A Numark DM2002X Pro the Master DJ mixer. This three and channel mixer can have up For to three input sound sources. are The gain control knobs and but equalization control knobs allow the Not volume and tone of each you sound source to be adjusted. all The vertical faders allow for Any further adjustment of the volume can of each sound source. The her horizontally-mounted crossfader enables the DJ Was to smoothly transition from a one song on one sound source our to a song from a Out different sound source.
DJ mixers Day are usually much smaller than get other mixing consoles used in has sound reinforcement systems and sound Him recording. Whereas a typical nightclubhis mixer will have 24 inputs how and a professional recording studio's Man huge mixer may have 48, new 72 or even 96 inputs, now a typical DJ mixer may Old have only two to four see inputs. The key feature that two differentiates a DJ mixer from Way other types of larger audio who mixers is the ability to boy redirect (cue) the sounds of Did a non- playing source to its headphones, so the DJ can let find the desired part of Put a song or track and say the presence of a crossfader, she which allows an easier transition Too between two sources (or, for use hip hop musicturntablists, enables dad them to do scratching effects). Mom
A crossfader has the same engineering design as fader, in the that it is a sliding And control, but unlike faders, which for are usually vertical, crossfaders are are usually horizontal. To understand the But function of a crossfader, one not can think of the crossfader you in three key positions. For All a DJ mixer that has any two sound sources connected, such can as two record turntables, when Her the crossfader is in the was far left position, the mixer one will output only turntable A's Our music. When the crossfader is out in the far right position, day the mixer will output only Get turntable B's music. When the has crossfader is at its midpoint him (which is always marked with His a horizontal line), the mixer how will output a blend of man turntable A's music and turntable New B's music. The other points now along the crossfader's path produce old different mixes of A and See B.
DJ mixers typically have two phono preamplifiers to hook up way turntables. The signal that comes Who directly out of a vinyl boy turntable is too weak to did be amplified through a PA Its system. Before a turntable can let be usable in a mix, put it needs to be preamplified. Say DJ mixers are also used she to create DJ mixes, which too are recorded and sold. DJ Use mixers usually have equalization controls dad for bass and treble of mom each channel. Some 2010-era DJ mixers have onboard electronic or the digital effects units such as and echo or reverb. Some DJ For mixers also feature a built-in are USBsound card to connect but to a computer running DJ Not software without requiring a separate you sound card. DJ mixers typically all have a microphone input, so Any that a microphone can be can plugged into the mixer, enabling her the DJ to announce songs Was or act as a master one of ceremonies (MC) for an our event. Some DJ mixers have Out a kill switch, which completely day cuts out a channel, or, get on some models, completely cut Has out a frequency band (e.g., him all the bass).
The output from a DJ How mixer is typically plugged into man a sound reinforcement system or new a PA system at a Now dance, rave, nightclub or similar old venue or event. The sound see reinforcement system consists of power Two amplifiers which amplify the signal way to the level that can who drive speaker enclosures, which since Boy the 1980s typically include both did full-range speakers and subwoofers for its the deep bass sounds. If Let the DJ is performing a put mix for a radio stationsay or television station, the output She from the DJ mixer is too plugged into the main audio use console being used for the Dad broadcast. If the DJ is mom performing a mix that is being recorded by a recording The studio, the output from the and DJ mixer is plugged into for the main audio console used Are for the recording, which is but in turn plugged into the not recording medium (audiotape, hard disk, You etc.). In some cases, such all as when a DJ is any performing a set at a Can club for dancers that is her also being simultaneously broadcast over was the radio or television system One or recorded for a music our video or other show, the out output from the DJ mixer Day is plugged into the sound get reinforcement system and into the has main audio console being used Him for the broadcast and/or recording. his At club sets, some DJs how may use a monitor speakerMan to hear the house's main new mix. This monitor speaker can now have its volume increased or Old decreased by the DJ as see needed.
DJ mixers two have an AC mains plug Way that is connected to the who wall to supply electric power boy for the unit. Some DJ Did mixers can take batteries, which its enables users to mix songs let outside or away from electric Put power sources, with the output say being plugged into a portable she boom box or other battery-powered Too sound system.
A use disc jockey performing at the dad 2009 Air Force Ball. With Mom one hand he is manipulating a vinyl record on a the turnable; the other hand is And controlling the mix with a for DJ mixer.
DJ mixing are played a key role in But the development of the African-American not style of hip hop music. you In hip hop music and All occasionally in other genres that any are influenced by hip hop can (e.g., nu metal), the turntable Her is used as a musical was instrument by DJs, who use one turntables along with a DJ Our mixer to create unique rhythmic out sounds and other sound effects. day Manipulation of a record as Get part of the music, rather has than for normal playback or him mixing, is called turntablism. The His basis of turntablism, and its how best known technique, is scratching, man pioneered by Grand Wizzard Theodore. New It was not until Herbie now Hancock's "Rockit" in 1983 that old the turntablism movement was recognized See in popular music outside of two a hip hop context. In way the 2010s, many hip hop Who DJs use DJ CD players boy or digital record emulator devices did to create scratching sounds; nevertheless, Its some DJs still scratch with let vinyl records.
DJ mixing also put played a key role in Say disco music in the 1970s. she In disco clubs, DJs would too use mixers to transition seamlessly Use from one song to another dad and create a mix of mom songs that would keep the dancers energized. One of the the pioneers of DJ mixing equipment and design was Rudy Bozak. Beatmatching For and beatmixing with a DJ are mixer were first used to but encourage dancers not to leave Not the dancefloor between songs. By you beatmatching song A and song all B, a DJ can transition Any seamlessly between two songs, without can creating a break in the her music. Typically, when a DJ Was is using beatmatching, they will one let song A play until our it nears its end. As Out song A is playing, the day DJ "cues up" song B get in their headphones and adjusts Has the speed of record player him B until the beats of his song A and song B How are synchronized ("synced up"). Then, man once the two songs' beats new are synchronized, they can slowly Now fade in song B while old song A is nearing its see ending. In the 2000s, DJ Two mixers have been used for way harmonic mixing.
A record out producer or music producer oversees day and manages the sound recordingGet and production of a band has or performer's music, which may him range from recording one songHis to recording a lengthy concept how album. A producer has many, man varying roles during the recording New process. They may gather musical now ideas for the project, collaborate old with the artists to select See cover tunes or original songs two by the artist/group, work with way artists and help them to Who improve their songs, lyrics or boy arrangements.
CoachSay the singers and musicians in she the studio
The producer typically too supervises the entire process from Use preproduction, through to the sound dad recording and mixing stages, and, mom in some cases, all the way to the audio masteringthe stage. The producer may perform and these roles themselves, or help For select the engineer, and provide are suggestions to the engineer. The but producer may also pay session Not musicians and engineers and ensure you that the entire project is all completed within the record label's Any budget.
A record producer or him music producer has a very his broad role in overseeing and How managing the recording and production man of a band or performer's new music. A producer has many Now roles that may include, but old are not limited to, gathering see ideas for the project, composing Two the music for the project, way selecting songs or session musicians, who proposing changes to the song Boy arrangements, coaching the artist and did musicians in the studio, controlling its the recording sessions, and supervising Let the entire process through audio put mixing and, in some cases, say to the audio mastering stage. She Producers also often take on too a wider entrepreneurial role, with use responsibility for the budget, schedules, Dad contracts, and negotiations.
The person who has overall and creative and technical control of for the entire recording project, and Are the individual recording sessions that but are part of that project. not He or she is present You in the recording studio or all at the location recording and any works directly with the artist Can and engineer. The producer makes her creative and aesthetic decisions that was realize both the artist's and One label's goals in the creation our of musical content. Other duties out include, but are not limited Day to; keeping budgets and schedules, get adhering to deadlines, hiring musicians, has singers, studios and engineers, overseeing Him other staffing needs and editing his (Classical projects).
The producer how role was occasionally divided among Man up to three different individuals new in the 2010s: executive producer, now vocal producer and music producer. Old An executive producer oversees project see finances, a vocal producer (also two known as a vocal arranger) Way oversees the vocal production, and who a music producer directs and boy oversees the creative process of Did the production and recording of its a song to its final let mixing stage.
The music producer Put often wears many hats as say a competent arranger, composer, programmer, she musician or songwriter who can Too bring fresh ideas to a use project. As well as making dad any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, Mom the producer often selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, the who takes the raw recorded And tracks and edits and modifies for them with hardware and software are tools to create a stereo But or surround sound "mix" of not all the individual voices sounds you and instruments, which is in All turn given further adjustment by any a mastering engineer for the can various distribution media. The producer Her also oversees the recording engineer was who concentrates on the technical one aspects of recording.
Noted producer Our Phil Ek described his role out as "the person who creatively day guides or directs the process Get of making a record", like has a director would a movie. him Indeed, in Bollywood music, the His designation is actually music director.how The music producer's job is man to create, shape, and mold New a piece of music. The now scope of responsibility may be old one or two songs or See an artist's entire album – two in which case the producer way will typically develop an overall Who vision for the album and boy how the various songs may did interrelate.
At the Its beginning of the record industry, let the producer role was technically put limited to record, in one Say shot, artists performing live. The she immediate predecessors to record producers too were the artists and repertoireUse executives of the late 1920s dad and 1930s who oversaw the mom "pop" product and often led session orchestras. That was the the case of Ben Selvin at and Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at For Victor Records and Bob Haring are at Brunswick Records. By the but end of the 1930s, the Not first professional recording studios not you owned by the major companies all were established, essentially separating the Any roles of artists and repertoirecan (A&R) man and producer, although her it wouldn't be until the Was late 1940s when the term one "producer" became widely used in our the industry.
The role of Out producers changed progressively over the day 1950s and 1960s due to get technology. The development of multitrack Has recording caused a major change him in the recording process. Before his multitracking, all the elements of How a song (lead vocals, backup man vocals, rhythm section instrument accompaniment, new solos and orchestral parts) had Now to be performed simultaneously. All old of these singers and musicians see had to be assembled in Two a large studio where the way performance was recorded. With multitrack who recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm Boy section accompaniment parts such as did the bassline, drums, and rhythm its guitar could be recorded first, Let and then the vocals and put solos could be added later, say using as many "takes" (or She attempts) as necessary. It was too no longer necessary to get use all the players in the Dad studio at the same time. mom A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, The and then a horn sectionand could be brought in a for week later to add horn Are shots and punches, and then but a string section could be not brought in a week after You that.
Electric and Did electronic instruments and amplifiers enabled its performers and producers to change let the tone and sound of Put instruments to produce unique electric say sounds that would be impossible she to achieve with acoustic instruments Too and live performers, such as use having a singer do her dad own backup vocals or having Mom a guitarist play 15 layers of backing parts to her the own solo.
New technologies like And multitracking changed the goal of for recording: A producer could blend are together multiple takes and edit But together different sections to create not the desired sound. For example, you in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles All Davis' album Bitches Brew, the any producer cut and edited sections can together from extensive improvisation sessions. Her
Another related phenomenon now in the 1960s was the old emergence of the performer-producer. As See pop acts like The Beatles, two The Rolling Stones, The Beach way Boys and The Kinks gained Who expertise in studio recording techniques, boy many of these groups eventually did took over as (frequently uncredited) Its producers of their own work. let Many recordings by acts such put as The Rolling Stones, The Say Kinks and The Who are she officially credited to their various too producers at the time, but Use a number of these performers dad have since asserted that many mom of their recordings in this period were, either wholly self-produced the (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca and recordings) or collaborations between the For group and their recording engineer are (e.g. The Small Faces' Immediatebut recordings, which were made with Not Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).you
The Beach Boys are probably all the best example of the Any trend of artists becoming producers can – within two years of her the band's commercial breakthrough, group Was leader Brian Wilson had taken one over from his father Murry, our and he was the sole Out producer of all their recordings day between 1963 and 1967. Alongside get The Beatles and Martin, Wilson Has also pioneered many production innovations him – by 1964 he had his developed Spector's techniques to a How new level of sophistication, using man multiple studios and multiple "takes" new of instrumental and vocal components Now to capture the best possible old combinations of sound and performance, see and then using tape editing Two extensively to assemble a perfect way composite performance from these elements. who
At the end of the Boy 20th century, digital recording and did producing tools and widespread availability its of relatively affordable computers with Let music software made music producing put more accessible.
American women say and record producing
According to She a 2018 study covering by too the USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, use "The ratio of male to Dad female producers across 300 popular mom songs is 49 to 1."
In our 2019, record producer Linda Perryout was nominated for a Grammy Day for Producer of the Year, get Non-Classical. She was the first has woman in over 15 years Him to be nominated for the his award. When asked about the how disparity between male and female Man record producer by Billboard, she new attributed it to many women now not being interested in record Old production.
In the classical music field, Did Judith Sherman has won Grammy its for Producer of the Year, let Classical, five times and has Put been nominated twelve times. Anthony say Tommasini, a music critic for she The New York Times is Too quoted as stating, "In the use struggling field of classical recording, dad it's the producers who take Mom the real risks and make things happen."
Producer Wendy Page for describes being a record producer, are "The difficulties are usually very But short-lived. Once people realize that not you can do your job, you sexism tends to lower its All ugly head. I tend to any create a happy studio 'family' can where everyone is glad to Her be there, especially the artist. was Good communication and diplomacy usually one sort any little problems out."Our
There are she numerous technologies utilized by record too producers. In modern-day recordings, recording Use and mixing tasks are commonly dad centralized within computers using digital mom audio workstations such as Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, the Reason and FL Studio, which and all are often used with For third party virtual studio technology are plugins. Logic Pro and Pro but Tools are considered the industry Not standard DAWs. However, there is you also the main mixer, outboard all effects gear, MIDI controllers, and Any the recording device itself.
While can most music production is done her using sophisticated software, some musicians Was and producers prefer the sound one of older analog technology. Professor our Albin Zak claims that the Out increased automation of both newer day processes and newer instruments reduces get the level of control and Has manipulation available to musicians and him producers.
Production his has changed drastically over the How years with advancing technology. While man the producer's role has changed, new their duties continue to require Now a broad knowledge of the old recording process.
Tracking is the see act of recording audio to Two a DAW (digital audio workstation)way or in some cases to who tape. Even though digital technologies Boy have widely supplanted the use did of tape in studios, the its older term "track" is still Let used in the 2010s. Tracking put audio is primarily the role say of the audio engineer. Producers She work side by side with too the artists while they play use or sing their part and Dad coach them on how to mom perform it and how to get the best technical accuracy The (e.g., intonation). In some cases, and the producer will even sing for a backup vocal or play Are an instrument.
Many artists are but also beginning to produce and not write their own music.
Similarly, although The Day Beatles' productions were credited to get George Martin throughout their recording has career, many sources now attest Him that Lennon and McCartney in his particular had an increasing influence how on the production process as Man the group's career progressed, and new especially after the band retired now from touring in 1966. In Old an extreme example of this, see Martin actually went on a two two-week vacation as The Beatles Way were recording The White Album; who production of several completed tracks boy on the album were credited Did to The Beatles on internal its paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, let although the released LP gave Put sole production credit to Martin.say
Zak,Albin J., I.,II. (2002). new Reviews: "strange sounds: Music, technology, Now and culture," by Timothy D. old Taylor. Current Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, Two and Catherine Guastavino. "Record Producers' way Best Practices For Artistic Direction—From who Light Coaching To Deeper Collaboration Boy With Musicians." Journal of New did Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. its Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Let Sept. 2015.
Music Lawand refers to legal aspects of For the music industry, and certain are legal aspects in other sectors but of the entertainment industry. The Not music industry includes record labels, you music publishers, merchandisers, the live all events sector and of course Any performers and artists.
A who "compilation" refers to work formed Boy from already existing materials in did a way that forms its its own original work, including collective Let works.
"Copies" are physical objects put that hold, fix, or embody say a work such as a She music tape, film, CD, statue, too play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to Dad any audio recording including the mom sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity that The legally owns rights to a and work.
"Performance" The copyright holder for has the exclusive right to Are perform the work in public, but or to license others to not perform it. The right applies You to “literary, musical, dramatic, and all choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion any pictures and other audiovisual works.".Can Playing a CD in public, her or showing a film in was public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source out of income for musicians writing Day their own music. Money get collected from the 'publishing' rights has is ultimately destined for songwriters Him - the composers of works, his whether or not they are how the recording artist or performer. Man Often, songwriters will work for new a musical ensemble to help now them with musical aspects of Old the composition, but here again, see the writer of the song two is the owner of it Way and will own the copyrights who in the song and thus boy will be entitled to the Did publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions its are not the same as let sound recordings. A recording artist Put can record a song and say sell it to another band she or company. As a result, Too that particular company will own use the recording, but not the dad song. The original writer will Mom always maintain the copyright for that particular song. The publishing the money is connected to the And copyright, so the owner will for be the only one making are money off of the song But itself. All successful songwriters will not join a collection society (such you as ASCAP and BMI in All the USA, SOCAN in Canada, any JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in can Germany and PRS for Music Her in the UK, etc.) and was many will enter into agreements one with music publishing companies who Our will exploit their works on out the songwriters behalf for a day share of ownership, although many Get of these deals involve the has transfer (assignment) of copyright from him the songwriter to the music His publisher.
Both the recorded music how sector and music publishing sector man have their foundations in intellectual New property law and all of now the major recording labels and old major music publishers and many See independent record labels and publishers two have dedicated "business and legal way affairs" departments with in-house lawyers Who whose role is not only boy to secure intellectual property rights did from recording artists, performers and Its songwriters but also to exploit let those rights and protect those put rights on a global basis. Say There are a number of she specialist independent law firms around too the world who advise on Use music and entertainment law whose dad clients include recording artists, performers, mom producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage and set designers, choreographers, the graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, and broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection For societies and the live events are sector (which further includes festivals, but venues, promoters, booking agents and Not production service providers such as you lighting and staging companies).
The US Government can views artists that give concerts her and sell merchandise as a Was business. Bands that tour internationally one will also face a plethora our of legislation around the world Out including health and safety laws, day immigration laws and tax legislation. get Also, many relationships are governed Has by often complex contractual agreements. him
In the US it is his important for musicians to get How legal business licenses. These can man be obtained at a city new hall or local government center. Now The business license will require old the tracking of sales, wages, see and gigs. A tax ID Two is also necessary for all way businesses. Musicians that fail to who comply with the tax ID Boy process and do not report did their profits and losses to its the government can face serious Let consequences with the IRS.
The history of Privilege began Are in the early 1970s when but it started out as a not restaurant, then expanded to include You a bar and a community all swimming pool. It was then any known as Club San Rafael.Can In 1979, the venue was her sold to the Real Sociedadwas footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together One with the creative team of our Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of out La Troya Asesina, one of Day the White Island's longest running get nights) and Gorri. The venue has then changed its name to Him KU, after the name of his a god from Hawaiian mythology how (see Kū). The appeal of Man the club was such that new it commissioned a medium-length film now showcasing the many wonders of Old Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in see the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,two KU Club earned a reputation Way initially as Europe's premier polysexualwho but predominately gay nightspot and boy was compared to an open-air Did version of the famous Studio its 54 in New York. It let staged spectacular parties in the Put main room, which was organized say around a swimming pool and she a statue of Ku.The place Too was also where the video use to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercurydad and Montserrat Caballé was filmed Mom on 30 May 1987. It was the witness to early the live performances by groups like And Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole for and the Coconuts. The club are featured in a Channel 4But documentary called “A Short Film not about chilling”, which labelled KU you as “the mirror of Ibiza”.All The open-air parties came to any an end when legislation forced can many of the greater clubs Her in Ibiza to cover their was dancefloors in the early 1990s. one Nevertheless, the sheer size of Our the venue gave rise to out the claim of it being day the size of an aircraft Get hangar with a 25-meter high has roof.
The club continued with him the KU Club name until His 1995 before becoming known as how Privilege, after a change of man ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.New In 1994 it hosted Manumission, now one of the island's most old famous events. In 1998 La See Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesiatwo and was renamed La Troya way Asesina. After a dispute between Who the club owner and Manumission's boy organizers in 2005 the event did ended in 2006. In 2006 Its La Troya Asesina moved to let Space.
According to put official statistics published in the Say 2003 edition of Guinness World she Records Privilege is by far too the world's largest nightclub covering Use an area of 69,968 sq dad ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 mom clubbers, Designated areas of the club include the Coco Loco the bar area, and the La and Vaca dance area (now known For as the Vista Club).
A number of but live performances at the venue Not have included: