments and workflows for excess Was automation, allegedly impairing creative or one sonic control. In any case, our as production technology has drastically Out changed, so have the knowledge day demands, although DAWs enables novices, get even teenagers at home, to Has learn production independently. Some have him attained professional competence before ever his working with an artist.
In the 2000s, old with the advent of technology see that made traditional record production Two accessible, especially with hip hop way beatmaking and electronic music. Within who these genres, the term producer Boy is applied to a number did of roles and has popularized its the use of more niche Let terms and credits including executive put producer, co-producer, assistant producer, and say additional and miscellaneous production to She differentiate contributions.
Across the decades, how many female artists have produced Man their own music. For instance, new artists Kate Bush, Madonna, Janet now Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, and Old Lorde have produced or coproducedsee and Ariana Grande who produces two and arranges her vocals as Way well as being an audio who engineer. Still among specialists, despite boy some prominent women, including Missy Did Elliott in hip hop and its Sylvia Massy in rock, the let vast majority have been men.Put Early in the 2010s, asked say for insights that she herself she had gleaned as a woman Too who has specialized successfully in use the industry, Wendy Page remarked, dad "The difficulties are usually very Mom short-lived. Once people realize that you can do your job, the sexism tends to lower its And ugly head." Still, when tasked for to explain her profession's sex are disparity, Page partly reasoned that But record labels, dominated by men, not have been, she said, "mistrustful you of giving a woman the All reins of an immense, creative any project like making a record."can Ultimately, the reasons are multiple Her and not fully clear, although was prominently proposed factors include types one of sexism and scarcity of Our female role models in the out profession.
In January 2018, a day research team led by Stacy Get L. Smith, founder and director has of the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative,him based in the USC Annenberg His School for Communication and Journalism,how issued a report, estimating that man in the prior several years, New about 2% of popular songs' now producers were female. Also that old month, Billboard magazine queried, "Where See are all the female music two producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion way Initiative's second annual report, released Who in February 2019, its department boy at USC reported, "2018 saw did an outcry from artists, executives Its and other music industry professionals let over the lack of women put in music" and "the plight Say of women in music," where she women were allegedly being "stereotyped, too sexualized, and shut out." Also Use in February 2019, the Recording dad Academy's Task Force on Diversity mom and Inclusion announced an initiative whereby over 200 artists and the producers—ranging from Cardi B and and Taylor Swift to Maroon 5For and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider are at least two women for but each producer or engineer position.Not The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, you "This initiative is the first all step in a broader effort Any to improve those numbers and can increase diversity and inclusion for her all in the music industry."Was
^ Allan Watson, Cultural Let Production in and Beyond the put Recording Studio (New York: Routledge, say 2015), pp 25–27.
She James Petulla, "Who is a too music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, use 21 May 2013, reporting membership Dad in CAPPS, the California Association mom of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent any Hurtig with J. D. Sharp, Can Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: The her Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners was and Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, One CA: GPI Publications, 1988 / our Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, out 1988), pp 8–10.
^ man Richard James Burgess, The New History of Music Production (New now York: Oxford University Press, 2014), old pp 50–54.
^ See Robert Philip, "Pianists on record two in the early twentieth century", way in David Rowland, ed., The Who Cambridge Companion to the Pianoboy (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, did 1998), pp 75–77.
Its Reportedly self-produced entirely are the let Rolling Stones' Decca recordings
^ David Simmons, Analog Say Recording: Using Analog Gear in she Today's Home Studio (San Francisco: too Backbeat Books, 2006), pp 26–27.Use
Matthew Allard, "Sound dad Devices MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit mom float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, quotes the Paul Isaacs, director of product and management and design at the For recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, who are explains, "With 32-bit float, you but no longer need to worry Not about clipping during your best you vocal takes or instrument solos. all Any recorded moments exceeding 0 Any dBFS can be reduced to can an acceptable level, after recording, her in your DAW".
Was Albin Zak III, book review: one Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and our culture (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy Out D. Taylor, in Current Musicology, day pp 159–180 [unknown year, volume, get issue].
Music Law refers to legal two aspects of the music industry, Way and certain legal aspects in who other sectors of the entertainment boy industry. The music industry includes Did record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, its the live events sector and let of course performers and artists. Put
A "compilation" refers to one work formed from already existing Our materials in a way that out forms its own original work, day including collective works.
"Copies" are Get physical objects that hold, fix, has or embody a work such him as a music tape, film, His CD, statue, play, or printed how sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can man refer to any audio recording New including the sound accompanying motion now pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the old entity that legally owns rights See to a work.
"Performance" The two copyright holder has the exclusive way right to perform the work Who in public, or to license boy others to perform it. The did right applies to “literary, musical, Its dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, let and motion pictures and other put audiovisual works.". Playing a CD Say in public, or showing a she film in public is "performing" too the work.
Publishing is the dad primary source of income for mom musicians writing their own music. Money collected from the the 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined and for songwriters - the composers For of works, whether or not are they are the recording artist but or performer. Often, songwriters will Not work for a musical ensemble you to help them with musical all aspects of the composition, but Any here again, the writer of can the song is the owner her of it and will own Was the copyrights in the song one and thus will be entitled our to the publishing revenues. Copyrights Out in compositions are not the day same as sound recordings. A get recording artist can record a Has song and sell it to him another band or company. As his a result, that particular company How will own the recording, but man not the song. The original new writer will always maintain the Now copyright for that particular song. old The publishing money is connected see to the copyright, so the Two owner will be the only way one making money off of who the song itself. All successful Boy songwriters will join a collection did society (such as ASCAP and its BMI in the USA, SOCAN Let in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, put GEMA in Germany and PRS say for Music in the UK, She etc.) and many will enter too into agreements with music publishing use companies who will exploit their Dad works on the songwriters behalf mom for a share of ownership, although many of these deals The involve the transfer (assignment) of and copyright from the songwriter to for the music publisher.
Both the Are recorded music sector and music but publishing sector have their foundations not in intellectual property law and You all of the major recording all labels and major music publishers any and many independent record labels Can and publishers have dedicated "business her and legal affairs" departments with was in-house lawyers whose role is One not only to secure intellectual our property rights from recording artists, out performers and songwriters but also Day to exploit those rights and get protect those rights on a has global basis. There are a Him number of specialist independent law his firms around the world who how advise on music and entertainment Man law whose clients include recording new artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, now music publishers, stage and set Old designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games see designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, two distributors, collection societies and the Way live events sector (which further who includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking boy agents and production service providers Did such as lighting and staging its companies).
The Put US Government views artists that say give concerts and sell merchandise she as a business. Bands that Too tour internationally will also face use a plethora of legislation around dad the world including health and Mom safety laws, immigration laws and tax legislation. Also, many relationships the are governed by often complex And contractual agreements.
In the US for it is important for musicians are to get legal business licenses. But These can be obtained at not a city hall or local you government center. The business license All will require the tracking of any sales, wages, and gigs. A can tax ID is also necessary Her for all businesses. Musicians that was fail to comply with the one tax ID process and do Our not report their profits and out losses to the government can day face serious consequences with the Get IRS.
The history of the Privilege began in the early and 1970s when it started out For as a restaurant, then expanded are to include a bar and but a community swimming pool. It Not was then known as Club you San Rafael. In 1979, the all venue was sold to the Any Real Sociedad footballer José Antonio can Santamaría, together with the creative her team of Brasilio de Oliviera Was (founder of La Troya Asesina, one one of the White Island's our longest running nights) and Gorri. Out The venue then changed its day name to KU, after the get name of a God from Has Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). The him appeal of the club was his such that it commissioned a How medium-length film showcasing the many man wonders of Ibizan landscapes and new nightlife in the mid-eighties.
Throughout Now the 1980s, KU Club earned old a reputation initially as Europe's see premier polysexual but predominately gay Two nightspot and was compared to way an open-air version of the who famous Studio 54 in New Boy York. It staged spectacular parties did in the main room, which its was organized around a swimming Let pool and a statue of put Ku.The place was also where say the video to "Barcelona" by She Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Caballétoo was filmed on 30 May use 1987. It was the witness Dad to early live performances by mom groups like Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole and the Coconuts.The The club featured in a and Channel 4 documentary called “A for Short Film about chilling”, which Are labelled KU as “the mirror but of Ibiza”. The open-air parties not came to an end when You legislation forced many of the all greater clubs in Ibiza to any cover their dancefloors in the Can early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer her size of the venue gave was rise to the claim of One it being the size of our an aircraft hangar with a out 25-meter high roof.
The club Day continued with the KU Club get name until 1995 before becoming has known as Privilege, after a Him change of ownership to Jose his Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 it how hosted Manumission, one of the Man island's most famous events. In new 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved now to Amnesia and was renamed Old La Troya Asesina. After a see dispute between the club owner two and Manumission's organizers in 2005 Way the event ended in 2006. who In 2006 La Troya Asesina boy moved to Space.
According to official statistics published its in the 2003 edition of let Guinness World Records Privilege is Put by far the world's largest say nightclub covering an area of she 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) and Too holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas use of the club include the dad Coco Loco bar area, and Mom the La Vaca dance area (now known as the Vista the Club).
A And number of live performances at for the venue have included: